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1

Maize or 'Indian Corn' and its wild relatives, the teosintes (Zea species), differ profoundly in both ear  

E-print Network

of these genomic regions and the eventual cloning of the genes involved in this remarkable evolutionary, differssubstantially from maize (right) in plant architecture. The long lateral branches of teosinte are each tipped

Doebley, John

2

Fertility Relationships in Maize-Teosinte Hybrids.  

E-print Network

of teosinte. The teosintes used were the Mexican varieties Durango, Chalco, Nobogame and New, and the Guatemalan varieties Huixta and Florida. Hybrids of the Mexican teosinte varieties with maize exhibit approximaiely normal fertility, although... Guate- malan teosintes and maize are similar in chromosome structure. In addition, the existing evidence indicates that differences on the fourth chromosome are of primary importance in clistinguish- ing the southern Guatemalan teosintes from maize...

Rogers, John S. (John Sinclair)

1950-01-01

3

Teosinte Inflorescence Phytolith Assemblages Mirror Zea Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples. PMID:21479186

Hart, John P.; Matson, R. G.; Thompson, Robert G.; Blake, Michael

2011-01-01

4

Molecular Characterization of the Abp1 5?-Flanking Region in Maize and the Teosintes1  

PubMed Central

Auxin-binding protein 1 subsp. mays (ABP1) has been suggested as a receptor mediating auxin-induced cell expansion and differentiation. In maize (Zea mays), ABP1 is encoded by a single gene, Abp1. The TATA and CAAT promoter elements as well as the transcriptional start site were previously identified and all were found to be located within a transposable element (TE), Tourist-Zm11. In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Abp1 5?-flanking region in maize and its wild relatives, the teosintes. We provide evidence for insertion polymorphism corresponding to Tourist-Zm11 and two novel TEs, Batuta and Pilgrim. Despite this polymorphic structure, the Abp1 core promoter in maize and the teosintes is conserved, is located downstream of the TE insertions in the 5?-flanking region, and is TATA-less. We discuss the potential evolutionary impact of these TEs on the regulation of Abp1 gene expression. PMID:10982450

Elrouby, Nabil; Bureau, Thomas E.

2000-01-01

5

THE GENETIC, MOLECULAR, AND EVOLUTIONARY DISSECTION OF THE TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 GENE  

E-print Network

, but also have a broader scientific impact and provide examples of genetic changes that drive evolution,000 years ago from its wild progenitor, teosinte, and serves as a model for evolution. This research focused phenotypic variation that can be selected on during evolution. Our results from studying the tb1 regulatory

Doebley, John

6

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Variation for Phenotypically Invariant Traits Detected in Teosinte  

E-print Network

the progeny of a testcross between an F1 of two teosintes and a maize inbred line, we identified cryptic is discretely different from its near relative, maize. By employing a QTL mapping strategy to analyze

Doebley, John

7

Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients  

PubMed Central

Summary • It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. • We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. • GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. • Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

Diez, Concepcion M.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Tenaillon, Maud I.

2014-01-01

8

Simple inheritance of key traits distinguishing maize and teosinte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segregation of key traits distinguishing maize and teosinte was analyzed in three F2 and three backcross populations derived from crosses of the modern maize inbred T232 withZea mays ssp.parviglumis. These traits were (i) paired vs. single female spikelets; (ii) two-ranked vs. many-ranked ears; (iii) non-indurated vs. indurated glumes; (iv) inclination of the kernels toward the rachis, and (v) distichous

Véronique M. Szabó; Benjamin Burr

1996-01-01

9

Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.  

PubMed Central

Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

2003-01-01

10

Copyright 01993 by the Genetics Society of Arllericd Inheritanceof the Morphological Differences Between Maize and Teosinte  

E-print Network

). This work provided a detailed picture of the inheritance of the key traits includingestimates of the minimum to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an F:! population derived from a cross of maize (Zeamays ssp associations(putative QTLs) between the MMLs and nine key traits that distinguish maize and teosinte were

Doebley, John

11

The inheritance and evolution of leaf pigmentation and pubescence in teosinte.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution in natural populations, we employed QTL mapping to dissect the inheritance of leaf sheath characters that distinguish Chalco from Balsas teosinte. Abundant macrohairs (trichomes) and intense anthocyanin accumulation are found in Chalco teosinte sheaths whereas Balsas teosinte leaf sheaths are green and glabrous. These character states may represent adaptations to the cooler highland (Chalco) vs. warmer middle-elevation (Balsas) climates. QTL mapping in multiple populations revealed a mix of major- and minor-effect QTL affecting both sheath color (anthocyanin) and macrohair abundance. The major QTL for macrohairs accounts for 52% of the parental difference. Epistatic interactions were detected between the major-effect QTL and multiple other QTL for both traits, accounting for substantial portions of phenotypic variance. Developmental analyses suggest that regulatory program changes underlie the phenotypic differences. Sheath anthocyanin QTL are clearly associated with b1 and a3, both of which are regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that changes in a small number of QTL can lead to morphological evolution by modulating existing developmental programs. PMID:15342532

Lauter, Nick; Gustus, Charles; Westerbergh, Anna; Doebley, John

2004-01-01

12

The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize  

PubMed Central

Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole plant coordination of biomass accumulation and maize domestication. PMID:24524734

2014-01-01

13

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

14

Back to the wilds: Tapping evolutionary adaptations for resilient crops through systematic hybridization with crop wild relatives.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of our crop plants has been substantially reduced during the process of domestication and breeding. This reduction in diversity necessarily constrains our ability to expand a crop's range of cultivation into environments that are more extreme than those in which it was domesticated, including into "sustainable" agricultural systems with reduced inputs of pesticides, water, and fertilizers. Conversely, the wild progenitors of crop plants typically possess high levels of genetic diversity, which underlie an expanded (relative to domesticates) range of adaptive traits that may be of agricultural relevance, including resistance to pests and pathogens, tolerance to abiotic extremes, and reduced dependence on inputs. Despite their clear potential for crop improvement, wild relatives have rarely been used systematically for crop improvement, and in no cases, have full sets of wild diversity been introgressed into a crop. Instead, most breeding efforts have focused on specific traits and dealt with wild species in a limited and typically ad hoc manner. Although expedient, this approach misses the opportunity to test a large suite of traits and deploy the full potential of crop wild relatives in breeding for the looming challenges of the 21st century. Here we review examples of hybridization in several species, both intentionally produced and naturally occurring, to illustrate the gains that are possible. We start with naturally occurring hybrids, and then examine a range of examples of hybridization in agricultural settings. PMID:25326621

Warschefsky, Emily; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; von Wettberg, Eric J B

2014-10-01

15

Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton ( Gossypium Spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order\\u000a to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed\\u000a at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction\\u000a media were tested with varying concentrations

Abdul Qayyum Rao; S. Sarfraz Hussain; M. Saqib Shahzad; S. Yassir Abbas Bokhari; M. Hashim Raza; Allah Rakha; A. Majeed; A. Ali Shahid; Zafar Saleem; Tayyab Husnain; S. Riazuddin

2006-01-01

16

Do Cultivated Varieties of Native Plants Have the Ability to Outperform Their Wild Relatives?  

PubMed Central

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term. PMID:23951081

Schroder, Roland; Prasse, Rudiger

2013-01-01

17

Do cultivated varieties of native plants have the ability to outperform their wild relatives?  

PubMed

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term. PMID:23951081

Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

2013-01-01

18

ABSTRACT -Inheritance of the basic morphological differ-ences between primitive maize and teosinte is mainly con-  

E-print Network

) mapping experiments to study the inheritance of the key traits distinguishing maize and teosinte (DOEBLEYABSTRACT - Inheritance of the basic morphological differ- ences between primitive maize for each NIRIL and collected phenotypic data for do- mestication and other traits on each NIRIL. Using

Doebley, John

19

Characterization of drought resistance in a wild relative of wheat, Triticum kotschyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild relatives of wheat have served as a genetic source for economically useful traits. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such traits may be useful in the genetic transfer and selection processes. Research was undertaken to compare the effects of controlled water stress on photosynthetic parameters in Triticum kotschyi, a drought resistant wild wheat and Triticum aestivum cv. Lakhish,

Patricia Benveniste-Levkovitz; Ora Canaani; Zippora Gromet-Elhanan; Dan Atsmon

1993-01-01

20

Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Transgene escape through gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to their wild relative species may potentially cause environmental biosafety problems. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of gene flow between cultivated rice and two of its close relatives under field conditions. • Methods Experiments were conducted at two sites in Korea and China to determine gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) to weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) and common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.), respectively, under special field conditions mimicking the natural occurrence of the wild relatives in Asia. Herbicide resistance (bar) and SSR molecular finger printing were used as markers to accurately determine gene flow frequencies from cultivated rice varieties to their wild relatives. • Key Results Gene flow frequency from cultivated rice was detected as between approx. 0·011 and 0·046 % to weedy rice and between approx. 1·21 and 2·19 % to wild rice under the field conditions. • Conclusions Gene flow occurs with a noticeable frequency from cultivated rice to its weedy and wild relatives, and this might cause potential ecological consequences. It is recommended that isolation zones should be established with sufficient distances between GM rice varieties and wild rice populations to avoid potential outcrosses. Also, GM rice should not be released when it has inserted genes that can significantly enhance the ecological fitness of weedy rice in regions where weedy rice is already abundant and causing great problems. PMID:14602665

CHEN, LI JUAN; LEE, DONG SUN; SONG, ZHI PING; SUH, HAK SOO; LU, BAO?RONG

2004-01-01

21

Carbon and Nitrogen Economy of 24 Wild Species Differing in Relative Growth Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between interspecific variation in relative growth rate and carbon and nitrogen economy was investigated. Twenty- four wild species were grown in a growth chamber with a nonlim- iting nutrient supply and growth, whole plant photosynthesis, shoot respiration, and root respiration were determined. No cor- relation was found between the relative growth rate of these species and their rate

Hendrik Poorter; Carlo Remkes; Hans Lambers

1990-01-01

22

Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.  

PubMed

Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances. PMID:18549768

D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

2008-01-01

23

Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?  

PubMed

Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. PMID:24388514

Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

2014-02-01

24

Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives  

PubMed Central

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

2012-01-01

25

RECREATION-RELATED PERCEPTIONS OF NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGERS IN THE SARANAC LAKES WILD FOREST AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public forest managers often work with diverse stakeholder groups as they implement forest management policies. Within the Saranac Lakes Wild Forest area of New York State's Adirondack Park, stakeholder groups such as visitors, business owners, and landowners often have confl icting perceptions about issues related to water-based recreation in the region's public forest areas. The main objective of this study

Diane Kuehn; Mark Mink; SUNY CESF; Rudy Schuster

26

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)  

E-print Network

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) V. M. Janik{ School correlated with feeding on salmonids. The production of these calls is followed by fast approaches between food calls which have evolved because of their role in attracting conspeci¢cs, and food

Aberdeen, University of

27

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation,

Zengyan Zhang; Zhishan Lin; Zhiyong Xin

2009-01-01

28

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

29

Identification of Trait-Improving Quantitative Trait Loci Alleles From a Wild Rice Relative, Oryza rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild species are valued as a unique source of genetic variation, but they have rarely been used for the genetic improvement of quantitative traits. To identify trait-improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) alleles from exotic species, an accession of Oryza rufipogon, a relative of cultivated rice, was chosen on the basis of a genetic diversity study. An interspecific BC2 testcross population

Jinhua Xiao; Jiming Li; Silvana Grandillo; Sang Nag Ahn; Longping Yuan; Steven D. Tanksley; Susan R. McCouch

30

QUANTIFYING GENE FLOW FROM OILSEED RAPE TO ITS WILD RELATIVES USING REMOTE SENSING (LANDSAT TM)  

E-print Network

Gene flow is defined as the movement of genes between populations and is a naturally occurring phenomenon among sexually compatible individuals. Crops have exchanged genes with their wild and weedy relatives for centuries, however this process has recently caused concern. The rapid advances in genetic engineering have hit an immense wall of opposition and gene flow is now seen as a possible escape route for transgenes. The safety of genetically modified (GM) crops has been fervently debated and the possible risks, to both the consumers of the crops and to the environment, have prevented their commercialisation in Britain and many other countries. Concern has arisen that if detrimental effects were to be detected post release of any GM crop, withdrawal may be difficult, or impossible, if gene flow has already occurred. Other potential, undesirable consequences of gene flow are the evolution of increased weediness and the extinction of wild relatives. It is thought that crop to wild gene flow has caused increased weediness in seven wild relatives of the world’s thirteen most important crops and extinction in two (Ellstrand et al. 1999). Gene flow can only prove a substantive risk if suitable recipients grow sympatric to the GM crop (i.e. in the same geographic location), if the transgene combines stably within the recipient to form a fertile hybrid and if the fitness of the hybrids is not reduced to a deleterious extent. In the UK more than ten crops have been found to

Luisa J. Elliott; Dave C. Mason; Mike J. Wilkinson; Joel Allainguillaume

31

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

32

The effects of climate change on the geographic distribution of Mexican wild relatives of domesticated Cucurbitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bioclimatic modeling, two possible scenarios of climatic change in Mexico were used to analyze the distribution patterns\\u000a of eight wild Cucurbitaceae closely related to cultivated plants [Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber ssp. sororia (L. H. Bailey) Merrick et Bates, C. lundelliana L. H. Bailey, C. pepo L. ssp. fraterna (L. H. Bailey) Andres, C. okeechobeensis (J. K. Small) L. H. Bailey ssp. martinezii (L. H.

Rafael Lira; Oswaldo Téllez; Patricia Dávila

2009-01-01

33

A metapopulation model for the introgression from genetically modified plants into their wild relatives  

PubMed Central

Most models on introgression from genetically modified (GM) plants have focused on small spatial scales, modelling gene flow from a field containing GM plants into a single adjacent population of a wild relative. Here, we present a model to study the effect of introgression from multiple plantations into the whole metapopulation of the wild relative. The most important result of the model is that even very low levels of introgression and selection can lead to a high probability that the transgene goes to fixation in the metapopulation. Furthermore, the overall frequency of the transgene in the metapopulation, after a certain number of generations of introgression, depends on the population dynamics. If there is a high rate of migration or a high rate of population turnover, the overall transgene frequency is much higher than with lower rates. However, under an island model of population structure, this increased frequency has only a very small effect on the probability of fixation of the transgene. Considering these results, studies on the potential ecological risks of introgression from GM plants should look not only at the rate of introgression and selection acting on the transgene, but also at the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative.

Meirmans, Patrick G; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

2009-01-01

34

Introgression potential between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and wild relatives of the genus Carthamus  

PubMed Central

Background Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a thistle that is grown commercially for the production of oil and birdseed and recently, as a host for the production of transgenic pharmaceutical proteins. C. tinctorius can cross with a number of its wild relatives, creating the possibility of gene flow from safflower to weedy species. In this study we looked at the introgression potential between different members of the genus Carthamus, measured the fitness of the parents versus the F1 hybrids, followed the segregation of a specific transgene in the progeny and tried to identify traits important for adaptation to different environments. Results Safflower hybridized and produced viable offspring with members of the section Carthamus and species with chromosome numbers of n = 10 and n = 22, but not with n = 32. The T-DNA construct of a transgenic C. tinctorius line was passed on to the F1 progeny in a Mendelian fashion, except in one specific cross, where it was deleted at a frequency of approximately 21%. Analyzing fitness and key morphological traits like colored seeds, shattering seed heads and the presence of a pappus, we found no evidence of hybrid vigour or increased weediness in the F1 hybrids of commercial safflower and its wild relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that hybridization between commercial safflower and its wild relatives, while feasible in most cases we studied, does not generate progeny with higher propensity for weediness. PMID:21401959

2011-01-01

35

Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.  

PubMed

Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici. PMID:20465418

Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

2010-06-01

36

Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from approximate Bayesian computation in Aegilops triuncialis.  

PubMed

Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km × 20 km area in southern Spain (Grazalema Mountain chain, Andalousia, totalling 458 specimens), is completed with 33 wheat cultivars representative of the European domesticated pool. All specimens were genotyped with amplified fragment length polymorphism with the aim of estimating wheat admixture levels in Ae. triuncialis populations. This survey first confirmed extensive hybridization and backcrossing of wheat into the wild species. We then used explicit modelling of populations and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the selfing rate of Ae. triuncialis along with the magnitude, the tempo and the geographical distance over which wheat alleles introgress into Ae. triuncialis populations. These simulations confirmed that extensive introgression of wheat alleles (2.7 × 10(-4) wheat immigrants for each Ae. triuncialis resident, at each generation) into Ae. triuncialis occurs despite a high selfing rate (Fis ? 1 and selfing rate = 97%). These results are discussed in the light of risks associated with the release of genetically modified wheat cultivars in Mediterranean agrosystems. PMID:25223217

Pajkovic, Mila; Lappe, Sylvain; Barman, Rachel; Parisod, Christian; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jerome; Alvarez, Nadir; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Felber, François; Arrigo, Nils

2014-10-01

37

Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

Nicholson, D. S.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Stewart, M. D.; Masters, R. E.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2000-01-01

38

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

39

Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.  

PubMed

In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India. PMID:23380193

Samuels, John

2013-04-01

40

Carbon and Nitrogen Economy of 24 Wild Species Differing in Relative Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

The relation between interspecific variation in relative growth rate and carbon and nitrogen economy was investigated. Twentyfour wild species were grown in a growth chamber with a nonlimiting nutrient supply and growth, whole plant photosynthesis, shoot respiration, and root respiration were determined. No correlation was found between the relative growth rate of these species and their rate of photosynthesis expressed on a leaf area basis. There was a positive correlation, however, with the rate of photosynthesis expressed per unit leaf dry weight. Also the rates of shoot and root respiration per unit dry weight correlated positively with relative growth rate. Due to a higher ratio between leaf area and plant weight (leaf area ratio) fast growing species were able to fix relatively more carbon per unit plant weight and used proportionally less of the total amount of assimilates in respiration. Fast growing species had a higher total organic nitrogen concentration per unit plant weight, allocated more nitrogen to the leaves and had a higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, i.e. a higher rate of photosynthesis per unit organic nitrogen in the leaves. Consequently, their nitrogen productivity, the growth rate per unit organic nitrogen in the plant and per day, was higher compared with that of slow growing species. PMID:16667757

Poorter, Hendrik; Remkes, Carlo; Lambers, Hans

1990-01-01

41

Age-related variation in immunity in a wild mammal population  

PubMed Central

Summary Age-related changes in immunity are well documented in humans and laboratory mammals. Using blood samples collected from wild Soay sheep, we show that pronounced differences in T-cell subsets and inflammatory markers amongst age classes are also evident under natural conditions. These shifts parallel those observed in mammals experiencing protected environments. We found progressive declines in the proportion of naïve CD4 T cells with age, a precipitous drop in ?? T cells after the second year of life and an increase in acute phase protein levels amongst geriatric sheep. Our findings suggest immune aging patterns observed in laboratory and domestic mammals may generalize to more complex, challenging environments and could have fitness costs under natural conditions. PMID:22107028

Nussey, Daniel H; Watt, Kathryn; Pilkington, Jill G; Zamoyska, Rose; McNeilly, Tom N

2012-01-01

42

Reply to J. Samuels: Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study "Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication" by Meyer et al. (2012) was to use new and expanded accession sets coupled with molecular data to evaluate possible scenarios of eggplant domestication with as little influence as possible from any previously published nomenclatural scheme, and taking into consideration multiple sources of evidence regarding the history of eggplant in Asia. Samuels (2013) disfavored this system and in his Letter to the Editor attempted to re-evaluate the results according to his system. However, Samuels appears to have misread Meyer et al. and also makes several claims without the support of evidence. We stand by the results of Meyer et al., which are in agreement with the recent and much needed new taxonomic treatment for wild relatives of eggplant. PMID:23769957

Meyer, Rachel S; Knapp, Sandra; Karol, Kenneth G; Little, Damon P; Nee, Michael H; Litt, Amy

2013-10-01

43

Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to biological processes such as fungal diseases and water limited stress. Moreover, it will also facilitate basic and applied research on the genetics of peanut through the development of new molecular markers and the study of adaptive variation across the genus. PMID:22888963

2012-01-01

44

QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep. PMID:21847139

Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

2012-01-01

45

Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives.  

PubMed

Fruits of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid esters, in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid, are usually predominant in solanaceous fruits and tubers. Two closely related caffeoylquinic acid derivatives with longer C(18) HPLC retention times than those of monocaffeoylquinic acids are minor constituents in cultivated eggplant fruit. In a prior study, the two compounds were tentatively identified as 3-O-acetyl- and 4-O-acetyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acids and composed ?2% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of most S. melongena accessions. It was recently found that the pair of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives can compose 15-25% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruits of S. incanum and wild S. melongena. This facilitated C(18) HPLC isolation and structural elucidation using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-ToF-MS. The isomeric compounds were identified as 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2). Both exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, the iron chelation activities of isomers 1 and 2, respectively, were about 3- and 6-fold greater than that of quercetin dihydrate. Reports of malonylhydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are rare, and only a few of these compounds have been structurally elucidated using both NMR and MS techniques. To the authors' knowledge, these two malonylcaffeoylquinic acid isomers have not previously been reported. PMID:21800866

Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2011-09-14

46

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?"  

E-print Network

2: An Analysis of Annual Trends for Wild Pacific Salmon in British Columbia DECEMBER 2012)................................................................... 10 b) Fraser River Sockeye Salmon............................................................................................. 12 c) Fraser River Pink Salmon

Farrell, Anthony P.

47

Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses.  

PubMed

With national and global health policymakers facing numerous complex decisions related to achieving and maintaining polio eradication, we expanded our previously developed dynamic poliovirus transmission model using information from an expert literature review process and including additional immunity states and the evolution of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The model explicitly considers serotype differences and distinguishes fecal-oral and oropharyngeal transmission. We evaluated the model by simulating diverse historical experiences with polioviruses, including one country that eliminated wild poliovirus using both OPV and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) (USA), three importation outbreaks of wild poliovirus (Albania, the Netherlands, Tajikistan), one situation in which no circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) emerge despite annual OPV use and cessation (Cuba), three cVDPV outbreaks (Haiti, Madura Island in Indonesia, northern Nigeria), one area of current endemic circulation of all three serotypes (northern Nigeria), and one area with recent endemic circulation and subsequent elimination of multiple serotypes (northern India). We find that when sufficient information about the conditions exists, the model can reproduce the general behavior of poliovirus transmission and outbreaks while maintaining consistency in the generic model inputs. The assumption of spatially homogeneous mixing remains a significant limitation that affects the performance of the differential equation-based model when significant heterogeneities in immunity and mixing may exist. Further studies on OPV virus evolution and improved understanding of the mechanisms of mixing and transmission may help to better characterize poliovirus transmission in populations. Broad application of the model promises to offer insights in the context of global and national policy and economic models. PMID:23521018

Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kalkowska, Dominika A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M

2013-04-01

48

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Consiglio, Federica; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

2010-01-01

49

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Maggio, Albino

2010-08-01

50

Possible effects of (trans)gene flow from crops on the genetic diversity from landraces and wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow is a potential concern associated with the use of transgenic crops because it could affect genetic diversity of related landraces and wild relatives. This concern has taken on added importance with the looming introduction of transgenic crops in centers of crop domestication (Mexico, China) and those producing pharmaceutical compounds. For gene flow to take place among cultivars and

Paul GEPTS; Roberto PAPA

51

Fitness effects of derived deleterious mutations in four closely related wild tomato species with spatial structure.  

PubMed

A key issue in evolutionary biology is an improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms by which species adapt to various environments. Using DNA sequence data, it is possible to quantify the number of adaptive and deleterious mutations, and the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations (its mean and variance) by simultaneously taking into account the demography of a given species. We investigated how selection functions at eight housekeeping genes of four closely related, outcrossing species of wild tomatoes that are native to diverse environments in western South America (Solanum arcanum, S. chilense, S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum). We found little evidence for adaptive mutations but pervasive evidence for strong purifying selection in coding regions of the four species. In contrast, the strength of purifying selection seems to vary among the four species in non-coding (NC) regions (introns). Using F(ST)-based measures of fixation in subdivided populations, we suggest that weak purifying selection has affected the NC regions of S. habrochaites, S. chilense and S. peruvianum. In contrast, NC regions in S. arcanum show a distribution of fitness effects with mutations being either nearly neutral or very strongly deleterious. These results suggest that closely related species with similar genetic backgrounds but experiencing contrasting environments differ in the variance of deleterious fitness effects. PMID:21245893

Tellier, A; Fischer, I; Merino, C; Xia, H; Camus-Kulandaivelu, L; Städler, T; Stephan, W

2011-09-01

52

Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus  

PubMed Central

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 ?M), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

2013-01-01

53

How Wild is Wild?  

E-print Network

There is no obvious line or boundary that separates wild animals from those that are not wild. Instead, there are expansive grey areas, of which the most conspicuous encompass the domesticated animals that have reverted ...

Ritvo, Harriet

2014-01-01

54

De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  

PubMed

Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-Hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-Guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-Hui; Li, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-Long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guan, Rong-Xia; Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Wen-Bin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-Juan

2014-10-01

55

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

56

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

57

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese.  

PubMed

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feather-molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species. PMID:12371495

Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

2002-10-01

58

Population genetics of speciation in two closely related wild tomatoes (Solanum section Lycopersicon).  

PubMed

We present a multilocus sequencing study to assess patterns of polymorphism and divergence in the closely related wild tomato species, Solanum peruvianum and S. chilense (Solanum section Lycopersicon, Solanaceae). The data set comprises seven mapped nuclear loci (approximately 9.3 kb of analyzed sequence across loci) and four local population samples per species that cover much of the species' range (between 80 and 88 sequenced alleles across both species). We employ the analytical framework of divergence population genetics (DPG) in evaluating the utility of the "isolation" model of speciation to explain observed patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Whereas the isolation model is not rejected by goodness-of-fit criteria established via coalescent simulations, patterns of intragenic linkage disequilibrium provide evidence for postdivergence gene flow at two of the seven loci. These results suggest that speciation occurred under residual gene flow, implying that natural selection is one of the evolutionary forces driving the divergence of these tomato species. This inference is fully consistent with their recent divergence, conservatively estimated to be

Städler, Thomas; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Stephan, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

59

Combination of Multiple Resistance Traits from Wild Relative Species in Chrysanthemum via Trigeneric Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background With the objective of combining multiple resistant traits from wild relative species in florist’s chrysanthemums, trigeneric hybridization was conducted by crossing two intergeneric F1 hybrids Chrysanthemum grandiflorum × Artemisia vulgaris and Chrysanthemum crassum × Crossostephium chinense. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess post-pollination phenomena, we investigated pollen germination on the stigma and embryo development, using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy and paraffin-embedded sections, respectively. We selected eight putative trigeneric hybrid lines that showed the greatest morphological differences from the parents from among the progeny derived via embryo rescue. The hybridity of one trigeneric hybrid was further confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization; in addition, the aphid resistance and salt tolerance of this hybrid were higher than those of the chrysanthemum parent and the C. grandiflorum × A. vulgaris F1 hybrid, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The enhanced aphid resistance of the hybrid line reflects the inheritance of chromosomes from A. vulgaris, which carries genes that encode bioactive components. The enhanced salt tolerance of the trigeneric hybrid is attributable to inheritance of genetic materials from Chrysanthemum crassum and Crossostephium chinense, which act to maintain the compartmentation of Na+ and K+ ions and their selective transportation among different organs to avert deleterious effects and protect the photosynthetic apparatus. The results indicate that trigeneric hybridization between different bigeneric hybrids is a promising method for combination of multiple stress-resistance traits for improvement of chrysanthemum. PMID:22952958

Deng, Yanming; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Teng, Nianjun; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

2012-01-01

60

Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.  

PubMed

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

61

Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and

N Basu; A M Scheuhammer; R D Evans; M OBrien; H M Chan

2007-01-01

62

Multilocus patterns of nucleotide diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about polymorphism, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is crucial for association studies of complex trait variation. However, most genomewide studies have focused on model systems, with very few analyses of undisturbed natural populations. Here, we sequenced 86 mapped nuclear loci for a sample of 46 genotypes of Boechera stricta and two individuals of B. holboellii, both wild relatives

Bao-Hua Song; Aaron J. Windsor; Karl J. Schmid; Sebastian Ramos-Onsins; M. Eric Schranz; Andrew J. Heidel; Thomas Mitchell-Olds

2009-01-01

63

Biological containment of potato (Solanum tuberosum) : outcrossing to the related wild species black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological containment of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) was assessed by establishing the crossability of this tuberous crop with the related wild non-tuberous species in The Netherlands, black nightshade (S. nigrum) and bittersweet (S. dulcamara). To circumvent crossability barriers, genotypes with different ploidy number were employed and crosses were performed under different environmental conditions. S. dulcamara was shown to be

Ronald Eijlander; Willem J. Stiekema

1994-01-01

64

Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group  

PubMed Central

Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

2013-01-01

65

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation, 3 BYDV resistance genes in Th. intermedium, including Bdv2, Bdv3 and Bdv4, were introgressed into common wheat background. Various wheat-Th. intermedium addition and substitution, translocation lines with BYDV-resistance were developed and characterized, such as 7D-7Ai#1 (bearing Bdv2), 7B-7Ai#1, 7D-7E (bearing Bdv3), and 2D-2Ai-2 (bearing Bdv4) translocations. Three wheat varieties with BYDV resistance from Th. intermedium were developed and released in Australia and China, respectively. In addition, wheat-Agropyron cristatum translocation lines, wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition and substitution lines, and a wheat-Leymus multicaulis addition line (line24) with different resistance genes were developed. Cytological analysis, morphological markers, biochemical markers, and molecular markers associated with the alien chromatin carrying BYDV resistance genes were identified and applied to determine the presence of alien, chromosomes or segments, size of alien chromosome segments, and compositions of the alien chromosomes. Furthermore, some resistance-related genes, such as RGA, P450, HSP70, protein kinases, centrin, and transducin, were identified, which expressed specifically in the resistance translocation lines with Bdv2. These studies lay the foundations for developing resistant wheat cultivars and unraveling the resistance mechanism against BYDV. PMID:19782958

Zhang, Zengyan; Lin, Zhishan; Xin, Zhiyong

2009-09-01

66

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).  

PubMed

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

2013-07-01

67

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A\\/ CinnamonTeal\\/Bolivia\\/4537\\/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to

Erica Spackman; Kevin G. McCracken; Kevin Winker; David E. Swayne

2006-01-01

68

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum.  

PubMed

Fruit of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena, Solanum aethiopicum, and Solanum macrocarpon, and wild relatives including Solanum anguivi and Solanum incanum, have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with potential human health benefits. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. By contrast, fruit from accession PI 319855 in the USDA eggplant core collection, unambiguously identified as Solanum viarum by morphological characters, were found to include several major, closely related hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with much longer C18-HPLC retention times than those of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid and other monocaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Four of these compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of lyophilized fruit tissues by C18-HPLC, and structurally elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-TOF-MS. Isomeric compounds 1 and 2 are composed of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid with a malonyl group on the 3- or 4-hydroxyl of quinic acid, respectively, plus a 6-O-sinapoylglucose group 1-O-?-D linked with the 4-hydroxyl on the phenyl ring of the caffeoyl moiety (1?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-carboxyacetoxy- and 1?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-carboxyacetoxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 3 has the same structure as 1 and 2 without malonation of quinic acid (1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 4 differs from 3 by methylation of the carboxyl group on quinic acid (methyl 1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylate). Some features of these four new compounds, such as malonation and the specific linkages between caffeoyl, glucosyl, and sinapoyl moieties, are common in acylated and glycosylated phenylpropanoids, but have not previously been reported in complex derivatives of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. PMID:20886887

Ma, Chunhui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2010-10-27

69

TECHNICAL COMMENT Comment on “Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon”  

E-print Network

salmon farms placed wild pink salmon populations “on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction.” Their prediction is inconsistent with observed pink salmon returns and overstates the risks from sea lice and salmon farming. Krkošek et al. (1) reported that sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) spread from salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago

Brian E. Riddell; Richard J. Beamish; Laura J. Richards; John R. C

70

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

71

Speciation and domestication in maize and its wild relatives: evidence from the globulin-1 gene.  

PubMed

The grass genus Zea contains the domesticate maize and several wild taxa indigenous to Central and South America. Here we study the genetic consequences of speciation and domestication in this group by sampling DNA sequences from four taxa-maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), its wild progenitor (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis), a more distant species within the genus (Z. luxurians), and a representative of the sister genus (Tripsacum dactyloides). We sampled a total of 26 sequences from the glb1 locus, which encodes a nonessential seed storage protein. Within the Zea taxa sampled, the progenitor to maize contains the most sequence diversity. Maize contains 60% of the level of genetic diversity of its progenitor, and Z. luxurians contains even less diversity (32% of the level of diversity of Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). Sequence variation within the glb1 locus is consistent with neutral evolution in all four taxa. The glb1 data were combined with adh1 data from a previous study to make inferences about the population genetic histories of these taxa. Comparisons of sequence data between the two morphologically similar wild Zea taxa indicate that the species diverged approximately 700, 000 years ago from a common ancestor of intermediate size to their present populations. Conversely, the domestication of maize was a recent event that could have been based on a very small number of founding individuals. Maize retained a substantial proportion of the genetic variation of its progenitor through this founder event, but diverged rapidly in morphology. PMID:9755214

Hilton, H; Gaut, B S

1998-10-01

72

Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal  

PubMed Central

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

73

Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.  

PubMed

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells'), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

74

QTL mapping of root angle in F2 populations from maize ?B73? × teosinte ?Zea luxurians?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated variation in nodal root angle in the genus Zea and performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for the trait. Angle (in degrees) of roots emerging from the second (2nd-root angle) and third (3rd-root angle) nodes from the bottom of shoot showed wide variation in nine accessions; relatively high repeatability was obtained. QTL analyses controlling root angle were performed

Fumie Omori; Yoshiro Mano

2007-01-01

75

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative  

PubMed Central

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2012-01-01

76

Population evaluation in crop wild relatives for in situ conservation: a case study for raspberry Rubus idaeus L. in the Leningrad region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many crop wild relatives are usually widely distributed species, and in this relation a question arises about selecting populations\\u000a of special importance for conservation. Using Rubus idaeus as an example, we propose a compound selection of wild populations for in situ conservation. Twelve raspberry populations\\u000a in the Leningrad region have been evaluated from the point of view of their significance

Daria Ryabova

2007-01-01

77

Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The need for quick, reliable, in situ tests of environmental mutagenicity is evidenced by increasing public concern about potential health effects of pollutants. Conventional tests of clastogenicity usually involve treatment of laboratory test systems with pure samples of suspect compounds followed by scoring numerous metaphase cells for chromosome aberrations. There are at least two shortcomings of these test protocols. They are very time consumptive and are generally restricted to controlled laboratory situations which may not realistically indicate the effects of environmental pollution. The use of flow cytometry to study resident rodent species as bioindicators provides a system by which cytogenetic effects of environmental pollutants upon exposed organisms rapidly and accurately can be ascertained. The authors found that two species of wild rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) living at a dump site polluted with a complex mixture of oil, grease, polychlorinated biphenols, hexachlorobenzene, zinc, manganese, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than did animals from two unpolluted control sites. These data suggest that resident small mammals may be useful as in situ monitors of the presence and action of mutagenic pollutants in the environment. This study was conducted to determine if changes in patterns of DNA content indicative of the action of mutagens could be detected by flow cytometric analysis of tissues from these same animals.

McBee, K.; Bickham, J.W.

1988-03-01

78

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed Central

Because cetaceans are difficult to study in the wild, little is known about how they use their sounds in their natural environment. Only the recent development of passive acoustic localization systems has enabled observations of the communication behaviour of individuals for correlation with their surface behaviour. Using such a system, I show that bottlenose dolphins in the Moray Firth, Scotland, produce low-frequency bray calls which are clearly correlated with feeding on salmonids. The production of these calls is followed by fast approaches by conspecifics in the area. In animals which use sound as a foraging tool, it is difficult to distinguish between food calls which have evolved because of their role in attracting conspecifics, and food manipulation or searching calls which may attract conspecifics as a by-product. However, the low-frequency structure of the bottlenose dolphin bray suggests that it evolved because of a role in manipulating prey rather than in attracting conspecifics. This conclusion suggests that dolphins exploit the perceptual systems of their prey to facilitate capture. PMID:10853736

Janik, V M

2000-01-01

79

Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals. PMID:23345575

Crockford, C.; Wittig, R. M.; Langergraber, K.; Ziegler, T. E.; Zuberbuhler, K.; Deschner, T.

2013-01-01

80

Genomic differences between cultivated soybean, G. max and its wild relative G. soja  

PubMed Central

Background Glycine max is an economically important crop and many different varieties of soybean exist around the world. The first draft sequences and gene models of G. max (domesticated soybean) as well as G. soja (wild soybean), both became available in 2010. This opened the door for comprehensive comparative genomics studies between the two varieties. Results We have further analysed the sequences and identified the 425 genes that are unique to G. max and unavailable in G. soja. We further studied the genes with significant number of non-synonymous SNPs in their upstream regions. 12 genes involved in seed development, 3 in oil and 6 in protein concentration are unique to G. max. A significant number of unique genes are seen to overlap with the QTL regions of the three traits including seed, oil and protein. We have also developed a graphical chromosome visualizer as part of the Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) tools for molecular breeding, which was used in the analysis and visualization of overlapping QTL regions for multiple traits with the deletions and SNPs in G. soja. Conclusions The comparisons between genome sequences of G. max and G. soja show significant differences between the genomic compositions of the two. The differences also highlight the phenotypic differences between the two in terms of seed development, oil and protein traits. These significant results have been integrated into the SoyKB resource and are publicly available for users to browse at http://soykb.org/GSoja. PMID:23368680

2013-01-01

81

Age-related differences in the cloacal microbiota of a wild bird species  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal bacteria play a central role in the health of animals. The bacteria that individuals acquire as they age may therefore have profound consequences for their future fitness. However, changes in microbial community structure with host age remain poorly understood. We characterised the cloacal bacteria assemblages of chicks and adults in a natural population of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), using molecular methods. Results We show that the kittiwake cloaca hosts a diverse assemblage of bacteria. A greater number of total bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were identified in chicks than adults, and chicks appeared to host a greater number of OTUs that were only isolated from single individuals. In contrast, the number of bacteria identified per individual was higher in adults than chicks, while older chicks hosted more OTUs than younger chicks. Finally, chicks and adults shared only seven OTUs, resulting in pronounced differences in microbial assemblages. This result is surprising given that adults regurgitate food to chicks and share the same nesting environment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chick gastrointestinal tracts are colonised by many transient species and that bacterial assemblages gradually transition to a more stable adult state. Phenotypic differences between chicks and adults may lead to these strong differences in bacterial communities. These data provide the framework for future studies targeting the causes and consequences of variation in bacterial assemblages in wild birds. PMID:23531085

2013-01-01

82

Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.  

PubMed Central

Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events. PMID:12908976

Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

2003-01-01

83

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R. Wild  

E-print Network

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R for a modest cost. We also describe some related experi­ ments. #12; 1 Introduction Primary cosmic rays presumed to be a high energy neutrino component. All these components of the cosmic ray beam are currently

Adelaide, University of

84

Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of Oryza sativa and its wild relatives: severe bottleneck during domestication of rice.  

PubMed

Varying degrees of reduction of genetic diversity in crops relative to their wild progenitors occurred during the process of domestication. Such information, however, has not been available for the Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) despite its importance as a staple food and a model organism. To reveal levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and to elucidate the genetic relationship and demographic history of O. sativa and its close relatives (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara), we investigated nucleotide diversity data from 10 unlinked nuclear loci in species-wide samples of these species. The results indicated that O. rufipogon and O. nivara possessed comparable levels of nucleotide variation ((sil) = 0.0077 approximately 0.0095) compared with the relatives of other crops. In contrast, nucleotide diversity of O. sativa was as low as (sil) = 0.0024 and even lower ((sil) = 0.0021 for indica and 0.0011 for japonica), if we consider the 2 subspecies separately. Overall, only 20-10% of the diversity in the wild species was retained in 2 subspecies of the cultivated rice (indica and japonica), respectively. Because statistic tests did not reject the assumption of neutrality for all 10 loci, we further used coalescent to simulate bottlenecks under various lengths and population sizes to better understand the domestication process. Consistent with the dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity, we detected a severe domestication bottleneck and demonstrated that the sequence diversity currently found in the rice genome could be explained by a founding population of 1,500 individuals if the initial domestication event occurred over a 3,000-year period. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic relationships and ambiguous species boundary of O. rufipogon and O. nivara, providing additional evidence to treat them as 2 ecotypes of a single species. Lowest linkage disequilibrium (LD) was found in the perennial O. rufipogon where the r(2) value dropped to a negligible level within 400 bp, and the highest in the japonica rice where LD extended to the entirely sequenced region ( approximately 900 bp), implying that LD mapping by genome scans may not be feasible in wild rice due to the high density of markers needed. PMID:17218640

Zhu, Qihui; Zheng, Xiaoming; Luo, Jingchu; Gaut, Brandon S; Ge, Song

2007-03-01

85

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

86

Production of interspecific hybrids between commercial cultivars of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids between cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum, which has disease resistance and desirable traits for crop improvement, were obtained by cross-hybridization and embryo rescue. Twenty-one hybrid progenies were obtained and examined based on morphological traits, RAPD and ISSR markers. Five of them were confirmed to be true interspecific hybrids. Eighteen and 14 bands from 7 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers, respectively, were polymorphic and present in all five hybrid seedlings and their parents. The morphological characteristics of leaf margin, inflorescence type and spine positions of the five seedlings were intermediate to the parents. These interspecific hybrids had low pollen viability, probably due to abnormal meiosis. PMID:23546959

Kumchai, J; Wei, Y-C; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

2013-01-01

87

Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.  

PubMed

Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest. PMID:24698177

Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2014-06-01

88

Characterisation and Analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis Transcriptome, a Wild Relative of Wheat in the Sitopsis Section  

PubMed Central

Aegilopssharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J.; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernandez-Pinzon, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R.; Wulff, Brande B. H.

2013-01-01

89

Sex ratio adjustment in relation to paternal attractiveness in a wild bird population.  

PubMed

When the relative fitness of sons and daughters differs, sex-allocation theory predicts that it would be adaptive for individuals to adjust their investment in different sexes of offspring. Sex ratio adjustment by females in response to the sexual attractiveness of their mate would be an example of this. In vertebrates the existence of this form of sex ratio adjustment is controversial and may be confounded with sex-biased mortality, particularly in sexually size-dimorphic species. Here we use PCR amplification of a conserved W-chromosome-linked gene to show that the sex ratio within broods of a natural population of sexually size-monomorphic collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis is related to the size of their father's forehead patch, a heritable secondary sexual character implicated in female choice. Experimental manipulations of paternal investment, which influence the size of his character in future breeding attempts, result in corresponding changes in the sex ratio of offspring born to males in those breeding attempts. In contrast, manipulations of maternal investment have no effect on future sex ratios, and there is no relationship between variables predicting the reproductive value of the brood and nestling sex ratio. Analysis of recruitment of offspring reveals similar patterns of sex ratio bias. The results suggest that female collared flycatchers be able to adjust the sex ratio of eggs ovulated in response to the phenotype of their mate. This finding is most consistent with "genetic quality" models of sexual selection. PMID:8876204

Ellegren, H; Gustafsson, L; Sheldon, B C

1996-10-15

90

Molecular relationships between Australian annual wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, and two related perennial forms  

PubMed Central

Background The perennial, Oryza rufipogon distributed from Asia to Australia and the annual O. meridionalis indigenous to Australia are AA genome species in the Oryza. However, recent research has demonstrated that the Australian AA genome perennial populations have maternal genomes more closely related to those of O. meridionalis than to those found in Asian populations of O. rufipogon suggesting that the Australian perennials may represent a new distinct gene pool for rice. Results Analysis of an Oryza core collection covering AA genome species from Asia to Oceania revealed that some Oceania perennials had organellar genomes closely related to that of O meridionalis (meridionalis-type). O. rufipogon accessions from New Guinea carried either the meridionalis-type or rufirpogon-type (like O. rufipogon) organellar genomes. Australian perennials carried only the meridionalis-type organellar genomes when accompanied by the rufipogon-type nuclear genome. New accessions were collected to better characterize the Australian perennials, and their life histories (annual or perennial) were confirmed by field observations. All of the material collected carried only meridionalis-type organellar genomes. However, there were two distinct perennial groups. One of them carried an rufipogon-type nuclear genome similar to the Australian O. rufipogon in the core collection and the other carried an meridionalis-type nuclear genome not represented in the existing collection. Morphologically the rufipogon-type shared similarity with Asian O. rufipogon. The meridionalis-type showed some similarities to O. meridionalis such as the short anthers usually characteristic of annual populations. However, the meridionalis-type perennial was readily distinguished from O. meridionalis by the presence of a larger lemma and higher number of spikelets. Conclusion Analysis of current accessions clearly indicated that there are two distinct types of Australian perennials. Both of them differed genetically from Asian O. rufipogon. One lineage is closely related to O. meridionalis and another to Asian O. rufipogon. The first was presumed to have evolved by divergence from O. meridionalis becoming differentiated as a perennial species in Australia indicating that it represents a new gene pool. The second, apparently derived from Asian O. rufipogon, possibly arrived in Australia later. PMID:24280095

2013-01-01

91

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among the cultivated eggplant, Solanummelongena L., and wild relatives (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

The AFLP technique of DNA analysis was evaluated as a tool for assessing genetic relationships among the cultivated eggplant, S. melongena, and related species [Solanum L. subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter, section Melongena (Mill.) Dunal, series Incaniformia Bitter]. Genetic distances based on the AFLP data were estimated for 49 samples of 36 distinct accessions. Phenetic trees were constructed using Jaccard's coefficient and UPGMA, and other clustering methods: they all had very high co-phenetic correlation values, and were found to be consistent with previous trees based on other data types, in particular ITS-1 sequences, isozymes and morphology, carried out on the same accessions. These results indicated that the AFLP technique is both an efficient and effective tool for determining genetic relationships among species of Solanum. A new classification is proposed for series Incaniformia. PMID:22665198

Mace, E S; Lester, R N; Gebhardt, C G

1999-08-01

92

Domestication and the Mitochondrial Genome: Comparing Patterns and Rates of Molecular Evolution in Domesticated Mammals and Birds and Their Wild Relatives  

PubMed Central

Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

2014-01-01

93

Domestication and the mitochondrial genome: comparing patterns and rates of molecular evolution in domesticated mammals and birds and their wild relatives.  

PubMed

Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

2014-01-01

94

H7N3 avian influenza virus found in a South American wild duck is related to the Chilean 2002 poultry outbreak, contains genes from equine and North American wild bird lineages, and is adapted to domestic turkeys.  

PubMed

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 10(5) times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E

2006-08-01

95

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 105 times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G.; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

96

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

97

Study of Oseltamivir and Zanamivir Resistance-Related Mutations in Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Mallards in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Jarhult, Josef D.; Olsen, Bjorn

2014-01-01

98

Molecular phylogenetics suggest a North American link between the anthropogenic dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and its wild relative S. himantioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans causes damages in wooden buildings and constructions in temperate regions worldwide. In this study, the global phylogeography of S. lacrymans and its wild relative S. himantioides has been investigated to clarify genealogical relation- ships and determine the origin and spread of the building strains. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nrDNA and parts of the beta-tubulin

HÅVARD KAUSERUD; NILS HÖGBERG; HENNING KNUDSEN; STEEN ANDREW E LBORNE; TROND SCHUMACHER

99

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

100

Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and their brains were dissected into the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The activities of cholinesterase (ChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were measured from each sample and correlated with concentrations of brain Hg from the same animal. Significant negative correlations were found between concentrations of brain Hg and ChE (total Hg: r= -0.42; MeHg: r= -0.33) and MAO (total Hg: r= -0.31; MeHg: r= -0.42) activity in the cerebral cortex. The scatterplots relating concentrations of brain Hg and enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex were wedge-shaped, and could be fitted with quantile regression modeling, suggesting that Hg may act as a limiting factor for ChE and MAO activity. No relationships were found in the cerebellum. These data suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg may influence the activities of ChE and MAO in the cerebral cortex of river otters, and by extension, other fish-eating mammals. PMID:17439924

Basu, N; Scheuhammer, A M; Evans, R D; O'Brien, M; Chan, H M

2007-03-01

101

Multilocus patterns of nucleotide diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Information about polymorphism, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is crucial for association studies of complex trait variation. However, most genomewide studies have focused on model systems, with very few analyses of undisturbed natural populations. Here, we sequenced 86 mapped nuclear loci for a sample of 46 genotypes of Boechera stricta and two individuals of B. holboellii, both wild relatives of Arabidopsis. Isolation by distance was significant across the species range of B. stricta, and three geographic groups were identified by structure analysis, principal coordinates analysis, and distance-based phylogeny analyses. The allele frequency spectrum indicated a genomewide deviation from an equilibrium neutral model, with silent nucleotide diversity averaging 0.004. LD decayed rapidly, declining to background levels in approximately 10 kb or less. For tightly linked SNPs separated by <1 kb, LD was dependent on the reference population. LD was lower in the specieswide sample than within populations, suggesting that low levels of LD found in inbreeding species such as B. stricta, Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley may result from broad geographic sampling that spans heterogeneous genetic groups. Finally, analyses also showed that inbreeding B. stricta and A. thaliana have approximately 45% higher recombination per kilobase than outcrossing A. lyrata. PMID:19104077

Song, Bao-Hua; Windsor, Aaron J; Schmid, Karl J; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian; Schranz, M Eric; Heidel, Andrew J; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2009-03-01

102

Multilocus Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Boechera stricta, a Wild Relative of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Information about polymorphism, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is crucial for association studies of complex trait variation. However, most genomewide studies have focused on model systems, with very few analyses of undisturbed natural populations. Here, we sequenced 86 mapped nuclear loci for a sample of 46 genotypes of Boechera stricta and two individuals of B. holboellii, both wild relatives of Arabidopsis. Isolation by distance was significant across the species range of B. stricta, and three geographic groups were identified by structure analysis, principal coordinates analysis, and distance-based phylogeny analyses. The allele frequency spectrum indicated a genomewide deviation from an equilibrium neutral model, with silent nucleotide diversity averaging 0.004. LD decayed rapidly, declining to background levels in ?10 kb or less. For tightly linked SNPs separated by <1 kb, LD was dependent on the reference population. LD was lower in the specieswide sample than within populations, suggesting that low levels of LD found in inbreeding species such as B. stricta, Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley may result from broad geographic sampling that spans heterogeneous genetic groups. Finally, analyses also showed that inbreeding B. stricta and A. thaliana have ?45% higher recombination per kilobase than outcrossing A. lyrata. PMID:19104077

Song, Bao-Hua; Windsor, Aaron J.; Schmid, Karl J.; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian; Schranz, M. Eric; Heidel, Andrew J.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2009-01-01

103

The effects of domestication on the relative vulnerability of hatchery and wild origin spring Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested whether,one generation of state-of-the-art hatchery culture influenced the vulnerability of Chinook salmon,(Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) fry to predators. Size-matched hatchery and wild origin spring Chinook salmon,fry were exposed,to rainbow,trout (Oncorhynchus,mykiss) and torrent sculpin (Cottus rhotheus) predators in 10.8 m, net pens. The hatchery origin fry were the offspring of first generation hatchery-reared broodstock, and the wild origin fry had no

Anthony L. Fritts; Jennifer L. Scott; Todd N. Pearsons

2007-01-01

104

Amyloid Fibril Formation and Seeding by Wild-Type Human Lysozyme and Its Disease-Related Mutational Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type human lysozyme and its two stable amyloidogenic variants have been found to form partially folded states at low pH. These states are characterized by extensive disruption of tertiary interactions and partial loss of secondary structure. Incubation of the proteins at pH 2.0 and 37°C (Ile56Thr and Asp67His variants) or 57°C (wild-type) results in the formation of large numbers of

Ludmilla A. Morozova-Roche; Jesús Zurdo; Andrew Spencer; Wim Noppe; Veronique Receveur; David B. Archer; Marcel Joniau; Christopher M. Dobson

2000-01-01

105

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

106

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and\\/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent

S. I. Warwick; M.-J. Simard; A. Légère; H. J. Beckie; L. Braun; B. Zhu; P. Mason; G. Séguin-Swartz; C. N. Stewart

2003-01-01

107

Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

Blouin, Michael

2003-05-01

108

The Wild Bunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

109

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

110

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia  

PubMed Central

Among the fundamental questions regarding cultivated plants is their geographic origin and region of domestication. The genus Cucumis, which includes cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo), has numerous wild African species, and it has therefore been assumed that melon originated in Africa. For cucumber, this seemed less likely because wild cucumbers exist in India and a closely related species lives in the Eastern Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa, Australia, and Asia, we show here that melon and cucumber are of Asian origin and have numerous previously overlooked species-level relatives in Australia and around the Indian Ocean. The wild progenitor of C. melo occurs in India, and our data confirm that the Southeast Asian Cucumis hystrix is the closest relative of cucumber. Most surprisingly, the closest relative of melon is Cucumis picrocarpus from Australia. C. melo diverged from this Australian sister species approximately 3 Ma, and both diverged from the remaining Asian/Australian species approximately 10 Ma. The Asian/Australian Cucumis clade comprises at least 25 species, nine of them new to science, and diverged from its African relatives in the Miocene, approximately 12 Ma. Range reconstruction under maximum likelihood suggests Asia as the ancestral area for the most recent common ancestor of melon and cucumber, fitting with both having progenitor populations in the Himalayan region and high genetic diversity of C. melo landraces in India and China. Future investigations of wild species related to melon and cucumber should concentrate on Asia and Australia. PMID:20656934

Sebastian, Patrizia; Schaefer, Hanno; Telford, Ian R. H.; Renner, Susanne S.

2010-01-01

111

Plasma testosterone levels are related to various aspects of locomotor activity in wild-caught male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The relationship between plasma testosterone levels and locomotor activity in wild-caught sexually mature male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was assessed in the laboratory. Several aspects of locomotor activity were monitored for 1 h on two consecutive days using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system. Plasma testosterone levels were determined immediately following the second day of activity monitoring. Significant Pearson correlations were obtained between plasma testosterone levels and total distance traveled [r(10) = 0.55, p < 0.05] and amount of time spent in movement [r(10) - 0.55, p < 0.05] on the second day. The wild voles showed a reduction in activity levels from the first to the second day of activity monitoring, which is indicative of habituation to a novel environment. This study provides direct evidence for a significant correlation between laboratory measures of behavioral activity and plasma testosterone levels in a wild-caught rodent. These findings indicate that previous assessments of hormone-behavior relationships in laboratory-bred rodents are consistent with the relationship between hormones and behavior in wild rodents. PMID:9661979

Perrot-Sinal, T S; Innes, D; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P

1998-04-01

112

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms

B. Uwimana; L. D'Andrea; F. Felber; D. A. P. Hooftman; Nijs den H. C. M; M. J. M. Smulders; R. G. F. Visser; Wiel van de C. C. M

2012-01-01

113

Wild yam  

MedlinePLUS

... for estrogen replacement therapy, vaginal dryness in older women, PMS (premenstrual syndrome), menstrual cramps, weak bones (osteoporosis), increasing energy and sexual drive in men and women, and breast enlargement. Wild yam does seem to ...

114

Cadmium, copper and zinc toxicity effects on growth, proline content and genetic stability of Solanum nigrum L., a crop wild relative for tomato; comparative study.  

PubMed

Plants like other organisms are affected by environmental factors. Cadmium, copper and zinc are considered the most important types of pollutants in the environment. In this study, a comparison of growth and biochemical parameters between the crop wild relative (CWR) Solanum nigrum versus its cultivated relative Solanum lycopersicum to different levels of Cu, Zn and Cd stress were investigated. The presence of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 in Murashige and Skoog medium affected severely many growth parameters (shoot length, number of roots and leaves, and fresh weight) of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum at high levels. On the other hand, CdCl2 significantly reduced most of the studied growth parameters for both species. S. nigrum exhibited higher tolerance than S. lycopersicum for all types of stress. In addition, results show that as stress level increased in the growing medium, proline content of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum increased. A significant difference was observed between the two species in proline accumulation as a result of stress. In addition, a higher accumulation rate was observed in the crop wild relative (S. nigrum) than in cultivated S. lycopersicum. Changes in Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) pattern of CuSO4 treated S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum plants were also observed. In conclusion, based on growth and biochemical analysis, S. nigrum showed higher level of metals tolerance than S. lycopersicum which indicates the possibility of using it as a crop wild relative for S. lycopersicum. PMID:24554836

Al Khateeb, Wesam; Al-Qwasemeh, Hajer

2014-01-01

115

Discriminating ability of molecular markers and morphological characterization in the establishment of genetic relationships in cultivated genotypes of almond and related wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total 23 morphological traits, 19 AFLP-primer combinations, 80 RAPD primers and 32 SSR primer pair were used to compare\\u000a the informativeness and efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in establishing genetic relationships among 29 almond cultivars and three related\\u000a wild species. SSRs presented a high level of

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Soghra Kiani; Nazanin Amirbakhtiar; Sadegh Mousavi; Vahid Rouhi; Shahram Mohammady-D; Thomas M. Gradziel; Lyudmyla V. Malysheva-Otto; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

2009-01-01

116

Nucleotide diversity patterns at the drought-related DREB2 encoding genes in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Common beans are an important food legume faced with a series of abiotic stresses the most severe of which is drought. The crop is interesting as a model for the analysis of gene phylogenies due to its domestication process, race structure, and origins in a group of wild common beans found along the South American Andes and the region of Mesoamerica. Meanwhile, the DREB2 transcription factors have been implicated in controlling non-ABA dependent responses to drought stress. With this in mind our objective was to study in depth the genetic diversity for two DREB2 genes as possible candidates for association with drought tolerance through a gene phylogenetic analysis. In this genetic diversity assessment, we analyzed nucleotide diversity at the two candidate genes Dreb2A and Dreb2B, in partial core collections of 104 wild and 297 cultivated common beans with a total of 401 common bean genotypes from world-wide germplasm analyzed. Our wild population sample covered a range of semi-mesic to very dry habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of low to high drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Dreb2B exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to neutral reference loci previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Dreb2A exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection and population expansion. These patterns were more distinct in wild compared to cultivated common beans. These approximations suggested the importance of Dreb2 genes in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. We discuss the utility of allele mining in the DREB gene family for the discovery of new drought tolerance traits from wild common bean. PMID:22772725

Cortés, Andrés J; This, Dominique; Chavarro, Carolina; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

2012-09-01

117

Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two

Gregory W. Stunz; Thomas J. Minello

2001-01-01

118

Temporal Patterns of Sea Louse Infestation on Wild Pacific Salmon in Relation to the Fallowing of Atlantic Salmon Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a 3-year study of the infestation rates of the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on wild juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food ordered farm fallowing (i.e., the removal of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from net-cages) along

Alexandra Morton; Richard D. Routledge; Rob Williams

2005-01-01

119

Screening and selection of faba beans ( Vicia faba L.) for cold tolerance and comparison to wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since autumn-sown faba beans possess several advantages including higher seed yield over the spring cultivars, the study was\\u000a aimed to screen and select cold tolerant accessions of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and compare these to wild species in the highland of the west Mediterranean region, Turkey. A total of 114 accessions\\u000a of Vicia species including 109 accessions of faba

Nisa Ertoy Inci; Cengiz Toker

120

Pollen-style compatibility relations in natural populations of the wild diploid potato species Solanum spegazzinii Bitt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum spegazzinii Bitt., a wild diploid potato species endemic to Argentina, possesses resistance to adverse biotic and\\u000a abiotic agents. Northwestern Argentinean populations grouped according to their morphological variability (G1 = localities\\u000a East of the Calchaqu Valley, G2 = Calchaqu Valley and G3 = locality Beln) presented problems in seed set following controlled\\u000a crosses. Thus, to evaluate if the morphological variability

Luis Ernesto Erazzú; Elsa Lucila Camadro; Andrea Martina Clausen

1999-01-01

121

Control of reproduction and sex related behaviour in exotic wild carnivores with the GnRH analogue deslorelin: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting implants, was used in an attempt to temporarily control reproduction or aggression in wild carnivores in southern Africa and the USA. In the southern African study, 6 mg deslorelin was administered to cheetahs (eight females, four males), one female leopard and wild dogs (six females, one male) housed in groups, and 12 mg deslorelin was administered to two lionesses. None of the animals became pregnant after deslorelin administration apart from one wild dog that was mated at the initial treatment-induced oestrus. Two wild dogs and one lioness came into oestrus 12 and 18 months after deslorelin administration, respectively, thus demonstrating that the anti-fertility effects of deslorelin are reversible. Two lionesses and four cheetahs underwent oestrus without allowing mating 2-14 days after treatment. Simultaneous administration of progestins to three bitches and one lioness did not suppress oestrus. Male cheetahs had no spermatozoa on day 82 after treatment and did not impregnate two untreated females. Of three untreated female wild dogs housed with treated males, only the first female to enter oestrus (21 days after deslorelin administration) became pregnant. One month after treatment, plasma testosterone concentrations of male dogs were at basal values. In the USA study, three male sea otters that had been treated with 6 mg deslorelin ceased antagonistic behaviour and blood testosterone concentrations and size of the testes were still sharply reduced 24 months after treatment. Male red (n = 7) and grey (n = 5) wolves received 6 mg deslorelin in December 1998 but no effects on seasonal spermatogenesis and behaviour were observed. In a black-footed cat, sperm production, libido and aggressiveness decreased in response to treatment with 3 mg deslorelin and penile spines were not observed within 3 months after treatment, but were observed again 4-6 months later. Treatment of female red (n = 5) and grey (n = 5) wolves with deslorelin in December 1999 triggered preseason oestrus and mating, which were followed by one abortion and one successful pregnancy. Contraception was achieved in female Fennec foxes (n = 7) and two lionesses, which was observed in the foxes by an absence of increases in faecal progesterone concentrations. In two male bush dogs, administration of 3 mg deslorelin once or twice was insufficient to suppress reproductive function or behaviour. PMID:11787162

Bertschinger, H J; Asa, C S; Calle, P P; Long, J A; Bauman, K; DeMatteo, K; Jöchle, W; Trigg, T E; Human, A

2001-01-01

122

Hog Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild hogs number in the hundreds of thousands and reside in all but two of California's 58 counties. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, learn how hunters are stepping up to be part of the solution to this problem.

Kqed

2012-08-08

123

Wild Marshmallows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

Kallas, John N.

1984-01-01

124

Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands  

PubMed Central

Background Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. Methods A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Results Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and within-breed components of genetic diversity. Conclusions Native pig breeds in Iberia reveal high levels of genetic diversity, a solid breed structure and a clear organization in well-defined clusters. PMID:23768026

2013-01-01

125

Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1?(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely high salinities, up to 100 psu, this was related to high relative expression for all genes studied, indicating that this imposes increased energy demand for osmotic homeostasis in gill tissues. This study is the first to demonstrate, in fish and in wild populations, that expression of NAKA, VDAC, NDH and COX are interrelated in gill tissues, and are involved in long-term acclimatisation to a salinity range between 0 and 100 psu.

Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2011-01-01

126

Sequence variation at cpDNA regions of watermelon and related wild species: implications for the evolution of Citrullus haplotypes.  

PubMed

Sequencing analysis of one coding and four noncoding cpDNA regions was conducted to infer biogeographic and evolutionary relationships in the genus Citrullus. Eighteen taxa from diverse geographical areas were included. A low number of parsimony informative characters (1.1%) was observed at the ?4 kb section of cpDNA. Variability within Citrullus was detected primarily at noncoding regions of high A + T content. Substitution rates varied from 0-0.48% for ndhF with A + T content of 68.4% to 0.39- 1.69% for the intergenic region of atpA with A + T content of 82.8%, mainly resulting in indels and transversions. Indels at several regions acted as valuable parsimony informative markers. Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the cultivated watermelon, and C. ecirrhosus and C. rehmii from Namibia, lacked molecular variability. The genus Citrullus is supported monophyletically and shows two main clades, one of which contains C. colocynthis. In the other clade, C. rehmii is sister to a clade containing C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus. Two clades were recovered within C. lanatus, consisting of domesticated watermelon and wild citron, var. citroides. Five haplotypes within C. colocynthis were used to deduce colonization routes of the species. Biogeographic patterns point to separate colonization events into Africa and the Far East. PMID:21652338

Dane, Fenny; Lang, Ping

2004-11-01

127

Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. PMID:23928036

Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-09-01

128

Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2013-01-01

129

Ecotoxicology of wild mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

2000-01-01

130

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301

Moretzsohn, Marcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, Jose F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

131

Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes.  

PubMed

Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

2013-03-01

132

Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).  

PubMed

Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species. PMID:20688632

Hernández, M; Margalida, A

2010-04-01

133

Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes  

PubMed Central

Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

2013-01-01

134

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.  

PubMed

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in Saskatchewan. These findings suggest that the probability of gene flow from transgenic B. napus to R. raphanistrum, S. arvensis or E. gallicum is very low (<2-5 x 10(-5)). However, transgenes can disperse in the environment via wild B. rapa in eastern Canada and possibly via commercial B. rapa volunteers in western Canada. PMID:12721639

Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

2003-08-01

135

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

136

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

137

Relationship between effective population size, inbreeding and adult fitness-related traits in a steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population released in the wild.  

PubMed

Inbreeding is of concern in supportive breeding programmes in Pacific salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp, where the number of breeding adults is limited by rearing space or poor survival to adulthood, and large numbers are released to supplement wild stocks and fisheries. We reconstructed the pedigree of 6602 migratory hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over four generations, to determine the incidence and fitness consequences of inbreeding in a northwest USA programme. The hatchery maintained an effective population size, Ñ(e) = 107.9 from F(0) to F(2), despite an increasing census size (N), which resulted in a decreasing N(e)/N ratio (0.35 in F(0) to 0.08 in F(2)). The reduced ratio was attributed to a small broodstock size, nonrandom transfers and high variance in reproductive success (particularly in males). We observed accumulation of inbreeding from the founder generation (in F(4), percentage individuals with inbreeding coefficients ?f > 0 = 15.7%). Generalized linear mixed models showed that body length and weight decreased significantly with increasing ?f, and inbred fish returned later to spawn in a model that included father identity. However, there was no significant correlation between ?f and age at return, female fecundity or gonad weight. Similarly, there was no relationship between ?f and reproductive success of F(2) and F(3) individuals, which might be explained by the fact that reproductive success is partially controlled by hatchery mating protocols. This study is one of the first to show that small changes in inbreeding coefficient can affect some fitness-related traits in a monitored population propagated and released to the wild. PMID:23379933

Naish, K A; Seamons, T R; Dauer, M B; Hauser, L; Quinn, T P

2013-03-01

138

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-02-01

139

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed Central

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-01-01

140

Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans.

1983-01-01

141

Molecular phylogenetics suggest a North American link between the anthropogenic dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and its wild relative S. himantioides.  

PubMed

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans causes damages in wooden buildings and constructions in temperate regions worldwide. In this study, the global phylogeography of S. lacrymans and its wild relative S. himantioides has been investigated to clarify genealogical relationships and determine the origin and spread of the building strains. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nrDNA and parts of the beta-tubulin (tub) and the translation elongation factor (efa) 1a genes were sequenced, and phylogenetic relationships inferred. Some analyses suggest that S. lacrymans may have originated from an ancient S. himantioides lineage, but most results support that S. lacrymans and S. himantioides are monophyletic sister species. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS data revealed two subgroups within S. lacrymans corresponding to two earlier described varieties; one group occurring frequently in houses worldwide ('Domesticus'), and one group represented by individuals from forests in Northern California ('Shastensis'). A few collections from nature were included in the Domesticus group as well, among other specimens from two newly discovered localities in Far East Russia and Siberia. In the Domesticus group little sequence variation occurs, suggesting a recent worldwide dispersal, possibly linked to human activity. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Domesticus group may have originated from an ancient lineage related closely to the Shastensis group. A remarkable shift in morphology and habitat preferences has occurred during the evolution of the Domesticus lineage, linked to the transition from nature to human-made habitats. PMID:15367126

Kauserud, Håvard; Högberg, Nils; Knudsen, Henning; Elborne, Steen Andrew; Schumacher, Trond

2004-10-01

142

Effects of environmental stress on mRNA expression levels of seven genes related to oxidative stress and growth in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of farmed, hybrid and wild origin  

PubMed Central

Background Ten generations of domestication selection has caused farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. to deviate from wild salmon in a range of traits. Each year hundreds of thousands of farmed salmon escape into the wild. Thus, interbreeding between farmed escapees and wild conspecifics represents a significant threat to the genetic integrity of wild salmon populations. In a previous study we demonstrated how domestication has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress in farmed salmon. To complement that study, we have evaluated the expression of seven stress-related genes in head kidney of salmon of farmed, hybrid and wild origin exposed to environmentally induced stress. Results In general, the crowding stressor used to induce environmental stress did not have a strong impact on mRNA expression levels of the seven genes, except for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that was downregulated in the stress treatment relative to the control treatment. mRNA expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and IGF-1 were affected by genetic origin, thus expressed significantly different between the salmon of farmed, hybrid or wild origin. A positive relationship was detected between body size of wild salmon and mRNA expression level of the IGF-1 gene, in both environments. No such relationship was observed for the hybrid or farmed salmon. Conclusion Farmed salmon in this study displayed significantly elevated mRNA levels of the IGF-1 gene relative to the wild salmon, in both treatments, while hybrids displayed a non additive pattern of inheritance. As IGF-1 mRNA levels are positively correlated to growth rate, the observed positive relationship between body size and IGF-1 mRNA levels detected in the wild but neither in the farmed nor the hybrid salmon, could indicate that growth selection has increased IGF-1 levels in farmed salmon to the extent that they may not be limiting growth rate. PMID:23217180

2012-01-01

143

[Comparative analysis of sequences of the 5S rDNA NTS in wild close relatives of barley from Tibet of China].  

PubMed

Tibet is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Hordeum in China,and has a great deal of species resource. The sequences of the nontranscribed intergenic spacer (NTS) region of 5S nuclear ribosomal DNA was studied in 18 varieties of the close relative of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from different geographical regions in Tibet and Turkmenistan. These sequences were determined by sequencing the clones of PCR products. Alignment of sequences revealed that the 5S rDNA NTS contained two comparatively conservative regions, A and B, and a variable TAG repeat (V). The number of TAG repeats varies from 4-17, also including several transitions and conversions (TAG-->TCG, TAG-->TAC). The total size of the conservative regions was from 168 -169 bp, and the sequence length variation was only 1 bp. The GC content (%) of the conservative sequence was 43.8% and the homologous of that nearly 98.2% -100%. The number of variable sites was 12 (7.1%). In general, there were more transitions than conversions in the variation sites,and the ratios of transition/conversion were 1.0 - 2.0. NTS polymorphism of 5S rDNA was mainly determined by polymorphism of TAG repeats. The molecular system-tree showed that the NTS should be a useful marker to classify the accessions in Hordeum. PMID:16252706

Tan, Rui; Ma, De-Quan; Ding, Yi

2005-10-01

144

Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints.  

PubMed

Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters. PMID:6357141

Molnar, J J

1983-12-01

145

Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints  

SciTech Connect

Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

Molnar, J.J.

1983-12-01

146

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

147

Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24?bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection. PMID:20797968

Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

2010-01-01

148

Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis. Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues.

2001-01-01

149

Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.  

PubMed

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

150

The Weedy Rice Complex in Costa Rica. I. Morphological Study of Relationships Between Commercial Rice Varieties, Wild Oryza Relatives and Weedy Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weedy rice is a complex of Oryza morphotypes widely distributed in commercial rice fields, which interfere with rice cultivation, seed production, industrial processing and commercialization of this crop in several countries. The objective of this study was to characterize the weedy rice complex of Costa Rica by comparing it with the cultivated and wild rice species found in the country.

Griselda Arrieta-Espinoza; Elena Sánchez; Sergio Vargas; Jorge Lobo; Tania Quesada; Ana M. Espinoza

2005-01-01

151

Eco-Heroes out of Place and Relations: Decolonizing the Narratives of "Into the Wild" and "Grizzly Man" through Land Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eco-heroic quests for environmental communion continue to be represented, mediated, and glorified through film and media narratives. This paper examines two eco-heroic quests in the Alaskan "wilderness" that have been portrayed in two Hollywood motion pictures: the movies "Grizzly Man" and "Into the Wild". Both films…

Korteweg, Lisa; Oakley, Jan

2014-01-01

152

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.  

PubMed

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. PMID:22512715

Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

2012-06-01

153

An insertional mutagenesis programme with an enhancer trap for the identification and tagging of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance in the tomato wild-related species Solanum pennellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity and drought have a huge impact on agriculture since there are few areas free of these abiotic stresses and the problem\\u000a continues to increase. In tomato, the most important horticultural crop worldwide, there are accessions of wild-related species\\u000a with a high degree of tolerance to salinity and drought. Thus, the finding of insertional mutants with other tolerance levels\\u000a could

Alejandro Atarés; Elena Moyano; Belén Morales; Peter Schleicher; José Osvaldo García-Abellán; Teresa Antón; Begoña García-Sogo; Fernando Perez-Martin; Rafael Lozano; Francisco Borja Flores; Vicente Moreno; María del Carmen Bolarin; Benito Pineda

154

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

PubMed

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

155

A Study of Gene Expression in the Nematode Resistant Wild Peanut Relative, Arachis stenosperma , in Response to Challenge with Meloidogyne arenaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is amongst the most important legume crops in the world. One of its main yield constraints is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria. A number of wild Arachis species, including A. stenosperma, are resistant to nematodes, and are a potential source of new resistance alleles for cultivated peanut. Using in silico\\u000a subtraction of ESTs and macroarray analysis, we

Patricia Messenberg Guimarães; Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro; Karina Proite; Ana Claudia Guerra de Araújo; Soraya Cristina Macedo Leal-Bertioli; Aline Pic-Taylor; Felipe Rodrigues da Silva; Carolina Vianna Morgante; Simone da Graça Ribeiro; David John Bertioli

2010-01-01

156

Nitrogen Fixation and Hydrogen Metabolism in Relation to the Dissolved Oxygen Tension in Chemostat Cultures of the Wild Type and a Hydrogenase-Negative Mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans  

PubMed Central

Both the wild type and an isogenic hydrogenase-negative mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans growing ex planta on N2 as the N source were studied in succinate-limited steady-state chemostat cultures under 0.2 to 3.0% dissolved O2 tension. Production or consumption of O2, H2, and CO2 was measured with an on-line-connected mass spectrometer. In the range of 0.2 to 3.0%, growth of both the wild type and the mutant was equally dependent on the dissolved O2 tension: the growth yield decreased, and the specific O2 consumption and CO2 production increased. A similar dependency on the dissolved O2 tension was found for the mutant with 2.5% H2 in the influent gas. The H2/N2 ratio (moles of H2 evolved per mole of N2 consumed via nitrogenase) of the mutant, growing with or without 2.5% H2, increased with increasing dissolved O2 tensions. This increase in the H2/N2 ratio was small but significant. The dependencies of the ATP/N2 ratio (moles of ATP consumed per mole of N2 fixed) and the ATP/2e- ratio [moles of ATP consumed per mole of electron pairs transferred from NAD(P)H to nitrogenase] on the dissolved O2 tension were estimated. These dependencies were interpreted in terms of the physiological concepts of respiratory protection and autoprotection. PMID:16349280

Boogerd, Fred C.; Ferdinandy-van Vlerken, Marijke M. A.; Mawadza, Crispen; Pronk, Annemieke F.; Stouthamer, Adriaan H.; van Verseveld, Henk W.

1994-01-01

157

Whales In The Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recurring topic in the media is declining whale populations, now thought to be increasingly caused by increased contamination of the oceans. This resource addresses declines in wild whale populations. From the World Wildlife Fund this is a report on the status of wild whales with emphasis on threats from whaling, fisheries (by-catch), and chemical pollution (DDT and PCBs).

Kemf, Elizabeth.; Phillips, Cassandra.

158

Project Wild (Project Tame).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

Siegenthaler, David

159

Pestiviruses in wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species,

Š. Vil?ek; P. F. Nettleton

2006-01-01

160

Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

2014-12-01

161

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

162

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

PubMed Central

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome (?607–656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function. PMID:21993218

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurelie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

2011-01-01

163

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

SciTech Connect

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)] [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France)] [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

2011-12-10

164

Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot ( Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange

C. Grebenstein; Y. H. Choi; J. Rong; T. J. de Jong; W. L. M. Tamis

2011-01-01

165

Differences in the Fitness of Two Diverse Wild-Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates Are Related to the Efficiency of Cell Binding and Entry  

PubMed Central

The ability of one primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate to outcompete another in primary CD4+ human lymphoid cells appears to be mediated by the efficiency of host cell entry. This study was designed to test the role of entry on fitness of wild-type HIV-1 isolates (e.g., replicative capacity) and to examine the mechanism(s) involved in differential entry efficiency. The gp120 coding regions of two diverse HIV-1 isolates (the more-fit subtype B strain, B5-91US056, and less-fit C strain, C5-97ZA003) were cloned into a neutral HIV-1 backbone by using a recently described yeast cloning technique. The fitness of the primary B5 HIV-1 isolates and its env gene cloned into the NL4-3 laboratory strain had similar fitness, and both were more fit than the C5 primary isolate and its env/NL4-3 chimeric counterpart. Increased fitness of the B5 over C5 virus was mediated by the gp120 coding region of the env gene. An increase in binding/fusion, as well as decreased sensitivity to entry inhibitors (PSC-RANTES and T-20), was observed in cell fusion assays mediated by B5 gp120 compared to C5 gp120. Competitive binding assays using a novel whole virus-cell system indicate that the primary or chimeric B5 had a higher avidity for CD4/CCR5 on host cells than the C5 counterpart. This increased avidity of an HIV-1 isolate for its cell receptors may be a significant factor influencing overall replicative capacity or fitness. PMID:15890952

Marozsan, Andre J.; Moore, Dawn M.; Lobritz, Michael A.; Fraundorf, Erika; Abraha, Awet; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Arts, Eric J.

2005-01-01

166

Wild and Weed Azuki Beans in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild azuki bean, a progenitor of an Asiatic food legume (Vigna angularis var.nipponensis: Fabaceae), and its weed form are distributed widely in the Japanese Archipelago. The straggling or climbing wildform occurs\\u000a in sleeve or mantle plant communities, and the weakly climbing or bushy weed form is found in relatively open human-disturbed\\u000a habitats. The wild form has small seeds with a

Hirofumi Yamaguchi

1992-01-01

167

Pestiviruses in wild animals.  

PubMed

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

2006-08-25

168

Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

White, Carolyn

1987-01-01

169

Cannibalism among Wild Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANNIBALISM has been observed twice in East African chimpanzee populations. This behaviour is rarely seen among wild mammals and is hitherto unrecorded in non-human primates. It provides some basis for speculation concerning the relationship between the predatory and aggressive behaviour of chimpanzees.

J. D. Bygott

1972-01-01

170

Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.  

PubMed

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

2014-02-01

171

Wild Termitomyces Species Collected from Ondo and Ekiti States Are More Related to African Species as Revealed by ITS Region of rDNA  

PubMed Central

Molecular identification of eighteen Termitomyces species collected from two states, Ondo and Ekiti in Nigeria was carried out using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The amplicons obtained from rDNA of Termitomyces species were compared with existing sequences in the NCBI GenBank. The results of the ITS sequence analysis discriminated between all the Termitomyces species (obtained from Ondo and Ekiti States) and Termitomyces sp. sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank. The degree of similarity of T1 to T18 to gene of Termitomyces sp. obtained from NCBI ranges between 82 and 99 percent. Termitomyces species from Garbon with ascension number AF321374 was the closest relative of T1 to T18 except T12 that has T. eurhizus and T. striatus as the closet relative. Phylogenetic tree generated with ITS sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank data revealed that T1 to T18 are more related to Termitomyces species indigenous to African countries such as Senegal, Congo, and Gabon. PMID:22649309

Oyetayo, Victor Olusegun

2012-01-01

172

Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.  

PubMed

Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (p<0.05). These results suggest that activities related to coal mining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health. PMID:24525377

Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

2014-03-01

173

The Oscar Wilde Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

174

Sensitivity to wild vegetation.  

PubMed

74 patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis to wild vegetation were patch tested with either extracts of 13 plants of the family Compositae and 7 other weeds or trees. Anthemis cotula (dog fennel) and Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur) gave the most frequent positive results, demonstrating a change of frequency in sensitivity compared to the 1950s, when Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) was recognized as the most frequently sensitizing weed. The reasons for these changes of incidence and clinical patterns are examined. PMID:3581826

Menz, J; Winkelmann, R K

1987-03-01

175

Thermal thresholds as predictors of seed dormancy release and germination timing: altitude-related risks from climate warming for the wild grapevine Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The importance of thermal thresholds for predicting seed dormancy release and germination timing under the present climate conditions and simulated climate change scenarios was investigated. In particular, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris was investigated in four Sardinian populations over the full altitudinal range of the species (from approx. 100 to 800 m a.s.l). Methods Dried and fresh seeds from each population were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C), without any pre-treatment and after a warm (3 months at 25 °C) or a cold (3 months at 5 °C) stratification. A thermal time approach was then applied to the germination results for dried seeds and the seed responses were modelled according to the present climate conditions and two simulated scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): B1 (+1·8 °C) and A2 (+3·4 °C). Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy, while very few seeds germinated without treatments or after warm stratification. Fresh, cold-stratified seeds germinated significantly better (>80 %) at temperatures ?20 °C than at lower temperatures. A base temperature for germination (Tb) of 9·0–11·3 °C and a thermal time requirement for 50 % of germination (?50) ranging from 33·6 °Cd to 68·6 °Cd were identified for non-dormant cold-stratified seeds, depending on the populations. This complex combination of thermal requirements for dormancy release and germination allowed prediction of field emergence from March to May under the present climatic conditions for the investigated populations. Conclusions The thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study (Tb and ?50) explained the differences in seed germination detected among populations. Under the two simulated IPCC scenarios, an altitude-related risk from climate warming is identified, with lowland populations being more threatened due to a compromised seed dormancy release and a narrowed seed germination window. PMID:23071219

Orru, Martino; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2012-01-01

176

A Novel Group of Avian Astroviruses in Wild Aquatic Birds  

PubMed Central

Using a pan-astrovirus reverse transcription-PCR assay, a great diversity of novel avastroviruses was detected from wild bird and poultry samples. Two groups of astroviruses detected from wild birds are genetically related or highly similar to previously known viruses in poultry. Most interestingly, a novel group of astroviruses was detected in wild aquatic birds. Our results also reveal that different groups of astroviruses might have difference host ranges. This study has expanded our understanding regarding avastrovirus ecology. PMID:23035212

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Perera, Harsha K. K.; Ng, Erica M.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Grioni, Alessandro; Ades, Gary; Guan, Yi

2012-01-01

177

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds  

PubMed Central

Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

Bonnedahl, Jonas

2014-01-01

178

The Wild Ones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Children's Education Program of Wildlife Trust has much to offer students and teachers. Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, students can find information about animals, their habitats, and the scientists who study them. The Wild Ones network provides an opportunity for members to communicate with each other, contribute curriculum activities, and share ideas and resources. The Curriculum Library in the teachers section is one of the most beneficial parts of the Web site, with its numerous lesson plans mainly directed towards K-6th grades.

2001-01-01

179

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and  

E-print Network

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Dumort; cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Key words: Invasive species, Maxent, predictive habitat). A wild tuber- bearing relative of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Solanum chacoense Bitter

Spooner, David

180

Dynamic spleen mass in wild and domestic American mink  

E-print Network

Dynamic spleen mass in wild and domestic American mink ALBRECHT I. SCHULTE-HOSTEDDE1 *, JEFF BOWMAN in Ontario and Nova Scotia, Canada, and examined relative spleen mass. Wild male mink had larger spleens than) in Nova Scotia had significantly larger spleens than their domestic counterparts on the farms. Both

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

181

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

182

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range, displaying, foraging, habitat, Kansas, loafing, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, riparian restoration, roosts

183

?-Carotene supplementation decreases placental transcription of LDL receptor-related protein 1 in wild-type mice and stimulates placental ?-carotene uptake in marginally vitamin A-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The human diet contains ?-carotene as the most abundant precursor of vitamin A, an essential nutrient for embryogenesis. Our laboratory previously showed the importance of ?-carotene metabolism via ?-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (CMOI) to support mouse embryonic development. However, the mechanisms regulating embryonic acquisition and utilization of ?-carotene from the maternal circulation via placenta remain unknown. We used wild-type (WT) and Lrat(-/-)Rbp(-/-) (L(-/-)R(-/-)) mice, the latter being a model of marginal vitamin A deficiency. Pregnant dams, fed a nonpurified diet sufficient in vitamin A throughout life, were i.p. supplemented with ?-carotene or vehicle at 13.5 d postcoitum (dpc). Effects of this acute maternal supplementation on retinoid and ?-carotene metabolism in maternal (serum, liver) and developing tissues (placenta, yolk sac, embryo) were investigated at 14.5 dpc. We showed that, upon supplementation, placental ?-carotene concentrations were greater in L(-/-)R(-/-) than in WT mice. However, the retinoid (retinol and retinyl ester) concentrations remained unchanged in placenta (and in all other tissues analyzed) of both genotypes upon ?-carotene administration. We also showed that upon a single i.p. ?-carotene supplementation, placental LDL receptor-related protein (Lrp1) mRNA expression was lower in WT mice, and embryonic CmoI mRNA expression was greater in L(-/-)R(-/-) mice. Together, these data suggest a potential role of LRP1 in mediating the uptake of ?-carotene across the placenta and that even a marginally impaired maternal vitamin A status may influence uptake and utilization of ?-carotene by the placenta and the embryo. PMID:22739378

Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Hong, Alice; Spiegler, Elizabeth; Quadro, Loredana

2012-08-01

184

Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cort?s  

PubMed Central

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

185

Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-08-01

186

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

187

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals...commodities.” However, the fact that plants or other commodities actually cultivated...Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or...

2011-07-01

188

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation...production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of...which ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated...which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or...

2010-07-01

189

Wild rice: the Indian's staple and the white man's delicacy.  

PubMed

Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) is an annual aquatic grass which grows in shallow lakes, marshes and in sluggish streams in various parts of the world. The grain of wild rice has been harvested by the Indians of the United States and Canada for many centuries. Explorers entering the territories of the Northern Lake States of America a few centuries ago described wild rice as a spontaneous crop which does not require plowing or sowing providing an abundant harvest of palatable and nourishing grain. Natural propagation assured the Indians of a yearly crop. As time passed, wild rice lost its importance as a staple for the Indian population, but it became a white man's delicacy because of its unique color and flavor characteristics. In the U.S. a commercial wild rice industry developed. The grain is now found on supermarket shelves, but at a rather high price compared to prices for other cereal grains. Today, most of the wild rice in the world is harvested as a cultivated crop from paddies in the state of Minnesota. Smaller amounts are produced in Wisconsin and in southern Canada. Wild rice has some desirable nutritional attributes. Its protein content is relatively high compared to other cereal grains. Wild rice is a good source of the B vitamins, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin and contains common mineral elements in amounts comparable to those in oats, wheat and corn. Wild rice is used as a main meal ingredient in regular or quick cooked form and has numerous possible secondary usages. Because of its good nutritional balance wild rice could help to provide another source of energy and quality protein for the diet of man. PMID:7030624

Lorenz, K

1981-01-01

190

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

191

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

192

Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression.  

PubMed

Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle perspective. Additionally, due to effects of exogenous selection, a given hybrid generation may be especially well-suited to hastening introgression under particular environmental conditions. PMID:25295859

Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

2014-01-01

193

Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression  

PubMed Central

Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle perspective. Additionally, due to effects of exogenous selection, a given hybrid generation may be especially well-suited to hastening introgression under particular environmental conditions. PMID:25295859

Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

2014-01-01

194

Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape ( Brassica rapa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative

Corinne Vacher; Arthur E. Weis; Donald Hermann; Tanya Kossler; Chad Young; Michael E. Hochberg

2004-01-01

195

A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.  

PubMed

Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

1998-06-01

196

Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

Showstack, Randy

197

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

198

Female African wild dogs emigrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMONG mammals, the common mechanism of individual transfer between social groups is male emigration. While studying the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus Temminck) over a period of 2 yr, we have recorded four positive cases of female group emigration, three possible cases of single female emigration, and only one possible case of male group emigration. From this we conclude that

Lory Herbison Frame; George W. Frame

1976-01-01

199

Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Patterns of diversity distribution in the Isa defense locus in wild-barley populations suggest adaptive selection at this locus. The extent to which environmental selection may act at additional nuclear-encoded defense loci and within the whole chloroplast genome has now been examined by analyses in two grass species. Analysis of genetic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) defense genes revealed much greater variation in biotic stress-related genes than abiotic stress-related genes. Genetic diversity at the Isa defense locus in wild populations of weeping ricegrass [Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br.], a very distant wild-rice relative, was more diverse in samples from relatively hotter and drier environments, a phenomenon that reflects observations in wild barley populations. Whole-chloroplast genome sequences of bulked weeping ricegrass individuals sourced from contrasting environments showed higher levels of diversity in the drier environment in both coding and noncoding portions of the genome. Increased genetic diversity may be important in allowing plant populations to adapt to greater environmental variation in warmer and drier climatic conditions. PMID:22173638

Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Shapter, Frances M.; McDonald, Stuart; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Chivers, Ian H.; Drenth, Andre; Nevo, Eviatar; Henry, Robert J.

2011-01-01

200

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

201

Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations. PMID:21789177

Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

2011-01-01

202

Demographic vital rates determine the performance advantage of crop-wild hybrids in lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Hybridization seems possible for many crop species after pollen transfer from crops to wild relatives in the surrounding vegetation. Subsequent introgression of crop-specific traits into wild relatives could lead to invasive introgressants. This process has become a public concern following the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Until now, few studies have used demographic vital rates to compare the

D. A. P. Hooftman; J. G. B. Oostermeijer; M. Jacobs; Nijs den J. C. M

2005-01-01

203

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa Eco-frontiers vs livelihoods in Pondoland Sylvain Guyot. Introduction to the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.................... 35 3. TRALSO's involvement in Pondoland, South Africa.................................................... 101 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation\\u000a tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of\\u000a these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the\\u000a field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

205

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

206

Authorship attribution in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous work on authorship attribution has focused on the case in which we need to attribute an anonymous document to\\u000a one of a small set of candidate authors. In this paper, we consider authorship attribution as found in the wild: the set of\\u000a known candidates is extremely large (possibly many thousands) and might not even include the actual author.

Moshe Koppel; Jonathan Schler; Shlomo Argamon

2011-01-01

207

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

208

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

209

Monitoring wild bird populations for lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), an enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway is extremely sensitive to inhibition by lead (Pb). I evaluated the erythrocyte ALA-d activity ratio (the ratio between the fully restored enzyme activity and that measured without removing any inhibitory influence that might be present) as an indicator of Pb exposure in free-living birds. In the absence of elevated Pb exposure, birds, had comparable ALA-d activity ratios regardless of species, geographical location, or time of year sampled. The normal range of ratios for free-living species was similar to that for aviary-raised birds (1.0-1.3). Individuals with enzyme inhibition were readily identified. In blood collected from free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ALA-d activity ratios were better correlated with blood-Pb than were blood-protoporphyrin (PP) concentrations. At least 9.5% of mallards with blood-Pb>80 {mu}g/dL did not have elevated PP levels. Underestimation of Pb exposure did not occur using the ALA-d activity ratio method. The ALA-d activity ratio was as accurate as blood-Pb measurements for monitoring the relative degree of recent Pb exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and assays can be performed efficiently with minimal training.

Scheuhammer, A.M. (Environment Canada, Ottawa (Canada))

1989-07-01

210

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space Citation for published version: Ward Thompson, C, Travlou, P, Roe, J & Orme, A 2010, Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives. Natural England Thompson, C., Travlou, P., Roe, J., & Orme, A. (2010). Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives

Edinburgh, University of

211

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES  

E-print Network

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES (SOLANUM L. SECT. LYCOPERSICON) Iris E. Peralta and David M. Spooner ABSTRACT. Wild tomatoes (Solanum L. sect. Lycopersicon (Mill of morphological data to examine distinctness and relationships of all 10 wild tomato species (including the newly

Spooner, David

212

INTRODUCTION All wild tomato species (Solanum section  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION All wild tomato species (Solanum section Lycopersicon) (see Table 1 for species list informally treat wild tomatoes (Table 1) in subsection Lycopersicon to provide a coordinate name., 2003). Wild S. lycopersicum is supported as the ancestor of cultivated tomatoes, and the species occurs

Spooner, David

213

Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

214

Satellite remote sensing of wild rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) is a primary staple for Native Americans in the northern United States and there is a strong need to timely map and monitor its production on American Indian Reservations. This paper describes a methodology for the detection and classification of wild rice using satellite remote sensing. Landsat-7 data were used to map and estimate wild rice

R. C. Frohn

2001-01-01

215

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

216

Relationalism  

E-print Network

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

Edward Anderson

2012-05-06

217

Population Dynamics of Wild Bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) at Wamba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed population dynamics and birth seasonality of wild bonobos at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, based on 20 years of observations (1976–1996). Wamba Bonobo infant mortality is much lower than that reported for chimpanzees. This seemes to be related to several socioecological characteristics of bonobos: the use of abundant fruit and herbaceous foods, larger food patch size, female

Takeshi Furuichi; Gen'ichi Idani; Hiroshi Ihobe; Suehisa Kuroda; Koji Kitamura; Akio Mori; Tomoo Enomoto; Naobi Okayasu; Chie Hashimoto; Takayoshi Kano

1998-01-01

218

Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA  

PubMed Central

During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

2014-01-01

219

Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a costly respiratory viral disease of chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. We detected diverse coronaviruses by PCR in wildfowl and wading birds in England. Sequence analysis showed some viruses to be related to IBV. PMID:19624927

Savage, Carol; Naylor, Clive; Bennett, Malcolm; Chantrey, Julian; Jones, Richard

2009-01-01

220

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

221

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However, due to limitations in data availability, this approach of environmental accounting is not fully implemented yet. Keywords: fire vulnerability, damage assessment, land cover restoration, long-term fire risk, European scale

Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

2012-04-01

222

Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross

Pascal Touzet; Nathalie Hueber; Alexandra Bürkholz; Stephen Barnes; Joël Cuguen

2004-01-01

223

Bt crops: Predicting effects of escaped transgenes on the fitness of wild plants and their herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One prominent concern about genetically modified crops is the possibility of environmental impacts from the movement of fitness-enhancing traits to wild plant populations. Decisions to deregulate Bt crops in the USA have relied strongly on arguments that these crops will not interbreed with wild relatives in the permitted growing regions. Limited attention therefore has been directed to analyses of the

Deborah K. Letourneau; Gaden S. Robinson; Joy A. Hagen

2003-01-01

224

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

Au, W. W. L.

2004-07-01

225

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01

226

Re-Wilding the Great Plains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new paper published in the journal Nature has proposed re-wilding North America by introducing populations of large animals from Africa related to ones that roamed the Great Plains during the Pleistocene era. This radio broadcast features discussion with one of the architects of this idea about the ecology of America 13,000 years ago; how large mammals interacted with the environment in ways important to biodiversity; how they are thought to have been driven to extinction by humans; and whether re-introduced large animals would fill their ancient niches or become invasive species. There is also discussion about the feasibility of using biotechnology to produce Woolly Mammoths from bone-extracted DNA. The broadcast is 21 minutes in length.

227

Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse - the possible life history of a spherically symmetric star; 37. Rotating black holes; 38. Black holes are not black - relativity theory and quantum theory; 39. The conformal structure of infinity; Part VII. Cosmology: 40. Robertson-Walker metrics and their properties; 41. The dynamics of Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann universes; 42. Our Universe as a Friedmann model; 43. General cosmological models; Bibliography; Index.

Stephani, Hans

2004-02-01

228

Wild Ungulate Farming Systems and Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

FARMING SYSTEMS Wild ungulate farming—that of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer, moufflon, and wild boar—in Italy is carried out with two main purposes: animal restocking and meat production. The first generally includes game for the restocking of shooting preserves (faunistico-venatorie and agri-turistico-venatorie private lands), since captive-reared ungulates should not be extensively used for reintroduction into the wild or restocking

E. Piasentier; S. Bovolenta; M. Viliani

2005-01-01

229

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

2008-01-01

230

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

2010-01-01

231

Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).  

PubMed

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

2000-01-01

232

A Novel Simple Assay System to Quantify the Percent HCV-RNA Levels of NS5A Y93H Mutant Strains and Y93 Wild-Type Strains Relative to the Total HCV-RNA Levels to Determine the Indication for Antiviral Therapy with NS5A Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aim Oral treatment with asunaprevir and daclatasvir has been reported to yield a SVR ratio of 80% in patients with genotype 1b HCV infection, however, treatment failure has been reported, especially in patients with HCV strains showing the NS5A-Y93H mutation at baseline. An assay system to detect such strains was established to facilitate selection of appropriate candidates for this antiviral therapy. Methods Primer sets and 2 types of cycling probe mixtures were designed, and real-time PCR was performed with HCV-RNA purified from 332 patients with genotype 1b HCV infection, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct sequencing. Results Both the wild-type and mutant strains were quantified, with a threshold of 4.0 Log copies/mL, in 295 of the 332 patients (88.9%), and the percentage of the mutant strains relative to the total HCV-RNA level in the serum was calculated. The percentage was 0% in 237 patients (80.3%) and 100% in 23 patients (7.8%), identical to the results of direct sequencing. Both wild-type and mutant strains were detected in the remaining 35 patients (11.9%), at levels between 1% and 99%, despite the mutant strains having been undetectable by direct sequencing in 11 patients with percentages of these strains of less than 25%. Conclusion A novel assay system to quantify the percent RNA of Y93H mutant strains relative to the total HCV-RNA level was established. This system may be useful to determine the indication for treatment with NA5A inhibitors in patients with HCV. PMID:25397971

Uchida, Yoshihito; Kouyama, Jun-ichi; Naiki, Kayoko; Mochida, Satoshi

2014-01-01

233

Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

2013-01-01

234

Environmental Assessment Wild Horse Gathering for the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Worland Field Office (WFO), proposes to gather excess wild horses in the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA), during the fall of 2000. This action would be implemented under the authority of the Wild Free...

2000-01-01

235

Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany  

PubMed Central

We found antibodies to leptospires in 25 (18%) of 141 wild boars from Berlin (95% confidence interval 12–25). Seropositivity was associated with chronic interstitial nephritis (odds ratio 10.5; p = 0.01), and leptospires were detected in kidney tissues. Wild boars represent a potential source for human leptospirosis in urban environments. PMID:17553254

Luge, Enno; Guerra, Beatriz; Wittschen, Petra; Gruber, Achim D.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Lierz, Michael; Ehlert, Derk; Appel, Bernd; Stark, Klaus; Nockler, Karsten

2007-01-01

236

The Wild Blueberry Industry—Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, presented as part of a symposium at the 9th North American Blueberry Research and Extension Workers Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 18-21, 2002, traces the early history of the wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, Aiton, and Vaccinium myrtilloides, Michaux) in eastern North America. Wild blueberry production is traced from consumption of native blueberries by animals and native North

George W. Wood

2004-01-01

237

Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.  

PubMed

Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C

2014-01-01

238

Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor  

PubMed Central

Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

2014-01-01

239

Heavy metal distribution in some wild birds from Korea.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean wild birds (n=37), 2000-2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead concentrations in livers of almost all birds were within the background levels. Cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys of ancient murrelets exceeded background levels for wild birds, but other birds were within the normal range. Acute and chronic contaminations of lead and cadmium levels differed among groups (or species). We suggest that differences in lead and cadmium concentrations among groups are because of differences in diet and habitat. In ancient murrelets, zinc and manganese concentrations correlated with their cadmium concentration in livers. Zinc, manganese, and cadmium concentrations in murrelet livers were also higher than in other species. Therefore, we suggest that high zinc and manganese concentrations in ancient murrelets were related to their high cadmium concentrations. PMID:18574544

Kim, Jungsoo; Shin, Ju-Ryul; Koo, Tae-Hoe

2009-02-01

240

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

2009-01-01

241

Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex soja population structure and deep introgression.  

PubMed

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

2014-01-01

242

Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression  

PubMed Central

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

2014-01-01

243

The Viruses of Wild Pigeon Droppings  

PubMed Central

Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact. PMID:24023772

Phan, Tung Gia; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor; Li, Olive T. W.; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Xutao; Poon, Leo L. M.; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

244

Control of Free Methionine Production in Wild Type and Ethionine-resistant Mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana selected for resistance to the methionine analogue ethionine took up ethionine at the same rate as did the wild type strain. Cells of two ethionine-resistant mutants produced severalfold higher levels of free methionine and cysteine than did wild type cells. Exogenous methionine had no apparent effect on free methionine production in a mutant that produces excessive levels of free methionine. Under the same conditions, production of free methionine was relatively inhibited in wild type cells and in a mutant that produces wild type levels of free methionine. The results suggest that free methionine production in the wild type strain is subject to endproduct control, and that this control is lacking in one class of ethionine-resistant mutants. PMID:16658726

Sloger, Marcia; Owens, Lowell D.

1974-01-01

245

Genomic analyses identify distinct patterns of selection in domesticated pigs and Tibetan wild boars.  

PubMed

We report the sequencing at 131× coverage, de novo assembly and analyses of the genome of a female Tibetan wild boar. We also resequenced the whole genomes of 30 Tibetan wild boars from six major distributed locations and 18 geographically related pigs in China. We characterized genetic diversity, population structure and patterns of evolution. We searched for genomic regions under selection, which includes genes that are involved in hypoxia, olfaction, energy metabolism and drug response. Comparing the genome of Tibetan wild boar with those of neighboring Chinese domestic pigs further showed the impact of thousands of years of artificial selection and different signatures of selection in wild boar and domestic pig. We also report genetic adaptations in Tibetan wild boar that are associated with high altitudes and characterize the genetic basis of increased salivation in domestic pig. PMID:24162736

Li, Mingzhou; Tian, Shilin; Jin, Long; Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Tao; Yeung, Carol K L; Chen, Lei; Ma, Jideng; Zhang, Jinbo; Jiang, Anan; Li, Ji; Zhou, Chaowei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yingkai; Sun, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Zexiong; Lou, Pinger; Xian, Lingjin; Shen, Xiaoyong; Liu, Shaoqing; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhang, Mingwang; Zhu, Li; Shuai, Surong; Bai, Lin; Tang, Guoqing; Liu, Haifeng; Jiang, Yanzhi; Mai, Miaomiao; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Xun; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Zhiquan; Stothard, Paul; Xue, Ming; Gao, Xiaolian; Luo, Zonggang; Gu, Yiren; Zhu, Hongmei; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Plastow, Graham S; Wang, Jinyong; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Kui; Li, Ning; Li, Xuewei; Li, Ruiqiang

2013-12-01

246

January 2006 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2006  

E-print Network

- University of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number for the advantages any one wild oat herbicide might offer. Early wild oat control can result in better yields because

Minnesota, University of

247

January 2002 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2002  

E-print Network

of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number for the advantages any one wild oat herbicide might offer. Early wild oat control can result in better yields because

Minnesota, University of

248

Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge. PMID:23597086

2013-01-01

249

CP7_E2alf: A safe and efficient marker vaccine strain for oral immunisation of wild boar against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild boar are an important reservoir of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in several European countries, where most of the primary outbreaks in domestic pigs are directly related to the endemic disease situation in the wild boar population. Oral immunisation has been introduced as an additional control measure to accelerate CSF eradication in wild boar in Germany since 1993. Immunisation

Patricia Koenig; Elke Lange; Ilona Reimann; Martin Beer

2007-01-01

250

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two- generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F1 and F2 hybrids and BC1 backcrosses to wild and farm salmon.

Philip McGinnity; Paulo Prodohl; Andy Ferguson; Rosaleen Hynes; N. o. Maoileidigh; Natalie Baker; Deirdre Cotter; Brendan O'Hea; Declan Cooke; Ger Rogan; John Taggart; Tom Cross

2003-01-01

251

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2010-01-01

252

Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor  

PubMed Central

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (? = 0.0059), ? means Watterson's estimator of ?. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (? = 0.0027) when compared to rice and sorghum (? = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively). The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ?/? = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population based studies in foxtail millet. PMID:20937104

2010-01-01

253

Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

Holubetz, Terry B.

1995-11-01

254

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

255

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

256

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

257

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

258

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters species but its application for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We populations (Thompson et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey

Butler, Matthew J.

259

Wild Mandrillus sphinx Are Carriers of Two Types of Lentivirus  

PubMed Central

Mandrillus sphinx, a large primate living in Cameroon and Gabon and belonging to the Papionini tribe, was reported to be infected by a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (SIVmndGB1) as early as 1988. Here, we have identified a second, highly divergent SIVmnd (designated SIVmnd-2). Genomic organization differs between the two viral types; SIVmnd-2 has the additional vpx gene, like other SIVs naturally infecting the Papionini tribe (SIVsm and SIVrcm) and in contrast to the other SIVmnd type (here designated SIVmnd-1), which is more closely related to SIVs infecting l'hoest (Cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) and sun-tailed (Cercopithecus lhoesti solatus) monkeys. Importantly, our epidemiological studies indicate a high prevalence of both types of SIVmnd; all 10 sexually mature wild-living monkeys and 3 out of 17 wild-born juveniles tested were infected. The geographic distribution of SIVmnd seems to be distinct for the two types: SIVmnd-1 viruses were exclusively identified in mandrills from central and southern Gabon, whereas SIVmnd-2 viruses were identified in monkeys from northern and western Gabon, as well as in Cameroon. SIVmnd-2 full-length sequence analysis, together with analysis of partial sequences from SIVmnd-1 and SIVmnd-2 from wild-born or wild-living mandrills, shows that the gag and pol regions of SIVmnd-2 are closest to those of SIVrcm, isolated from red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus), while the env gene is closest to that of SIVmnd-1. pol and env sequence analyses of SIV from a related Papionini species, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), shows a closer relationship of SIVdrl to SIVmnd-2 than to SIVmnd-1. Epidemiological surveys of human immunodeficiency virus revealed a case in Cameroon of a human infected by a virus serologically related to SIVmnd, raising the possibility that mandrills represent a viral reservoir for humans similar to sooty mangabeys in Western Africa and chimpanzees in Central Africa. PMID:11435589

Souquiere, Sandrine; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Robertson, David L.; Makuwa, Maria; Apetrei, Cristian; Onanga, Richard; Kornfeld, Christopher; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Gao, Feng; Abernethy, Katharine; White, Lee J. T.; Karesh, William; Telfer, Paul; Wickings, E. Jean; Mauclere, Philippe; Marx, Preston A.; Barre-Sinoussi, Francoise; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Simon, Francois

2001-01-01

260

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

261

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated and Tibetan Wild Barley  

PubMed Central

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

262

Hybridization effects on phenotypic plasticity: experimental compensatory growth in farmed-wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Compensatory growth (CG) is a means by which organisms can increase their growth rate above their routine growth rate after a period of environmentally induced growth depression. Despite a focus on the implications of CG for aquaculture, little research has evaluated the effect of domesticated–wild hybridization on CG. Any deviation in the mean compensatory ability of hybrids relative to their wild progenitors, or any notable costs to compensation in terms of body morphology, could affect the ability of hybrids to persist in changing environments. We compared CG of farmed, wild and hybrid (F1, F2, wild backcross) juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Wild salmon experienced both lower routine and CG rates relative to farmed salmon, while hybrids were intermediate. However, the compensatory responses (slopes of the reaction norms) for each cross were parallel, indicating that hybridization did not affect the CG response itself. Morphological costs to compensation were not detected. In addition to contributing to risk assessments of the consequences of interbreeding between wild and escaped domesticated organisms, we conclude that plasticity studies on domesticated–wild hybrids and their progenitors are useful for testing basic predictions about the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, as well as understanding the evolutionary significance of hybrids.

Morris, Matthew R J; Fraser, Dylan J; Eddington, James; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2011-01-01

263

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

264

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

265

York's Wild Kingdom : a development proposal  

E-print Network

York's Wild Kingdom is a privately held zoo and amusement park in York, a Massachusetts based shopping center developer and investment compa Kingdom and the 150 acres that surround it. The community is culturaIl ( and York ...

Rae, Kimberley Whiting

2008-01-01

266

Abstract The fitness of crop-wild hybrids can influence gene flow between crop and wild populations. Seed pre-  

E-print Network

predation, seeds were collect- ed from wild sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and wild�crop F1 hybrids Crop-wild hybridization · Seed predation · Sunflower · Helianthus annuus Introduction Gene flow between

Snow, Allison A.

267

Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from wild birds in northern England from 2005 - 2006  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock salmonellosis. However, little is known about the relationship between wild bird S. enterica strains and human- and livestock- associated strains in the United Kingdom. Given the zoonotic potential of salmonellosis, the main aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica infections in wild birds in the north of England and, in particular, to determine if wild bird isolates were similar to those associated with disease in livestock or humans. Results Thirty two Salmonella enterica isolates were collected from wild birds in northern England between February 2005 and October 2006, of which 29 were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium); one S. Newport, one S. Senftenberg, and one isolate could not be classified by serotyping. Further analysis through phage typing and macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that wild passerine deaths associated with salmonellosis were caused by closely-related S. Typhimurium isolates, some of which were clonal. These isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, capable of invading and persisting within avian macrophage-like HD11 cells in vitro, and contained a range of virulence factors associated with both systemic and enteric infections of birds and mammals. However, all the isolates lacked the sopE gene associated with some human and livestock disease outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium. Conclusion The wild bird isolates of S. enterica characterised in this investigation may not represent a large zoonotic risk. Molecular characterisation of isolates suggested that S. Typhimurium infection in wild passerines is maintained within wild bird populations and the causative strains may be host-adapted. PMID:18230128

Hughes, Laura A; Shopland, Sara; Wigley, Paul; Bradon, Hannah; Leatherbarrow, A Howard; Williams, Nicola J; Bennett, Malcolm; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian

2008-01-01

268

Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.  

PubMed

Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. PMID:22687350

Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-15

269

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security. PMID:24905808

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

270

Commercially Farmed and Wild-Caught Salmon  

E-print Network

Salmon is the second most popular type of fish eaten in America. It tastes savory and earthy, yet slightly sweet and is among the richest sources of long-chain omega-3 fats. It is also full of high quality protein, vitamins, and minerals. Research shows that eating fish like salmon promotes healthy hearts and brain development. All types of commercial salmon are healthful to eat. The most readily available kinds in the U.S. are wild Pacific and farmed Atlantic salmon. Farmed and wild salmon are similar in many ways. Frequently asked questions about salmon How do farm-raised and wild-caught salmon differ? Farm-raised and wild-caught salmon are usually different species of fish. Most farm-raised salmon are Atlantic salmon. Wild populations of Atlantic salmon are generally at very low levels and their commercial harvest is limited. Farm-raised fish are hatched, raised, and harvested under controlled conditions similar to other farmed animals except they are raised in water. Farmed Atlantic salmon are readily available year-round in fresh or frozen forms. Most wild-caught salmon are one of five species of Pacific salmon. They are harvested by fishing with a variety of gear types mostly in the north Pacific from about June through

unknown authors

271

Wild ungulates as Babesia hosts in northern and central Italy.  

PubMed

Babesia and Theileria species were investigated in wild ungulates of Northern and Central Italy. Of 355 blood samples examined, 108 (30.4%) were positive to molecular diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with specific primers and sequencing). The sequence analysis showed that the roe deer is a susceptible host for several piroplasms belonging both to Babesia (31%) and Theileria (14.2%) species, whereas fallow deer and wild boar harbor only Theileria species (49% and 2.6%, respectively). Strains related to B. divergens are highly present (28.3%) in the roe deer, which, however, also harbors Babesia MO1 type and Babesia microti-like organisms. Babesia EU1 type is described for the first time in a roe deer in Italy. The finding in roe deer of Babesia species involved in human babesiosis is of concern for public health, mainly because ecological changes in progress cause the increase of both the deer species and the vector tick populations. PMID:18454592

Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Bonoli, Cristina; Cancrini, Gabriella; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario

2008-10-01

272

Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar  

PubMed Central

To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the ‘coin-flipping’ tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability. By contrast, adult females adjusted their relative allocation to littermates to the amount of food resources, by providing a similar allocation to all littermates in years of poor food resources but producing highly diversified offspring phenotypes within a litter in years of abundant food resources. By minimizing sibling rivalry, such a plastic reproductive tactic allows adult wild boar females to maximize the number of littermates for a given breeding event. PMID:23904566

Gamelon, Marlene; Douhard, Mathieu; Baubet, Eric; Gimenez, Olivier; Brandt, Serge; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

273

Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar.  

PubMed

To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the 'coin-flipping' tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability. By contrast, adult females adjusted their relative allocation to littermates to the amount of food resources, by providing a similar allocation to all littermates in years of poor food resources but producing highly diversified offspring phenotypes within a litter in years of abundant food resources. By minimizing sibling rivalry, such a plastic reproductive tactic allows adult wild boar females to maximize the number of littermates for a given breeding event. PMID:23904566

Gamelon, Marlène; Douhard, Mathieu; Baubet, Eric; Gimenez, Olivier; Brandt, Serge; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-10-23

274

Flavonoid profiling among wild type and related GM wheat varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleiotropic effects are one of the main concerns regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This includes unintended\\u000a side effects of the transgene or its genome insertion site on the regulation of other endogenous genes, which could potentially\\u000a cause the accumulation of different secondary metabolites that may have not only an impact on diet as repeatedly worried by\\u000a the public but also

Jean-Robert Ioset; Bartosz Urbaniak; Karine Ndjoko-Ioset; Judith Wirth; Frédéric Martin; Wilhelm Gruissem; Kurt Hostettmann; Christof Sautter

2007-01-01

275

Wide hybridization between Brazilian soybean cultivars and wild perennial relatives.  

PubMed

Employing a different culture strategy, we obtained a greatly improved frequency of embryo rescue in intersubgeneric soybean hybrids. Successful crosses were obtained in 31 different genotype combinations between nine Brazilian soybean lines as the female parents and 12 accessions from Glycine canescens, G. microphylla, G. tabacina and G. tomentella. The hybrid pod retention rate dropped to about 10% during the first 8 days after pollination and stayed largely unchanged up to the 20th day. Immature harvested seeds fell into three size groups: Group 1, smaller than 1.3 mm (mostly empty seed coats); Group 2, 1.9-5.0 mm; Group 3, larger than 5 mm (from selfing). A total of 90 putative hybrid embryos were rescued using a highly enriched B5 medium to nourish the newly dissected embryos. The growing embryos were then placed in a high osmotic, modified B5 medium to induce maturation and dormancy. Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was used to germinate the dormant, partially dehydrated, physiologically mature embryos. Approximately 37% of the rescued embryos developed into plantlets in vitro, and approximately 8% grew into mature plants in the greenhouse. Morphological, cytological and isoenzyme patterns confirmed the hybrid status of all seven mature plants, all of which were generated using G. tomentella G 9943 as the paternal parent. It was observed that all soybean lines crossed with G 9943 were capable of producing mature hybrid plants. There was no correlation between the initial size of Group 2 seeds and plant survival rate. The hybrids were cloned by grafting and treated with colchicine. One of the treated plants displayed chromosome doubling. PMID:24162397

Bodanese-Zanettini, M H; Lauxen, M S; Richter, S N; Cavalli-Molina, S; Lange, C E; Wang, P J; Hu, C Y

1996-10-01

276

Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

2014-01-01

277

Comparison of hemisphere size in wild and domestic geese.  

PubMed

The hemisphere size has been studied in wild and domestic geese (Anser fabalis, n = 77: A. albifrons, n = 48; A. anser, n = 8; A. anser f. domestica, n = 10), which were classified according to particular age category (adult or immature). Material used in studies was fixed in 4% solution of formaldehyde. The brain weight as well as hemispheres' length, width and height was measured with standard method. Morphometric characteristic of geese's brains has been presented in absolute and relative way (by parallel use of index and allometric approach). The appropriate ontogenic, taxonomic and domestication comparisons were carried out. The greatest differences referred to absolute and relative width and height of hemispheres. PMID:9178574

Kalisi?ska, E

1997-03-01

278

Interaction of Root Gravitropism and Phototropism in Arabidopsis Wild-Type and Starchless Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototro- pism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects grav- itropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototro- pism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an

Stanislav Vitha; Liming Zhao; Fred David Sack

2000-01-01

279

ESTs from a wild Arachis species for gene discovery and marker development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Due to its origin, peanut has a very narrow genetic background. Wild relatives can be a source of genetic variability for cultivated peanut. In this study, the transcriptome of the wild species Arachis stenosperma accession V10309 was analyzed. RESULTS: ESTs were produced from four cDNA libraries of RNAs extracted from leaves and roots of A. stenosperma. Randomly selected cDNA

Karina Proite; Soraya CM Leal-Bertioli; David J Bertioli; Márcio C Moretzsohn; Felipe R da Silva; Natalia F Martins; Patrícia M Guimarães

2007-01-01

280

Chemical Composition of Wild-2 Dust Collected by Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stardust spacecraft collected dust from Comet Wild-2 in two forms: material distributed along tracks in aerogel capture cells and residue in impact craters. To analyze the chemical composition of these samples the tracks produced in the aerogel were extracted as keystones containing complete tracks. Twenty-six tracks were analyzed using an X-Ray Microprobe, providing x-ray fluorescence chemical analysis for elements having K-lines at energies high enough to permit escape from the overlying aerogel (S and the heavier elements, including the moderately-volatile trace elements Cu, Zn, and Ga). Two of these tracks were then split open, exposing the interior for analysis by TOF-SIMS (which allowed detection of the lighter elements, e.g., Mg and Al). Neither Si nor O could be determined for samples captured in the aerogel, since these are the major elements in the aerogel itself. The residue in craters in the Al-foil were analyzed by SEM-EDX and TOF-SIMS. The crater residues provide information on the important light elements (Mg and Si). By combining the results from the craters and the tracks, a comprehensive chemical analysis of the Wild-2 dust was possible. Preliminary Examination of the material indicates that: 1) For particles collected in the aerogel, a significant fraction of the incident mass is frequently deposited along the entry track, suggesting the individual Wild-2 dust particles that hit the aerogel were relatively weak aggregates. 2) The chemical composition of the terminal particle in the track is frequently significantly different from the composition of the material deposited along the track, 3) Most of the elements measured show variations in their Fe-normalized abundances of more than two orders-of-magnitude in both the terminal particles and the material deposited along track walls, indicating that the Wild-2 dust is compositionally heterogeneous at the size scale of the largest particles analyzed, not simply a well-mixed aggregate of sub-micron grains, 4) The mean content of the refractory, rock-forming elements (Mg, Ca, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni) averaged over the whole tracks and/or the crater residues in the Wild-2 grains are approximately chondritic, and, 5) There is an apparent enrichment over CI in some of the moderately-volatile minor elements (Cu, Zn, and Ga) in the Wild-2 dust.

Flynn, G. J.

2006-12-01

281

Population Structure and Evolutionary Dynamics of Wild–Weedy–Domesticated Complexes of Common Bean in a Mesoamerican Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

into the domesticated populations or predominant gene flow from morphological and physiological characters related to domesticated to wild populations. The wild population in closest prox- imity to the crop within its complex was more similar to the domesti- the so-called domestication syndrome, including seed cated and weedy populations of its complex than to the rest of the dispersal (pod suture

Daniel Zizumbo-Villarreal; Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín; Emeterio Payró de la Cruz; Patricia Delgado-Valerio; Paul Gepts

2005-01-01

282

Feeding success of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti: the effects of group size and kleptoparasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longer-term ecosystem level dynamics are often neglected in conservation studies involving single species. In this study, a retrospective analysis is presented on the feeding performance of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus in the Serengeti in relation to a competing species, the spotted hyenaCrocuta crocuta, to test whether hyenas had an effect on feeding performance of wild dogs in this ecosystem.

C. Carbone; L. Frame; G. Frame; J. Malcolm; J. Fanshawe; C. FitzGibbon; G. Schaller; I. J. Gordon; J. M. Rowcliffe; J. T. Du Toit

2005-01-01

283

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

284

Biodemography of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly: Aging, Longevity and Adaptation in the Wild  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to summarize recent research on longevity, aging and adaptation in wild medfly populations and in a close relative of the medfly. The key findings include a new life table identity that relates age structure and the distribution of deaths in stationary populations, seasonal variation in the post-capture longevity of trapped medflies of unknown age, greater longevity of once-wild (wild-caught) adult medflies relative to never-wild (laboratory-emerged) individuals, differences in age specificity of different medfly field capture methods, large variation in the sex-specific longevity of six medfly global biotypes (e.g. Kenya; Brazil; Greece), and the extraordinary longevity of the natal fruit fly—a sister species of the medfly. The Discussion contains a listing of discoveries derived from this recent research that appear to be unique to the investigations on medfly aging in the wild. It is suggested that studies of aging in wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster have the potential to exploit this model organism in an entirely new aging research domain and thus complement the already deep literature on aging in this species. PMID:20933076

Carey, James R.

2010-01-01

285

Rio Grande Wild Turkey in Texas: Biology and Management  

E-print Network

plantago wild onion juniper rescuegrass walnut ground-cherry pigeonberry filaree wild mercury silverleaf nightshade ephedra honey mesquite gaura pecan agarita sand dropseed green matter lotebrush catnip noseburn bladderpod tobosa panicgrass evening... plantago wild onion juniper rescuegrass walnut ground-cherry pigeonberry filaree wild mercury silverleaf nightshade ephedra honey mesquite gaura pecan agarita sand dropseed green matter lotebrush catnip noseburn bladderpod tobosa panicgrass evening...

Cathey, James; Melton, Kyle; Dreibelbis, Justin; Cavney, Bob; Locke, Shawn; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

2007-09-11

286

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We surveyed Rio Grande wild turkey (M et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey efforts have

Wallace, Mark C.

287

Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.  

PubMed

Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

2014-06-16

288

Ergot alkaloids in Norwegian wild grasses: a mass spectrometric approach.  

PubMed

Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins which are produced among fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae. Poisoning with ergot alkaloids is an important veterinary problem in animal husbandry and has recently also been recognised in wild animals. While the poisoning syndrome observed in domestic animals such as cattle, horses and sheep is usually caused by endophyte-infected grass, the recently observed ergotism among Norwegian cervids is probably due to infection of wild grasses with Claviceps. Mass spectrometry is today the method of choice for the rapid qualitative and quantitative determination of many natural compounds. This study uses tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry as well as ion trap mass spectrometry in connection with electrospray(+) ionisation for the quantification, screening and fragmentation of ergot alkaloids in extracts from Claviceps sclerotia that had been picked from wild grasses from several locations in Norway. Ergotamine, ergovaline, ergonovine and ergocryptine were available as standards and were quantified in the extracts, while ergocrystine, ergocornine, ergonine/ergosine, lysergic acid and lysergol were identified on the basis of their molecular weights and semi-quantified. Ergocrystine dominated the alkaloid spectrum of most extracts. Levels of the quantified alkaloids were in the range 0.2-9300 microg/g. Several unknown ergot alkaloids were found in the extracts. MS(n) experiments identified some as simple lysergic acid amide derivatives, while othes are probably related to ergocrystine and ergocryptine by dehydration, dehydrogenation and/or amino acid substitution at R(1) of the peptide moiety. PMID:17465016

Uhlig, Silvio; Vikøren, Turid; Ivanova, Lada; Handeland, Kjell

2007-01-01

289

[Wild birds--a reservoir for influenza A virus].  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field. PMID:18581906

Griot, C; Hoop, R

2007-11-01

290

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve  

E-print Network

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve. This hands-on course will include a four day stay in historic Coal Creek Camp, a restored mining camp off the Yukon River in the heart of the preserve. Along with park staff

Sikes, Derek S.

291

Genetic variation among wild and cultivated populations of the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae).  

PubMed

To examine if the cultivation process has reduced the genetic variation of modern cultivars of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Coptis chinensis, the levels and distribution of genetic variation was investigated using ISSR markers. A total of 214 C. chinensis individuals from seven wild and three cultivated populations were included in the study. Seven ISSR primers were used and a total of 91 DNA fragments were scored. The levels of genetic diversity in cultivated populations were similar as those in wild populations (mean PPL = 65.2% versus PPL = 52.4%, mean H = 0.159 versus H = 0.153 and mean I = 0.255 versus I = 0.237), suggesting that cultivation did not seriously influence genetic variation of present-day cultivated populations. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that wild populations and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between a cultivar and its wild progenitor was 0.066 (G(st)), which was in good accordance with the result by amova analysis (10.9% of total genetic variation resided on the two groups), indicating that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild progenitors. For the seven wild populations, a significant genetic differentiation among populations was found using amova analysis (45.9% of total genetic variation resided among populations). A number of causes, including genetic drift and inbreeding in the small and isolated wild populations, the relative limited gene flow between wild populations (N(m) = 0.590), and high gene flow between cultivars and their wild progenitors (N(m) = 7.116), might have led to the observed genetic profiles of C. chinensis. PMID:18557908

Shi, W; Yang, C-F; Chen, J-M; Guo, Y-H

2008-07-01

292

Project WILD--From Awareness to Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses goals of Project WILD, an environmental and conservation program emphasizing wildlife. Includes instructions for using and sample of "dilemma cards" which allow students to read, discuss, make judgments, and write about hypothetical dilemmas concerning wildlife and/or natural resources. (BC)

Charles, Cheryl; Schafer, Rudy

1984-01-01

293

Subtle sabotage: endocrine disruption in wild populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

How important is endocrine disruption as a threat to wildlife populations? This review applies causal criteria to existing studies of wild populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals to answer three questions: (1) Have endocrine-mediated effects of contaminant exposure been documented? (2) Have individual adverse effects that could lead to population effects been documented? (3) Have population level effects

Ann Oliver Cheek

2006-01-01

294

Rabies and African Wild Dogs in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a

P. W. Kat; K. A. Alexander; J. S. Smith; L. Munson

1995-01-01

295

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

what can be learned from the existing real-world data for two Gulf of Bothnia rivers, Simo and Tornio by environmental factors such as the M74 syndrome. 2. The parr stage. This is the period lasting from one up, and develop models for the prediction of wild smolt production, using real- world data from two Gulf

Myllymäki, Petri

296

Mineral elements determination in wild edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral element composition is given for the leaves of 7 species of edible wild plants used by the first European farmers which are still consumed today. This is the first comprehensive nutrient report on most of these species of leafy green vegetables. Moisture, ash, organic nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese were determined. Plants harvested

J. L. Guil Guerrero; M. E. Torua Isasa

1999-01-01

297

Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seeds.  

PubMed

Some wild seeds, namely Parkia biglobosa, Tetracarpidum conophorum, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Irvingia gabonensis, Afzelia africana, Prosporis africana and Monodora myristica, were randomly collected from various parts of Nigeria and analyzed with regard to their proximate, mineral, antinutrient composition and zinc bioavailability. The results revealed that the seeds had high protein (6.5-24.2%), fat (19.0-58.5%), mineral (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P) and phytate (1043.6-2905.2 mg/100 g) contents, while the cyanide content was low (3.7-6.4 mg/kg). However, Co, Pb and Ni were not detected in all the samples. The calculated [Ca] [phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios (which is the best index for predicting Zn bioavailability) for all the seeds revealed that Parkia biglobosa, Irvingia gabonensis and Prosporis africana had a calculated molar ratio above 0.50 mol/kg (critical level), thus indicating reduced bioavailability of Zn to a critical level. In view of the high fat, protein, mineral and low cyanide contents, the high phytate content would not be expected to reduce bioavailability of Zn in some of the wild seeds (Afzelia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Monodora myristica). These wild seeds could be good nutrient sources if integrated fully into human and animal nutrition. However, further studies will be carried out on the protein quality and toxicological potentials of these wild seeds. PMID:15146961

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ekperigin, M Mofoluso

2004-04-01

298

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

299

Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…

Horwood, Bert

300

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

301

Heritage from the Wild Boy of Aveyron.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts efforts made between 1801 and 1806 by French physician Itard to educate Victor, a boy found living in the wild in Aveyron. Explains how Itard's work with Victor, which met with limited success, led to the establishment of a school for educating clinical idiots. Describes procedures developed by Itard that are basic to the current…

Hunter, Ian M. L.

1993-01-01

302

The End of the Wild Stephen Meyer  

E-print Network

Meyer died. As he said a few days before his death, "This will undoubtedly be the last article I ever), the end of poverty (Sachs) and the end of civilisation (Lovelock). We do truly seem to be living to eventual distinction, or at least loss from the wild. His account then takes us through the five categories

Hulme, Mike

303

?-amylase Variation in Wild Barley Accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of ?-amylase among 19 species (27 taxa, 337 accessions) of wild barley, including Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (174 accessions), H. bulbosum (33), H. murinum (81), H. marinum (28), H. brachyantherum (4), H. jubatum (2), H. chilense (2) and H. roshevitzii (2) were studied using both isoelectric focusing (IEF) and thermostability analysis. Wide genetic variations were found. In general, the

Wensheng Zhang; Takafumi Kaneko; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2004-01-01

304

Existence of vigorous lineages of crop-wild hybrids in Lettuce under field conditions.  

PubMed

Plant to plant gene flow is a route of environmental exposure for GM plants specifically since crosses with wild relatives could lead to the formation of more vigorous hybrids, which could increase the rate of introgression and the environmental impact. Here, we test the first step in the process of potential transgene introgression: whether hybrid vigor can be inherited to the next generation, which could lead to fixation of altered, i.e., elevated, quantitative traits. The potential for a permanent elevated fitness was tested using individual autogamous progeny lineages of hybrids between the crop Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) and the wild species Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce). We compared progeny from motherplants grown under either greenhouse or field conditions. The survival of young plants depended strongly on maternal environment. Furthermore, we observed that offspring reproductive fitness components were correlated with maternal fitness. Our study demonstrates that post-zygotic genotypic sorting at the young plants stage reduces the number of genotypes non-randomly, leading to inheritance of high levels of reproductive traits in the surviving hybrid lineages, compared to the pure wild relatives. Consequently, directional selection could lead to displacement of the pure wild relative and fixation of more vigorous genome segments originating from crops, stabilizing plant traits at elevated levels. Such information can be used to indentify segments which are less likely to introgress into wild relative populations as a target for transgene insertion. PMID:20883659

Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Den Nijs, Hans J C M

2009-01-01

305

Facilitated by nature and agriculture: performance of a specialist herbivore improves with host-plant life history evolution, domestication, and breeding.  

PubMed

Plant defenses against herbivores are predicted to change as plant lineages diversify, and with domestication and subsequent selection and breeding in the case of crop plants. We addressed whether defense against a specialist herbivore declined coincidently with life history evolution, domestication, and breeding within the grass genus Zea (Poaceae). For this, we assessed performance of corn leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis) following colonization of one of four Zea species containing three successive transitions: the evolutionary transition from perennial to annual life cycle, the agricultural transition from wild annual grass to primitive crop cultivar, and the agronomic transition from primitive to modern crop cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was measured through seven variables relevant to development speed, survivorship, fecundity, and body size. The plants included in our study were perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), Balsas teosinte (Zea mays parviglumis), a landrace maize (Zea mays mays), and a hybrid maize. Perennial teosinte is a perennial, iteroparous species, and is basal in Zea; Balsas teosinte is an annual species, and the progenitor of maize; the landrace maize is a primitive, genetically diverse cultivar, and is ancestral to the hybrid maize; and, the hybrid maize is a highly inbred, modern cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was poorest on perennial teosinte, intermediate on Balsas teosinte and landrace maize, and best on hybrid maize, consistent with our expectation of declining defense from perennial teosinte to hybrid maize. Overall, our results indicated that corn leafhopper performance increased most with the agronomic transition, followed by the life history transition, and least with the domestication transition. PMID:23868032

Dávila-Flores, Amanda M; DeWitt, Thomas J; Bernal, Julio S

2013-12-01

306

Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.  

PubMed

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity. PMID:22417608

Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

2011-10-01

307

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host’s natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV. PMID:23763792

2013-01-01

308

Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions. PMID:24789405

Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L

2013-11-01

309

Wild bees visiting cucumber on midwestern U.S. organic farms benefit from near-farm semi-natural areas.  

PubMed

Wild bees that provide pollination services to vegetable crops depend on forage resources, nesting sites, and overwintering sites in the agricultural landscape. The scale at which crop-visiting bees use resources in the landscape can vary regionally, and has not been characterized in the Midwestern United States. We investigated the effects of seminatural land cover on wild bee visitation frequency to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and on wild bee species richness on 10 organic farms in Indiana. We estimated the spatial scale at which the effects of land cover were strongest, and also examined the effects of nonlandscape factors on wild bees. The visitation frequency of wild bees to cucumber was positively related to the proportion of seminatural land in the surrounding landscape, and this relationship was strongest within 250 m of the cucumber patch. The species richness of wild cucumber visitors was not affected by land cover at any spatial scale, nor by any of the nonlandscape factors we considered. Our results indicate that wild, crop visiting bees benefit from seminatural areas in the agricultural landscape, and benefit most strongly from seminatural areas within 250 m of the crop field. This suggests that setting aside natural areas in the near vicinity of vegetable fields may be an effective way to support wild, crop-visiting bees and secure their pollination services. PMID:23448020

Smith, A A; Bentley, M; Reynolds, H L

2013-02-01

310

OMEGA-GROUPS Group Theory For Wild Topology  

E-print Network

OMEGA-GROUPS Group Theory For Wild Topology Allan J. Sieradski The algebraic topology of locally. But for wild spaces, by which we mean metric spaces with arbitrarily small essential fea- tures, new group

311

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011  

E-print Network

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011 Lecture Theatre 3, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh All (University of Edinburgh): An introduction to Wild Immunology 10:15 Jan Bradley (University of Nottingham

Maizels, Rick

312

Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo cattle grazing, habitat use, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, nesting ecology, Rio Grande wild turkey. Interactions between cattle and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) varied depending on local habitat

313

Wild, Free-Roaming Horses - An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a comprehensive annotated list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the information included in the bibliogra...

M. Zarn, T. Heller, K. Collins

1977-01-01

314

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats  

E-print Network

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis.  

PubMed

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to > 80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds. PMID:8722273

Samuel, M D; Goldberg, D R; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Robb, J R; Krapu, G L; Nersessian, B N; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

1996-04-01

316

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

317

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.

1996-01-01

318

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.; Krapu, G. L.; Nersessian, B. N.; Kenow, K. P.; Korschgen, C. E.; Chipley, W. H.; Conroy, M. J.

1996-01-01

319

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

320

Wild Bird Influenza Survey, Canada, 2005  

PubMed Central

Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted for 80% of the sample. PMID:18258085

Bastien, Nathalie; Booth, Timothy F.; Bowes, Victoria; Buck, Peter A.; Breault, Andre; Caswell, Dale; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Davies, J. Chris; Elahi, Seyyed Mehdy; Fortin, Madeleine; Kibenge, Fred; King, Robin; Li, Yan; North, Norman; Ojkic, Davor; Pasick, John; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Robinson, John; Rodrigue, Jean; Whitney, Hugh; Zimmer, Patrick; Leighton, Frederick A.

2008-01-01

321

Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

322

Sarcocystis in wild ungulates in Alberta.  

PubMed

Muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in Alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of Sarcocystis. Sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (Cervus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison bison), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), respectively. PMID:6780701

Mahrt, J L; Colwell, D D

1980-10-01

323

Habitat Appraisal Guide for Rio Grande Wild Turkey  

E-print Network

Squirreltail grass Catnip noseburn Littleleaf sumac Tasajillo Croton Lotebush Texas cup grass Ephedra Milk vetch Tobosa grass Evening primrose Panic grass Walnut Filaree Pecan White tridens Gaura Pigeonberry Wild mercury Grama grasses Plantago Wild onion... Squirreltail grass Catnip noseburn Littleleaf sumac Tasajillo Croton Lotebush Texas cup grass Ephedra Milk vetch Tobosa grass Evening primrose Panic grass Walnut Filaree Pecan White tridens Gaura Pigeonberry Wild mercury Grama grasses Plantago Wild onion...

Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Ransom, Dean; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

2007-09-04

324

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS  

SciTech Connect

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

2007-05-23

325

Effects of temperature and growth hormone on individual growth trajectories of wild-type and transgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch.  

PubMed

In this study, individual growth patterns of wild-type and growth-enhanced coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at 8, 12 and 16 degrees C water temperature were followed. Despite large differences among individuals in growth rates, there was generally little variation in the shape of the growth curves among O. kisutch individuals of both genotypes and at all temperatures. Typically, individuals that were relatively large initially were also relatively large at the end of the growth period. The limitation in variation was more pronounced in the growth-enhanced O. kisutch than in the wild type, where the relative size of some individuals reared at 12 and 8 degrees C changed by the end of the trial. As a warmer temperature seems to decrease the plasticity of growth trajectories in wild-type fish, it is possible that global warming will influence the ability of wild fish to adapt their growth to changing conditions. PMID:20666902

Lõhmus, M; Björklund, M; Sundström, L F; Devlin, R H

2010-02-01

326

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

327

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

328

Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.  

PubMed

Abstract We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses. PMID:24949927

Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

2014-10-01

329

Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN  

E-print Network

OPINION Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institutes of Immunology & Infection Research and Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of `wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host

Maizels, Rick

330

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

331

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

E-print Network

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

Altwegg, Res

332

Distribution and conservation of African wild dogs in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has de- clined dramatically during the last century and has experienced a significant reduction in its range throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Very little is known about wild dogs in Central Af- rica, especially the population in northern Cameroon. Human and ecological factors lim- iting wild dogs in and around Faro National Park were investigated in

Thomas Breuer

333

Wild dogs, Lycaon pictus, are a social species, obligated  

E-print Network

conditions apply for the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and data on this species in Zimbabwe support ourWild dogs, Lycaon pictus, are a social species, obligated to breed in a group, in which only one extinctions?: The case of wild dogs Angulo et al. Angulo et al. Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:11 http

Courchamp, Franck

334

76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-09-06

335

78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

2013-08-01

336

27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

2010-04-01

337

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will...meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day...

2010-05-13

338

76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-02-09

339

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

340

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

341

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

(Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censis; BrennanORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo

Wallace, Mark C.

342

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censisORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia; RGWT) were randomly distributed around roads to identify

Butler, Matthew J.

343

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

344

SNP-revealed genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat correlates with ecological factors  

PubMed Central

Background Patterns of genetic diversity between and within natural plant populations and their driving forces are of great interest in evolutionary biology. However, few studies have been performed on the genetic structure and population divergence in wild emmer wheat using a large number of EST-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Results In the present study, twenty-five natural wild emmer wheat populations representing a wide range of ecological conditions in Israel and Turkey were used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using over 1,000 SNP markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected due to the biallelic property of SNP markers. Clustering based on Bayesian model showed that grouping pattern is related to the geographical distribution of the wild emmer wheat. However, genetic differentiation between populations was not necessarily dependent on the geographical distances. A total of 33 outlier loci under positive selection were identified using a FST-outlier method. Significant correlations between loci and ecogeographical factors were observed. Conclusions Natural selection appears to play a major role in generating adaptive structures in wild emmer wheat. SNP markers are appropriate for detecting selectively-channeled adaptive genetic diversity in natural populations of wild emmer wheat. This adaptive genetic diversity is significantly associated with ecological factors. PMID:23937410

2013-01-01

345

Variation in viral shedding patterns between different wild bird species infected experimentally with low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses that originated from wild birds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of infection with avian influenza (AI) virus varies significantly between taxonomic Orders and even between species within the same Order. The current understanding of AI infection and virus shedding parameters in wild birds is limited and largely based on trials conducted in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The objective of the present study was to provide experimental data to examine species-related differences in susceptibility and viral shedding associated with wild bird-origin low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in multiple duck species and gulls. Thus mallards, redheads (Aythya americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were inoculated experimentally with three wild mallard-origin LPAI viruses representing multiple subtypes. Variation in susceptibility and patterns of viral shedding associated with LPAI virus infection was evident between the duck and gull species. Consistent with the literature, mallards excreted virus predominantly via the gastrointestinal tract. In wood ducks, redheads, and laughing gulls, AI virus was detected more often in oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. The results of this study suggest that LPAI shedding varies between taxonomically related avian species. Such differences may be important for understanding the potential role of individual species in the transmission and maintenance of LPAI viruses and may have implications for improving sampling strategies for LPAI detection. Additional comparative studies, which include LPAI viruses originating from non-mallard species, are necessary to further characterize these infections in wild avian species other than mallards and provide a mechanism to explain these differences in viral excretion. PMID:21500030

Costa, Taiana P; Brown, Justin D; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E

2011-04-01

346

Olfactory recovery of wild yellow perch from metal contaminated lakes.  

PubMed

Fish depend on their sense of smell for a wide range of vital life processes including finding food, avoiding predators and reproduction. Various contaminants, including metals, can disrupt recognition of chemical information in fish at very low concentrations. Numerous studies have investigated metal effects on fish olfaction under controlled laboratory conditions. However, few have measured olfactory acuity using wild fish in source water. In this study, we used electro-olfactography (EOG) to measure the olfactory acuity of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a clean lake (Geneva Lake) and two metal contaminated lakes (Ramsey and Hannah lakes) from Sudbury, ON, in their own lake water or in water from the other lakes. The results showed that fish from the clean lake had a greater olfactory acuity than those from metal contaminated lakes when fish were tested in their own lake water. However, when fish from the clean lake were held for 24h in water from each of the two contaminated lakes their olfactory acuity was diminished. On the other hand, fish from the contaminated lakes held for 24h in clean lake water showed a significant olfactory recovery relative to that measured in their native lake water. These results show that although fish from a clean lake demonstrated impaired olfaction after only 24h in metal-contaminated water, fish from metal contaminated lakes showed a rapid olfactory recovery when exposed to clean water for only hours. PMID:23164449

Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Forsyth, Heidi L; Pyle, Greg G

2013-02-01

347

Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

348

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.  

PubMed

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2010-04-01

349

Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas  

PubMed Central

The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild.

Roque, André Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

350

Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews  

PubMed Central

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

2010-01-01

351

Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population  

PubMed Central

The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes is affected by the animal’s social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules. PMID:23998668

Onyango, Patrick O.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

2013-01-01

352

Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea  

PubMed Central

During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

353

Meat from wild boar (Sus scrofa L.): a review.  

PubMed

Wild boar is a species that is utilised for food and sport hunting throughout the world. Recent increases in natural populations and the potential of farming wild boars have stimulated interest in this species as a meat producer. Compared to domestic pigs, wild boars present a higher degree of carcass fatness and larger loin areas, more slow-twitch oxidative (I) and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (IIA) and less fast-twitch glycolytic (IIB) muscle fibres, and darker, less tender and leaner meat. Differences in diets might contribute to differences in cooked meat flavour and fatty acid composition between wild boars and domestic pigs. Higher ?-tocopherol concentrations in wild boar might extend its meat shelf-life. Mechanical massaging of muscles, vacuum package ageing and addition of marinates have been attempted to tenderise wild boar meat. Further research on hunting protocols for wild boar, and value-added products from its meat, are needed. PMID:23501250

Sales, James; Kotrba, Radim

2013-06-01

354

Variation in Hematocrit and Total Plasma Proteins of Nestling American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius) in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematocrits and total plasma proteins were determined at 24 days old for 86 female and 85 male nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) from the wild in northern Saskatchewan. No sex differences were detected in either hematocrit or plasma protein. For females, hematocrit and plasma protein were not related to time of sampling, temperature at sampling, mass of nestlings or length

Russell D. Dawson; Gary R. Bortolotti

1997-01-01

355

Wild topology, hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between Wild Topology, Hyperbolic Geometry and Fusion Algebra on the one side and the charge and coupling constants of the standard model and quantum gravity on the other is examined.The close connection found between E(?) theory and the Topological theory of four manifolds as well as the theory of fundamental groups is elucidated using various classical theories and

M. S. El Naschie

2002-01-01

356

Application for CALS-CCE 2013 Summer Internship Title of project: The Wild Harvest Table  

E-print Network

organization and time management are important. What benefits/skills will the student gain through consumption and how it fits into the local food ("locavore") movement, food security, civic ecology, related to wild fish and game consumption and community food security, and B) Conduct extension workshops

Keinan, Alon

357

Evaluation of the Wonders in Nature-Wonders in Neighborhoods Conservation Education Program: Stakeholders Gone Wild!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wonders in Nature-Wonders in Neighborhoods ((W.I.N.-W.I.N.) has been providing wild-life related conservation education to schoolchildren throughout the Denver metropolitan area since 1996. Specifically designed for students in early childhood education classes through fifth grade, W.I.N.-W.I.N. is intended to heighten children's awareness and…

Somers, Cindy

2005-01-01

358

The Stardust --- A Successful Encounter with the Remarkable Comet Wild 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 2, 2004 the Stardust spacecraft completed a close flyby of comet Wild2 (P81). Flying at a relative speed of 6.1 km\\/s within 237km of the 5 km nucleus, the spacecraft took 72 close-in images, measured the flux of impacting particles and did TOF mass spectrometry.

D. E. Brownlee; J. D. Anderson; K. Atkins; S. Bhaskaran; A. R. Cheuvront; B. C. Clark; T. C. Duxbury; T. Economou; M. S. Hanner; F. Hörz; J. Kissel; J. A. M. McDonnell; S. Green; R. L. Newburn; D. E. Perkins; S. Price; R. E. Ryan; S. Sandford; Z. Sekanina; P. Tsou; A. J. Tuzzolino; J. M. Villinga; K. E. Williams; M. E. Zolensky

2004-01-01

359

Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch ( Perca flavescens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and

Patrice Couture; Puja Rajender Kumar

2003-01-01

360

Analysis of Panthera leo Habitat Design and Construction at The Wild Animal Sanctuary in  

E-print Network

and Related Policies 2009). For every one lion in a habitat there is provided one den. Even though African been perfecting the creation of lion (Panthera leo) habitats for nearly 33 years (Craig 2013). Senior staff at The Wild Animal Sanctuary reveals how to make an efficient, safe, and fulfilling lion habitat

Kanatous, Shane

361

Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time and place around the Mediterranean. Additionally, it is important to study

Andreas C. H. Hadjichambis; Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi; Athena Della; Maria Elena Giusti; Caterina De Pasquale; Cinzia Lenzarini; Elena Censorii; Maria Reyes Gonzales-Tejero; Cristina Patricia Sanchez-Rojas; Jose M. Ramiro-Gutierrez; Melpomeni Skoula; Chris Johnson; Anaya Sarpaki; Mohamed Hmamouchi; Said Jorhi; Mohamed El-Demerdash; Mustafa El-Zayat; Andrea Pieroni

2008-01-01

362

Isozymatic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships between Henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and Its Wild Ancestor A. angustifolia (Agavaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships among extant henequen ( Agave fourcroydes) germplasm and wild populations of its ancestor A. angustifolia in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico were analyzed. Analysis of three isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis indicated that while A. angustifolia populations have relatively high levels of variation, within each henequen cultivar all individuals were identical. This result corresponds

Patricia Colunga-GarciaMarin; Julian Coello-Coello; Luis E. Eguiarte; Daniel Pinero

1999-01-01

363

Evidence for a spatial memory of fruiting states of rainforest trees in wild mangabeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ranging behaviour of two groups of wild mangabey monkeys (sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys atys, and grey-cheeked mangabeys, Lophocebus albigena johnstoni) relative to a number of preselected target trees within their home range. We observed the groups' visiting patterns and speed when they approached within a critical distance of a target tree as a function of the tree's

Karline R. L. Janmaat; Richard W. Byrne; Klaus Zuberbühler

2006-01-01

364

Relationship of bone morphogenetic protein expression during osteoblast differentiation to wild type p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown p53 to have a specific role in osteoblast differentiation by its ability to regulate expression of certain bone specific proteins. In this study, we show mineralized matrix formation in vivo to be directly related to the presence of wild type p53 in osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In order to further understand the importance of p53 in differentiation,

Nalini Chandar; John Swindle; Ann Szajkovics; Kevin Kolman

2005-01-01

365

Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and growth of wild and cultivated lettuce in response to nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a crop with high water and nutrient demand. Its nearest wild relative, Lactuca serriola, is tolerant of low moisture and nutrient-poor conditions. Due to selection in different types of environments, the two taxa may differ in response to mycorrhizal colonization. Pot experiments were used to determine if mycorrhizal colonization, growth, root allocation, and P and N

L. E. Jackson; D. Miller; S. E. Smith

2002-01-01

366

Existence of vigorous lineages of crop-wild hybrids in Lettuce under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant to plant gene flow is a route of environmental exposure for GM plants specifically since crosses with wild relatives could lead to the formation of more vigorous hybrids, which could increase the rate of introgression and the environmental impact. Here, we test the first step in the process of potential transgene introgression: whether hybrid vigor can be inherited to

D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; J. G. B. Oostermeijer; Nijs den J. C. M

2009-01-01

367

Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were

Katja V. Goller; Robert D. Fyumagwa; Veljko Nikolin; Marion L. East; Morris Kilewo; Stephanie Speck; Thomas Müller; Martina Matzke; Gudrun Wibbelt

2010-01-01

368

DISEASES DIAGNOSED IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic findings are presented on 139 sick or dead wild turkeys examined during the period 1972 through 1984. Turkeys originated from eight southeastern states (Alabama, Ar- kansas, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia) and included 31 turkeys categorized as capture-related mortalities and 108 turkeys categorized as natural mortal- ities. Frequent diagnoses (? 10% of case accessions) in the

William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; C. Edward Couvillion; Elizabeth W. Howerth

369

Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish ( Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hgt) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish

S. Guilherme; M. Válega; M. E. Pereira; M. A. Santos; M. Pacheco

2008-01-01

370

Telomere dynamics rather than age predict life expectancy in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite accumulating evidence from in vitro studies that cellular senescence is linked to telomere dynamics, how this relates to whole-organism senescence and longevity is poorly understood and controversial. Using data on telomere length in red blood cells and long-term survival from wild Alpine swifts of a range of ages, we report that the telomere length and the rate of telomere

Pierre Bize; Francois Criscuolo; Neil B. Metcalfe; Lubna Nasir; Pat Monaghan

2009-01-01

371

THE ROLE OF WILD NORTH AMERICAN UNGULATES IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published reports of Brucella abortus infections in wild North American ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. Bison (Bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. Most elk (Cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was

Scott M. McCorquodale; Ronald F. DiGiacomo

372

Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

As noted by previous researchers, the chimpanzee postcranial anatomy reflects a compromise between the competing demands of arboreal and terrestrial locomotion. In this study, we measured the distance climbed and walked per day in a population of wild chimpanzees and used published equations to calculate the relative daily energy costs. Results were used to test hypotheses regarding the arboreal-terrestrial tradeoff

Herman Pontzer; Richard W. Wrangham

2004-01-01

373

Can laboratory studies on dominance predict fitness of young brown trout in the wild?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies suggest that dominance and aggression increase fitness, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested under natural conditions. We therefore designed a combined laboratory-field experiment to detect how social status and aggression relate to growth rate, movement and habitat choice in a natural stream. In 1998 and 1999, juvenile brown trout were caught in the wild and paired in

Johan Höjesjö; Jörgen I. Johnsson; Torgny Bohlin

2002-01-01

374

Quantitative variation within and between populations of the wild barley, Hordeum murinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in quantitative characters was studied in several wild populations and families of the weedy barley, Hordeum murinum. The hereditary, non-herediatary and interactive components of the variance were assessed for up to 13 metrical characters. Broad-sense heritabilities were calculated as were the relative contributions of populations, families and individuals to the overall variance. Correlation between characters was also considered. Significant

Barbara E Giles; K J R Edwards

1983-01-01

375

Physiological determinants of growth rate in response to phosphorus supply in wild and cultivated Hordeum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under favorable nutrition, accessions of the weedy barleygrass (Hordeum leporinum and H. glaucum) had a higher relative growth rate (RGR) than did accessions of cultivated barley (H. vulgare) or its wild progenitor (H. spontaneum). RGR was not positively correlated with the presumed level of soil fertility at the collection site of an accession either within or among species. RGR was

F. S. Chapin; R. H. Groves; L. T. Evans

1989-01-01

376

Zingiberene and curcumene in wild tomato.  

PubMed

Composition of ginger oil prepared from fresh ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric techniques. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified were alpha-zingiberene (27-30%), alpha-curcumene (8-9%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (4.8%). and bisabolene (3.2%). The function of zingiberene and curcumene as insecticides, repellents, and insect feeding deterrents has been previously reported. Other plant species having similar constituents might be found. Leaves of six wild tomato accessions of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull); three accessions of L. hirsutum f. typicum (Humb & Bonpl.); two accessions of L. pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy); one accession of L. pimpinellifolium; and one commercial tomato L. esculentumm cv. Fabulous were analyzed. Analysis of L. hirsutum f. typicum (Solanaceae) accessions indicated the presence of zingiberene, curcumene, and other lipophilic secondary metabolites in the leaves of two accessions (PI-127826 and PI-127827). An average three month old wild tomato plant of accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827 provided 1.93 and 1.30 kg fresh leaves (averaging about 38,307 and 28,130 cm2 exposed leaf surface area, respectively) and produced 19.3 and 10.1 g of zingiberene and curcumene (PI-127826) and 17.2 and 1.8 g of zingiberene and curcumene (PI-127827), respectively. Leaf extracts of the wild tomato L. hirsutum f. typicum (accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827) can be used as a biorational source of zingiberene and curcumene. PMID:12856930

Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S

2003-07-01

377

The Pattern of Influenza Virus Attachment Varies among Wild Bird Species  

PubMed Central

The ability to attach to host cells is one of the main determinants of the host range of influenza A viruses. By using virus histochemistry, we investigate the pattern of virus attachment of both a human and an avian influenza virus in colon and trachea sections from 12 wild bird species. We show that significant variations exist, even between closely related avian species, which suggests that the ability of wild birds to serve as hosts for influenza viruses strongly varies among species. These results will prove valuable to assess the possibilities of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in natural environments and better understand the ecology of influenza. PMID:21909418

Jourdain, Elsa; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; Kuiken, Thijs; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

2011-01-01

378

Perceptions of Community Benefits from Two Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild and Scenic Rivers provide a host of psychological, social, ecological, and economic benefits to local communities. In this study, we use data collected from recreational users of two Wild and Scenic Rivers to examine perceptions of the benefits provided by the rivers to local communities. Our purposes are (1) to determine if similar perceptions of community benefits exist across the two rivers, (2) to determine if individuals' proximity to the rivers are related to the benefits they perceive, (3) to determine if individuals' prior recreation experience on the river is related to variations in perceived benefits, (4) to determine if users' sociodemographic characteristics are related to perceived community benefits, and (5) to determine if the influence of these characteristics on perceived community benefits is similar across the two resource areas. Perceived benefits were found to be analogous across both rivers as individuals consistently ranked ecological/affective benefits as well as tangible benefits similarly. Recreationists living further from the river ranked ecological and affective benefits as significantly less important than those individuals living closer to the river. Women perceived the community benefits produced by the resource areas to be significantly more important when compared to men. Significant relationships were also found between perceived benefits and recreationists' previous use of the river, their age, and their level of education. With the exception of resource proximity and prior use history, the effects of user characteristics on perceived community benefits were not statistically different across the two rivers. These findings imply similar patterns of perceived community benefits exist across distinct resource areas and that the relationships between user characteristics and perceived benefits are also similar across the study rivers.

Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

2011-05-01

379

Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds?†‡  

PubMed Central

We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacoronaviruses between duck species. In contrast, deltacoronaviruses may have more stringent host specificities. Our analysis of these avian viral and host mitochondrial DNA sequences also suggests that some, but not all, coronaviruses may have coevolved with birds from the same order. PMID:21957308

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Ng, Erica M.; Tse, Tsemay M.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Poon, Leo L. M.

2011-01-01

380

Persistence of vigilance and flight response behaviour in wild reindeer with varying domestic ancestry.  

PubMed

Knowledge about changes in behavioural traits related to wildness and tameness is for most mammals lacking, despite the increased trend of using domestic stock to re-establish wild populations into historical ranges. To test for persistence of behavioural traits of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) exposed to hunting, we sampled DNA, vigilance and flight responses in wild reindeer herds with varying domestic ancestry. Analyses of 14 DNA microsatellite loci revealed a dichotomous main genetic structure reflecting their native origin, with the Rondane reindeer genetically different from the others and with least differentiation towards the Hardangervidda reindeer. The genetic clustering of the reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell, Ottadalen and Forollhogna, together with domestic reindeer, supports a predominant domestic origin of these herds. Despite extensive hunting in all herds, the behavioural measures indicate increasing vigilance, alert and flight responses with increasing genetic dissimilarity with domestic herds. Vigilance frequency and time spent vigilant were higher in Rondane compared to Hardangervidda, which again were higher than herds with a domestic origin. We conclude that previous domestication has preserved a hard wired behavioural trait in some reindeer herds exhibiting less fright responses towards humans that extensive hunting has, but only slightly, altered. This brings novel and relevant knowledge to discussions about genetic diversity of wildlife in general and wild reindeer herds in Norway in specific. PMID:22587024

Reimers, E; Røed, K H; Colman, J E

2012-08-01

381

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex. PMID:21858189

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

382

Prevalence and Phylogeny of Coronaviruses in Wild Birds from the Bering Strait Area (Beringia)  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Balint, Adam; Wahlgren, John; Waldenstrom, Jonas; Belak, Sandor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Bjorn

2010-01-01

383

Prevalence and Phylogeny of Coronaviruses in Wild Birds from the Bering Strait Area (Beringia)  

E-print Network

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARScoronavirus,

Shaman Muradrasoli; Ádám Bálint; John Wahlgren; Jonas Waldenström; Sándor Belák; Björn Olsen

384

Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink  

PubMed Central

Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus’ molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild.

Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

2012-01-01

385

Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia).  

PubMed

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Adám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

2010-01-01

386

Growth reaction norms of domesticated, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in response to differing social and physical environments  

PubMed Central

Background Directional selection for growth has resulted in the 9-10th generation of domesticated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. outgrowing wild salmon by a ratio of approximately 3:1 when reared under standard hatchery conditions. In the wild however, growth of domesticated and wild salmon is more similar, and seems to differ at the most by a ratio of 1.25:1. Comparative studies of quantitative traits in farmed and wild salmon are often performed by the use of common-garden experiments where salmon of all origins are reared together to avoid origin-specific environmental differences. As social interaction may influence growth, the large observed difference in growth between wild and domesticated salmon in the hatchery may not be entirely genetically based, but inflated by inter-strain competition. This study had two primary aims: (i) investigate the effect of social interaction and inter-strain competition in common-garden experiments, by comparing the relative growth of farmed, hybrid and wild salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) investigate the competitive balance between wild and farmed salmon by comparing their norm of reaction for survival and growth along an environmental gradient ranging from standard hatchery conditions to a semi-natural environment with restricted feed. Results The main results of this study, which are based upon the analysis of more than 6000 juvenile salmon, can be summarised as; (i) there was no difference in relative growth between wild and farmed salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) the relative difference in body weight at termination between wild and farmed salmon decreased as mortality increased along the environmental gradient approaching natural conditions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that potential social interactions between wild and farmed salmon when reared communally are not likely to cause an overestimation of the genetic growth differences between them. Therefore, common-garden experiments represent a valid methodological approach to investigate genetic differences between wild and farmed salmon. As growth of surviving salmon of all origins became more similar as mortality increased along the environmental gradient approaching natural conditions, a hypothesis is presented suggesting that size-selective mortality is a possible factor reducing growth differences between these groups in the wild. PMID:24165438

2013-01-01

387

Influence of Drought on Graminicide Phytotoxicity in Wild Oat ( Avena fatua ) Grown under Different Temperature and Humidity Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Controlled environmental experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxicity of several graminicides on wild oat\\u000a (Avena futua L.) as influenced by combination of drought and temperature stress or drought and low relative humidity. Compared with unstressed\\u000a conditions (20\\/15?C plus adequate soil moisture), imazamethabenz phytotoxicity to wild oat was reduced significantly when\\u000a plants were exposed to a combination of

H. S. Xie; A. I. Hsiao; W. A. Quick

1997-01-01

388

Influence of nutrient supply and plant growth regulators on phytotoxicity of imazamethabenz in wild oat ( Avena fatua L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of nutrient supply and plant growth regulators on the phytotoxicity of imazamethabenz in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) were evaluated in the greenhouse. Wild oat plants supplied with half-strength rather than one-eighth-strength Hoagland\\u000a solution were more susceptible to imazamethabenz, showing greater growth reduction in main shoot and tillers. The improved\\u000a herbicide efficacy at higher nutrient levels appeared related

Jian Fu Chao; William A. Quick; Andrew I. Hsiao; Hai Sheng Xie

1994-01-01

389

Growth Modulation during Juvenile Rearing Can Reduce Rates of Residualism in the Progeny of Wild Steelhead Broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residualism is the failure of some hatchery-reared salmonid juveniles to out-migrate as smolts with the rest of their cohort. We released hatchery-reared juveniles from domesticated- and wild-origin broodstock steelhead and measured their relative rates of residualism. The residualism rate exhibited by the offspring of wild broodstock was more than one order of magnitude greater than that of domesticated stock. Further,

Cameron S. Sharpe; Brian R. Beckman; Kathleen A. Cooper; Patrick L. Hulett

2007-01-01

390

Somatic variation in living, wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

While understanding somatic variability among wild primates can provide insight into natural patterns of developmental plasticity, published data for living populations are rare. Here we provide such information for two distinct wild populations of Lemur catta. Variants observed include microtia, athelia, and female virilization. Dental variants observed include individuals with supernumerary teeth, rotated teeth, maxillary incisor agenesis, and severe malocclusion. There was a sex bias in incisor agenesis, with 5 of 7 examples (71%) found in males. The frequency of dental variants in our sample is lower than that seen in many other lemuriformes, as well as other primates. This may be a product of their less derived dental formula and/or their relatively fast dental development. Amassing such data is a critical first step to assess if wild primate populations are exhibiting normal variability or are being affected by potential inbreeding and/or environmental effects. PMID:17878733

Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

2008-01-01

391

The role of wild North American ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.  

PubMed

Published reports of Brucella abortus infections in wild North American ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. Bison (Bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. Most elk (Cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. Deer (Odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), moose (Alces alces), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) appeared to be insignificant hosts of Brucella abortus. The lack of significant wild ungulate hosts and the distribution of infected livestock herds in the United States suggests that wild ungulates are of little importance in the epidemiology of infections by B. abortus in cattle. PMID:3908724

McCorquodale, S M; DiGiacomo, R F

1985-10-01

392

Mobile Life - Innovation in the Wild  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a decade of work in our research labs on mobile and ubiquitous technology, often formed by the early visions of ubiquitous computing, with the urge to move interaction from the desktop out into the wild, these technologies have now moved out into the world - into the wild. We are in the middle of a second IT-revolution, caused by the spread of mobile and ubiquitous services, in combination with a broad consumer-oriented market pull. The first ITrevolution, the introduction and deployment of Internet and the World Wide Web during the 1990’s, had a major impact on all parts of our society. As mobile, ubiquitous technology now becomes wide-spread, the design and evaluation of mobile services - i.e. information technology that can be accessed and used in virtually any setting - represents an important business arena for the IT- and telecom industry. Together we have to look for a sustainable web of work, leisure and ubiquitous technology we can call the mobile life.

Höök, Kristina

393

Q fever in domestic and wild birds  

PubMed Central

The authors report on the results of several years' research into the role of domestic and wild birds in the epidemiology and epizootiology of Q fever in Czechoslovakia. They examined 572 blood specimens taken from domestic birds in an area of endemic Q fever and found positive reactions to the complement-fixation test in hens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and pigeons, with hens showing the highest percentage of positive reactions. In addition, the susceptibility of hens to infection with Rickettsia burnetii was demonstrated experimentally, and excretion of R. burnetii in the stools of hens was demonstrated from the 7th to the 40th day after infection. Complement-fixation tests were also done on 480 blood specimens from wild birds with positive serological reactions in 15.8% of birds living directly on infected farms, 4.3% of birds living in the immediate vicinity of those farms, and 1.8% of birds living independently of human habitations but in an endemic area. R. burnetii was isolated from the spleen and liver of the redstart and the white wagtail and from ectoparasites of swallows. PMID:13383368

Syrucek, L.; Raska, K.

1956-01-01

394

Pedigree reconstruction in wild cichlid fish populations.  

PubMed

It is common practice to use microsatellites to detect parents and their offspring in wild and captive populations, in order to reconstruct a pedigree. However, correct inference is often constrained by a number of factors, including the absence of demographic data and ignorance regarding the completeness of parental sampling. Here we present a new Bayesian estimator that simultaneously estimates the pedigree and the size of the unsampled population. The method is robust to genotyping error, and can estimate pedigrees in the absence of demographic data. Using a large-scale microsatellite assay in four wild cichlid fish populations of Lake Tanganyika (1000 individuals in total), we assess the performance of the Bayesian estimator against the most popular assignment program, Cervus. We found small but significant pedigrees in each of the tested populations using the Bayesian procedure, but Cervus had very high type I error rates when the size of the unsampled population was assumed to be lower than what it was. The need of pedigree relationships to infer adaptive processes in natural populations places strong constraints on sampling design and identification of multigenerational pedigrees in natural populations. PMID:18986496

Koch, Martin; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Sefc, Kristina M; Sturmbauer, Christian

2008-10-01

395

How much does inbreeding contribute to the reduced fitness of hatchery-born steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the wild?  

PubMed

Many declining populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are released directly into the wild. Because captive-born individuals can have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the reduced fitness of these individuals is required for appropriate conservation and management decisions. Inbreeding among captive-born individuals is one plausible mechanism because captive breeding programs frequently use small numbers of breeders to create large numbers of siblings that are subsequently released together into the wild. We tested this hypothesis in a supplementation program for steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, for which first-generation hatchery fish were demonstrated to have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts. To determine the contribution of inbreeding to this fitness decline, we first assigned 11 run-years of hatchery steelhead (3005 fish) back to their broodstock parents (462 fish) using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. By combining pedigree analyses with species-specific estimates of genetic load, we found that inbreeding could at most account for a 1-4% reduction in the fitness of hatchery fish relative to wild fish. Thus, inbreeding alone cannot adequately explain the 15% average fitness decline observed in first-generation hatchery fish from this population. PMID:24187426

Christie, Mark R; French, Rod A; Marine, Melanie L; Blouin, Michael S

2014-01-01

396

Quality control method for commercially available wild Jujube leaf tea based on HPLC characteristic fingerprint analysis of flavonoid compounds.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are the main active components of natural medicinal plants with many physiological functions. In this study, an HPLC fingerprinting method based on the distribution and relative amount of 11 bioactive flavonoids was established for the quality evaluation of commercially available wild Jujube leaf tea (JLT) from China. Separation of the crude flavonoid extract was achieved on a column filled with C18 material with a high carbon content. The flavonoids in wild JLT were identified based on UV spectroscopy and accurate mass measurements by TOF-MS. Twenty-one batches of practical samples collected from different habitats were analyzed by using the developed HPLC method to construct the HPLC characteristic fingerprint of wild JLT. Then, combined with clustering and similarity analyses, the HPLC characteristic fingerprint was used for the authentication and quality evaluation of commercial wild JLT. Results indicated that the proposed HPLC characteristic fingerprint reflected the inherent characteristics of wild JLT collected from different regions. Authenticity identification and quality control of commercially available wild Jujube tea were achieved based on the HPLC characteristic fingerprint analysis. This new approach to bioactive component profiling provided a promising reference method for the quality evaluation of commercial wild flower and plant tea. PMID:24166761

Zhang, Rutan; Chen, Junhui; Shi, Qian; Li, Zhaoyong; Peng, Zhengyun; Zheng, Li; Wang, Xiaoru

2014-01-01

397

[Liberation into the wild of wild felines--danger of the release of virus infections].  

PubMed

There are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. Means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. It is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. This report presents three examples to illustrate that accidental virus infections may be expected to occur when relocating and reintroducing wild cats. The first example is the reintroduction of captive snow leopards. Zoo bred snow leopards may be infected with FIV, a virus infection that is highly unlikely to occur in the original himalayan highlands of Tibet and China. A second example is of several cases of FIP that occurred in European wild cats bred in groups in captivity. The third example mentioned is the relocation of lions from East Africa where all the commonly known feline viruses are wide-spread to the Etosha National Park. In the latter, virus infections such as FIV, FCV and FPV do not occur. The indiscriminate relocation and reintroduction of the wild cats mentioned here harbours a potential of undesirable consequences. PMID:9045289

Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Fehr, D; Leutenegger, C; Hartmann, M; Ossent, P; Grob, M; Elgizoli, M; Weilenmann, P

1996-01-01

398

Twenty/Twenty: Projects and Activities for Wild School Sites. An Ohio Project Wild Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 20 projects and 20 activities designed to encourage students and teachers to use the school site as part of an environmental education program with the focus on creating a place for wildlife. The projects and activities coincide with other materials from Project WILD and are easily adaptable by teachers at any grade level. The…

Schiff, Paul D.

399

William Wilde and the Early Records of Consumption in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland. PMID:22347740

Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

2011-01-01

400

Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.  

PubMed

Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F

1989-07-01

401

Is spring wild turkey gobbler harvest additive or compensatory?  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: We compared survival rates of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) gobblers in hunted (Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve [CWMA]) and unhunted (Savannah River Site [SRS]) populations in South Carolina to assess impact of spring gobbler-only hunts. Annual survival rate of gobblers on SRS (0.71) was greater (?2 = 5.11; df = 1; P = 0.02) than that of gobblers on CWMA (0.54). Our results indicate that spring gobbler harvests constitute additive mortality to turkey populations. However, even in years when reproductive rates were relatively low, a spring-only gobbler harvest rate of 25% appeared to have a minimal effect on turkey populations.

Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C., Jr.; Davis, James, R.

2008-10-01

402

Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer for comet Wild 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer (CIDA) instrument analyzes the composition of individual grains in the cometary coma. As each particle impacts a silver plate, the high-impact energy due to the relative velocity of the spacecraft as it flies through the coma causes the elements and molecular compounds in the particle to become ionized. Using a fast time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a complete set of ions are detected for each impact, from a mass range of 1 (atomic hydrogen) up to a few thousand atomic mass units, encompassing all elements in the periodic table and many molecules, such as organic compounds. This experimental technique has already been applied with excellent success at Halley's comet, and the CIDA derivative instrument is flying on the Stardust mission, which will encounter comet Wild 2 in January of 2004. The data returned will give clues to the elemental and chemical composition of the dust component of this comet.

Kissel, J.; Glasmachers, A.; Grün, E.; Henkel, H.; Höfner, H.; Haerendel, G.; von Hoerner, H.; Hornung, K.; Jessberger, E. K.; Krueger, F. R.; Möhlmann, D.; Greenberg, J. M.; Langevin, Y.; Silén, J.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, B. C.; Hanner, M. S.; Hoerz, F.; Sandford, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Tsou, P.; Utterback, N. G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Heiss, C.

2003-10-01

403

Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

2014-01-01

404

Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations  

PubMed Central

Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a positive or a negative effect on plant vigour, we hypothesize that genomic regions exist where transgenes could preferentially be located in order to mitigate their persistence in natural populations through genetic hitchhiking. PMID:22448748

2012-01-01

405

Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Wild Birds from Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean\\u000a wild birds (n = 37), 2000–2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal

Jungsoo Kim; Ju-Ryul Shin; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

406

Lipid Components of North American Wild Rice ( Zizania palustris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and ?-oryzanol in wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America were compared with those in regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). The lipid content of wild rice ranged from 0.7 to 1.1%, compared with 2.7% in regular brown rice. The lipids of wild rice\\u000a comprised mainly linoleic (35–37%) and linolenic

R. Przybylski; D. Klensporf-Pawlik; F. Anwar; M. Rudzinska

2009-01-01

407

Biochemical changes induced in seeds of Brassicaceae wild species during ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the loss of seed germination capacity and vigour in seeds of four wild\\u000a Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum and Sinapis alba) during ageing at 45°C and 90% relative humidity was related to changes in lipid peroxidation and membrane integrity. For\\u000a all of the species, ageing reduced the

Sara Mira; Elena Estrelles; Maria Elena González-Benito; Françoise Corbineau

408

Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug. Results We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on several different molecular pathways to reduce anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish. This study provides data that could help identify common molecular mechanisms of fluoxetine action across animal taxa. PMID:23706039

2013-01-01

409

Oscar Wilde and the scarlet woman.  

PubMed

In the late nineteenth century, England was embroiled in a political debate over the importation of Roman Catholic rituals into the Anglican Church, not to mention the re-establishment of the Roman Church itself in Great Britain. Victorian anti-Catholic rhetoric draws upon the figure of the Whore of Babylon to depict the Roman Catholic Church as the Scarlet Woman, a femme fatale who perverts Christianity and seduces Englishmen with elaborate rituals and lascivious whisperings in the confessional. In writing Salomé, Oscar Wilde played ironically on the hysterical eroticism of the No Popery movement by mining the paradox of biblical sensuality. He invested his play with a biblical wealth of archaic metaphors and gestures that took their cues from The Song of Songs and The Book of Revelation. He became the ecclesiastical dandy that evangelicals feared most, a poet enamored of the Scarlet Woman, a would-be convert who exposed the scandal of Christianity as art. PMID:9378935

Hanson, E

1997-01-01

410

National Geographic: WildCam Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1985, Pete Le Roux dreamed of a wildlife reserve in Africa. Twenty years later it is a successful reality, as the pond he built from an old irrigation system is alive with the sounds of elephants and impalas. Visitors to this site established by National Geographic Magazine can view "Pete's Pond" via a live webcam offered here. Of course, that's just one of the many highlights that visitors may enjoy. They may also want to read through the weblog authored by researchers Jeanette Selier and Villiers Steyn. Here they post highlights of their work, complemented by a selection of high-quality images of the animals they are studying, such as the African wild cat. Those who are cartographically minded may want to take a look at the map of the Mashatu Game Reserve, which is home to Pete's Pond and its thousands of different animal residents. Overall, this is a fine educational site, and one that warrants several visits.

2005-01-01

411

Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.  

PubMed

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

2005-07-01

412

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

413

The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

2010-01-01

414

High-Density Dependence But Low Impact on Selected Reproduction Parameters of Brucella suis Biovar 2 in Wild Boar Hunting Estates from South-Western Spain.  

PubMed

Porcine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella suis, which is characterized by reproductive disorders in pigs. The number of cases of swine brucellosis has risen in many European countries, likely because of the presence of a wild reservoir of B. suis in wild boar. This study aimed at evaluating factors that may influence the probability of infection with Brucella spp. in wild boar and at assessing the impact of a previous contact with Brucella spp. on reproductive parameters of wild boar. Two hundred and four wild boar living in Extremadura (south-western Spain) were studied. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies was determined using an indirect ELISA, while the presence of living bacteria in genital organs was evaluated through microbiological cultures. Sex, age, density of wild boar in summer and presence of outdoor pigs were selected as possible risk factors for being seropositive for Brucella spp. in wild boar. In addition, reproductive parameters such as breeding status or potential fertility in females and testis weight in males were estimated and related to the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 121 animals were seropositive, resulting in a prevalence of 59.3% (95% CI). In addition, seven isolates of B. suis biovar 2 were obtained. Wild boar density in summer, as well as age and sex, was proposed as factors to explain the probability of Brucella seroconversion, although wild boar density in summer was the key factor. Current measures of reproductive parameters were not influenced by a previous contact with Brucella spp. Isolation of B. suis confirms that wild boar could represent a risk to domestic pig health in the study area. Wild boar density seems to have a great influence in the probability of infections with B. suis and suggests that density management could be useful to control Brucella infection in wild boar. PMID:23347330

Risco, D; García, A; Serrano, E; Fernandez-Llario, P; Benítez, J M; Martínez, R; García, W L; de Mendoza, J Hermoso

2014-12-01

415

Fitness of backcross six of hybrids between transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum).  

PubMed

The process of introgression between a transgenic crop modified for better agronomic characters and a wild relative could lead potentially to increased weediness and adaptation to the environment of the wild species. However, the formation of hybrid and hybrid progeny could be associated with functional imbalance and low fitness, which reduces the risk of gene escape and establishment of the wild species in the field. Our work compares the fitness components of parents and different types of backcross in the sixth generation of hybrids between transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38) resistant to the herbicide glufosinate and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18). The backcross with oilseed rape cytoplasm (OBC) has a fitness value 100 times lower than that of the backcross with wild radish cytoplasm (RBC). The herbicide-resistant RBC has similar growth to the susceptible RBC, but final male and female fitness values are two times lower. In turn, susceptible RBC exhibit similar fitness to the control wild radishes. The relative fitnesses of the different types are the same whether or not they grow under competitive conditions. The consequence on fitness of the chromosome location of the transgene conferring resistance and the relevance of these results to the impact of gene flow on the environment are discussed. PMID:12144662

Gueritaine, G; Sester, M; Eber, F; Chevre, A M; Darmency, H

2002-08-01

416

A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals  

PubMed Central

Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Paabo, Svante

2012-01-01