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1

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF TEOSINTE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The teosintes, the closest wild relatives of maize, are important resources for the study of maize genetics, evolution and for plant breeding. We genotyped 237 individual teosinte plants for 93 microsatellites. Phylogenetic relationships between species and subspecific taxa were largely consistent w...

2

Spontaneous hybridization between maize and teosinte.  

PubMed

The closest wild relatives of maize, Zea mays ssp. mays are various Zea taxa known as "teosinte." Hybrids between maize and the teosinte taxon, Zea mays ssp. mexicana, often occur when the 2 are sympatric in Mexico. Measuring the spontaneous hybridization rate of the 2 taxa would shed light on the mechanisms contributing to the evolution and persistence of these hybrid swarms. We conducted a series of field experiments in Riverside, CA, to measure the natural hybridization rates between maize and 2 teosinte taxa, Z. m. ssp. mexicana and Zea mays ssp. parviglumis. We planted teosinte within and near maize plantations. Hybrids were identified by progeny testing for a maize-specific herbicide resistance allele and a teosinte-specific allozyme allele. Hybridity was confirmed by growing putative hybrid progeny to maturity to evaluate whether they had the characteristic morphology of maize x teosinte hybrids. We found that maize and Z. m. ssp. mexicana naturally hybridize at a low rate (<1%), whereas Z. m. ssp. parviglumis hybridizes with the crop at a high rate (>50%). PMID:17400586

Ellstrand, Norman C; Garner, Lauren C; Hegde, Subray; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Blancas, Lesley

2007-03-30

3

Identification of teosinte, maize, and Tripsacum in Mesoamerica by using pollen, starch grains, and phytoliths  

PubMed Central

We examined pollen grains and starch granules from a large number of modern populations of teosinte (wild Zea spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and closely related grasses in the genus Tripsacum to assess their strengths and weaknesses in studying the origins and early dispersals of maize in its Mesoamerican cradle of origin. We report new diagnostic criteria and question the accuracy of others used previously by investigators to identify ancient maize where its wild ancestor, teosinte, is native. Pollen grains from teosinte overlap in size with those of maize to a much greater degree than previously reported, making the differentiation of wild and domesticated maize in palynological studies difficult. There is presently no valid method for separating maize and teosinte pollen on a morphological basis. Starch grain analysis, a recently developed tool of archaeobotany, appears to be of significant utility in distinguishing the seeds of teosinte from maize. We propose that the differences in starch grain morphology and size between wild and domesticated maize defined in this study may be associated with domestication genes in Zea that have been documented in the starch biosynthesis pathway. As previously reported, phytoliths effectively discriminate the female reproductive structures of Tripsacum, teosinte, and maize. Multiproxy microfossil studies of archaeological and paleoecological contexts appear to be effective tools for investigating the earliest stages of maize domestication and dispersals.

Holst, Irene; Moreno, J. Enrique; Piperno, Dolores R.

2007-01-01

4

EXPRESSION PATTERNS AND MUTANT PHENOTYPE OF TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 CORRELATE WITH GROWTH SUPPRESSION IN MAIZE AND TEOSINTE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The evolution of domesticated maize from its wild ancestor teosinte is a dramatic example of the effect of human selection on agricultural crops. Maize has one dominant axis of growth, whereas teosinte is highly branched. The axillary branches in maize are short and feminized whereas the axillary br...

5

Breeding Corn from Teosinte  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Corn was originally bred from the teosinte plant by native Mexican farmers. The morphologies of modern-day corn and teosinte plants are compared to illustrate how artificial selection can bring about dramatic changes in plants. This video is also featured on the DVD Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads, available free from HHMI. This video is 52 seconds in length, and available in MOV (13 MB) and WMV (16 MB). All Evolution videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/video.html.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-04-01

6

Molecular Characterization of the Abp1 5?-Flanking Region in Maize and the Teosintes1  

PubMed Central

Auxin-binding protein 1 subsp. mays (ABP1) has been suggested as a receptor mediating auxin-induced cell expansion and differentiation. In maize (Zea mays), ABP1 is encoded by a single gene, Abp1. The TATA and CAAT promoter elements as well as the transcriptional start site were previously identified and all were found to be located within a transposable element (TE), Tourist-Zm11. In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Abp1 5?-flanking region in maize and its wild relatives, the teosintes. We provide evidence for insertion polymorphism corresponding to Tourist-Zm11 and two novel TEs, Batuta and Pilgrim. Despite this polymorphic structure, the Abp1 core promoter in maize and the teosintes is conserved, is located downstream of the TE insertions in the 5?-flanking region, and is TATA-less. We discuss the potential evolutionary impact of these TEs on the regulation of Abp1 gene expression.

Elrouby, Nabil; Bureau, Thomas E.

2000-01-01

7

Complex Patterns of Local Adaptation in Teosinte  

PubMed Central

Populations of widely distributed species encounter and must adapt to local environmental conditions. However, comprehensive characterization of the genetic basis of adaptation is demanding, requiring genome-wide genotype data, multiple sampled populations, and an understanding of population structure and potential selection pressures. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and data on numerous environmental variables to describe the genetic basis of local adaptation in 21 populations of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We found complex hierarchical genetic structure created by altitude, dispersal events, and admixture among subspecies, which complicated identification of locally beneficial alleles. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium revealed four large putative inversion polymorphisms showing clinal patterns of frequency. Population differentiation and environmental correlations suggest that both inversions and intergenic polymorphisms are involved in local adaptation.

Pyhajarvi, Tanja; Hufford, Matthew B.; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

8

Cross-Incompatibility Traits from Teosinte and Their Use in Corn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a teosinte crossing barrier trait. Plants containing said trait exhibit the phenotype of cross-incompatiblity. The present invention also relates to new cross-incompatible plants, including inbred, hybrid, haploid, apomict...

J. L. Kermicle M. M. S. Evans S. R. Gerrish

2005-01-01

9

Genetic variation for phenotypically invariant traits detected in teosinte: implications for the evolution of novel forms.  

PubMed Central

How new discrete states of morphological traits evolve is poorly understood. One possibility is that single-gene changes underlie the evolution of new discrete character states and that evolution is dependent on the occurrence of new single-gene mutations. Another possibility is that multiple-gene changes are required to elevate an individual or population above a threshold required to produce the new character state. A prediction of the latter model is that genetic variation for the traits should exist in natural populations in the absence of phenotypic variation. To test this idea, we studied traits that are phenotypically invariant within teosinte and for which teosinte is discretely different from its near relative, maize. By employing a QTL mapping strategy to analyze the progeny of a testcross between an F(1) of two teosintes and a maize inbred line, we identified cryptic genetic variation in teosinte for traits that are invariant in teosinte. We argue that such cryptic genetic variation can contribute to the evolution of novelty when reconfigured to exceed the threshold necessary for phenotypic expression or by acting to modify or stabilize the effects of major mutations.

Lauter, Nick; Doebley, John

2002-01-01

10

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays subsp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) is of general interest because of its economic and scientific importance. Here we show that many cellular traits described previously in developing caryopses of maize are also seen in its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis). These features, each with a possible role in development, include (1) an early programmed cell death in the maternal placento-chalazal (P-C) layer that may lead to increased hydrolytic conductance to the developing seed; (2) accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids in the P-C layer that may be related to antimicrobial activity; (3) formation of wall ingrowths in the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL); (4) localization of cell wall invertase in the BETL, which is attributed to the increased transport capacity of photosynthates to the sink; and (5) endoreduplication in endosperm nuclei suggested to contribute to increased gene expression and greater sink capacity of the developing seed. In maize caryopsis, these cellular traits have been previously attributed to domestication and selection for larger seed size and vigor. Given the conservation of the entire cellular program in developing teosinte caryopses described here, we suggest that these traits evolved independently of domestication and predate human selection pressure. PMID:21622300

Dermastia, Marina; Kladnik, Ales; Dolenc Koce, Jasna; Chourey, Prem S

2009-09-03

11

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

12

Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients.  

PubMed

It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

Díez, Concepción M; Gaut, Brandon S; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E; Tenaillon, Maud I

2013-04-02

13

High segregation distortion in maize B73 x teosinte crosses.  

PubMed

Two genetic linkage maps of cultivated maize inbred lines and teosinte species were constructed. One population comprised 81 F(2) individuals derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 and Zea mays ssp parviglumis, while the second consisted of 63 backcross individuals from a cross of maize inbred line B73 with Z. mays ssp diploperennis. In the B73 x Z. mays ssp parviglumis F(2) population, 172 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were mapped to 10 chromosomes, which covered 2210.8 cM. In the B73 x Z. mays ssp diploperennis backcross population, 258 SSR markers were mapped to 10 chromosomes, covering 1357.7 cM. Comparison of the two maps revealed that the total map length of Z. mays ssp diploperennis covers 1357.7 cM, which is about 61.4% of that of Z. mays ssp parviglumis (2210.8 cM). Extensive segregation distortion regions were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 10 in the B73 x Z. mays ssp parviglumis F(2) population and on chromosomes 1-5 and 8-10 in the B73 x Z. mays ssp parviglumis backcross population. Segregation distortion analysis confirmed that the segregation distortion ratio in the interspecific population B73 x Z. mays ssp diploperennis was higher than in B73 x Z. mays ssp parviglumis. We found that the recombination distances are highly variable in these genetic crosses between cultivated and wild species of maize. PMID:22535405

Wang, G; He, Q Q; Xu, Z K; Song, R T

2012-03-19

14

Hybridization of maize and teosinte, in mexico and guatemala and the improvement of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition and subsequent detection of the importance of teosinte introgression in the racial diversity and heterotic\\u000a gene architecture of maize has been one of the outstanding achievements of Paul C. Mangelsdorf’s investigations into the origin\\u000a of maize. This paper documents three areas in Mexico and Guatemala where maize and teosinte hybridize and where there is a\\u000a system by which

H. G. Wllkes

1977-01-01

15

The role of teosinte glume architecture (tga1) in coordinated regulation and evolution of grass glumes and inflorescence axes.  

PubMed

• Hardened floral bracts and modifications to the inflorescence axis of grasses have been hypothesized to protect seeds from predation and/or aid seed dispersal, and have evolved multiple times independently within the family. Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) gene teosinte glume architecture (tga1) underlie a reduction in hardened structures, yielding free fruits that are easy to harvest. It remains unclear whether the causative mutation(s) occurred in the cis-regulatory or protein-coding regions of tga1, and whether similar mutations in TGA1-like genes can explain variation in the dispersal unit in related grasses. • To address these questions TGA1-like genes were cloned and sequenced from a number of grasses and analyzed phylogenetically in relation to morphology; protein expression was investigated by immunolocalization. • TGA1-like proteins were expressed throughout the spikelet in the early development of all grasses, and throughout the flower of the grass relative Joinvillea. Later in development, expression patterns differed between Tripsacum dactyloides, maize and teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). • These results suggest an ancestral role for TGA1-like genes in early spikelet development, but do not support the hypothesis that TGA1-like genes have been repeatedly modified to affect glume and inflorescence axis diversification. PMID:21954998

Preston, Jill C; Wang, Huai; Kursel, Lisa; Doebley, John; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

2011-09-29

16

Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.).  

PubMed

Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium, BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods. PMID:16532531

Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Hussain, S Sarfraz; Shahzad, M Saqib; Bokhari, S Yassir Abbas; Raza, M Hashim; Rakha, Allah; Majeed, A; Shahid, A Ali; Saleem, Zafar; Husnain, Tayyab; Riazuddin, S

2006-04-01

17

Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)  

PubMed Central

Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium, BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Hussain, S. Sarfraz; Shahzad, M. Saqib; Bokhari, S. Yassir Abbas; Raza, M. Hashim; Rakha, Allah; Majeed, A.; Shahid, A. Ali; Saleem, Zafar; Husnain, Tayyab; Riazuddin, S.

2006-01-01

18

Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.  

PubMed Central

Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely.

Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

2003-01-01

19

Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.  

PubMed

Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

2003-09-22

20

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

21

Stress and domestication traits increase the relative fitness of crop?wild hybrids in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of transgenic crop production, the dynamics of gene introgression into wild relatives remain unclear. Taking an ecological genetics approach to investigating fitness in crop-wild hybrid zones, we uncovered both conditions and characteristics that may promote introgression. We compared diverse crop-wild hybrid genotypes relative to wild Helianthus annuus under one benign and three stressful agricultural environments. Whereas relative

Kristin L. Mercer; David A. Andow; Donald L. Wyse; Ruth G. Shaw

2007-01-01

22

Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.  

PubMed

Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion/addition experiments are feasible alternatives when molecular containment of transgenes restricts field experiments with insect resistant crop-wild hybrids. PMID:19419653

Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

2009-01-22

23

QTL mapping of root aerenchyma formation in seedlings of a maize  ×  rare teosinte “ Zea nicaraguensis ” cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 141 F2 population generated from maize inbred B64 × teosinte Zea nicaraguensis cross, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling aerenchyma formation in roots under non-flooding drained soil conditions\\u000a were identified. Seedlings of Z. nicaraguensis formed clear aerenchyma in the cortex of adventitious roots in non-flooding conditions, whereas the maize inbred line B64\\u000a did not. In the F2 population, the capacity to

Y. Mano; F. Omori; T. Takamizo; B. Kindiger; R. Mc K. Bird; C. H. Loaisiga; H. Takahashi

2007-01-01

24

Genomic relationships between maize and its wild relatives  

PubMed

Recent molecular studies confirm the long-held theory that maize is a tetraploid, but the identity of the ancestral diploid species remains an enigma. The various hypotheses were investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Total genomic DNA from 10 wild relatives of maize were used as probes onto maize chromosomes to see if this could identify the ancestral genome donors in maize. While none of the taxa hybridized to a subset of chromosomes, genomic DNA from Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Z. mays ssp. parviglumis, Z. diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides and Coix lacryma-jobi all showed a similar hybridization pattern consisting of a dispersed signal over all maize chromosomes. Moreover, the first four species also showed highly localized subtelomeric signal on the long arms of maize chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. In contrast, three Sorghum species tested (S. bicolor, S. halapense, and S. versicolor) only showed hybridization at the nucleolar organizer region. In light of recent data on retrotransposon occurrence in maize, the results may provide insights into the timing of speciation of Zea, Tripsacum, and Coix. Data obtained from the tetraploid Z. perennis strongly supported its taxonomic separation from the diploid Z. diploperennis. PMID:10659788

Takahashi; Marshall; Bennett; Leitch

1999-12-01

25

Conservation of the Wild Relatives of Native European Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not often thought of as a major center of crop diversity, the European continent harbors rich wild gene pools of many crop species. These include: cereals, particularly oats (Avena) and rye (Secale); food legumes such as pea (Pisum) and lupins (Lupinus); fruit crops, such as apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus), plums and cherries (Prunus), grape vine (Vitis), raspberries and blackberries

Vernon Heywood

26

Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread occurrence of free-ranging domestic or feral carnivores (dogs, cats) or ungulates (pigs, goats), and massive releases of captive-reproduced game stocks (galliforms, waterfowl) is raising fear that introgressive hybridization with wild populations might disrupt local adaptations, leading to population decline and loss of biodiversity. Detecting introgression through hybridization is problematic if the parental populations cannot be sampled (unlike in

ETTORE RANDI

2008-01-01

27

Comparison of oil and phytosterol levels in germplasm accessions of corn, teosinte, and Job's tears.  

PubMed

Seeds of 49 accessions of corn (Zea mays ssp. mays), 9 accessions of teosinte (Zea species that are thought to be ancestors and probable progenitors to corn), and 3 accessions of Job's tears (Coix lacryma), obtained from a germplasm repository, were ground and extracted with hexane. Whole kernel oil yields and levels of four phytonutrients (free phytosterols, fatty acyl phytosterol esters, ferulate phytosterol esters, and gamma-tocopherol) in the oils were measured. Among the seeds tested, oil yields ranged from 2.19 to 4.83 wt %, the levels of ferulate phytosterol esters in the oil ranged from 0.047 to 0.839 wt %, the levels of free phytosterols in the oil ranged from 0.54 to 1.28 wt %, the levels of phytosterol fatty acyl esters in the oil ranged from 0.76 to 3.09 wt %, the levels of total phytosterols in the oil ranged from 1.40 to 4.38 wt %, and the levels of gamma-tocopherol in the oil ranged from 0.023 to 0.127 wt %. In general, higher levels of all three phytosterol classes were observed in seed oils from accessions of Zea mays ssp. mays than in seed oils from accessions of the other taxonomic groups. The highest levels of gamma-tocopherol were observed in teosinte accessions. PMID:11513668

Moreau, R A; Singh, V; Hicks, K B

2001-08-01

28

CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML  

PubMed Central

Background Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Results Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. Conclusion CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may be valuable, particularly with regard to the representation of population-specific data and utilisation potential. As crop wild relatives are intrinsically no different to other wild plant species there is potential for the inclusion of CWRML data elements in the emerging standards for representation of biodiversity data.

Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

2008-01-01

29

Flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays).  

PubMed

Background and Aims Nicaraguan teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (Z. mays subsp. mays). The objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ILs), each containing a chromosome segment from Z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line Mi29. Methods To produce the ILs, a single F1 plant derived from a cross between maize Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis was backcrossed to Mi29 three times, self-pollinated four times and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Flooding tolerance was evaluated at the seedling stage under reducing soil conditions. Key Results By backcrossing and selfing, a series of 45 ILs were developed covering nearly the entire maize genome. Five flooding-tolerant lines were identified from among the ILs by evaluating leaf injury. Among these, line IL#18, containing a Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment on the long arm of chromosome 4, showed the greatest tolerance to flooding, suggesting the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that region. The presence of the QTL was verified by examining flooding tolerance in a population segregating for the candidate region of chromosome 4. There was no significant relationship between the capacity to form constitutive aerenchyma and flooding tolerance in the ILs, indicating the presence of other factors related to flooding tolerance under reducing soil conditions. Conclusions A flooding-tolerant genotype, IL#18, was identified; this genotype should be useful for maize breeding. In addition, because the chromosome segments of Z. nicaraguensis in the ILs cover nearly the entire genome and Z. nicaraguensis possesses several unique traits related to flooding tolerance, the ILs should be valuable material for additional QTL detection and the development of flooding-tolerant maize lines. PMID:23877074

Mano, Y; Omori, F

2013-07-21

30

Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild\\/weedy relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild\\/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A\\u000a gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild\\/weedy\\u000a relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be

Yann Devos; Adinda De Schrijver; Dirk Reheul

2009-01-01

31

Relation between age–sex classes and dietary selection of wild Japanese monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary selection by wild Japanese monkeys ( Macaca fuscata yakui Kuroda) was examined in relation to body size. The monkeys were classified into three age–sex categories: adult males, adult females and immatures excluding suckling infants. Time spent feeding did not differ between age–sex classes, although time spent moving was longer in lighter classes. Heavier individuals fed relatively more on mature

Naoki Agetsuma

2001-01-01

32

Gene flow and its consequences: Brassica napus (canola, oilseed rape) to wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow from transgenic canola (Brassica napus) to weedy relatives is an extant risk in implementing biotechnology in agricultural systems. Wild relatives, such as Brassica rapa and Raphanus raphanistrum, have been shown to hybridize with transgenic canola, and future research must characterize the possible ramifications of transgenic phenotypes contained within introgressed weed populations. We have developed a system to track

C. Neal; Matthew D. Halfhill; Suzanne Warwick

2002-01-01

33

Protease and helicase domains are related to the temperature sensitivity of wild-type rubella viruses.  

PubMed

Wild-type rubella viruses grow well at 39°C (non-temperature sensitivity: non-ts), while vaccine strains do not (temperature sensitivity: ts). Histidine at position 1042 of the p150 region of the KRT vaccine strain was found to be responsible for ts, while wild-type viruses had tyrosine at position 1042 (Vaccine 27; 234-42, 2009). The point-mutated virus (Y1042H) based on the wild-type unexpectedly showed little reduction in growth at 39°C. In this report, several recombinant viruses were characterized, and point-mutated Y1042H together with the p90 region of KRT significantly reduced virus growth, compared to the parental wild-type virus. There was one amino acid difference at position 1497 of the helicase domain in the p90 region. Double mutation involving both positions 1042 and 1497 markedly reduced virus growth at 39°C, but single substitution at 1497 did not. The other vaccine strain (TO-336vac) was investigated, and serine at position 1159 of the protease domain in p150 was a crucial amino acid for ts and non-ts characteristics among four amino acid substitutions between TO-336vac and the wild-type. Our results suggest that protease and helicase domains in non-structural protein were consistent with ts phenotype, possibly related to the attenuation process of wild-type viruses. PMID:21134455

Sakata, Masafumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

2010-12-04

34

Phylogenetic Relationship of Ramie and Its Wild Relatives Based on Cytogenetic and DNA Sequence Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationship between cultivated ramie (Boehmeria nivea) and its wild relatives and the origin of B. nivea, the karyomorphology of interphase nuclei and chromosome numbers were investigated in 19 species and 5 varieties of ramie and sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chloroplast trnL-F were analyzed in 18 species and 9

Liang LIAO; Tong-Jian LI; Zhong-Lai LIU; Hui-Sheng DENG; Ling-Ling XU; Qi-Hui PAN; Zhan-Jun LAI; Qing-Hua SHI

2009-01-01

35

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

36

Genetic modificationTransgene introgression from genetically modified crops to their wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenes engineered into annual crops could be unintentionally introduced into the genomes of their free-living wild relatives. The fear is that these transgenes might persist in the environment and have negative ecological consequences. Are some crops or transgenic traits of more concern than others? Are there natural genetic barriers to minimize gene escape? Can the genetic transformation process be exploited

Matthew D. Halfhill; Suzanne I. Warwick; C. Neal Stewart

2003-01-01

37

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation,

Zengyan Zhang; Zhishan Lin; Zhiyong Xin

2009-01-01

38

Interpretation of Relative Weight in Three Populations of Wild Bluegills: A Cautionary Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological status of wild fish is inherently variable in time and space, and investigators need to understand how this variation affects the interpretation of condition indices. Our objective was to describe the relationship of relative weight (Wr) to several indicators of nutritional status (lipid, protein, and water content, and weights of internal organs) in two populations of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

Timothy Copeland; Brian R. Murphy; John J. Ney

2008-01-01

39

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-06-04

40

Microsatellite Variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) and Its Wild Relatives: Further Evidence for a Southern Amazonian Origin of Domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at five microsatellite loci was used to investigate the evolutionary and geographical origins of cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) and the population structure of cassava's wild relatives. Two hundred and twelve individuals were sampled, representing 20 crop accessions, 27 populations of cassava's closest wild relative ( M. esculenta subsp. flabellifolia ), and six populations of a potentially hybridizing

Kenneth M. Olsen; Barbara A. Schaal

2001-01-01

41

Naturally occurring wild relatives of temperate fruits in Western Himalayan region of India: an analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild relatives (WR) of temperate fruits belonging to genera viz., Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Vitis, Rubus, Fragaria and others showed a wide range of diversity thereby possibility of utilizing large numbers of desirable genes\\/traits particularly\\u000a the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses which is generally lacking in their cultivated allies. About 55 WR of 23 temperate\\u000a fruits, occurring in WH, including those

Jai Chand Rana; K. Pradheep; V. D. Verma

2007-01-01

42

Age-Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the “Roerstreek” (n?=?673) or the “Veluwe” (n?=?241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (?0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1–27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

2011-01-01

43

Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673) or the "Veluwe" (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

2011-01-20

44

Changes of wolf (Canis lupus) diet in Italy in relation to the increase of wild ungulate abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed 20 studies on wolf diet in Italy, to relate the changes in diet composition to the increase of wild ungulate population in Italy. Researches covered the period from 1976 to 2004 and the whole range of wolves from southern Apennines to western Alps. We used the frequency of occurrence of seven food categories and of the wild ungulate

A. Meriggi; A. Brangi; L. Schenone; D. Signorelli; P. Milanesi

2011-01-01

45

Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

Nicholson, D. S.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Stewart, M. D.; Masters, R. E.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2000-01-01

46

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

47

Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Certain lines of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) are more tolerant of salinity than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined in a comparative study of a saline-tolerant and saline-intolerant line that emphasizes plant water relations. Methodology Effects of salt-treatment (75 mM maximum) extending from a few hours to 3 weeks were quantified in 8-day-old seedlings of a saline-sensitive wild barley line (‘T-1’) and a less saline-sensitive line (‘20-45’). Plants were grown in nutrient culture. Levels of mRNA of the HtPIP2;4 aquaporin (AQP) gene were determined together with a range of physiological responses including root hydraulic conductivity, osmotic potential of root xylem sap, transpiration, leaf relative water content, root water content, leaf water potential, leaf sap osmolality, leaf length, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Principal results Salt treatment inhibited transpiration and hydraulic conductivity more in salt-tolerant ‘20-45’ plants than in salt-sensitive ‘T-1’. In ‘20-45’, the effect was paralleled by a fast (within a few hours) and persistent (3 days) down-regulation of aquaporin. In salt-sensitive ‘T-1’ plants, aquaporin down-regulation was delayed for up to 24 h. Greater tolerance in ‘20-45’ plants was characterized by less inhibition of leaf area, root fresh weight, leaf water content and chlorophyll concentration. Leaf water potentials were similar in both lines. Conclusions (i) Decline in hydraulic conductivity in salt-treated barley plants is important for stomatal closure, (ii) lowered transpiration rate is beneficial for salt tolerance, at least at the seedling stage and (iii) changes in AQP expression are implicated in the control of whole plant hydraulic conductivity and the regulation of shoot water relations.

Vysotskaya, Lidia; Hedley, Peter E.; Sharipova, Guzel; Veselov, Dmitry; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Morris, Jennifer; Jones, Hamlyn G.

2010-01-01

48

Age-related variation in immunity in a wild mammal population.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in immunity are well documented in humans and laboratory mammals. Using blood samples collected from wild Soay sheep, we show that pronounced differences in T-cell subsets and inflammatory markers amongst age classes are also evident under natural conditions. These shifts parallel those observed in mammals experiencing protected environments. We found progressive declines in the proportion of naïve CD4 T cells with age, a precipitous drop in ?? T cells after the second year of life and an increase in acute phase protein levels amongst geriatric sheep. Our findings suggest immune aging patterns observed in laboratory and domestic mammals may generalize to more complex, challenging environments and could have fitness costs under natural conditions. PMID:22107028

Nussey, Daniel H; Watt, Kathryn; Pilkington, Jill G; Zamoyska, Rose; McNeilly, Tom N

2011-12-28

49

Protease and helicase domains are related to the temperature sensitivity of wild-type rubella viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type rubella viruses grow well at 39°C (non-temperature sensitivity: non-ts), while vaccine strains do not (temperature sensitivity: ts). Histidine at position 1042 of the p150 region of the KRT vaccine strain was found to be responsible for ts, while wild-type viruses had tyrosine at position 1042 (Vaccine 27; 234–42, 2009). The point-mutated virus (Y1042H) based on the wild-type unexpectedly showed

Masafumi Sakata; Tetsuo Nakayama

2011-01-01

50

Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses.  

PubMed

With national and global health policymakers facing numerous complex decisions related to achieving and maintaining polio eradication, we expanded our previously developed dynamic poliovirus transmission model using information from an expert literature review process and including additional immunity states and the evolution of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The model explicitly considers serotype differences and distinguishes fecal-oral and oropharyngeal transmission. We evaluated the model by simulating diverse historical experiences with polioviruses, including one country that eliminated wild poliovirus using both OPV and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) (USA), three importation outbreaks of wild poliovirus (Albania, the Netherlands, Tajikistan), one situation in which no circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) emerge despite annual OPV use and cessation (Cuba), three cVDPV outbreaks (Haiti, Madura Island in Indonesia, northern Nigeria), one area of current endemic circulation of all three serotypes (northern Nigeria), and one area with recent endemic circulation and subsequent elimination of multiple serotypes (northern India). We find that when sufficient information about the conditions exists, the model can reproduce the general behavior of poliovirus transmission and outbreaks while maintaining consistency in the generic model inputs. The assumption of spatially homogeneous mixing remains a significant limitation that affects the performance of the differential equation-based model when significant heterogeneities in immunity and mixing may exist. Further studies on OPV virus evolution and improved understanding of the mechanisms of mixing and transmission may help to better characterize poliovirus transmission in populations. Broad application of the model promises to offer insights in the context of global and national policy and economic models. PMID:23521018

Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kalkowska, Dominika A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M

2013-03-22

51

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research.

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Consiglio, Federica; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

2010-01-01

52

Wide Variability in Seed Characteristics, Kernel Quality, and Zein Profiles Among Diverse Maize Inbreds, Landraces, and Teosinte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All crop species have been domesticated from their wild relatives, and geneticists are just now beginning to understand the genetic consequences of artificial (human) selection on agronomic traits that are relevant today. The major consequence is severe reduction in genetic diversity for genes unde...

53

Age-related effects on malaria parasite infection in wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Wild great apes are widely infected with a number of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.). Yet, nothing is known about the biology of these infections in the wild. Using faecal samples collected from wild chimpanzees, we investigated the effect of age on Plasmodium spp. detection rates. The data show a strong association between age and malaria parasite positivity, with significantly lower detection rates in adults. This suggests that, as in humans, individuals reaching adulthood have mounted an effective protective immunity against malaria parasites. PMID:23720517

De Nys, Hélène M; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Thiesen, Ursula; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman M; Mundry, Roger; Leendertz, Fabian H

2013-05-29

54

Age related variation in male-male relationships in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis).  

PubMed

In social organizations characterized by male philopatry, social relationships between males are argued to be the strongest. Little is known about the social relationships of philopatric male spider monkeys. To address this limitation, we investigated social relationships among individually recognized wild adult male spider monkeys from two well-habituated communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, focusing on affiliative behaviors important in regulating male social relationships, including grooming, embracing, arm-wrapping, and grappling. We examined whether behaviors were reciprocated between male partners and whether age was a factor in how the behaviors were distributed or reciprocated, by examining differences between younger adult males (<10 years) and older adult males (?14 years). Although we found evidence that affiliative behaviors were overall reciprocated between spider monkey adult males, there were pronounced differences in the interactions depending on their relative age. Reciprocation in grooming and embraces between same-age males suggests their relationships are valuable to both partners. Among different-age dyads, younger males gave more embraces than they received, were the initiators of grappling and arm-wrapped more often than with same-age males, suggesting relationships between younger and older males are more risky. This confirms that younger males are attracted to older males, probably because they value relationships with older males more than the reverse, but they are also at risk. PMID:21881958

Schaffner, Colleen M; Slater, Kathy Y; Aureli, Filippo

2011-09-01

55

Population Genetics of Speciation in Two Closely Related Wild Tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon)  

PubMed Central

We present a multilocus sequencing study to assess patterns of polymorphism and divergence in the closely related wild tomato species, Solanum peruvianum and S. chilense (Solanum section Lycopersicon, Solanaceae). The data set comprises seven mapped nuclear loci (?9.3 kb of analyzed sequence across loci) and four local population samples per species that cover much of the species' range (between 80 and 88 sequenced alleles across both species). We employ the analytical framework of divergence population genetics (DPG) in evaluating the utility of the “isolation” model of speciation to explain observed patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Whereas the isolation model is not rejected by goodness-of-fit criteria established via coalescent simulations, patterns of intragenic linkage disequilibrium provide evidence for postdivergence gene flow at two of the seven loci. These results suggest that speciation occurred under residual gene flow, implying that natural selection is one of the evolutionary forces driving the divergence of these tomato species. This inference is fully consistent with their recent divergence, conservatively estimated to be ?0.55 million years. We discuss possible biases in the demographic parameter estimates due to the current restriction of DPG algorithms to panmictic species.

Stadler, Thomas; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Stephan, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

56

H7N3 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS FOUND IN A SOUTH AMERICAN WILD DUCK IS RELATED TO THE CHILEAN 2002 POULTRY OUBTREAK, CONTAINS GENES FROM EQUINE AND NORTH AMERICAN WILD BIRD LINEAGES, AND IS ADAPTED TO DOMESTIC TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas Cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia.4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an E...

57

Initial efforts to develop a national strategy to protect crop wild relatives native or naturalized in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, the call to conserve crop wild relatives has been driven by habitat degradation fueled by exponential population growth. Today, we have a clarion call for action, as historic impetuses are compounded by the forecast of global climate change. In the United States efforts have been movin...

58

Recent NPGS coordinated expeditions in the Trans-Caucasus Region to collect wild relatives of temperate fruit and nut crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service-managed National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) coordinated several germplasm expeditions in the trans-Caucasus countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia beginning in 2001. One of the goals was to preserve valuable wild relatives of crop species ex situ at g...

59

Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: A wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube

Gajanan B. Zore; Umakanth B. Winston; Babasaheb S. Surwase; Nisha S. Meshram; V. D. Sangle; Smita S. Kulkarni; S. Mohan Karuppayil

2008-01-01

60

Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group  

PubMed Central

Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange.

Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

2013-01-01

61

Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.  

PubMed

The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging. PMID:22918749

Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

2012-08-24

62

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).  

PubMed

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

2013-07-01

63

Do social groups prevent Allee effect related extinctions?: The case of wild dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Allee effects may arise as the number of individuals decreases, thereby reducing opportunities for cooperation and constraining individual fitness, which can lead to population decrease and extinction. Obligate cooperative breeders rely on a minimum group size to subsist and are thus expected to be particularly susceptible to Allee effects. Although Allee effects in some components of the fitness of cooperative breeders have been detected, empirical confirmation of population extinction due to Allee effects is lacking yet. Because previous studies of cooperation have focused on Allee effects affecting individual fitness (component Allee effect) and population dynamics (demographic Allee effect), we argue that a new conceptual level of Allee effect, the group Allee effect, is needed to understand the special case of cooperative breeders. Results We hypothesize that whilst individuals are vulnerable to Allee effects, the group could act as a buffer against population extinction if: (i) individual fitness and group fate depend on group size but not on population size and (ii) group size is independent of population size (that is, at any population size, populations comprise both large and small groups). We found that both conditions apply for the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and data on this species in Zimbabwe support our hypothesis. Conclusions The importance of groups in obligate cooperative breeders needs to be accounted for within the Allee effect framework, through a group Allee effect, because the group mediates the relationship between individual fitness and population performance. Whilst sociality is associated with a high probability of Allee effects, we suggest that cooperative individuals organized in relatively autonomous groups within populations might be behaving in ways that diminish extinction risks caused by Allee effects. This study opens new avenues to a better understanding of the role of the evolution of group-living on the probability of extinction faced by social species.

2013-01-01

64

Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment.  

PubMed

Wild boars are important disease reservoirs. It is well known that abundance estimates are needed in wildlife epidemiology, but the expense and effort required to obtain them is prohibitive. We evaluated a simple method based on the frequency of faecal droppings found on transects (FBII), and developed a spatial aggregation index, based on the runs test statistic. Estimates were compared with hunting data, and with porcine circovirus and Aujeszky's disease virus seroprevalences and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Metastrongylus spp. prevalence. The FBII and the aggregation index were correlated with the hunting index, but both of the former estimates correlated better than the latter with the disease prevalences. Hence, at least in habitats with high wild boar densities, the FBII combined with the aggregation index constitutes a cheap and reliable alternative for wild boar abundance estimation that can be used for epidemiological risk assessment, even outside the hunting season and in areas with no available data on hunting activities. PMID:16893488

Acevedo, P; Vicente, J; Höfle, U; Cassinello, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Gortazar, C

2006-08-08

65

Genetic variation in historical and modern apple cultivars compared to wild relatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant domestication is generally modeled as a scenario wherein strong artificial selection is applied to a small subset of the population of a wild species. The result is that the domesticated species exhibits a genome-wide reduction in genetic variation, referred to as a genetic bottleneck. This ...

66

Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history

Mulualem T. Kassa; R. Varma Penmetsa; Noelia Carrasquilla-Garcia; Birinchi K. Sarma; Subhojit Datta; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Rajeev K. Varshney; Eric J. B. von Wettberg; Douglas R. Cook

2012-01-01

67

CARDIOLIPIN CONTENT OF WILD TYPE AND MUTANT YEASTS IN RELATION TO MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION AND DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phospholipid composition of various strains of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several of their derived mitochondrial mutants grown under conditions designed to induce variations in the complement of mitochondrial membranes has been examined . Wild type and petite (cytoplasmic respiratory deficient) yeasts were fractionated into various sub- cellular fractions, which were monitored by electron microscopy

S. Jakovcic; G. S. GETZ; M. RABINOWITZ; H. JAKOB; H. SWIFT

1971-01-01

68

A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to Early Blight in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early blight (caused by the foliar fungus Alternaria solani) is a widespread disease that appears annually in potato crops worldwide. This is our second study of a disease resistance in wild potatoes to test the assumed ability of taxonomy to predict the presence of traits in a group for which the t...

69

Differential Expression of Salt Stress-related Genes in Wild Beta vulgaris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display reverse transcription (DDRT) technique was used to detect differentially expressed genes for wild Beta vulgaris in response to salt stress. Two month-old seedlings were treated with 250 mM Na for 1H, 10H and untreated seedlings were used as controls. A group of differentially di...

70

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because cetaceans are dicult to study in the wild, little is known about how they use their sounds in their natural environment. Only the recent development of passive acoustic localization systems has enabled observations of the communication behaviour of individuals for correlation with their surface behaviour. Using such a system, I show that bottlenose dolphins in the Moray Firth, Scotland,

V. M. Janik

2000-01-01

71

Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses: Consumption of wild ruminant fat represented the primary lipid source for pre-agricultural humans. Hence, the lipid composition of these animals' tissues may provide insight into dietary requirements that offer protection from chronic disease in modern humans.Method: We examined the lipid composition of muscle, brain, marrow and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) from 17 elk (Cervus elaphus), 15 mule deer (Odocoileus

L Cordain; BA Watkins; GL Florant; M Kelher; L Rogers; Y Li

2002-01-01

72

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

73

Variation in relation to geographical distribution of wild oats-seed traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 457 wild oats (Avena sterilis L.) from the world collection maintained at the Germplasm Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, was studied for variation of six seed characters via means, ranges, variances, and frequencies from various geographical areas. It was concuded that region-specific adaptations are responsible for occurrence of certain trait(s) in specific geographical regions; e.g., Libyan and Iraqi

A. Rezai; K. J. Frey

1988-01-01

74

The use of wild relatives in crop improvement: a survey of developments over the last 20 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) genes to improve crop performance is well established with important examples dating\\u000a back more than 60 years. In this paper, we review available information on the presence of genes from CWR in released cultivars\\u000a of 16 mandate crops of the CGIAR institutes, and some selected additional crops, focusing on the past 20 years—the period\\u000a since

Reem Hajjar; Toby Hodgkin

2007-01-01

75

Low level of genetic diversity in cultivated Pigeonpea compared to its wild relatives is revealed by diversity arrays technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity among individuals, populations and gene pools is crucial for the efficient management of germplasm collections and breeding programs. Diversity analysis is routinely carried out using sequencing of selected gene(s) or molecular marker technologies. Here we report on the development of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) for pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and its wild relatives. DArT tests

Shiying Yang; Wen Pang; Gavin Ash; Jason Carling; Peter Wenzl; Eric Huttner; Xuxiao Zong; Andrzej Kilian

2006-01-01

76

Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity analysis of 90 barley samples, including 45 wild close relatives of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers. The results showed that Tibetan wild close relatives of barley had a higher genetic diversity than those from the Middle East. Ten ISSR primers amplified 91 allelic variants, of which 79 were polymorphic (86.81%), in the Tibetan genotypes and 82 allelic variants, of which 66 were polymorphic (80.49%), in the Middle East genotypes. Eleven primer pairs of SSR markers amplified 100 allelic variants among the Tibetan genotypes with 100 polymorphic bands (100%). Among the Middle East genotypes, 78 allelic variants were produced containing 77 polymorphic bands (98.72%). Moreover, the total gene diversity analysis (HT) values of Tibetan barley (0.227 for ISSRs and 0.126 for SSRs) were higher than those of Middle East (0.212 for ISSRs and 0.102 for SSRs). Cluster analysis of the ISSR and SSR results by the UPGMA method revealed two distinct groups correlated with the geographic origin of sampling. These results offer a new evidence for the theory of the origin of Hordeum vulgare L. PMID:19304270

Wang, Aihua; Yu, Zhiyong; Ding, Yi

2009-01-31

77

Low level of genetic diversity in cultivated Pigeonpea compared to its wild relatives is revealed by diversity arrays technology.  

PubMed

Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity among individuals, populations and gene pools is crucial for the efficient management of germplasm collections and breeding programs. Diversity analysis is routinely carried out using sequencing of selected gene(s) or molecular marker technologies. Here we report on the development of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) for pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and its wild relatives. DArT tests thousands of genomic loci for polymorphism and provides the binary scores for hundreds of markers in a single hybridization-based assay. We tested eight complexity reduction methods using various combinations of restriction enzymes and selected PstI/HaeIII genomic representation with the largest frequency of polymorphic clones (19.8%) to produce genotyping arrays. The performance of the PstI/HaeIII array was evaluated by typing 96 accessions representing nearly 20 species of Cajanus. A total of nearly 700 markers were identified with the average call rate of 96.0% and the scoring reproducibility of 99.7%. DArT markers revealed genetic relationships among the accessions consistent with the available information and systematic classification. Most of the diversity was among the wild relatives of pigeonpea or between the wild species and the cultivated C. cajan. Only 64 markers were polymorphic among the cultivated accessions. Such narrow genetic base is likely to represent a serious impediment to breeding progress in pigeonpea. Our study shows that DArT can be effectively applied in molecular systematics and biodiversity studies. PMID:16845522

Yang, Shiying; Pang, Wen; Ash, Gavin; Harper, John; Carling, Jason; Wenzl, Peter; Huttner, Eric; Zong, Xuxiao; Kilian, Andrzej

2006-07-15

78

Using Satellite Maps and Related Spatial Data Sets to Identify Remaining Wild Areas of the Eastern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roadless and wild areas of 12 states comprising the eastern United States were derived from a combination of satellite image data products (tree cover, urbanized areas, etc), a road network database, and related spatial data sets. These remote areas were defined as having greater than 60 percent tree cover of at least ~5000 acre (2000 ha) contiguous tracts situated more than 500m from any road. Detailed maps of the region were produced and then overlaid with information on existing parks, protected areas, easements, and state and national forest land boundaries. Statistics were tabulated on a regional and statewide basis, and are presented together with the derived map. A total of 1468 wild areas were mapped in the study area. Forty three percent of those were in areas offering some form of protected land disignation, but only 548 (37 percent) of the areas were at least 50 percent protected. Many of the areas identified as roadless wild lands not known to be currently protected in any form were, not surprisingly, located in the states of Maine and West Virginia. Other significant lands meeting the criteria were identified in New York and Tennessee and, to a lesser extent, Pennsylvania, Vermont and New Hampshire. This work forms, as far as we know, the first quantitative assessment across the region using consistent data sets and accepted national criteria for roadless areas. It underscores the urgent need for reserving some of the remaining wild lands to protect forest resources and biological diversity before exurban development encroaches of the last of these unique resource lands of the East. Our approach may also provide acceptable criteria for a national assessment, and results are discussed in this context.

Jantz, P.; Goetz, S. J.

2005-12-01

79

Age-related differences in the cloacal microbiota of a wild bird species  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal bacteria play a central role in the health of animals. The bacteria that individuals acquire as they age may therefore have profound consequences for their future fitness. However, changes in microbial community structure with host age remain poorly understood. We characterised the cloacal bacteria assemblages of chicks and adults in a natural population of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), using molecular methods. Results We show that the kittiwake cloaca hosts a diverse assemblage of bacteria. A greater number of total bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were identified in chicks than adults, and chicks appeared to host a greater number of OTUs that were only isolated from single individuals. In contrast, the number of bacteria identified per individual was higher in adults than chicks, while older chicks hosted more OTUs than younger chicks. Finally, chicks and adults shared only seven OTUs, resulting in pronounced differences in microbial assemblages. This result is surprising given that adults regurgitate food to chicks and share the same nesting environment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chick gastrointestinal tracts are colonised by many transient species and that bacterial assemblages gradually transition to a more stable adult state. Phenotypic differences between chicks and adults may lead to these strong differences in bacterial communities. These data provide the framework for future studies targeting the causes and consequences of variation in bacterial assemblages in wild birds.

2013-01-01

80

Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals. PMID:23345575

Crockford, C; Wittig, R M; Langergraber, K; Ziegler, T E; Zuberbühler, K; Deschner, T

2013-01-23

81

Alteration in expression of hormone-related genes in wild emmer wheat roots associated with drought adaptation mechanisms.  

PubMed

Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles were used to unravel drought adaptation mechanisms in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the progenitor of cultivated wheat, by comparing the response to drought stress in roots of genotypes contrasting in drought tolerance. The differences between the drought resistant (R) and drought susceptible (S) genotypes were characterized mainly by shifts in expression of hormone-related genes (e.g., gibberellins, abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin), including biosynthesis, signalling and response; RNA binding; calcium (calmodulin, caleosin and annexin) and phosphatidylinositol signalling, in the R genotype. ABA content in the roots of the R genotype was higher in the well-watered treatment and increased in response to drought, while in the S genotype ABA was invariant. The metabolomic profiling revealed in the R genotype a higher accumulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and drought-related metabolites, including glucose, trehalose, proline and glycine. The integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics results indicated that adaptation to drought included efficient regulation and signalling pathways leading to effective bio-energetic processes, carbon metabolism and cell homeostasis. In conclusion, mechanisms of drought tolerance were identified in roots of wild emmer wheat, supporting our previous studies on the potential of this genepool as a valuable source for novel candidate genes to improve drought tolerance in cultivated wheat. PMID:21656015

Krugman, Tamar; Peleg, Zvi; Quansah, Lydia; Chagué, Véronique; Korol, Abraham B; Nevo, Eviatar; Saranga, Yehoshua; Fait, Aaron; Chalhoub, Boulos; Fahima, Tzion

2011-06-08

82

Relative Contribution and Comparative Life History Characteristics of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead Trout in the Betsie River, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spawning runs of wild, naturalized steelhead trout occur in northern tributaries of Lake Michigan including the Betsie River. Management of Betsie River steelhead has focused on supplemented wild stocks with hatchery fish though little is known about natu...

J. R. Harbeck

1999-01-01

83

DNA polymorphism in the SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1) locus of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon and its related species.  

PubMed

The level and pattern of nucleotide variation in the SUPERWOMAN1(SPW1) locus of the wild rice Oriza rufipogon and its related species were analyzed. SPW1 is orthologous to APETELA3(AP3) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The estimated level of nucleotide variation for the entire region (pi = 0.0046) was intermediate among those for other genes of O. rufipogon, although the estimates varied considerably among the SPW1 domains. Complicated haplotype structure was detected, resulting in a high proportion of significant linkage disequilibrium. Deviation from the neutrality was not detected. However, purifying selection was suggested by lack of replacement variation in the MADS-box and I-domain regions, which function as DNA-binding domain. On the other hand, an excess of drastic amino acid changes was detected in the C-domain, as in the AP3 region of A. thaliana. Taken together, these results imply that different types of natural selection are acting among different domains of a single protein. In the phylogenetic tree, O. sativa strains were included in the same cluster of O. rufipogon, supporting the hypothesis that O. rufipogon is the wild ancestor of O. sativa. PMID:19168991

Teranishi, Chika; Yoshida, Kentaro; Miyashita, Naohiko T

2008-10-01

84

A test of taxonomic and biogeographic predictivity: resistance to Potato virus Y in wild relatives of the cultivated potato.  

PubMed

A major justification for taxonomic research is its assumed ability to predict the presence of traits in a group for which the trait has been observed in a representative subset of the group. Similarly, populations in similar environments are expected to be more alike than populations in divergent environments. Consequently, it is logical to assume that taxonomic relationships and biogeographical data have the power to predict the distribution of disease resistance phenotypes among plant species. The objective of this study was to test predictivity in a group of widely distributed wild potato species, based on hypotheses that closely related organisms (taxonomy) or organisms from similar environments (biogeography) share resistance to a simply inherited trait (Potato virus Y [PVY]). We found that wild potato species with an endosperm balance number (EBN) of 1 (a measure of cross compatibility) shared resistances to PVY more than species with different EBN values. However, a large amount of variation was found for resistance to PVY among and within species. We also found that populations from low elevations were more resistant than those from high elevations. Because PVY is vectored by aphids, we speculate that the distribution of aphids may determine the level of selection pressure for PVY resistance. PMID:21834726

Cai, X K; Spooner, D M; Jansky, S H

2011-09-01

85

Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium)  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers") of cotton (Gossypium), using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum) antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

2009-01-01

86

What Cowboy Ever Wished to Join a Union? 'Wild West' Industrial Relations before 1914  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Civil War the cowboy came to epitomize the ideology of United States capitalism, an ideology antithetical to collective action by workers to defend and enhance their interests. More tangible factors explaining the relative absence of industrial militancy among ranch workers have been suggested, including the geographical dispersal of a labour force employed in small numbers even on large

John Perkins

1994-01-01

87

Rapeseed cytoplasm gives advantage in wild relatives and complicates genetically modified crop biocontainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Biocontainment methods for genetically modified crops closest to commercial reality (chloroplast transformation, male sterility) would be compromised (in absolute terms) by seed-mediated gene flow leading to chloroplast capture. Even in these circumstances, however, it can be argued that biocontainment still represses transgene movement, with the efficacy depending on the relative frequency of seed- and pollen-mediated gene flow.\\u000a• In

J. Allainguillaume; T. Harwood; C. S. Ford; G. Cuccato; C. Norris; C. J. Allender; R. Welters; G. J. King; M. J. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

88

A test of taxonomic and biogeographic predictivity: resistance to soft rot in wild relatives of cultivated potato.  

PubMed

The concept that traits should be associated with related organisms and that nearby populations of the same species are likely to be more similar to each other than to populations spread far apart has long been accepted. Consequently, taxonomic relationships and biogeographical data are commonly believed to have the power to predict the distribution of disease resistance genes among plant species. In this study, we test claims of such predictivity in a group of widely distributed wild potato species. There was no clear association between resistance to soft rot and taxonomic relationships. However, we have found some associations between resistance to soft rot and environmental data such as annual precipitation and annual mean temperature. In addition, we have noted that high levels of resistance are mostly found in species with high levels of phenotypic plasticity. The three most resistant species were Solanum paucijugum, S. brevicaule, and S. commersonii. PMID:20839961

Chung, Yong Suk; Holmquist, Karsten; Spooner, David M; Jansky, Shelley H

2011-02-01

89

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.  

PubMed

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis. PMID:12582531

Van Droogenbroeck, B.; Breyne, P.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Kyndt, T.; Gheysen, G.

2002-06-21

90

Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana).  

PubMed

Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is the first time that physiological evidence has been presented of direct effects of plant consumption on the reproductive biology of wild primates. PMID:17681506

Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M

2007-06-29

91

Toward the chemical ecology of medicinal plant use in chimpanzees: The case of Vernonia amygdalina , a plant used by wild chimpanzees possibly for parasite-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bitter and related constituents have been isolated fromVernonia amygdalina (Compositae), a plant ingested by wild chimpanzees possibly suffering from parasite-related diseases in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Isolated from the plant were four known sesquiterpene lactones, seven new steroid glucosides, and two aglycones of the glucosides. The sesquiterpene lactones showed significant in vitro antischistosomal, plasmodicidal, and leishmanicidal activities.

Hajime Ohigashi; Michael A. Huffman; Daisuke Izutsu; Koichi Koshimizu; Masanori Kawanaka; Hiromu Sugiyama; Geoffrey C. Kirby; David C. Warhurst; David Allen; Colin W. Wright; J. David Phillipson; Pierre Timon-David; Florence Delmas; Riad Elias; Guy Balansard

1994-01-01

92

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2011-10-04

93

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

94

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

95

How immunogenetically different are domestic pigs from wild boars: a perspective from single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 19 immunity-related candidate genes.  

PubMed

The coexistence of wild boars and domestic pigs across Eurasia makes it feasible to conduct comparative genetic or genomic analyses for addressing how genetically different a domestic species is from its wild ancestor. To test whether there are differences in patterns of genetic variability between wild and domestic pigs at immunity-related genes and to detect outlier loci putatively under selection that may underlie differences in immune responses, here we analyzed 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 immunity-related candidate genes on 11 autosomes in three pairs of wild boar and domestic pig populations from China, Iberian Peninsula, and Hungary. Our results showed no statistically significant differences in allele frequency and heterozygosity across SNPs between three pairs of wild and domestic populations. This observation was more likely due to the widespread and long-lasting gene flow between wild boars and domestic pigs across Eurasia. In addition, we detected eight coding SNPs from six genes as outliers being under selection consistently by three outlier tests (BayeScan2.1, FDIST2, and Arlequin3.5). Among four non-synonymous outlier SNPs, one from TLR4 gene was identified as being subject to positive (diversifying) selection and three each from CD36, IFNW1, and IL1B genes were suggested as under balancing selection. All of these four non-synonymous variants were predicted as being benign by PolyPhen-2. Our results were supported by other independent lines of evidence for positive selection or balancing selection acting on these four immune genes (CD36, IFNW1, IL1B, and TLR4). Our study showed an example applying a candidate gene approach to identify functionally important mutations (i.e., outlier loci) in wild and domestic pigs for subsequent functional experiments. PMID:23846851

Chen, Shanyuan; Gomes, Rui; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Charneca, Rui; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Shao-Qing; Bento, Pedro; Nunes, Jose-Luis; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Anton, István; Zsolnai, Attila; Beja-Pereira, Albano

2013-07-12

96

Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences between species commonly result from changes in the tissue-specific expression of genes. Clustering algorithms are a powerful means to detect coexpression across tissues in single species but are not often applied to multidimensional data sets, such as gene expression across tissues in multiple species. As next-generation sequencing approaches enable interspecific analyses, methods to visualize and explore such data sets will be required. Here, we analyze a data set comprising gene expression profiles across six different tissue types in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii). We find that self-organizing maps are a useful means to analyze interspecies data, as orthologs can be assigned to independent levels of a “super self-organizing map.” We compare various clustering approaches using a principal component analysis in which the expression of orthologous pairs is indicated by two points. We leverage the expression profile differences between orthologs to look at tissue-specific changes in gene expression between species. Clustering based on expression differences between species (rather than absolute expression profiles) yields groups of genes with large tissue-by-species interactions. The changes in expression profiles of genes we observe reflect differences in developmental architecture, such as changes in meristematic activity between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii. Together, our results offer a suite of data-exploration methods that will be important to visualize and make biological sense of next-generation sequencing experiments designed explicitly to discover tissue-by-species interactions in gene expression data.

Chitwood, Daniel H.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

2013-01-01

97

Novel natural genetic variation controlling the competence to form adventitious roots and shoots from the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an attractive model to study the genetic basis of adventitious organ formation capacity, since there is considerable natural genetic variation among wild relatives. Using a set of 46 introgression lines (ILs), each containing a small chromosomal segment of Solanum pennellii LA716 introgressed and mapped into the tomato cultivar M82, we characterized a high shoot-regeneration capacity for ILs 3-2, 6-1, 7-1, 7-2, 8-2, 8-3, 9-1, 9-2, 10-2 and 10-3, when cotyledon explants were cultivated on medium containing 5.0?M BAP. F1 seedlings from the crosses 'Micro-Tom×ILs' and 'ILs×ILs' demonstrated that the shoot regeneration capacity of most ILs was dominant and that the regeneration ability of IL8-3 enhanced that of the other ILs in an additive manner. The ILs 3-2, 7-1, 8-3, and 10-2 also exhibited enhanced root formation on MS medium containing 0.4?M NAA, indicating that these chromosomal segments may contain genes controlling the competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the induction of a specific organ. We also performed the introgression of the genes controlling competence into the model system 'Micro-Tom'. The further isolation of such genes will improve our understanding of the molecular basis of organogenic capacity. PMID:23265325

Arikita, Fernanda Namie; Azevedo, Mariana Silva; Scotton, Danielle Camargo; Pinto, Maísa de Siqueira; Figueira, Antonio; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

2012-11-23

98

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and\\/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent

S. I. Warwick; M.-J. Simard; A. Légère; H. J. Beckie; L. Braun; B. Zhu; P. Mason; G. Séguin-Swartz; C. N. Stewart

2003-01-01

99

Population genetic structure of the clonal plant Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae), a wild relative of cultivated ginger, and its response to Pythium aphanidermatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith, a wild clonal species related to the cultivated ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is a potential resistance donor for soft rot disease in ginger caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. In this study we evaluated the genetic diversity and P. aphanidermatum resistance of 74 Z. zerumbet accessions belonging to 15 populations from eight districts in Kerala state,

P. G. Kavitha; G. Thomas

2008-01-01

100

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

101

Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

Blouin, Michael

2003-05-01

102

Plasma testosterone levels are related to various aspects of locomotor activity in wild-caught male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The relationship between plasma testosterone levels and locomotor activity in wild-caught sexually mature male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was assessed in the laboratory. Several aspects of locomotor activity were monitored for 1 h on two consecutive days using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system. Plasma testosterone levels were determined immediately following the second day of activity monitoring. Significant Pearson correlations were obtained between plasma testosterone levels and total distance traveled [r(10) = 0.55, p < 0.05] and amount of time spent in movement [r(10) - 0.55, p < 0.05] on the second day. The wild voles showed a reduction in activity levels from the first to the second day of activity monitoring, which is indicative of habituation to a novel environment. This study provides direct evidence for a significant correlation between laboratory measures of behavioral activity and plasma testosterone levels in a wild-caught rodent. These findings indicate that previous assessments of hormone-behavior relationships in laboratory-bred rodents are consistent with the relationship between hormones and behavior in wild rodents. PMID:9661979

Perrot-Sinal, T S; Innes, D; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P

1998-04-01

103

Advanced backcross QTL analysis in a cross between an elite processing line of tomato and its wild relative L. pimpinellifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 170 BC2 plants from a cross between an elite processing inbred (recurrent parent) and the wild species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA1589 (donor parent) were analyzed with segregating molecular markers covering the entire tomato genome. Marker data were used to identify QTLs controlling a battery of horticultural traits measured on BC2F1 and BC3 families derived from the BC2 individuals. Despite its

S. D. Tanksley; S. Grandillo; T. M. Fulton; D. Zamir; Y. Eshed; V. Petiard; J. Lopez; T. Beck-Bunn

1996-01-01

104

Association kinetics of wild- and mutant-type Ynd1p in relation to quality of grown crystals.  

PubMed

The intermolecular interaction and association dynamics of the Ynd1p protein were investigated using dynamic and time-resolved static light scattering measurements. The mutual diffusion coefficients of wild- and mutant-type (a single amino acid substitution) Ynd1p monomer were measured in 50 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer with 5 mM MnCl2 and 7.5% (v/v) ethylene glycol. Both translational diffusion coefficients at a zero protein concentration were (40.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(-12) m2/s at 20 degrees C and a pH of 7.0, so the hydrodynamic radius of the monomers was 4.1 +/- 0.1 nm. The measured intermolecular interaction between monomers, however, showed that the mutant-type Ynd1p had a stronger attractive force. Time-resolved static light scattering measurements showed that the association of mutant-type Ynd1p yielded a larger number of aggregates than that of wild-type Ynd1p. The time dependence of aggregate gyration radius differed between the two types. Fractal dimension analysis using scattering intensity data suggested that the inner structure of the aggregates changed from loose to rigid with time. Although this phenomenon is common for wild and mutant types, the differences in the number of aggregates yielded in the initial stages and in the intermolecular interaction affected the quality of the final grown crystals. That is, single crystals of Ynd1p grew in the mutant-type protein solution and polycrystals of Ynd1p grew in the wild-type protein solution. PMID:17149908

Onuma, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kanzaki, Noriko; Kubota, Tomomi

2006-12-14

105

Pollen-style compatibility relations in natural populations of the wild diploid potato species Solanum spegazzinii Bitt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum spegazzinii Bitt., a wild diploid potato species endemic to Argentina, possesses resistance to adverse biotic and\\u000a abiotic agents. Northwestern Argentinean populations grouped according to their morphological variability (G1 = localities\\u000a East of the Calchaqu Valley, G2 = Calchaqu Valley and G3 = locality Beln) presented problems in seed set following controlled\\u000a crosses. Thus, to evaluate if the morphological variability

Luis Ernesto Erazzú; Elsa Lucila Camadro; Andrea Martina Clausen

1999-01-01

106

Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two

Gregory W. Stunz; Thomas J. Minello

2001-01-01

107

Discriminating ability of molecular markers and morphological characterization in the establishment of genetic relationships in cultivated genotypes of almond and related wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total 23 morphological traits, 19 AFLP-primer combinations, 80 RAPD primers and 32 SSR primer pair were used to compare\\u000a the informativeness and efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in establishing genetic relationships among 29 almond cultivars and three related\\u000a wild species. SSRs presented a high level of

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Soghra Kiani; Nazanin Amirbakhtiar; Sadegh Mousavi; Vahid Rouhi; Shahram Mohammady-D; Thomas M. Gradziel; Lyudmyla V. Malysheva-Otto; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

2009-01-01

108

Nucleotide diversity patterns at the drought-related DREB2 encoding genes in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Common beans are an important food legume faced with a series of abiotic stresses the most severe of which is drought. The crop is interesting as a model for the analysis of gene phylogenies due to its domestication process, race structure, and origins in a group of wild common beans found along the South American Andes and the region of Mesoamerica. Meanwhile, the DREB2 transcription factors have been implicated in controlling non-ABA dependent responses to drought stress. With this in mind our objective was to study in depth the genetic diversity for two DREB2 genes as possible candidates for association with drought tolerance through a gene phylogenetic analysis. In this genetic diversity assessment, we analyzed nucleotide diversity at the two candidate genes Dreb2A and Dreb2B, in partial core collections of 104 wild and 297 cultivated common beans with a total of 401 common bean genotypes from world-wide germplasm analyzed. Our wild population sample covered a range of semi-mesic to very dry habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of low to high drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Dreb2B exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to neutral reference loci previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Dreb2A exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection and population expansion. These patterns were more distinct in wild compared to cultivated common beans. These approximations suggested the importance of Dreb2 genes in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. We discuss the utility of allele mining in the DREB gene family for the discovery of new drought tolerance traits from wild common bean. PMID:22772725

Cortés, Andrés J; This, Dominique; Chavarro, Carolina; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

2012-07-08

109

Seed Size Variation and Predation of Seeds Produced by Wild and Crop-Wild Sunflowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds

Helen M. Alexander; Charity L. Cummings; Lisa Kahn; Allison A. Snow

2001-01-01

110

Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean.

2012-01-01

111

Stability by KAM confinement of certain wild, nongeneric relative equilibria of underwater vehicles with coincident centers of mass and bouyancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purely rotational relative equilibria of an ellipsoidal underwater vehicle occur at nongeneric momentum where the symplectic reduced spaces change dimension. The stability these relative equilibria under momentum changing perturbations is not accessible by Lyapunov functions obtained from energy and momentum. A blow-up construction transforms the stability problem to the analysis symmetry-breaking perturbations of Hamiltonian relative equilibria. As such, the stability

George W. Patrick

2002-01-01

112

The relationship between relative growth rate and susceptibility to aphids in wild barley under different nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Resource Availability Hypothesis (RAH) states that plants with a low Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and high levels of defence against herbivores or pathogens are favoured in habitats with low resource availability, whereas plants with a high potential RGR and low levels of defence are favoured in environments with high resource availability. High levels of defence are expected to result

I. A. M. Elberse; J. H. B. Turin; F. L. Wäckers; J. M. M. Van Damme; P. H. Van Tienderen

2003-01-01

113

Model-based analysis of the likelihood of gene introgression from genetically modified crops into wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of genetically modified crops has created a need for methods to predict the likelihood of gene introgression into related species in situ. We present a model of a modified crop and an associated unmodified plant population removed spatially from the modified crop but not completely isolated from it, reflecting standard practices for isolation of field trials. We develop

C. J. Thompson; B. J. P. Thompson; P. K. Ades; R. Cousens; P. Garnier-Gere; K. Landman; E. Newbigin; M. A. Burgman

2003-01-01

114

Accumulation of health promoting phytochemicals in wild relatives of tomato and their contribution to in vitro antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harnessing natural variation is an important aspect of modern marker assisted breeding. Traditionally breeding programmes have focused on increased yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic pressures. However, consumer demands for improved quality have lead to increased effort into the breeding of nutritional quality traits in crop plants. In the present study, health-related phytochemicals (carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolics) present in

Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; Paul D. Fraser; Peter M. Bramley

2010-01-01

115

Major-effect QTLs for stem and foliage resistance to late blight in the wild potato relatives Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii are mapped to chromosome X.  

PubMed

To find out new resistance sources to late blight in the wild germplasm for potato breeding, we examined the polygenic resistance of Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We performed stem and foliage tests under controlled conditions in two diploid mapping progenies. Four traits were selected for QTL detection. A total of 30 QTLs were mapped, with a large-effect QTL region on chromosome X detected in both potato relatives. The mapping of literature-derived markers highlighted colinearities with published late blight QTLs or R-genes. Results showed (a) the resistance potential of S. sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii for late blight control, and (b) the efficacy of the stem test as a complement to the foliage test to break down the complex late blight resistance into elementary components. The relationships of late blight resistance QTLs with R-genes and maturity QTLs are discussed. PMID:19533081

Danan, Sarah; Chauvin, Jean-Eric; Caromel, Bernard; Moal, Jean-Denis; Pellé, Roland; Lefebvre, Véronique

2009-06-17

116

Novel Environment and GABA Agonists Alter Event-Related Potentials in N-Methyl-d-aspartate NR1 Hypomorphic and Wild-Type Mice  

PubMed Central

Clinical and experimental data suggest dysregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated glutamatergic pathways in schizophrenia. The interaction between NMDAR-mediated abnormalities and the response to novel environment has not been studied. Mice expressing 5 to 10% of normal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1) subunits [NR1neo(?/?)] were compared with wild-type littermates for positive deflection at 20 ms (P20) and negative deflection at 40 ms (N40) auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Groups were tested for habituation within and across five testing sessions, with novel environment tested during a sixth session. Subsequently, we examined the effects of a GABAA positive allosteric modulator (chlordiazepoxide) and a GABAB receptor agonist (baclofen) as potential interventions to normalize aberrant responses. There was a reduction in P20, but not N40 amplitude within each habituation day. Although there was no amplitude or gating change across habituation days, there was a reduction in P20 and N40 amplitude and gating in the novel environment. There was no difference between genotypes for N40. Only NR1neo(?/?) mice had reduced P20 in the novel environment. Chlordiazepoxide increased N40 amplitude in wild-type mice, whereas baclofen increased P20 amplitude in NR1neo(?/?) mice. As noted in previous publications, the pattern of ERPs in NR1neo(?/?) mice does not recapitulate abnormalities in schizophrenia. In addition, reduced NR1 expression does not influence N40 habituation but does affect P20 in a novel environment. Thus, the pattern of P50 (positive deflection at 50 ms) but not N100 (negative deflection at 100 ms) in human studies may relate to subjects’ reactions to unfamiliar environments. In addition, NR1 reduction decreased GABAA receptor-mediated effects on ERPs while causing increased GABAB receptor-mediated effects. Future studies will examine changes in GABA receptor subunits after reductions in NR1 expression.

Bodarky, Christina L.; Halene, Tobias B.; Ehrlichman, Richard S.; Banerjee, Anamika; Ray, Rabindranath; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Jonak, Gerald

2009-01-01

117

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-02-01

118

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed Central

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-01-01

119

Different Transcript Patterns in Response to Specialist and Generalist Herbivores in the Wild Arabidopsis Relative Boechera divaricarpa  

PubMed Central

Background Plants defend themselves against herbivorous insects, utilizing both constitutive and inducible defenses. Induced defenses are controlled by several phytohormone-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we analyze transcriptional changes in the North American Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa in response to larval herbivory by the crucifer specialist lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (cabbage semilooper), and compare them to wounding and exogenous phytohormone application. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a custom macroarray constructed from B. divaricarpa herbivory-regulated cDNAs identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and from known stress-responsive A. thaliana genes for transcript profiling after insect herbivory, wounding and in response to jasmonate, salicylate and ethylene. In addition, we introduce path analysis as a novel approach to analyze transcript profiles. Path analyses reveal that transcriptional responses to the crucifer specialist P. xylostella are primarily determined by direct effects of the ethylene and salicylate pathways, whereas responses to the generalist T. ni are influenced by the ethylene and jasmonate pathways. Wound-induced transcriptional changes are influenced by all three pathways, with jasmonate having the strongest effect. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that insect herbivory is distinct from simple mechanical plant damage, and that different lepidopteran herbivores elicit different transcriptional responses.

Vogel, Heiko; Kroymann, Juergen; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2007-01-01

120

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack.

2010-01-01

121

Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.  

PubMed

A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 ?m × 75 ?m to 98 ?m × 122 ?m, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. PMID:22112977

Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

2011-11-07

122

Comparative Studies on the Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Relations of a Wild Halophytic and a Domestic Salt-Sensitive Tomato Species 1  

PubMed Central

In long-term experiments with differentially salinized nutrient solutions, plants of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Walter failed at Na+ concentrations of 200 millimolar or more but tolerated K+ concentrations of that magnitude. The behavior of the wild, salt-tolerant Lycopersicon cheesmanii (Hook) C. H. Mull., accession number 1401, was diametrically different; it tolerated Na+ at 200 millimolar, but K+ at the same concentration proved toxic to it. Short-term comparative studies on the absorption and translocation of Na+, K+, and Cl? of the two species were carried out using radioactive tracers with excised roots and whole plants. These studies showed that, under high salt conditions (50-100 millimolar NaCl), the tolerant 1401 freely accumulated Na+ in the shoot, while the salt-sensitive cultivar excluded it from the leaves, where it has been shown to be toxic. In experiments where K+ was limiting, the salt-tolerant species could partially substitute Na+ for K+. Sodium stimulated growth even when K+ was present at adequate concentrations. The domestic cultivar could not substitute Na+ for K+ and showed no similar growth stimulation when Na+ was added in the presence of adequate K+. The salt-tolerant 1401 was more efficient in K+ absorption than was the domestic cultivar at both low and moderate ambient K+ concentrations. The two species differed little in their chloride relations. Images

Rush, Dale W.; Epstein, Emanuel

1981-01-01

123

Construction of a cDNA library of the Chinese wild Vitis amurensis under cold stress and analysis of potential hardiness-related expressed sequence tags.  

PubMed

A cDNA library of Chinese wild Vitis amurensis, which is the most cold-resistant species in the genus Vitis, was constructed using young leaves of seedlings of the clone Heilongjiang potted and subjected to cold stress. The leaves were harvested at various times after cold stress for total RNA extraction, which was used to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The titer of the original library was 2.67 x 10(6) pfu/mL and the corresponding combination frequency was 98.5%. The test values of the amplified library were 1.53 x 10(9) pfu/mL and 98.2%, respectively. After randomly choosing, cloning and sequencing, 227 ESTs with high quality were obtained and submitted to GenBank database. Using BLASTX, 79.7% of the ESTs shared homology with known functional DNA sequences and 20.3% shared significant homology with unknown proteins. Some potential hardiness-related ESTs were obtained, which were involved in signal transduction, stress inducement, defense reactions, transcription factors, etc. Some functional genes identified from the cDNA library have potential for plant defense. These sequences will be subjected to further researches on hardiness genes and their molecular mechanisms. PMID:23661443

Zhang, J; Liu, N; Niu, R; Liu, Y; Zhai, H; Xu, W; Wang, Y

2013-04-12

124

Little gene flow between domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild relative Bombyx mandarina in Japan, and possible artificial selection on the CAD gene of B. mori.  

PubMed

We analyzed PCR-amplified carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene fragments from 146 Bombyx mori native strains and found extremely low levels of DNA polymorphism. Two haplotypes were identified, one of which was predominant. CAD haplotype analysis of 42 samples of Japanese B. mandarina revealed four haplotypes. No common haplotype was shared between the two species and at least five base substitutions were detected. This result was suggestive of low levels of gene flow between the two species. The nucleotide diversity (?) scores of the two samples differed markedly: lower ? values were estimated for B. mori native strains than Japanese B. mandarina. We further analyzed 12 Chinese B. mandarina derived from seven areas of China, including Taiwan. The results clearly indicated that the ? score was ~80-fold greater in Chinese B. mandarina than in B. mori. The extremely low level of DNA polymorphism in B. mori compared to its wild relatives suggested that the CAD gene itself or its tightly linked regions are possible targets for silkworm domestication. PMID:23412635

Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Iwata, Kazuya; Ajimura, Masahiro; Gu, Shi-Hong; Wang, Min; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei; Kiuchi, Makoto

2012-01-01

125

[Comparative analysis of sequences of the 5S rDNA NTS in wild close relatives of barley from Tibet of China].  

PubMed

Tibet is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Hordeum in China,and has a great deal of species resource. The sequences of the nontranscribed intergenic spacer (NTS) region of 5S nuclear ribosomal DNA was studied in 18 varieties of the close relative of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from different geographical regions in Tibet and Turkmenistan. These sequences were determined by sequencing the clones of PCR products. Alignment of sequences revealed that the 5S rDNA NTS contained two comparatively conservative regions, A and B, and a variable TAG repeat (V). The number of TAG repeats varies from 4-17, also including several transitions and conversions (TAG-->TCG, TAG-->TAC). The total size of the conservative regions was from 168 -169 bp, and the sequence length variation was only 1 bp. The GC content (%) of the conservative sequence was 43.8% and the homologous of that nearly 98.2% -100%. The number of variable sites was 12 (7.1%). In general, there were more transitions than conversions in the variation sites,and the ratios of transition/conversion were 1.0 - 2.0. NTS polymorphism of 5S rDNA was mainly determined by polymorphism of TAG repeats. The molecular system-tree showed that the NTS should be a useful marker to classify the accessions in Hordeum. PMID:16252706

Tan, Rui; Ma, De-Quan; Ding, Yi

2005-10-01

126

WildSilkbase: An EST database of wild silkmoths  

PubMed Central

Background Functional genomics has particular promise in silkworm biology for identifying genes involved in a variety of biological functions that include: synthesis and secretion of silk, sex determination pathways, insect-pathogen interactions, chorionogenesis, molecular clocks. Wild silkmoths have hardly been the subject of detailed scientific investigations, owing largely to non-availability of molecular and genetic data on these species. As a first step, in the present study we generated large scale expressed sequence tags (EST) in three economically important species of wild silkmoths. In order to make these resources available for the use of global scientific community, an EST database called 'WildSilkbase' was developed. Description WildSilkbase is a catalogue of ESTs generated from several tissues at different developmental stages of 3 economically important saturniid silkmoths, an Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama, an Indian tropical tasar silkmoth, A. mylitta and eri silkmoth, Samia cynthia ricini. Currently the database is provided with 57,113 ESTs which are clustered and assembled into 4,019 contigs and 10,019 singletons. Data can be browsed and downloaded using a standard web browser. Users can search the database either by BLAST query, keywords or Gene Ontology query. There are options to carry out searches for species, tissue and developmental stage specific ESTs in BLAST page. Other features of the WildSilkbase include cSNP discovery, GO viewer, homologue finder, SSR finder and links to all other related databases. The WildSilkbase is freely available from . Conclusion A total of 14,038 putative unigenes was identified in 3 species of wild silkmoths. These genes provide important resources to gain insight into the functional and evolutionary study of wild silkmoths. We believe that WildSilkbase will be extremely useful for all those researchers working in the areas of comparative genomics, functional genomics and molecular evolution in general, and gene discovery, gene organization, transposable elements and genome variability of insect species in particular.

Arunkumar, KP; Tomar, Archana; Daimon, Takaaki; Shimada, Toru; Nagaraju, J

2008-01-01

127

Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints  

SciTech Connect

Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

Molnar, J.J.

1983-12-01

128

Effects of environmental stress on mRNA expression levels of seven genes related to oxidative stress and growth in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of farmed, hybrid and wild origin  

PubMed Central

Background Ten generations of domestication selection has caused farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. to deviate from wild salmon in a range of traits. Each year hundreds of thousands of farmed salmon escape into the wild. Thus, interbreeding between farmed escapees and wild conspecifics represents a significant threat to the genetic integrity of wild salmon populations. In a previous study we demonstrated how domestication has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress in farmed salmon. To complement that study, we have evaluated the expression of seven stress-related genes in head kidney of salmon of farmed, hybrid and wild origin exposed to environmentally induced stress. Results In general, the crowding stressor used to induce environmental stress did not have a strong impact on mRNA expression levels of the seven genes, except for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that was downregulated in the stress treatment relative to the control treatment. mRNA expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and IGF-1 were affected by genetic origin, thus expressed significantly different between the salmon of farmed, hybrid or wild origin. A positive relationship was detected between body size of wild salmon and mRNA expression level of the IGF-1 gene, in both environments. No such relationship was observed for the hybrid or farmed salmon. Conclusion Farmed salmon in this study displayed significantly elevated mRNA levels of the IGF-1 gene relative to the wild salmon, in both treatments, while hybrids displayed a non additive pattern of inheritance. As IGF-1 mRNA levels are positively correlated to growth rate, the observed positive relationship between body size and IGF-1 mRNA levels detected in the wild but neither in the farmed nor the hybrid salmon, could indicate that growth selection has increased IGF-1 levels in farmed salmon to the extent that they may not be limiting growth rate.

2012-01-01

129

Phenotypic expression of wild-type tomato and three wilty mutants in relation to abscisic acid accumulation in roots and leaflets of reciprocal grafts  

SciTech Connect

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rheinlands Ruhm (RR) and cv Moneymaker and the three wilty mutants flacca (flc), sitiens (sit), and sitiens{sup w} (sit{sup w}), together with the most reciprocal grafts, were grown in pots and in solution culture. Detached leaflets, and control and stem-girdled intact plants, were left turgid or were wilted in air. Detached leaflets and the leaflets and roots of the intact plants were analyzed for their abscisic acid (ABA) content. Turgid RR leaflets contained about 2.9 ng ABA per miligram dry weight. On average, the flc and sit leaflets contained 33 and 11% of this amount, respectively. The lack of ABA approximately correlated with the severity of the mutant phenotype. Mutant roots also contained less ABA than wild-type roots. Wild-type scions on mutant stocks (wild type/mutant) maintained the normal phenotype of ungrafted plants. Mutant scions grafted onto wild-type stocks reverted to a near wild-type phenotype. After the wild-type leaves were excised from solution culture-grown mutant/wild-type plants, the revertive morphology of the mutant scions was maintained, although endogenous ABA levels in the leaflets fell to typical mutant levels and the leaflets became wilty again. When stressed in air, both leaflets and roots of RR plants produced stress-induced ABA, but the mutant leaflets and roots did not. The roots and leaflets of the grafted plants behaved according to their own genotype, with the notable exception of mutant roots grown with wild-type scions. Roots of flc and sit{sup w} recovered the ability to accumulate stress-induced ABA when grafted with RR scions before the stress was imposed.

Cornish, K.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1988-05-01

130

Dan's Wild Wild Weather Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a meteorologist, this weather site is for students from 6 to 16 years old and their parents. Information and experiments are provided about radar, tornadoes, clouds, precipitation, lightning, humidity, satellites, temperature, forecasting, hurricanes, wind, and climate. While in the tornado section, students can click on any state on the map to get a hourly weather report, state forecast, zone forecast, short term forecast, forecast discussion, weather summary, public information, climate data, hydro and aviation products, watches, special weather, and warnings and advisories for that state. Lightning safety tips, interactive games and puzzles, related weather games and puzzles, weather quizzes, outline maps of the continents and parts of the United States, and links to other sites can be found. Students can email the author with questions.

Scatterfield, Dan

2007-12-12

131

Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined. PMID:22102853

Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vilà, Carles

2011-11-10

132

Orbus hercynius gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from faeces of wild boar, is most closely related to members of the orders 'Enterobacteriales' and Pasteurellales.  

PubMed

A novel gammaproteobacterium, strain CN3(T), was isolated from the faeces of wild boar. Strain CN3(T) was facultatively anaerobic and appeared coccoid or rod-shaped. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for strain CN3(T) suggested a distant relationship with members of the orders 'Enterobacteriales' and Pasteurellales. The gene sequence showed highest similarity (90.3?%) with Obesumbacterium proteus DSM 2777(T), a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The closest relatives outside the order 'Enterobacteriales' according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were members of the order Pasteurellales with 88.7?% similarity (Mannheimia haemolytica NCTC 9380(T) and Actinobacillus lignieresii NCTC 4189(T)). In contrast to most members of the order 'Enterobacteriales', strain CN3(T) was oxidase-positive. The pattern of fatty acids, in particular the high relative abundance of C(18?:?1)?7c (38.5?%), was clearly distinct from the conserved pattern found for members of the order Pasteurellales. EcoRI ribotyping of strain CN3(T) yielded no significant similarity to existing database entries. The major ubiquinone of strain CN3(T) was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Strain CN3(T) hosted a phage and secreted considerable amounts of three proteins into the culture supernatant. A spontaneous mutant of strain CN3(T) was isolated which formed long filaments. Microscopic studies revealed the presence of a capsule that the mutant strain was unable to partition after cell division. Strain CN3(T) thus represents a novel species within a new genus, for which the name Orbus hercynius gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is CN3(T) (=DSM 22228(T)=CCUG 57622(T)). Classification of the novel species to the family and order level will require further investigations. PMID:20023064

Volkmann, Maria; Skiebe, Evelyn; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Faber, Franziska; Lepka, Daniela; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Holland, Gudrun; Bannert, Norbert; Wilharm, Gottfried

2009-12-18

133

Prdm9, a Major Determinant of Meiotic Recombination Hotspots, Is Not Functional in Dogs and Their Wild Relatives, Wolves and Coyotes  

PubMed Central

Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

Munoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vila, Carles

2011-01-01

134

Identification of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BC 2F 2 population developed from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa (cv IR64) and O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491) was used in an advanced backcross QTL analysis to identify and introduce agronomically useful genes from this wild relative into the cultivated gene pool. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify putative yield and yield component QTLs that

E. M. Septiningsih; J. Prasetiyono; E. Lubis; T. Tjubaryat; S. Moeljopawiro; S. R. McCouch

2003-01-01

135

Genetic diversity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and its wild relatives based on the analysis of hypervariable regions of the genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The genus Arachis is native to a region that includes Central Brazil and neighboring countries. Little is known about the genetic variability of the Brazilian cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, genome AABB) germplasm collection at the DNA level. The understanding of the genetic diversity of cultivated and wild species of peanut (Arachis spp.) is essential to develop strategies of collection,

Marcio Carvalho de Moretzsohn; Mark S Hopkins; Sharon E Mitchell; Stephen Kresovich; Jose Francisco Montenegro Valls; Marcio Elias Ferreira

2004-01-01

136

TAXONOMIC EVALUATION OF PUTATIVELY RELATED WILD POTATO SPECIES OF SOLANUM SERIES CUNEOALATA, INGIFOLIA, OLMOSIANA, PIURANA, AND SIMPLICISSIMA, BY MORPHOLOGICAL DATA FROM AN ANDEAN FIELD STATION IN PERU  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum series Piurana (15 species) is one of the nineteen tuber-bearing series recognized in Hawkes’ last taxonomic treatment of wild potatoes (section Petota) in 1990. Although it contains some of the morphologically most distinctive species in the section, its definition as a series has always be...

137

The expression of calcitonin gene-related Peptide and acetylcholine in the vestibular-related nucleus population of wild-type mice and retinal degeneration fast mice after rotary stimulation.  

PubMed

Due to the lack of an appropriate animal model, few studies have addressed the integration of visual and vestibular information in the visual system. Using a mouse model with a visual defect (retinal degeneration fast, rdf), we have verified that the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus (PrH) and the Kooy cap of the inferior olive medial nucleus (IOK) are key regions in which visual and vestibular information integrate. Although the integration regions were identified, the precise mechanisms of integration require further investigation. The rdf mice and wild-type Kunming mice were randomly assigned to experimental and control subgroups, respectively. Mice in the experimental groups were exposed to rotary motion for 30 min three times at 24-h intervals, whereas mice in the control groups were not exposed to rotary motion. Differences in the number of calcitonin gene-related peptide positive (CGRP-positive) and choline acetyltransferase positive (ChAT-positive) neurons in the vestibular-related nucleus populations of two types of mice were determined. After rotatory stimulus, the number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons in the PrH and the IOK was significantly less in rdf mice compared with that in wild-type mice. There were differences in the number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons in the other vestibular-related regions, but the differences were not significant, except the difference in the number of ChAT-positive neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus. The expression patterns of CGRP and ChAT were similar to that of Fos in the vestibular-related regions in the two types of mice after rotatory stimulus. The number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons and the number of active nerve cells were consistent in those regions in the two types of mice after rotary stimulus. Therefore, we speculated that CGRP and Ach generated and released by neurons in the PrH and the IOK may play roles in the sensory integration of visual and vestibular information in mice. PMID:24037277

Xiaocheng, Wang; Zhaohui, Shi; Ka, Bian; Junhui, Xue; Lei, Zhang; Feng, Xia; Guoqing, Yang; Lining, Feng; Zuoming, Zhang

2013-09-14

138

Major-effect QTLs for stem and foliage resistance to late blight in the wild potato relatives Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii are mapped to chromosome X  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find out new resistance sources to late blight in the wild germplasm for potato breeding, we examined the polygenic resistance\\u000a of Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We performed stem and foliage tests under controlled conditions in two diploid\\u000a mapping progenies. Four traits were selected for QTL detection. A total of 30 QTLs

Sarah Danan; Jean-Eric Chauvin; Bernard Caromel; Jean-Denis Moal; Roland Pellé; Véronique Lefebvre

2009-01-01

139

Evaluation of whitefly-mediated inoculation techniques to screen Lycopersicon esculentum and wild relatives for resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two consecutive years nine hybrids and three varieties of tomato, four Lycopersicon peruvianum and four Lycopersicon chilense\\u000a accessions were screened for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) resistance. Three inoculation techniques using Bemisia\\u000a tabaci, the vector of TYLCV, were compared: (1) artificial mass inoculation-simultaneous infection of cultivated and wild\\u000a material in greenhouses; (2) artificial cage inoculation-individual infection in insect-proof

Belén Picó; Ma. José Díez; Fernando Nuez

1998-01-01

140

Wild-type measles virus infection upregulates poliovirus receptor-related 4 and causes apoptosis in brain endothelial cells by induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.  

PubMed

Small numbers of brain endothelial cells (BECs) are infected in children with neurologic complications of measles virus (MV) infection. This may provide a mechanism for virus entry into the central nervous system, but the mechanisms are unclear. Both in vitro culture systems and animal models are required to elucidate events in the endothelium. We compared the ability of wild-type (WT), vaccine, and rodent-adapted MV strains to infect, replicate, and induce apoptosis in human and murine brain endothelial cells (HBECs and MBECs, respectively). Mice also were infected intracerebrally. All MV stains productively infected HBECs and induced the MV receptor PVRL4. Efficient WT MV production also occurred in MBECs. Extensive monolayer destruction associated with activated caspase 3 staining was observed in HBECs and MBECs, most markedly with WT MV. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not Fas ligand, was induced by MV infection. Treatment of MBECs with supernatants from MV-infected MBEC cultures with an anti-TRAIL antibody blocked caspase 3 expression and monolayer destruction. TRAIL was also expressed in the endothelium and other cell types in infected murine brains. This is the first demonstration that infection of low numbers of BECs with WT MV allows efficient virus production, induction of TRAIL, and subsequent widespread apoptosis. PMID:23771216

Abdullah, Hani'ah; Brankin, Brenda; Brady, Clare; Cosby, Sara Louise

2013-07-01

141

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD PYRUS COMMUNIS L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible European pears (Pyrus communis ssp. communis L.) are thought to be derived from wild relatives native to the Caucasus Mountain region and eastern Europe. We collected genotype, phenotype and geographic origin data for 145 P. communis individuals derived from seeds collected from wild relativ...

142

Transcriptional differences between the male-sterile mutant bcms and wild-type Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis reveal genes related to pollen development.  

PubMed

A novel male-sterile mutant which lacks mature pollen, Brassisa campestris male sterile (bcms), was identified in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). Genetic analysis revealed that bcms was controlled by a single recessive mutation locus. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on the flower buds of both the bcms mutant and the wild-type from which it originated, and profiling analysis indicated that there were numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the gene mutation. This mutation resulted in down-regulation of a variety of genes and up-regulated expression of a few other genes. A total of 51 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated: 32 specifically and 12 predominantly accumulated in wild-type flower buds, and two specifically and five predominantly accumulated in bcms flower buds. Sequence analysis showed that some of these TDFs share significant similarities with genes involved in different aspects of cellular development, such as signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis and regulation. Most other TDFs showed no or very poor sequence similarities to entries in any database and might represent new candidate proteins involved in pollen development. Furthermore, spatial and temporal expression pattern analysis of 20 genes derived from cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism in different tissues of both the bcms and wild-type plants revealed their complex and dynamic expression patterns. The bcms mutant and the genes isolated in this paper provide excellent material for future studies on the molecular mechanism of male sterility. PMID:18426481

Huang, L; Cao, J; Ye, W; Liu, T; Jiang, L; Ye, Y

2008-05-01

143

The effect of adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 on 5-fluorouracil chemosensitivity is related to p53 status in pancreatic cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: There are conflicting data about p53 function on cellular sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of adenovirus-mediated wild-type (wt) p53 gene transfer and 5-FU chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cells with different p53 gene status. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cell lines Capan-1p53mut, Capan-2p53wt, FAMPACp53mut, PANC1p53mut, and

Sven Eisold; Michael Linnebacher; Eduard Ryschich; Dalibor Antolovic; Ulf Hinz; Ernst Klar; Jan Schmidt

2004-01-01

144

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

145

IDENTIFICATION AND HERITABILITY OF FUMONISIN INSENSITIVITY IN ZEA MAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landraces of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and its wild teosinte relatives (Zea mays spp. parviglumis and mexicana) were surveyed for sensitivity to fumonisin B1, a phytotoxin produced by the maize pathogen Gibberella moniliformis. Only two of 42 Z. mays samples were highly-insensitive to FB1 (ED50 = ...

146

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

PubMed Central

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome (?607–656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurelie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

2011-01-01

147

Fecundity of transgenic wild–crop hybrids of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae): implications for crop-to-wild gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between crops and their weedy or wild relatives is an area of concern because the widespread use of genetically engineered crops may allow novel, beneficial transgenes to enter nearby populations. We compared fitness components of wild Cucurbita pepo from Arkansas, USA, with wild–crop hybrids derived from yellow squash (a cultivar of C. pepo with transgenic resistance to two viruses).

Lawrence J. Spencer; Allison A. Snow

2001-01-01

148

An insertional mutagenesis programme with an enhancer trap for the identification and tagging of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance in the tomato wild-related species Solanum pennellii.  

PubMed

Salinity and drought have a huge impact on agriculture since there are few areas free of these abiotic stresses and the problem continues to increase. In tomato, the most important horticultural crop worldwide, there are accessions of wild-related species with a high degree of tolerance to salinity and drought. Thus, the finding of insertional mutants with other tolerance levels could lead to the identification and tagging of key genes responsible for abiotic stress tolerance. To this end, we are performing an insertional mutagenesis programme with an enhancer trap in the tomato wild-related species Solanum pennellii. First, we developed an efficient transformation method which has allowed us to generate more than 2,000 T-DNA lines. Next, the collection of S. pennelli T(0) lines has been screened in saline or drought conditions and several presumptive mutants have been selected for their salt and drought sensitivity. Moreover, T-DNA lines with expression of the reporter uidA gene in specific organs, such as vascular bundles, trichomes and stomata, which may play key roles in processes related to abiotic stress tolerance, have been identified. Finally, the growth of T-DNA lines in control conditions allowed us the identification of different development mutants. Taking into account that progenies from the lines are being obtained and that the collection of T-DNA lines is going to enlarge progressively due to the high transformation efficiency achieved, there are great possibilities for identifying key genes involved in different tolerance mechanisms to salinity and drought. PMID:21647638

Atarés, Alejandro; Moyano, Elena; Morales, Belén; Schleicher, Peter; García-Abellán, José Osvaldo; Antón, Teresa; García-Sogo, Begoña; Perez-Martin, Fernando; Lozano, Rafael; Flores, Francisco Borja; Moreno, Vicente; Bolarin, María del Carmen; Pineda, Benito

2011-06-07

149

Taming the Wild Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

Allyn, Pam

2012-01-01

150

Blastomycosis in wild wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

Thiel, R.P; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

1987-01-01

151

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

152

Cannibalism among Wild Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANNIBALISM has been observed twice in East African chimpanzee populations. This behaviour is rarely seen among wild mammals and is hitherto unrecorded in non-human primates. It provides some basis for speculation concerning the relationship between the predatory and aggressive behaviour of chimpanzees.

J. D. Bygott

1972-01-01

153

Brucellosis in Wild Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents data on the role of wild animals and blood-sucking arthropods as vectors of brucellae under natural conditions in foci of brucellosis. The greater part of the monograph analyzes the course of experimental brucellosis infection in various...

M. M. Rementsova I. A. Galuzo E. V. Gvozdev

1987-01-01

154

Wild Termitomyces Species Collected from Ondo and Ekiti States Are More Related to African Species as Revealed by ITS Region of rDNA  

PubMed Central

Molecular identification of eighteen Termitomyces species collected from two states, Ondo and Ekiti in Nigeria was carried out using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The amplicons obtained from rDNA of Termitomyces species were compared with existing sequences in the NCBI GenBank. The results of the ITS sequence analysis discriminated between all the Termitomyces species (obtained from Ondo and Ekiti States) and Termitomyces sp. sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank. The degree of similarity of T1 to T18 to gene of Termitomyces sp. obtained from NCBI ranges between 82 and 99 percent. Termitomyces species from Garbon with ascension number AF321374 was the closest relative of T1 to T18 except T12 that has T. eurhizus and T. striatus as the closet relative. Phylogenetic tree generated with ITS sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank data revealed that T1 to T18 are more related to Termitomyces species indigenous to African countries such as Senegal, Congo, and Gabon.

Oyetayo, Victor Olusegun

2012-01-01

155

The Oscar Wilde Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

156

A Translocation Gives Insight into the Effects of Hybridization Between wild Populations: Implications for Understanding the Distributions of Closely Related Species.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If two populations are separated for long enough in evolutionary time, mixing them may result in hybrids with reduced fitness. Possible consequences of this are the development of mechanisms that reduce the chance of hybridization or the extinction of one or other of the two genotypes. In 1995, a number of freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) were translocated between two streams within the Brisbane River drainage. Later analysis of mitochndrial DNA revealed that the two populations were quite divergent genetically and had likely been separated for over 2 million years. Seven years after the translocation, the translocated genotype had sent the resident genotype extinct in the pool where the translocation took place, and in pools above and below in the stream. In this talk, I will present data from the next two generations and show that the translocated genotype has taken over all pools up-stream of the original site (a distance of over 2km), but has not become established more than 500 m below the site. Results suggest that survival of different genotypes within a generation are dependant on position in the stream (up-stream or downstream, but when fitness is calculated between generations, translocated genopyes are superior. Our findings will be related to a more general phylogeographic survey of the shrimp in eastern Australia.

Hughes, J.; Fawcett, J.; Cook, B.; Ponniah, M.

2005-05-01

157

[The wild boar of Egypt].  

PubMed

The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars. PMID:10488431

Manlius, N; Gautier, A

1999-07-01

158

DNA repository for wild rice relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of plant genetic resources is important and it is essential that many diverse methods are adopted including maintenance in natural conditions and representation in ex-situ collections. DNA Banks store extracted plant genomic DNA which is made available to researchers for phylogenetics, phylogeographics, population studies, gene discovery, pre-emptive breeding and marker development. The establishment of DNA banks facilitates high

Nicole F Rice; G Good; Robert J Henry

2008-01-01

159

Bagheera In the Wild: Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part a larger Bagheera website created by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about, and support activism for, endangered species issues. The Classroom site features an Activities section which provides many short activity ideas under headings like Use Your Imagination, and Inquire, Analyze and Compare. In addition to general activities for endangered species issues, Kasnoff provides a section on Activities Directed at Particular Species in the Case Studies. This site also includes a bibliography, glossary of related terms, and information about "problems facing endangered animals and what can be done to improve their chances of survival." Links are provided to other great sections of the In the Wild site as well, including information about extinct animals, animals facing extinction, and a Spotlight on important issues regarding endangered animals.

Kasnoff, Craig

160

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2013-07-01

161

Nucleotide Variation in Wild and Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The house mouse is a well-established model organism, particularly for studying the genetics of complex traits. However, most studies of mice use classical inbred strains, whose genomes derive from multiple species. Relatively little is known about the distribution of genetic variation among these species or how variation among strains relates to variation in the wild. We sequenced intronic regions of five X-linked loci in large samples of wild Mus domesticus and M. musculus, and we found low levels of nucleotide diversity in both species. We compared these data to published data from short portions of six X-linked and 18 autosomal loci in wild mice. We estimate that M. domesticus and M. musculus diverged <500,000 years ago. Consistent with this recent divergence, some gene genealogies were reciprocally monophyletic between these species, while others were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. In general, the X chromosome was more differentiated than the autosomes. We resequenced classical inbred strains for all 29 loci and found that inbred strains contain only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in wild mice. Notably, the X chromosome contains proportionately less variation among inbred strains than do the autosomes. Moreover, variation among inbred strains derives from differences between species as well as from differences within species, and these proportions differ in different genomic regions. Wild mice thus provide a reservoir of additional genetic variation that may be useful for mapping studies. Together these results suggest that wild mice will be a valuable complement to laboratory strains for studying the genetics of complex traits.

Salcedo, Tovah; Geraldes, Armando; Nachman, Michael W.

2007-01-01

162

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

163

DIVERSITY OF WILD PYRUS COMMUNIS BASED ON MICROSATELLITE ANALYSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible European pears (Pyrus communis subsp. communis L.) are derived from wild relatives native to the Caucasus Mountain region and Eastern Europe. Microsatellite markers (13 loci) were used to determine the relationships among 145 wild and cultivated individuals of P. communis maintained in the N...

164

Population structure and conservation of wild Pyrus communis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wild relatives of the edible European pears (Pyrus communis L.) are native to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. We have sampled 260 individuals of wild-collected Pyrus communis ssp. caucasica and Pyrus communis ssp. pyraster from their native habitats and used 13 microsatellite markers to determ...

165

29 CFR 780.207 - Operations with respect to wild plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as It Relates to Specific Situations Nursery and Landscaping Operations § 780...Operations with respect to wild plants. Nurseries frequently obtain plants growing wild...which are to be further cultivated by the nursery before they are sold by it....

2013-07-01

166

'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

167

First wild XXY house mice.  

PubMed

Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an XXY karyotype have ever been reported. Therefore, it is rather extraordinary that two wild XXY house mice were caught by us on two different farms in northern Italy in 2008. Except for the extra X chromosome, one male had a standard karyotype (2n = 40) and the other, the karyotype of the Cremona metacentric population (2n = 22). In this paper, the phenotype of these two individuals is described. Observations for both of these wild males agree with those of laboratory XXY mice, i.e., they had a normal body mass and appearance, but significantly smaller testes than normal, and no visible germ cells. The incidence of the XXY chromosome anomaly in wild mice (two among 5,123 wild mice surveyed by us and our colleagues, i.e., approximately 0.08% among wild-caught males) is intermediate between that found in male laboratory mice (approximately 0.04%) and that found in male humans (0.2%). PMID:20521165

Hauffe, Heidi C; Giménez, Mabel D; Garagna, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B

2010-06-03

168

Echinostomes in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Echinostomes are closely related to wildlife and occasionally have been found to infect domestic animals. The low specificity\\u000a of some species results in a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts acting as natural hosts, and a large geographic\\u000a distribution has been recorded. The zoonotic potential of echinostomes has been related to the ingestion of raw mollusks,\\u000a fishes, and amphibians

Arnaldo Maldonado

169

Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat  

PubMed Central

The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

2013-01-01

170

Wild Turkey Populations and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study Objective: Determine the perceived and actual magnitude of crop damage by wild turkeys and the consequences of expanded hunting opportunity for turkeys in the primary range. Performance: Technology Transfer and Reports. Conduct technology transfer, ...

J. F. Kubisiak

1996-01-01

171

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity  

PubMed Central

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

2009-01-01

172

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.  

PubMed

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment. PMID:21686920

Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

2009-04-28

173

Word Spotting in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a method for spotting words in the wild, i.e., in real images taken in unconstrained environments. Text found in the wild has a surprising range of difficulty. At\\u000a one end of the spectrum, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) applied to scanned pages of well formatted printed text is one\\u000a of the most successful applications of computer vision to date.

Kai Wang; Serge Belongie

2010-01-01

174

Molecular evolution of the Opaque-2 gene in Zea mays L.  

PubMed

The Opaque-2 gene (O2) in maize encodes a transcriptional activator that controls the expression of various genes during kernel development, particularly some of the most abundant endosperm storage protein genes. Compared to its wild relative teosinte, maize has bigger and heavier kernels, with an increased proportion of starch and an altered distribution of the various storage protein categories. The molecular evolution of the O2 gene was investigated in connection with its possible involvement in the domestication process. Most of the coding sequence and parts of introns, 5'UTR, and 3' noncoding regions were sequenced in a set of cultivated and teosinte accessions. One hundred six polymorphic sites (5.4%) and 72 insertions/deletions, located mostly in noncoding regions, were found. Molecular diversity was quite high (pi = 0.0138, theta = 0.0167) compared to that of other transcription factors in maize. The synonymous and nonsynonymous diversity patterns along the coding sequence suggested that different regions are submitted to different functional constraints. Such an evolution would probably be favored by the observed rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium with distance. Cultivated accessions retained about 70% of the diversity observed in teosintes. Purifying selection was detected in both maize and teosintes. No conclusive evidence was obtained for a role of the O2 gene in the domestication process. PMID:16132467

Henry, Anne-Marie; Manicacci, Domenica; Falque, Matthieu; Damerval, Catherine

2005-08-24

175

Oscar Wilde, Music, and the ‘Opium-Tainted Cigarette’: Disinterested Dandies and Critical Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how the musical references in Oscar Wilde's novel The Picture of Dorian Gray are important to the identity of the dandy, especially in relation to the literary-critical work of Matthew Arnold, whose guiding presence in Wilde's oeuvre has traditionally been somewhat underestimated. Wilde's male characters, although famously fond of music, reveal ‘disinterestedness’ in earnest musical pursuits, similar

Phyllis Weliver

2010-01-01

176

Population ecology of wild sunflowers: effects of seed density and post-dispersal vertebrate seed predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of seed density on the population dynamics of wild plant species with crop relatives will be vital in determining the potential effects of introducing traits into wild populations as a result of crop-to-wild gene flow. We examined experimental sunflower (Helianthus annuus) patches in eastern Kansas to determine the effects of seed density and predation on seedling recruitment

Charity L. Cummings; Helen M. Alexander

2002-01-01

177

Reproductive success of hatchery-produced and wild-born brown trout in an experimental stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Although releases of hatchery-produced salmonids to support conspecific wild populations have increased dramatically during recent decades, little information is available about the performance in the wild of hatchery fish and their offspring. Important factors determining the success and genetic outcomes of supportive breeding programmes include (i) the relative reproductive success of released hatchery fish in the wild, and

Johan Dannewitz; Erik Petersson; Jonas Dahl; Tore Prestegaard; Anna-Carin Lof; Torbjorn Jarvi

2004-01-01

178

Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

179

Homeotic Sexual Translocations and the Origin of Maize (Zea Mays, Poaceae): A New look at an old problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Origin of Maize Controversy, the Orthodox Teosinte Hypothesis (OTH; Beadle 1939, 1972; Iltis 1971), five key mutations\\u000a change 2-ranked (distichous) ears of teosinte (wild Zea) with a single row of grains per rank to 4- to many-ranked (polystichous)\\u000a maize ears with a double row of grains per rank. BUT teosinte ears are lateral to the 1° branch axes,

Hugh H. Iltis

2000-01-01

180

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-09-12

181

Quantitative determination of the boar taint compounds androstenone, skatole, indole, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol in wild boars (Sus scrofa) reveals extremely low levels of the tryptophan-related degradation products.  

PubMed

The major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole as well as the minor compounds indole, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol were determined in back fat samples of 23 male wild boars by applying a recently published SIDA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The boar pheromones androstenone, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol were found in extraordinary high concentrations, resulting in mean values of 3329ng/g androstenone, 1273 ng/g 3?-androstenol and 545 ng/g 3?-androstenol. Interestingly, skatole was not detectable in about 50% of the boars and negligibly low in all other samples as expressed by a mean skatole value of only 14 ng/g. Indole was also found in every sample, but again in low concentrations with a mean value of 40 ng/g. Possible factors explaining this remarkably low skatole deposition in wild boars such as intestinal flora and anatomy, dietary composition, housing or genetic predisposition are discussed in this paper. PMID:22980780

Fischer, Jochen; Wüst, Matthias

2012-07-14

182

Amplified fragment length polymorphism as a tool for molecular characterization of almond germplasm: genetic diversity among cultivated genotypes and related wild species of almond, and its relationships with agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis is a rapid and efficient method for producing DNA fingerprints and\\u000a molecular characterization. Our objectives were to: estimate genetic similarities (GS), marker indices, and polymorphic information\\u000a contents (PICs) for AFLP markers in almond cultivars; assess the genetic diversity of almond cultivars and wild species, using\\u000a GS estimated from AFLP fingerprints and molecular characterization; and

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; T. M. Gradziel; B. K. Epperson; Pedro Martínez-Gómez; E. Asadi

2007-01-01

183

Wild rice: the Indian's staple and the white man's delicacy.  

PubMed

Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) is an annual aquatic grass which grows in shallow lakes, marshes and in sluggish streams in various parts of the world. The grain of wild rice has been harvested by the Indians of the United States and Canada for many centuries. Explorers entering the territories of the Northern Lake States of America a few centuries ago described wild rice as a spontaneous crop which does not require plowing or sowing providing an abundant harvest of palatable and nourishing grain. Natural propagation assured the Indians of a yearly crop. As time passed, wild rice lost its importance as a staple for the Indian population, but it became a white man's delicacy because of its unique color and flavor characteristics. In the U.S. a commercial wild rice industry developed. The grain is now found on supermarket shelves, but at a rather high price compared to prices for other cereal grains. Today, most of the wild rice in the world is harvested as a cultivated crop from paddies in the state of Minnesota. Smaller amounts are produced in Wisconsin and in southern Canada. Wild rice has some desirable nutritional attributes. Its protein content is relatively high compared to other cereal grains. Wild rice is a good source of the B vitamins, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin and contains common mineral elements in amounts comparable to those in oats, wheat and corn. Wild rice is used as a main meal ingredient in regular or quick cooked form and has numerous possible secondary usages. Because of its good nutritional balance wild rice could help to provide another source of energy and quality protein for the diet of man. PMID:7030624

Lorenz, K

1981-01-01

184

Ribosomal Gene Structure, Variation and Inheritance in Maize and Its Ancestors  

PubMed Central

We have examined the structure of nuclear genes coding for ribosomal RNAs in maize and its wild relatives, the teosintes and Tripsacum. Digestion of the rDNA (genes coding for 18S, 5.8S and 26S RNAs) with 15 restriction endonucleases (with six base pair recognition sites) yields essentially a single map for the approximately 10,000 repeat units within an individual plant or species. Both length and site variation were detected among species and were concentrated in the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA repeat unit. This result is in agreement with patterns of rDNA change observed among wheat and its relatives (Triticeae), and among vertebrate species. Digestion of these nuclear DNAs with BamHI and subsequent hybridization with a 5S RNA gene-specific probe allowed determination of the size of the 5S gene repeat unit in maize, teosintes, and Tripsacum. Groupings in the genus Zea were characterized by distinct repeat unit types; five Tripsacum species examined shared a 260 base pair major repeat unit type. Additionally, several other restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns differentiated among the 5S DNAs within the genus Zea. The rDNA and 5S DNA restriction site variation among the species can be interpreted phylogenetically and agrees with biochemical, karyotypic, and morphological evidence that places maize closest to the Mexican teosintes. For both gene arrays, contributions from each parental genome can be detected by restriction enzyme analysis of progeny from crosses between maize and two distantly related teosintes, Zea luxurians or Zea diploperennis, but certain teosinte arrays were underrepresented in some of the hybrids.

Zimmer, E. A.; Jupe, E. R.; Walbot, V.

1988-01-01

185

Stalking the wild Tetrahymena.  

PubMed

We live on a microbial planet. Microorganisms dominate in terms of numbers of lineages, numbers of organisms, biomass and evolutionary innovations. Yet much remains to be learned about our microbial neighbours. We have gotten to know a few species that have been transformed into 'laboratory rats' (i.e. model organisms), but even here our understanding of the natural history of these lineages remains inadequate as there are few data from populations living in natural habitats. Zufall et al. (2013) move beyond this trend by providing insights into the natural history of Tetrahymena thermophila, a ciliate that has been used in many studies of cellular and molecular biology. Characterization of T. thermophila sampled from numerous ponds across this ciliate's range in Eastern North America reveals the following: (i) considerable differentiation among isolates, with the greatest diversity among lineages in New England, and (ii) a relatively small effective population size for this model ciliate. Such population data are fundamental for inferences about the origins of the numerous remarkable features of T. thermophila. PMID:23476937

Katz, Laura A; Turkewitz, Aaron P

2013-02-01

186

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WILD BOAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, wild boar numbers have increased worldwide. Wild boar can adapt to a wide range of habitats and foods and have the highest reproductive rate among ungulates. Therefore, wild boar can have a very substantial environmental impact and affect many ecosystem components. This paper summarises studies of the environmental impact of wild boar. Very few studies have quantified

GIOVANNA MASSEI; PETER V. GENOV

2004-01-01

187

Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

Showstack, Randy

188

Alliance for the Wild Rockies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to their mission statement, the goal of Alliance for the Wild Rockies (AWR) is to secure the ecological integrity of the Wild Rockies Bioregion through citizen empowerment and the application of conservation biology, sustainable economic models, and environmental law. The Rockies Bioregion includes wildlands in parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, Alberta, and British Columbia. At any given time, the group is working on several key issues in the Northern Rocky Mountains. These issues include protection of the bull trout and the grizzly bear, and bioregion-wide topics including wildfire and logging, and The Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act (NREPA).

189

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

190

Wild meat: the bigger picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive overhunting of wildlife for meat across the humid tropics is now causing local extinctions of numerous species. Rural people often rely heavily on wild meat, but, in many areas, this important source of food and income is either already lost or is being rapidly depleted. The problem can only be tackled by looking at the wider economic and institutional

E. J. Milner-Gulland; Elizabeth L. Bennett

2003-01-01

191

STARDUST WILD 2 DUST MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its passage through the coma of comet 81P\\/Wild 2 in January 2004 to collect dust particles for return to the Earth, instruments on Stardust made extensive measurements of the dust coma environment. The inner coma was characterized by many narrow jets, imaged by the Navigation Camera. Dust fluxes measured by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) revealed a highly

B. C. Clark; Z. Sekanina; P. Tsou; D. E. Brownlee

2007-01-01

192

Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.  

PubMed

The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili

2013-05-15

193

Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape ( Brassica rapa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative

Corinne Vacher; Arthur E. Weis; Donald Hermann; Tanya Kossler; Chad Young; Michael E. Hochberg

2004-01-01

194

PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE WILD SUBSPECIES OF ZEA MAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Z. mays ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana are the closest wild relatives to domesticated maize. Using isozyme and chloroplast evidence, this study examined how populations of these subspecies are related to one another, and how geography has structured the relationships between them. As some line...

195

Micropropagation of Indian wild strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of micropropagation based on an increased percentage survival of explants and reduced phenol-induced browning\\u000a in wild strawberry has been developed. Serial transfer of nodal explants was carried out at 24-, 48- and 96-h intervals. Nodal\\u000a segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (4.0 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (0.1\\u000a ?M) gave the best (94.4%)

Indra D. Bhatt; Uppeandra Dhar

2000-01-01

196

Babesiosis of wild carnivores and ungulates.  

PubMed

Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed insufficient. Experimental transmission of Babesia spp. from domestic to wild animals is usually only successful in closely related species, or after splenectomy. There are indications that endemic stability, similar to the situation in livestock, is the general pattern in Babesia sp. infections in wildlife. All lions in Kruger National Park were found to be infected with B. leo, which did not lead to clinical disease manifestation in artificially infected lions. Under stressful conditions, infections could flare up and be fatal, as purportedly happened to the famous lioness "Elsa". Similarly black rhinos, which can harbour Babesia bicornis without ill effects, may develop clinical babesiosis during confinement after capture. Zoo-bred animals, which were not exposed to Babesia spp. at a young age, may be fully susceptible when released into a natural environment where other members of their species occur. This could have major implications for ex situ conservation programmes aimed at bolstering natural wildlife populations. PMID:16500026

Penzhorn, Banie L

2006-02-24

197

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (;)

2007-06-01

198

Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

2011-01-01

199

Management Plan for Wild Turkeys in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America. Of six subspecies, the eastern wild turkey (M. g. silvestris) is the only one to have occurred in Pennsylvania. Wild turkeys are our largest gallinaceous game bird. The males, or gobblers, ...

W. E. Drake

1999-01-01

200

How to Support Wildlife and Wild Places  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guardians of the Wild® Guardians of the Wild is a prestigious group of NWF supporters who value America's wildlife and are ready to make a personal commitment to support NWF's conservation-through-education mission. With a gift of $100, $250 or $500, you can become a Guardian of the Wild. In return, you will receive a variety of special benefits including a

W. L. Doyle

2004-01-01

201

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

202

In vivo and in vitro studies to identify the hypoglycaemic constituents of Momordica charantia wild variant WB24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild bitter melon (the wild variant of Momordica charantia L.) native to the eastern region of Taiwan has been consumed by local residents as a folk medicine for the prevention or treatment of hyperglycaemia and related diseases, yet its hypoglycaemic activities and constituents have not been scientifically characterised. Thus, WB24, a strain of wild bitter melon originating from the eastern

Chi-I Chang; Hsin-I Tseng; Yun-Wen Liao; Chia-Hung Yen; Tz-Min Chen; Chen-Chen Lin; Hsueh-Ling Cheng

2011-01-01

203

Risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild Cucurbita pepo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. Investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. Viruses in natural plant populations

Karen D. Laughlin; Alison G. Power; Allison A. Snow; Lawrence J. Spencer

2009-01-01

204

Differential Reproductive Success of Sympatric, Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Wild Steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatchery propagation of salmonids has been practiced in western North America for over a century. However, recent declines\\u000a in wild salmon abundance and efforts to mitigate these declines through hatcheries have greatly increased the relative abundance\\u000a of fish produced in hatcheries. The over-harvest of wild salmon by fishing mixed hatchery and wild stocks has been of concern\\u000a for many years

Jennifer E. McLean; Paul Bentzen; Thomas P. Quinn

2004-01-01

205

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01

206

Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a costly respiratory viral disease of chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. We detected diverse coronaviruses by PCR in wildfowl and wading birds in England. Sequence analysis showed some viruses to be related to IBV.

Savage, Carol; Naylor, Clive; Bennett, Malcolm; Chantrey, Julian; Jones, Richard

2009-01-01

207

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

208

Diversity Relationships in Tetraploid Wild Potato Native to the USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of about 200 tuber-bearing Solanum wild relatives of the cultivated potato, only two are native to the USA, S. fendleri and S. jamesii. The former has lately been combined with four Mexican tetraploid species under the common name S. stoloniferum. The authors have used these of USA origin as model...

209

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

210

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J. S.; Bentler, K. T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S. A.; Minnis, R. B.; Campbell, T. A.; Barras, S. C.; Root, J. J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R. G.

2008-01-01

211

Wild Ungulate Farming Systems and Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

FARMING SYSTEMS Wild ungulate farming—that of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer, moufflon, and wild boar—in Italy is carried out with two main purposes: animal restocking and meat production. The first generally includes game for the restocking of shooting preserves (faunistico-venatorie and agri-turistico-venatorie private lands), since captive-reared ungulates should not be extensively used for reintroduction into the wild or restocking

E. Piasentier; S. Bovolenta; M. Viliani

2005-01-01

212

Stardust Dfmi Wild 2 Encounter Edr Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This data set contains raw data collected by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) flown on board the STARDUST spacecraft during the Wild 2 comet encounter on January 2, 2004. The data in this archive are organized into one table in standard PDS format. This table records dust events which resulted from the encounter with the particles surrounding comet Wild 2. The data in the table spans a 33 minute period surrounding the encounter with Wild 2.

Semenov, B. V.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Taylor, H. W.; Acton, C. H.

2010-01-01

213

Ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey on the ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae. The sources of information\\u000a were fieldwork in different regions of Mexico, as well as herbarium specimens and bibliographic references. A total of 34\\u000a wild species (26.5% of the 128 wild mexican species) of Cucurbitaceae are reported as used in 24 of the 32 states

Rafael Lira; Javier Caballero

2002-01-01

214

A Bt TRANSGENE REDUCES HERBIVORY AND ENHANCES FECUNDITY IN WILD SUNFLOWERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow from transgenic crops can introduce novel traits into related spe- cies, but the ecological importance of this process is unknown. Here, we report the first empirical evidence that wild plants can benefit from a bacterial transgene under uncaged, natural conditions. Cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is known to hybridize fre- quently with wild sunflower ( H. annuus) in

A. A. Snow; D. Pilson; L. H. Rieseberg; M. J. Paulsen; N. Pleskac; M. R. Reagon; D. E. Wolf; S. M. Selbo

2003-01-01

215

Bt crops: Predicting effects of escaped transgenes on the fitness of wild plants and their herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One prominent concern about genetically modified crops is the possibility of environmental impacts from the movement of fitness-enhancing traits to wild plant populations. Decisions to deregulate Bt crops in the USA have relied strongly on arguments that these crops will not interbreed with wild relatives in the permitted growing regions. Limited attention therefore has been directed to analyses of the

Deborah K. Letourneau; Gaden S. Robinson; Joy A. Hagen

2003-01-01

216

Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse - the possible life history of a spherically symmetric star; 37. Rotating black holes; 38. Black holes are not black - relativity theory and quantum theory; 39. The conformal structure of infinity; Part VII. Cosmology: 40. Robertson-Walker metrics and their properties; 41. The dynamics of Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann universes; 42. Our Universe as a Friedmann model; 43. General cosmological models; Bibliography; Index.

Stephani, Hans

2004-02-01

217

Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces paradoxus is the closest known relative of the well-known S. cerevisiae and an attractive model organism for population genetic and genomic studies. Here we characterize a set of 28 wild isolates from a 10-km(2) sampling area in southern England. All 28 isolates are homothallic (capable of mating-type switching) and wild type with respect to nutrient requirements. Nine wild isolates and two lab strains of S. paradoxus were surveyed for sequence variation at six loci totaling 7 kb, and all 28 wild isolates were then genotyped at seven polymorphic loci. These data were used to calculate nucleotide diversity and number of segregating sites in S. paradoxus and to investigate geographic differentiation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium. Synonymous site diversity is approximately 0.3%. Extensive incompatibilities between gene genealogies indicate frequent recombination between unlinked loci, but there is no evidence of recombination within genes. Some localized clonal growth is apparent. The frequency of outcrossing relative to inbreeding is estimated at 1.1% on the basis of heterozygosity. Thus, all three modes of reproduction known in the lab (clonal replication, inbreeding, and outcrossing) have been important in molding genetic variation in this species.

Johnson, Louise J; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Goddard, Matthew R; Hetherington, Richard; Schafer, Stefanie M; Burt, Austin

2004-01-01

218

Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).  

PubMed

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

2000-01-01

219

Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population

Christine Künzl; Sylvia Kaiser; Edda Meier; Norbert Sachser

2003-01-01

220

Characterization of Wild Pig-Vehicle Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-v...

J. J. Mayer P. E. Johns

2006-01-01

221

Food preferences of wild mountain gorillas.  

PubMed

Determining the nutritional and phenolic basis of food preference is important for understanding the nutritional requirements of animals. Preference is a measure of which foods would be consumed by an animal if there was no variation in availability among food items. From September 2004 to August 2005, we measured the food preferences of four wild mountain gorilla groups that consume foliage and fruit in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, to determine what nutrients and phenols are preferred and/or avoided. To do so, we asked the following questions: (1) Which plant species do the gorillas prefer? (2) Considering the different plant parts consumed of these preferred species, what nutrients and/or phenols characterize them? (3) Do the nutritional and phenolic characteristics of preferred foods differ among gorilla groups? We found that although some species were preferred and others were not, of those species found in common among the different group home ranges, the same ones were generally preferred by all groups. Second, all groups preferred leaves with relatively high protein content and relatively low fiber content. Third, three out of four groups preferred leaves with relatively high sugar amounts. Fourth, all groups preferred pith with relatively high sugar content. Finally, of the two groups tested, we found that the preferred fruits of one group had relatively high condensed tannin and fiber/sugar contents, whereas the other group's preferred fruits were not characterized by any particular nutrient/phenol. Overall, there were no differences among gorilla groups in nutritional and phenolic preferences. Our results indicate that protein and sugar are important in the diets of gorillas, and that the gorillas fulfil these nutritional requirements through a combination of different plant parts, shedding new light on how gorillas balance their diets in a variable environment. PMID:18567010

Ganas, Jessica; Ortmann, Sylvia; Robbins, Martha M

2008-10-01

222

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products.

2010-01-01

223

Age- and Gender-Related Changes in Ventricular Performance in Wild-Type FVB/N Mice as Evaluated by Conventional and Vector Velocity Echocardiography Imaging: A Retrospective Study.  

PubMed

Detailed studies in animal models to assess the importance of aging animals in cardiovascular research are rather scarce. The increase in mouse models used to study cardiovascular disease makes the establishment of physiologic aging parameters in myocardial function in both male and female mice critical. Forty-four FVB/N mice were studied at multiple time points between the ages of 3 and 16 mo using high-frequency echocardiography. Our study found that there is an age-dependent decrease in several systolic and diastolic function parameters in male mice, but not in female mice. This study establishes the physiologic age- and gender-related changes in myocardial function that occur in mice and can be measured with echocardiography. We report baseline values for traditional echocardiography and advanced echocardiographic techniques to measure discrete changes in cardiac function in the commonly employed FVB/N strain. PMID:23791351

Koch, Sheryl E; Haworth, Kevin J; Robbins, Nathan; Smith, Margaret A; Lather, Navneet; Anjak, Ahmad; Jiang, Min; Varma, Priyanka; Jones, W Keith; Rubinstein, Jack

2013-06-19

224

Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas. PMID:17914662

Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto

2007-10-04

225

FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS' CATS  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host.

Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien1, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

226

Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge.

2013-01-01

227

Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

Holubetz, Terry B.

1995-11-01

228

Stability in the patent race contest of Lee and Wilde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   To determine how expenditure and profits vary with the number of firms in the patent race contest of Lee and Wilde, it is\\u000a traditional to impose an ad-hoc stability condition on the best response function. This paper relates the stability condition\\u000a to the standard myopic adjustment mechanism and shows that a concave hazard rate function with non- increasing hazard

Kofi O. Nti

1999-01-01

229

Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research  

PubMed Central

Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice. Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived mouse stocks, loosely defined here as either wild-caught individuals or the recent progeny of wild-caught individuals, have much to offer to biogerontology research. Hence, the aims of this review are threefold: (1) to (re)acquaint readers with the pros and cons of using a typical inbred laboratory mouse model for aging research; (2) to reintroduce the notion of using wild-derived mouse stocks in aging research as championed by Austad, Miller and others for more than a decade, and (3) to provide an overview of recent advances in biogerontology using wild-derived mouse stocks.

2008-01-01

230

Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor  

PubMed Central

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (? = 0.0059), ? means Watterson's estimator of ?. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (? = 0.0027) when compared to rice and sorghum (? = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively). The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ?/? = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population based studies in foxtail millet.

2010-01-01

231

Immunotoxicology of Captive and Wild Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. As a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence th...

A. Fairbrother

1990-01-01

232

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

233

The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are collecting new information about the secret lives of wild animals using modern technologies like global tracking systems and ultra-miniaturized sensors. Learn about research into some rarely seen behaviors of deer, ocelots, agouti, zebras, dragonflies, and seals.

234

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)|

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

235

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field...

R. L. Schroeder

1985-01-01

236

Earliest wild-man sculptures in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depictions of the wild man in manuscript illuminations date back to A.D. 1000 or even earlier, but the oldest known sculputure is from the mid-thirteenth-century Notre-Dame de Semur-en-Auxois (Côte d'Or). An analysis of this wild man in the context of two adjacent figures and the sculpted tympanum behind them identifies him as the Old Testament character, Esau, and suggests that

John Tchalenko

1990-01-01

237

Wild Mandrillus sphinx Are Carriers of Two Types of Lentivirus  

PubMed Central

Mandrillus sphinx, a large primate living in Cameroon and Gabon and belonging to the Papionini tribe, was reported to be infected by a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (SIVmndGB1) as early as 1988. Here, we have identified a second, highly divergent SIVmnd (designated SIVmnd-2). Genomic organization differs between the two viral types; SIVmnd-2 has the additional vpx gene, like other SIVs naturally infecting the Papionini tribe (SIVsm and SIVrcm) and in contrast to the other SIVmnd type (here designated SIVmnd-1), which is more closely related to SIVs infecting l'hoest (Cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) and sun-tailed (Cercopithecus lhoesti solatus) monkeys. Importantly, our epidemiological studies indicate a high prevalence of both types of SIVmnd; all 10 sexually mature wild-living monkeys and 3 out of 17 wild-born juveniles tested were infected. The geographic distribution of SIVmnd seems to be distinct for the two types: SIVmnd-1 viruses were exclusively identified in mandrills from central and southern Gabon, whereas SIVmnd-2 viruses were identified in monkeys from northern and western Gabon, as well as in Cameroon. SIVmnd-2 full-length sequence analysis, together with analysis of partial sequences from SIVmnd-1 and SIVmnd-2 from wild-born or wild-living mandrills, shows that the gag and pol regions of SIVmnd-2 are closest to those of SIVrcm, isolated from red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus), while the env gene is closest to that of SIVmnd-1. pol and env sequence analyses of SIV from a related Papionini species, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), shows a closer relationship of SIVdrl to SIVmnd-2 than to SIVmnd-1. Epidemiological surveys of human immunodeficiency virus revealed a case in Cameroon of a human infected by a virus serologically related to SIVmnd, raising the possibility that mandrills represent a viral reservoir for humans similar to sooty mangabeys in Western Africa and chimpanzees in Central Africa.

Souquiere, Sandrine; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Robertson, David L.; Makuwa, Maria; Apetrei, Cristian; Onanga, Richard; Kornfeld, Christopher; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Gao, Feng; Abernethy, Katharine; White, Lee J. T.; Karesh, William; Telfer, Paul; Wickings, E. Jean; Mauclere, Philippe; Marx, Preston A.; Barre-Sinoussi, Francoise; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Simon, Francois

2001-01-01

238

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two- generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F1 and F2 hybrids and BC1 backcrosses to wild and farm salmon.

Philip McGinnity; Paulo Prodohl; Andy Ferguson; Rosaleen Hynes; N. o. Maoileidigh; Natalie Baker; Deirdre Cotter; Brendan O'Hea; Declan Cooke; Ger Rogan; John Taggart; Tom Cross

2003-01-01

239

Identifying the contribution of wild and hatchery Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to the ocean fishery using otolith microstructure as natural tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the contribution of wild (naturally spawned) and hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to the mixed-stock ocean fishery is critical to understanding their relative importance to the persistence of salmon stocks. The inability to distinguish hatchery and wild salmon has inhibited the detection of declines or recover- ies for many wild populations. By using Chinook salmon of known hatchery and

Rachel Barnett-Johnson; Churchill B. Grimes; Chantell F. Royer; Christopher J. Donohoe

2007-01-01

240

Accessing genes in the tertiary gene pool of rice by direct introduction of total DNA from Zizania palustris (wild rice)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of useful genes from wild relatives of crop plants has relied upon successful conventional crossing or the availability\\u000a of the cloned gene. Co-bombardment of rice callus with total genomic DNA from wild rice (Zizania palustris) and a plasmid containing a gene confirming hygromycin resistance allowed recovery under selection of transgenic plants with\\u000a grain characteristics from wild rice. Amplified Fragment

M. Abedinia; R. J. Henry; A. B. Blakeney; L. G. Lewin

2000-01-01

241

Genome-wide association analysis of aluminum tolerance in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley.  

PubMed

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroNment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-07-26

242

Frequency-dependent sexual selection among wild-type strains of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency-dependent sexual selection was studied using three geographically isolated strains ofDrosophila melanogaster. The Oregon-R and Canton-Special wild-type strains were essentially homogeneous, having been maintained in laboratories since 1925; the wild Macomb strain was relatively genetically heterogeneous, having been collected in September 1972, immediately prior to this investigation. All possible double combinations of the three strains were placed in separate chambers

Gilman N. Tardif; M. Rengo Murnik

1975-01-01

243

Genetic Analysis of Group Composition and Breeding System in a Wild Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established pedigree relations in three wild common marmoset social groups for which observational data were available, together with genotypes of some individuals from neighboring groups. Relatedness of 40 individuals were based on 11 microsatellite loci amplified from nDNA obtained noninvasively from plucked hair. The wild marmosets were only half as variable as a captive population characterized previously: 2–6 alleles\\/locus;

Caroline M. Nievergelt; Leslie J. Digby; Uma Ramakrishnan; David S. Woodruff

2000-01-01

244

Differences in the BAL proteome after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in wild type and SPA\\/- mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) has been shown to play a variety of roles related to lung host defense function. Mice lacking SP-A are more susceptible to infection than wild type C57BL\\/6 mice. We studied bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein expression in wild type and SP-A-\\/- mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae by 2D-DIGE. METHODS: Mice were infected intratracheally with K. pneumoniae and

Mehboob Ali; Todd M Umstead; Rizwanul Haque; Anatoly N Mikerov; Willard M Freeman; Joanna Floros; David S Phelps

2010-01-01

245

Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?  

PubMed

Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities. PMID:20872877

Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

2010-09-24

246

Exercise physiology of wild and random-bred laboratory house mice and their reciprocal hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

(VOzmax > during forced exercise and greater (+ 12%) relative ventricle masses than lab mice. Wild and hybrid mice also showed statistically higher swimming endurance times relative to body mass than lab mice, although these differences were insignificant when body mass was not used as a covariate. No significant differences were found for relative gastrocnemius muscle mass, liver mass, hematocrit,

MICHAEL R. DOHM; CHRISTOPHER S. RICHARDSON; THEODORE GARLAND

1994-01-01

247

High prevalence of porcine Hokovirus in German wild boar populations  

PubMed Central

Porcine Hokovirus (PHoV) was recently discovered in Hong Kong. This new Parvovirus of pigs is closely related to the human Parvoviruses 4 and 5 (PARV4/5) and bovine Hokovirus (BHoV). So far, nothing is known about the presence and prevalence of PHoV in regions of the world other than Hong Kong. A study was initiated to investigate PHoV in German wild boars from five different geographical regions, using a newly established quantitative real-time PCR assay. Analysis of collected liver and serum samples revealed high overall prevalence (32.7%; 51/156) of PHoV in wild boars. The prevalence differed between the regions and increased with age. Two near full-length genomes and a large fragment for three additional isolates from different regions were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The German PHoV sequences from wild boars showed a close relationship with sequences of isolates from Hong Kong.

2010-01-01

248

Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

Hill, E.F.

1988-01-01

249

The Space Place: Wild Weather Adventure!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the Wild Weather Adventure game by NASA. Your weather research blimp will explore Earth and its weather. With luck, skill, and strategy, you will race other weather research blimps to be first to travel all the way around the world and win the game. You can play with your friends or by yourself with a computer opponent. For every playerâs turn in the Wild Weather Adventure Game, the player must answer either a multiple choice or true or false question. Each question is rated as easy, medium, or hard. Players choose which level to answer.

Fisher, Diane

2006-10-13

250

Dual origin of the cultivated rice based on molecular markers of newly collected annual and perennial strains of wild rice species, Oryza nivara and O . rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct ancestor of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is believed to be AA genome wild relatives of rice in Asia. However, the AA genome wild relatives involve both annual and perennial forms. The distribution of the retrotransposon p-SINE1-r2, a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) at the waxy locus was analyzed in diverse accessions of the AA genome wild relatives of

Shinsuke Yamanaka; Ikuo Nakamura; Hirokazu Nakai; Yo-Ichiro Sato

2003-01-01

251

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

252

The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all

Yong-bo Liu; Zhi-xi Tang; Henri Darmency; C. Neal Stewart; Kun Di; Wei Wei; Ke-ping Ma

2012-01-01

253

Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles ( Crocodylus niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results presented describe and compare the fatty acid composition and melting properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Differences in fatty acid composition between intramuscular and adipose fat is noted in captive crocodiles, and the latter differs from wild crocodiles as a result of different diets. Adipose fat of healthy wild crocodiles differs minimally from

Gernot Osthoff; Arno Hugo; Henk Bouwman; Peter Buss; Danny Govender; Chris C. Joubert; Jannie C. Swarts

2010-01-01

254

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

255

Characteristics of wild blueberry–soy beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild or lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and soybeans (Glycine max L.) contain a variety of health-protective phytochemicals. The flavor of blueberries could mask beany flavors in soy beverages and thus broaden the appeal of soy. Four formulations were tested in a 2×2 design. Two sources of soy protein (isolate and soymilk powder) and two sweeteners (brown rice syrup and

R. M. Potter; M. P. Dougherty; W. A. Halteman; M. E. Camire

2007-01-01

256

Calicivirus Antibodies in Wild Fox Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three populations of wild foxes were sampled for serum neutralizing antibody to calicivirus (San Miguel sea lion virus) types 1-5. Neutralizing activity was detected in serum from gray foxes resident on Santa Cruz Island, California, but not in Arctic fox...

C. M. Prato T. G. Akers A. W. Smith

1977-01-01

257

Theorizing Scientific Literacy in the Wild  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper is to contribute to the effort of rethinking scientific literacy in a form that is appropriate for describing and theorizing its occurrence "in the wild," that is, in the everyday world that we share with others (as opposed to testing situations in classrooms and laboratories). Consistent with our commitment to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2010-01-01

258

Bioactive Properties of Wild Blueberry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Bioactive extracts from wild blueberries were isolated, fractionated, and analyzed. Antioxidant activity, cardioprotective capacity, and ability to inhibit the initiation stage of chemically-induced carcinogenesis were evaluated. Many fractions had antioxidant activity, especially those rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. The ease of isolation of bioactive compounds and the ability to obtain accurate bioassays depended strongly on the source material used.

M. A. L. Smith; K. A. Marley; D. Seigler; K. W. Singletary; B. Meline

2000-01-01

259

"Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

Thompson, Virginia P.

2012-01-01

260

Genetic variation among wild and cultivated populations of the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae).  

PubMed

To examine if the cultivation process has reduced the genetic variation of modern cultivars of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Coptis chinensis, the levels and distribution of genetic variation was investigated using ISSR markers. A total of 214 C. chinensis individuals from seven wild and three cultivated populations were included in the study. Seven ISSR primers were used and a total of 91 DNA fragments were scored. The levels of genetic diversity in cultivated populations were similar as those in wild populations (mean PPL = 65.2% versus PPL = 52.4%, mean H = 0.159 versus H = 0.153 and mean I = 0.255 versus I = 0.237), suggesting that cultivation did not seriously influence genetic variation of present-day cultivated populations. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that wild populations and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between a cultivar and its wild progenitor was 0.066 (G(st)), which was in good accordance with the result by amova analysis (10.9% of total genetic variation resided on the two groups), indicating that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild progenitors. For the seven wild populations, a significant genetic differentiation among populations was found using amova analysis (45.9% of total genetic variation resided among populations). A number of causes, including genetic drift and inbreeding in the small and isolated wild populations, the relative limited gene flow between wild populations (N(m) = 0.590), and high gene flow between cultivars and their wild progenitors (N(m) = 7.116), might have led to the observed genetic profiles of C. chinensis. PMID:18557908

Shi, W; Yang, C-F; Chen, J-M; Guo, Y-H

2008-07-01

261

Calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated enhancement of purinergic neuron/glia communication by the algogenic factor bradykinin in mouse trigeminal ganglia from wild-type and R192Q Cav2.1 Knock-in mice: implications for basic mechanisms of migraine pain.  

PubMed

Within the trigeminal ganglion, crosstalk between neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) contributes to neuronal sensitization and transduction of painful stimuli, including migraine pain, at least partly through activation of purinergic receptor mechanisms. We previously showed that the algogenic mediator bradykinin (BK) potentiates purinergic P2Y receptors on SGCs in primary trigeminal cultures. Our present study investigated the molecular basis of this effect in wild-type (WT) mice and Ca(V)2.1 ?1 R192Q mutant knock-in (KI) mice expressing a human mutation causing familial hemiplegic migraine type 1. Single-cell calcium imaging of WT cultures revealed functional BK receptors in neurons only, suggesting a paracrine action by BK to release a soluble mediator responsible for its effects on SGCs. We identified this mediator as the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose levels were markedly increased by BK, while the CGRP antagonist CGRP(8-37) and the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan inhibited BK actions. Unlike CGRP, BK was ineffective in neuron-free SGC cultures, confirming the CGRP neuronal source. P2Y receptor potentiation induced by CGRP in SGCs was mediated via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways, and after exposure to CGRP, a significant release of several cytokines was detected. Interestingly, both basal and BK-stimulated CGRP release was higher in KI mouse cultures, where BK significantly upregulated the number of SGCs showing functional UTP-sensitive P2Y receptors. Our findings suggest that P2Y receptors on glial cells might be considered as novel players in the cellular processes underlying migraine pathophysiology and might represent new targets for the development of innovative therapeutic agents against migraine pain. PMID:21389219

Ceruti, Stefania; Villa, Giovanni; Fumagalli, Marta; Colombo, Laura; Magni, Giulia; Zanardelli, Matteo; Fabbretti, Elsa; Verderio, Claudia; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea; Abbracchio, Maria P

2011-03-01

262

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WILD SONGBIRDS TO THE HOUSE FINCH STRAIN OF MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), caused by Mycoplasma gal- lisepticum (MG), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern North America. Although the house finch is most commonly associated with MG-related conjunctivitis, MG has been reported from other wild bird species, and conjunctivitis (not confirmed as MG related) has

K. L. Farmer; G. E. Hill

2005-01-01

263

Early maternal experience shapes offspring performance in the wild.  

PubMed

Both the environments experienced by a mother as a juvenile and an adult can affect her investment in offspring. However, the implications of these maternal legacies, both juvenile and adult, for offspring fitness in natural populations are unclear. We investigated whether the juvenile growth rate and adult reproductive traits (length, body condition, and reproductive investment at spawning) of female wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were related to the growth and survival of their offspring. Adult salmon captured on their upstream migration were used to create experimental full-sib clutches of eggs, which were mixed and then placed in artificial nests in a natural stream that lacked salmon due to a migration barrier. Four months later we resampled the stream to obtain family-level estimates of offspring size and survival. Mothers that had grown slowly as juveniles (as determined by scalimetry) but had invested heavily in reproduction (egg production for a given body length) and were in relatively poor body condition (somatic mass for a given body length) at spawning produced the largest eggs. Larger eggs resulted in larger juveniles and higher juvenile survival. However, after controlling for egg size, offspring growth was positively related to maternal juvenile growth rate and reproductive investment. The predictors of offspring survival (i.e., reproductive success) varied with the juvenile growth rate of the mother: If females grew slowly as juveniles, their reproductive success was negatively related to their own body condition. In contrast, the reproductive success of females that grew quickly as juveniles was instead related positively to their own body condition. Our results show that maternal influences on offspring in the wild can be complex, with reproductive success related to the early life performance of the mother, as well as her state at the time of breeding. PMID:23687888

Burton, Tim; McKelvey, S; Stewart, D C; Armstrong, J D; Metcalfe, N B

2013-03-01

264

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.; Krapu, G. L.; Nersessian, B. N.; Kenow, K. P.; Korschgen, C. E.; Chipley, W. H.; Conroy, M. J.

1996-01-01

265

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.

1996-01-01

266

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

267

Wild Bird Influenza Survey, Canada, 2005  

PubMed Central

Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted for 80% of the sample.

Bastien, Nathalie; Booth, Timothy F.; Bowes, Victoria; Buck, Peter A.; Breault, Andre; Caswell, Dale; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Davies, J. Chris; Elahi, Seyyed Mehdy; Fortin, Madeleine; Kibenge, Fred; King, Robin; Li, Yan; North, Norman; Ojkic, Davor; Pasick, John; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Robinson, John; Rodrigue, Jean; Whitney, Hugh; Zimmer, Patrick; Leighton, Frederick A.

2008-01-01

268

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

269

Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour. PMID:20719777

Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

2010-08-18

270

Reconstructing sibling relationships in wild populations.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of sibling relationships from genetic data is an important component of many biological applications. In particular, the growing application of molecular markers (microsatellites) to study wild populations of plant and animals has created the need for new computational methods of establishing pedigree relationships, such as sibgroups, among individuals in these populations. Most current methods for sibship reconstruction from microsatellite data use statistical and heuristic techniques that rely on a priori knowledge about various parameter distributions. Moreover, these methods are designed for data with large number of sampled loci and small family groups, both of which typically do not hold for wild populations. We present a deterministic technique that parsimoniously reconstructs sibling groups using only Mendelian laws of inheritance. We validate our approach using both simulated and real biological data and compare it to other methods. Our method is highly accurate on real data and compares favorably with other methods on simulated data with few loci and large family groups. It is the only method that does not rely on a priori knowledge about the population under study. Thus, our method is particularly appropriate for reconstructing sibling groups in wild populations. PMID:17646334

Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Sheikh, Saad I; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Ashley, Mary V; Caballero, Isabel C; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; Putrevu, S Lahari

2007-07-01

271

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions.  

PubMed

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host's natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV. PMID:23763792

Herrick, Keiko A; Huettmann, Falk; Lindgren, Michael A

2013-06-13

272

Characterization of recombinant H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from wild ducks in China.  

PubMed

Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIV). During active influenza surveillance in Poyang Lake of southeast China, we isolated and characterized 11 H9N2 viruses from two species of wild ducks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 isolates were almost identical with 99.3-100% nucleotide homology in their entire genome, and they all closely related in whole eight genes (95.6-99.4% homology) to human H9N2 isolates (HK/33982/2009) and clustered in the same sublineage. The isolates belonged to triple reassortant H9N2 genotype viruses containing Ck/Bei-like NA genes, Y439-like PA genes and six other G1-like genes. We also found that the subtype of virus replicated efficiently in the lungs and tracheas of BALB/c mice and caused mortality in 20-40% of infected groups after 3-6 days, which indicates that the subtype of virus is capable of establishing lethal mammalian infections. However, whether or not the virus has features transmittable from wild ducks to humans is not known. This study showed H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus for the first time in wild birds, and suggests that wild birds may carry the virus along migratory routes, highlighting the need for continued surveillance of wild birds. PMID:23830774

Zhu, Guangjian; Wang, Renjie; Xuan, Fujun; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao; He, Guimei

2013-06-14

273

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions...other species of live wild mammals may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for...but no such live wild mammals or any progeny...

2010-10-01

274

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions...other species of live wild mammals may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for...but no such live wild mammals or any progeny...

2009-10-01

275

Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Treesearch

Title: Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska ... fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. ... million estimated direct economic impact associated with wild salmon ecosystem services.

276

Fecundity Selection in a Sunflower Crop-Wild Study: Can Ecological Data Predict Crop Allele Changes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Genes that spread from transgenic crops to populations,of weedy,relatives can be a cause of concern if fitness-related, transgenic traits persist and enhance weed invasiveness. Studies of the prevalence,of crop-specific genetic markers,in wild populations,can provide data on such introgression. We conducted,a field experiment,in eastern Kansas to measure changes,in frequencies,of crop-specific genetic markers,in wild sunflower (Helianthus an- nuus). Three allozyme,markers,were monitored,in

Charity L. Cummings; Helen M. Alexander; Allison A. Snow; Loren H. Rieseberg; Min Ju Kim; Theresa M. Culley

2002-01-01

277

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-03-04

278

Biomolecule profiles in inedible wild mushrooms with antioxidant value.  

PubMed

The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC??) value 60 ?g/mL similar to the standard Trolox®). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds. PMID:21613974

Reis, Filipa S; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-05-25

279

In Situ Conservation of Wild Chiles and Their Biotic Associates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild congeners of domesticated crops increasingly serve as sources of genes for improving crop cul- tivars. Although wild congeners have been included in seed collections for ex situ storage, there has been little work to protect populations of these wild species in their natural habitats for in situ conservation. We as- sessed the distribution of chile plants ( Capsicum annuum

Joshua Jordan Tewksbury; Gary Paul Nabhan; Donald Norman; Humberto Suzan; John Tuxill; Jim Donovan

1999-01-01

280

Worldwide Occurrence of Feline Hemoplasma Infections in Wild Felid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from

Barbara Willi; Claudia Filoni; J. L. Catao-Dias; V. Cattori; M. L. Meli; A. Vargas; F. Martinez; M. E. Roelke; M.-P. Ryser-Degiorgis; C. M. Leutenegger; H. Lutz; R. Hofmann-Lehmann

2007-01-01

281

The Cost Efficiency of Wild Dog Conservation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from Kruger National Park, no other suitable reserves of sufficient size exist in South Africa that will hold a viable population of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Consequently, conservation efforts have been focused on creating a metapopulation through a series of wild dog reintroductions into isolated fenced reserves. Additional potential exists for conserving wild dogs on private ranch land. Establishing

P. A. LINDSEY; R. ALEXANDER; J. T. DU TOIT; M. G. L. MILLS

2005-01-01

282

Wild Parsnip (Pastinaca Sativa): A Troublesome Species of Increasing Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of us fondly associate parsnips with a rustic, home-cooked meal, there is also a wild variety that is increasingly causing problems as a weed in North America. The cultivated variety is a subspecies of Pastinaca sativa (Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa) and contains lower amounts of the problematic furanocoumarins than the wild version. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. PAVSA)

Kristine M. Averill; Antonio DiTommaso

2007-01-01

283

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

284

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

285

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

286

Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.  

PubMed

Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. PMID:21122483

Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

2010-10-08

287

Comparative transcriptomics reveals patterns of selection in domesticated and wild tomato  

PubMed Central

Although applied over extremely short timescales, artificial selection has dramatically altered the form, physiology, and life history of cultivated plants. We have used RNAseq to define both gene sequence and expression divergence between cultivated tomato and five related wild species. Based on sequence differences, we detect footprints of positive selection in over 50 genes. We also document thousands of shifts in gene-expression level, many of which resulted from changes in selection pressure. These rapidly evolving genes are commonly associated with environmental response and stress tolerance. The importance of environmental inputs during evolution of gene expression is further highlighted by large-scale alteration of the light response coexpression network between wild and cultivated accessions. Human manipulation of the genome has heavily impacted the tomato transcriptome through directed admixture and by indirectly favoring nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions. Taken together, our results shed light on the pervasive effects artificial and natural selection have had on the transcriptomes of tomato and its wild relatives.

Koenig, Daniel; Jimenez-Gomez, Jose M.; Kimura, Seisuke; Fulop, Daniel; Chitwood, Daniel H.; Headland, Lauren R.; Kumar, Ravi; Covington, Michael F.; Devisetty, Upendra Kumar; Tat, An V.; Tohge, Takayuki; Bolger, Anthony; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Xiong, Guangyan; Taylor-Teeples, Mallorie; Brady, Siobhan M.; Pauly, Markus; Weigel, Detlef; Usadel, Bjorn; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Peng, Jie; Sinha, Neelima R.; Maloof, Julin N.

2013-01-01

288

A genetic approach to the species problem in wild potato.  

PubMed

Wild potatoes are native to the Americas, where they present very wide geographical and ecological distribution. Most are diploid, obligate out-crossers due to a multiallelic gametophytic self-incompatibility (S) locus that prevents self-fertilisation and crossing between individuals carrying identical S-alleles. They have two alternative modes of reproduction: sexual (by seeds) and asexual (by stolons and tubers), which provide, respectively, for genetic flexibility in changing environments and high fitness of adapted genotypes under stable conditions. Since the early twentieth century, their taxonomic classification has been mostly based on morphological phenotypes (Taxonomic Species Concept). More recently, attempts have been made to establish phylogenetic relationships, applying molecular tools in samples of populations (accessions) with a previously assigned specific category. However, neither the reproductive biology and breeding relations among spontaneous populations nor the morphological and genetic variability expected in obligate allogamous populations are considered when the taxonomic species concept is applied. In nature, wild potato populations are isolated through external and internal hybridisation barriers; the latter, which are genetically determined, can be either pre-zygotic (pollen-pistil incompatibility) or post-zygotic (abortion of embryo, endosperm or both tissues, sterility, and hybrid weakness and breakdown in segregating generations). The internal barriers, however, can be incomplete, providing opportunities for hybridisation and introgression within and between populations and ploidy levels in areas of overlap. The widespread occurrence of spontaneous hybrids in nature was recognised in the mid-twentieth century. Using genetic approaches, results have been obtained that provide strong support to the assertion that populations are at different stages of genetic divergence and are not at the end of the evolutionary process, as presupposed by the Taxonomic Species Concept. Furthermore, since wild potatoes have uniparental and biparental overlapping generations, the Biological Species Concept - developed for sexually reproducing biparental organisms - cannot be applied to them. In this paper, morphological, genetic, molecular and taxonomic studies in wild potato are reviewed, considering the genetic consequences of their reproductive biology, in an attempt to shed light on the species problem, because of its relevance in germplasm conservation and breeding. PMID:22372767

Camadro, E L; Erazzú, L E; Maune, J F; Bedogni, M C

2012-02-28

289

Porphyrin interactions with wild-type and mutant mouse ferrochelatase.  

PubMed

Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe(2+) chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies of wild-type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into porphyrin. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. On the basis of changes in the UV-vis absorption spectrum, addition of free-base or metalated porphyrins to wild-type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a 1:1 complex, most likely a monomeric protein-bound species at the active site. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is substoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive lines and the vinyl vibrational mode in the resonance Raman spectra. Shifts in the resonance Raman lines of free-base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild-type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle. However, the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decompositions indicate a homogeneous ruffled deformation for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild-type ferrochelatase, whereas both planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has the structure-sensitive lines greatly upshifted relative to those of the free-base protoporphyrin in solution. This could be interpreted as an equilibrium between protein conformers, one of which favors a highly distorted porphyrin macrocycle. Taken together, these findings suggest that distortion occurs in murine ferrochelatase for some porphyrins, even without metal binding, which is apparently required for the yeast ferrochelatase. PMID:10704201

Franco, R; Ma, J G; Lu, Y; Ferreira, G C; Shelnutt, J A

2000-03-14

290

Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase  

SciTech Connect

Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has the structure-sensitive lines greatly upshifted relative to those of the free base protoporphyrin in solution. This could be interpreted as an equilibrium between protein conformers, one of which favors a highly distorted porphyrin macrocycle. Taken together these findings suggest that the mode of porphyrin distortion in murine ferrochelatase is different from that reported for yeast ferrochelatase, which requires metal binding for porphyrin distortion.

Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

1999-05-19

291

FLO11 is the primary factor in flor formation caused by cell surface hydrophobicity in wild-type flor yeast.  

PubMed

Some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm called a "flor" on the surface of wine after ethanolic fermentation, but the molecular mechanism of flor formation by the wild-type flor strain involved in wine making is not clear. Previously, we found that expression of the C-terminally truncated form of NRG1 (NRG1(1-470)) on a multicopy plasmid increases the hydrophobicity of the cell surface, conferring flor formation on the non-flor laboratory strain. Here we show that in Ar5-H12, a wild-type flor haploid strain, flor formation is regulated by NRG1(1-470). Moreover, the disruptant of the wild-type flor diploid strain (Deltaflo11/Deltaflo11) show a weak ability to form the flor. The expression of FLO11 is always high in the wild-type flor strain, regardless of carbon source. Thus FLO11 is primary factor for wild-type flor strains. Furthermore, the disruptant (Deltaflo11) shows lower hydrophobicity of cell surface than the wild type. However, the hydrophobicity of the wild-type flor strains grown in ethanol medium was much higher than those grown in glucose medium. These results indicate that cell surface hydrophobicity is closely related to flor formation in wild-type flor yeasts. PMID:16556982

Ishigami, Mari; Nakagawa, Youji; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Iimura, Yuzuru

2006-03-01

292

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkosek, Martin

2013-01-01

293

Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes are affected by the animal's social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules. PMID:23998668

Onyango, Patrick O; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

2013-07-01

294

Molecular detection of betanodaviruses from apparently healthy wild marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

One hundred eighteen samples (21 species) of wild marine invertebrates were collected from western and southern coastal area of Korean Peninsula. Four of 78 (18 species) samples collected at Namhae (South) area were positive for nodavirus in nested PCR test. Of the 40 samples (5 species) collected at Hwanghae (West) areas, all samples were negative for nodavirus in both RT-PCR and nested PCR tests. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the following species: Charybdis bimaculata Charybdid crab; Pandalus hypsinotus Southern humpback shrimp and Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean mussel. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial nucleotide sequence (177 bases) of the RNA2 coat protein gene showed that the four strains were highly homologous (100%) and closely related to that of the known betanodaviruses, redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). These results indicate that nodavirus is present from wild marine invertebrates in the southern coastal areas of Korean Peninsula. These subclinically infected marine invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source for betanodavirus infection and cause mortality in cultured fishes in Korea. PMID:18076900

Gomez, Dennis K; Baeck, Gun Wook; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choresca, Casiano H; Park, Se Chang

2007-11-07

295

Genetic relationship among cultivated and wild grapevine accessions from Tunisia.  

PubMed

We have used nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers to genotype cultivated and wild accessions of Vitis vinifera L. from Tunisia and assess their genetic relationships. Fifty-five distinct genotypes were identified among 80 cultivated accessions, including 18 genotypic groups containing between 2 and 5 accessions per group. They could represent a total of 60 distinct cultivars owing to berry colour variation found within identical genotype groups. Most of the 55 genotypes represent unique table grape genotypes except for one of them that was found identical to the genotype of table grape cultivar Rosseti. Hybridization among cultivars as well as self pollinations seems to have played an important role in their origin since several groups of closely related cultivars were observed. Furthermore, a parentage analysis showed a high probability for a parent hybrid relationship within two groups of three cultivars. No strong genetic similarities were found between cultivated and wild samples indicating that the cultivated accessions do not derive from local Vitis vinifera L. populations but could have been introduced from other regions in historic times. PMID:15644980

Snoussi, H; Slimane, M Harbi Ben; Ruiz-García, L; Martínez-Zapater, J M; Arroyo-García, R

2004-12-01

296

Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations  

PubMed Central

The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed.

Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

2012-01-01

297

Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

298

Genetic diversity of the wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic diversity of both wild and reared pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) collected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild population as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were relatively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance between the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overfishing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable artificial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is suggested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan; Quan, Cheng-Gan; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Zhang, Wen

2001-06-01

299

An example of a wild strange attractor  

SciTech Connect

It is proved that in the space of C{sup r}-smooth (r{>=}4) flows in R{sup n} (n{>=}4) there exist regions filled by systems that each have an attractor (here: a completely stable chain-transitive closed invariant set) containing a non-trivial basic hyperbolic set together with its unstable manifold, which has points of non-transversal intersection with the stable manifold. A construction is given for such a wild attractor containing an equilibrium state of saddle-focus type.

Turaev, D V [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Berlin (Germany); Shil'nikov, L P [National Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics, N.I. Lobachevskii Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

1998-02-28

300

A Bruce effect in wild geladas.  

PubMed

Female rodents are known to terminate pregnancies after exposure to unfamiliar males ("Bruce effect"). Although laboratory support abounds, direct evidence for a Bruce effect under natural conditions is lacking. Here, we report a strong Bruce effect in a wild primate, the gelada (Theropithecus gelada). Female geladas terminate 80% of pregnancies in the weeks after a dominant male is replaced. Further, data on interbirth intervals suggest that pregnancy termination offers fitness benefits for females whose offspring would otherwise be susceptible to infanticide. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that the Bruce effect can be an adaptive strategy for females. PMID:22362878

Roberts, Eila K; Lu, Amy; Bergman, Thore J; Beehner, Jacinta C

2012-02-23

301

Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds?†‡  

PubMed Central

We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacoronaviruses between duck species. In contrast, deltacoronaviruses may have more stringent host specificities. Our analysis of these avian viral and host mitochondrial DNA sequences also suggests that some, but not all, coronaviruses may have coevolved with birds from the same order.

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Ng, Erica M.; Tse, Tsemay M.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Poon, Leo L. M.

2011-01-01

302

Standing over and hugging in wild wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During six summers, I observed standing over (SO) and hugging in a pack of wild Wolves (Canis lupus) habituated to me. In SO, one Wolf positions its groin above a recumbent Wolf's nose. I observed SO among all yearling and older Wolves for 1-180 seconds ( = 69 | 46 S.D.; N = 16). SO appeared to be primarily female-oriented and may inform each Wolf of the reproductive status of the other. I observed hugging five times and only during years when food competition was minimal.

Mech, L. D.

2001-01-01

303

Variation in viral shedding patterns between different wild bird species infected experimentally with low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses that originated from wild birds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of infection with avian influenza (AI) virus varies significantly between taxonomic Orders and even between species within the same Order. The current understanding of AI infection and virus shedding parameters in wild birds is limited and largely based on trials conducted in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The objective of the present study was to provide experimental data to examine species-related differences in susceptibility and viral shedding associated with wild bird-origin low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in multiple duck species and gulls. Thus mallards, redheads (Aythya americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were inoculated experimentally with three wild mallard-origin LPAI viruses representing multiple subtypes. Variation in susceptibility and patterns of viral shedding associated with LPAI virus infection was evident between the duck and gull species. Consistent with the literature, mallards excreted virus predominantly via the gastrointestinal tract. In wood ducks, redheads, and laughing gulls, AI virus was detected more often in oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. The results of this study suggest that LPAI shedding varies between taxonomically related avian species. Such differences may be important for understanding the potential role of individual species in the transmission and maintenance of LPAI viruses and may have implications for improving sampling strategies for LPAI detection. Additional comparative studies, which include LPAI viruses originating from non-mallard species, are necessary to further characterize these infections in wild avian species other than mallards and provide a mechanism to explain these differences in viral excretion. PMID:21500030

Costa, Taiana P; Brown, Justin D; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E

2011-04-01

304

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

305

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

2007-01-01

306

Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies  

PubMed Central

The primary function of fruit is to attract animals that disperse viable seeds, but the nutritional rewards that attract beneficial consumers also attract consumers that kill seeds instead of dispersing them. Many of these unwanted consumers are microbes, and microbial defense is commonly invoked to explain the bitter, distasteful, occasionally toxic chemicals found in many ripe fruits. This explanation has been criticized, however, due to a lack of evidence that microbial consumers influence fruit chemistry in wild populations. In the present study, we use wild chilies to show that chemical defense of ripe fruit reflects variation in the risk of microbial attack. Capsaicinoids are the chemicals responsible for the well known pungency of chili fruits. Capsicum chacoense is naturally polymorphic for the production of capsaicinoids and displays geographic variation in the proportion of individual plants in a population that produce capsaicinoids. We show that this variation is directly linked to variation in the damage caused by a fungal pathogen of chili seeds. We find that Fusarium fungus is the primary cause of predispersal chili seed mortality, and we experimentally demonstrate that capsaicinoids protect chili seeds from Fusarium. Further, foraging by hemipteran insects facilitates the entry of Fusarium into fruits, and we show that variation in hemipteran foraging pressure among chili populations predicts the proportion of plants in a population producing capsaicinoids. These results suggest that the pungency in chilies may be an adaptive response to selection by a microbial pathogen, supporting the influence of microbial consumers on fruit chemistry.

Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Reagan, Karen M.; Machnicki, Noelle J.; Carlo, Tomas A.; Haak, David C.; Penaloza, Alejandra Lorena Calderon; Levey, Douglas J.

2008-01-01

307

Effects of Foliar Herbivory on Male and Female Reproductive Traits of Wild Radish, Raphanus raphanistrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this study, we examined how foliar herbivory affected the relative allo- cation to male and female reproductive traits in a hermaphroditic plant. In two experiments, one in the greenhouse and the other in a growth chamber, leaves of full sibling plants of the annual wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum, received one of four damage treatments to leaves (0, 25%

Kari Lehtila; Sharon Y. Strauss

1999-01-01

308

Extensive de Novo Genomic Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression From Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possible impact of alien introgression on a recipient plant genome, we examined 6000 unbiased genomic loci of three stable rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from intergeneric hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and a wild relative (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) followed by succes- sive selfing. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that, whereas the introgressed

Yong-Ming Wang; Zhen-Ying Dong; Zhong-Juan Zhang; Xiu-Yun Lin; Ye Shen; Daowei Zhou; Bao Liu

2005-01-01

309

Troop Extinction and Female Fusion in Wild Japanese Macaques in Yakushima  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed three cases of troop extinction and two cases of female fusion in the wild population of Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island, Japan. Troops P and T decreased in size relatively slowly over a few years until each troop consisted of only three monkeys. Several months later, the remaining adult female of P merged with the adjacent troop S,

Hideki Sugiura; Naoki Agetsuma; Shigeru Suzuki

2002-01-01

310

Restoring Wild Salmon to the Pacific Northwest: Framing the Risk Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 150 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. Each approach provided useful information to decision makers, but each also suffered from limitations, some relatively

Robert T. Lackey

2002-01-01

311

Tales from Camp Wilde: Queer(y)ing Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper questions the relative silence of queer theory and theorizing in environmental education research. We explore some possibilities for queering environmental education research by fabricating (and inviting colleagues to fabricate) stories of Camp Wilde, a fictional location that helps us to expose the facticity of the field's…

Gough, Noel; Gough, Annette

2003-01-01

312

Role of Wild Game in the Diet of Recreationists in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessors have devoted considerable attention to the consumption of fish in the diet of recreational and subsistence anglers, but little attention has been directed toward the percentage that wild game contributes to total protein intake for people who engage in hunting and fishing. While recall studies have limitations, the relative errors should be similar for different types of fish

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2002-01-01

313

Relationships among Fat Weight, Body Weight, Water Weight, and Condition Factors in Wild Atlantic Salmon Parr  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between fat content and condition indices in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr sampled from a wild population on a seasonal basis. Condition of individual fish was indexed by residuals from the least-squares regressions of fat weight, dry weight, wet weight, and water weight (separately on fork length) as well as by relative condition factor, Fulton's condition

Stephen G. Sutton; Tammo P. Bult; Richard L. Haedrich

2000-01-01

314

Rubisco activity is associated with photosynthetic thermotolerance in a wild rice (Oryza meridionalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oryza meridionalis is a wild species of rice, endemic to tropical Australia. It shares a significant genome homology with the common domesticated rice Oryza sativa. Exploiting the fact that the two species are highly related but O. meridionalis has superior heat tolerance, experiments were undertake...

315

Inherited Differences in Crossing Over and Gene Conversion Frequencies Between Wild Strains of Sordaria fimicola From \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination generates new combinations of existing genetic variation and therefore may be important in adaptation and evolution. We investigated whether there was natural genetic variation for recombination frequencies and whether any such variation was environment related and possibly adaptive. Crossing over and gene conversion frequencies often differed significantly in a consistent direction between wild strains of the fungus Sordaria fimicola

Muhammad Saleem; Bernard C. Lamb; Eviatar Nevo

2001-01-01

316

Ribosomal DNA variation in finger millet and wild species of Eleusine (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finger millet is an important cereal crop in the semi-arid regions of Africa and India. The crop belongs to the grass genus Eleusine, which includes nine annual and perennial species native to Africa except for the New World species E. tristachya. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation in finger millet and related wild species was used to provide information on the origin

K. W. Hilu; J. L. Johnson

1992-01-01

317

Multiple paternity in wild-caught Drosophila mojavensis.  

PubMed

Female remating frequency and sperm allocation patterns can strongly influence levels of sperm competition and reproductive success in natural populations. In the laboratory, Drosophila mojavensis males transfer very few sperm per copulation and females remate often, suggesting multiple paternity should be common in nature. Here, we examine female sperm loads, incidence of multiple paternity, and sperm utilization by genotyping progeny from 20 wild-caught females at four highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on indirect paternity analyses of 814 flies, we found evidence for high levels of multiple paternity coupled with relatively low reproductive output, consistent with the high levels of female remating predicted in this sperm-limited species. Overall, we found little evidence for last -- male sperm precedence though some temporal variation in sperm utilization was observed, consistent with laboratory findings. PMID:16780438

Good, Jeffrey M; Ross, Charles L; Markow, Therese A

2006-07-01

318

Spinal multifocal amyloidosis derived from wild-type transthyretin.  

PubMed

Abstract Spinal amyloidosis can occur as a part of systemic amyloidosis or as localized amyloidomas. However, the exact pathogenesis of the spinal amyloidosis remains to be fully understood. Transthyretin (TTR) is an amyloidogenic protein causing two kinds of amyloid diseases. One is senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA), which is caused by wild-type (WT) TTR and primarily affects cardiac functions. The other type is familial amyloidosis, which is mainly induced by mutated TTR. We report here the first case of multifocal spinal TTR amyloidosis derived from WT TTR with radiculomyelopathy and destructive spondylosis. The data and clinical manifestations suggest that the patient may develop SSA. Clinical manifestations of TTR-related amyloidosis may vary more than we previously thought. In spinal amyloidosis, WT TTR is one of the candidate precursor proteins for the disease. PMID:21627559

Sueyoshi, Takanao; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Sei, Akira; Misumi, Yohei; Oshima, Toshinori; Yamashita, Taro; Obayashi, Konen; Shinriki, Satoru; Jono, Hirofumi; Shono, Makoto; Ando, Yukio; Mizuta, Hiroshi

2011-06-01

319

William Wilde and the Early Records of Consumption in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland.

Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

2011-01-01

320

Wild-boar disturbance increases nutrient and C stores of geophytes in subalpine grasslands.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Wild-boar soil disturbance (i.e., rooting) increases the abundance of some species of geophytes (i.e., plants with underground renewal buds) in upland meadows. However, the mechanisms that could lead to such enhanced prevalence remain unexplored. • Methods: We analyzed the effects of wild-boar disturbance on the size, nutrient (N, P, K, C, and total ash), and nonstructural carbohydrate (soluble sugars, starch plus fructans, and total nonstructural carbohydrate) content of the storage organs of five taxa of upland geophytes. Results were explored in relation to the nutrient availability (total N, available P, and K) in the soil. • Key results: Wild-boar rooting increased the size and the nutrient content of the storage organs of geophytes. Such enhanced storage was further promoted by rooting recurrence and intensity. Although we could not detect a direct impact of rooting on soil nutrient concentrations, plants were clearly N limited and such limitation was ameliorated in areas rooted by wild boar. Furthermore, plant-soil interactions for N were different in rooted areas, where plant N-concentrations responded positively to soil N. • Conclusions: Geophytes growing in rooted areas have an increased nutrient value, which may promote the revisit of wild boars to previously rooted areas, with further positive feed-back effects on plant quality. This plant-animal interaction may shape upland geophyte communities. PMID:23997207

Palacio, Sara; Bueno, C Guillermo; Azorín, José; Maestro, Melchor; Gómez-García, Daniel

2013-08-30

321

Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kvá?, Martin

2013-07-12

322

Persistence of vigilance and flight response behaviour in wild reindeer with varying domestic ancestry.  

PubMed

Knowledge about changes in behavioural traits related to wildness and tameness is for most mammals lacking, despite the increased trend of using domestic stock to re-establish wild populations into historical ranges. To test for persistence of behavioural traits of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) exposed to hunting, we sampled DNA, vigilance and flight responses in wild reindeer herds with varying domestic ancestry. Analyses of 14 DNA microsatellite loci revealed a dichotomous main genetic structure reflecting their native origin, with the Rondane reindeer genetically different from the others and with least differentiation towards the Hardangervidda reindeer. The genetic clustering of the reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell, Ottadalen and Forollhogna, together with domestic reindeer, supports a predominant domestic origin of these herds. Despite extensive hunting in all herds, the behavioural measures indicate increasing vigilance, alert and flight responses with increasing genetic dissimilarity with domestic herds. Vigilance frequency and time spent vigilant were higher in Rondane compared to Hardangervidda, which again were higher than herds with a domestic origin. We conclude that previous domestication has preserved a hard wired behavioural trait in some reindeer herds exhibiting less fright responses towards humans that extensive hunting has, but only slightly, altered. This brings novel and relevant knowledge to discussions about genetic diversity of wildlife in general and wild reindeer herds in Norway in specific. PMID:22587024

Reimers, E; Røed, K H; Colman, J E

2012-05-15

323

Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia).  

PubMed

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Adám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

2010-10-29

324

Environmental variability in the early rearing environment generates behaviourally flexible cod: implications for rehabilitating wild populations  

PubMed Central

The release of hatchery-reared fishes for restoring threatened and endangered populations is one of the most controversial issues in applied ecology. A central issue has been to determine whether releases cause extinction of local wild populations. This may arise either through domesticated or non-local fishes hybridizing with wild fishes, or through inappropriate behavioural interactions; for example, many hatchery fishes show exaggerated aggressive and competitive behaviour and out-compete wild counterparts. The impact of the impoverished hatchery environment in shaping behaviour is only now receiving attention. Attempts to counteract hatchery-related behavioural deficiencies have utilized intensive training programmes shortly before the fishes are released. However, we show here that simple exposure to variable spatial and foraging cues in the standard hatchery environment generates fishes with enhanced behavioural traits that are probably associated with improved survival in the wild. It appears that fishes need to experience a varying and changeable environment to learn and develop flexible behaviour. Using variable hatchery rearing environments to generate suitable phenotypes in combination with a knowledge of appropriate local genotypes, rehabilitation of wild fishes is likely to succeed, where to date it has largely failed.

Braithwaite, Victoria A; Salvanes, Anne G.V

2005-01-01

325

Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes.

2013-01-01

326

Somatic variation in living, wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

While understanding somatic variability among wild primates can provide insight into natural patterns of developmental plasticity, published data for living populations are rare. Here we provide such information for two distinct wild populations of Lemur catta. Variants observed include microtia, athelia, and female virilization. Dental variants observed include individuals with supernumerary teeth, rotated teeth, maxillary incisor agenesis, and severe malocclusion. There was a sex bias in incisor agenesis, with 5 of 7 examples (71%) found in males. The frequency of dental variants in our sample is lower than that seen in many other lemuriformes, as well as other primates. This may be a product of their less derived dental formula and/or their relatively fast dental development. Amassing such data is a critical first step to assess if wild primate populations are exhibiting normal variability or are being affected by potential inbreeding and/or environmental effects. PMID:17878733

Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

2007-09-18

327

Histological spectrum of chronic hepatitis in precore mutants and wild-type hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

This study compares the histology of liver biopsies in precore mutant (PCM) and wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Thirty cases of PCM and 60 cases of wild-type HBV infection were included. Patients were diagnosed on the basis of serological profile and HBV DNA assessment. Liver biopsies in each case were assessed for histological activity and stage of fibrosis using a modification of Knodell's scoring system. There was no statistically significant (P=0.14) difference in histological activity in the two groups. The difference in stage of fibrosis in the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.001). Quantitative estimation of viral load did not show any correlation with liver histology. PCM HBV showed greater stage of fibrosis compared with wild-type infection, and this may be related to disease progression and lack of response to therapy. PMID:15267041

Sakhuja, Puja; Malhotra, Veena; Gondal, Ranjana; Sarin, Shiv K; Guptan, R; Thakur, Varsha

2004-07-01

328

RAPD-based study of genetic variation and relationships among wild fig genotypes in Turkey.  

PubMed

The fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is of significant socio-economic importance in Turkey, with 25% of the world's fig production. Genetic variation and relationships among 14 wild-grown figs sampled from Coruh Valley in Turkey were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Ninety-eight DNA fragments were scored after amplification of DNA samples with 13 random primers; 70% of the scored bands were polymorphic. Genetic distances between the fig genotypes ranged from 0.21 to 0.62. Genotypes 08-ART-02 and 08-ART-06 were found to be the most closely related, whereas 08-ART-09 and 08-ART-10 were the most distant. The 14 wild-grown genotypes were grouped into six main clusters and one outgroup. We conclude that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown fig genotypes. PMID:19768673

Akbulut, M; Ercisli, S; Karlidag, H

2009-09-15

329

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taï chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions.

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

330

Influence of Drought on Graminicide Phytotoxicity in Wild Oat ( Avena fatua ) Grown under Different Temperature and Humidity Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Controlled environmental experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxicity of several graminicides on wild oat\\u000a (Avena futua L.) as influenced by combination of drought and temperature stress or drought and low relative humidity. Compared with unstressed\\u000a conditions (20\\/15?C plus adequate soil moisture), imazamethabenz phytotoxicity to wild oat was reduced significantly when\\u000a plants were exposed to a combination of

H. S. Xie; A. I. Hsiao; W. A. Quick

1997-01-01

331

Influence of nutrient supply and plant growth regulators on phytotoxicity of imazamethabenz in wild oat ( Avena fatua L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of nutrient supply and plant growth regulators on the phytotoxicity of imazamethabenz in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) were evaluated in the greenhouse. Wild oat plants supplied with half-strength rather than one-eighth-strength Hoagland\\u000a solution were more susceptible to imazamethabenz, showing greater growth reduction in main shoot and tillers. The improved\\u000a herbicide efficacy at higher nutrient levels appeared related

Jian Fu Chao; William A. Quick; Andrew I. Hsiao; Hai Sheng Xie

1994-01-01

332

Genetic Diversity of Pto-Like Serine\\/Threonine Kinase Disease Resistance Genes in Cultivated and Wild Strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed based on conserved regions of several serine-threonine kinases (STK) previously\\u000a cloned in tomato and Arabidopsis, were used to isolate STK candidates in wild and cultivated strawberries. Seven distinct classes of STKs were identified\\u000a from three related wild species, i.e., Fragaria vesca, Fragaria chiloensis, and Potentilla tucumanensis, and seven different Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Alignment of the deduced amino

M. G. Martínez Zamora; A. P. Castagnaro; J. C. Díaz Ricci

2008-01-01

333

Performance Experiences on Sun?s WildFire Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents performance results from work done on Sun?s WildFire system. WildFire is a codename for a prototype shared memory multiprocessor developed by Sun MicrosystemsTM consisting of up to four unmodified Sun EnterpriseTM x000 series symmetric multiprocessors (SMPs). A goal of the WildFire system is to evaluate the effectiveness of leveraging large SMPs in the construction of even larger

Lisa Noordergraaf; Ruud van der Pas

1999-01-01

334

Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Wild Birds from Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean\\u000a wild birds (n = 37), 2000–2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal

Jungsoo Kim; Ju-Ryul Shin; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

335

Divergence in centromere structure distinguishes related genomes in Coix lacryma-jobi and its wild relative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the composition and structure of centromeres is critical for understanding how centromeres perform their functional\\u000a roles. Here, we report the sequences of one centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome clone from a Coix lacryma-jobi library. Two Ty3\\/gypsy-class retrotransposons, centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi (CRC) and peri-centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi, and a (peri)centromere-specific tandem repeat with a unit length of

Yonghua Han; Guixiang Wang; Zhao Liu; Jinhua Liu; Wei Yue; Rentao Song; Xueyong Zhang; Weiwei Jin

2010-01-01

336

Divergence in centromere structure distinguishes related genomes in Coix lacryma-jobi and its wild relative.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the composition and structure of centromeres is critical for understanding how centromeres perform their functional roles. Here, we report the sequences of one centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome clone from a Coix lacryma-jobi library. Two Ty3/gypsy-class retrotransposons, centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi (CRC) and peri-centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi, and a (peri)centromere-specific tandem repeat with a unit length of 153 bp were identified. The CRC is highly homologous to centromere-specific retrotransposons reported in grass species. An 80-bp DNA region in the 153-bp satellite repeat was found to be conserved to centromeric satellite repeats from maize, rice, and pearl millet. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the three repetitive sequences were located in (peri-)centromeric regions of both C. lacryma-jobi and Coix aquatica. However, the 153-bp satellite repeat was only detected on 20 out of the 30 chromosomes in C. aquatica. Immunostaining with an antibody against rice CENH3 indicates that the 153-bp satellite repeat and CRC might be both the major components for functional centromeres, but not all the 153-bp satellite repeats or CRC sequences are associated with CENH3. The evolution of centromeric repeats of C. lacryma-jobi during the polyploidization was discussed. PMID:19756690

Han, Yonghua; Wang, Guixiang; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Jinhua; Yue, Wei; Song, Rentao; Zhang, Xueyong; Jin, Weiwei

2009-09-08

337

Genetic diversity, structure, gene flow and evolutionary relationships within the Sorghum bicolor wild-weedy-crop complex in a western African region.  

PubMed

Gene flow between domesticated plants and their wild relatives is one of the major evolutionary processes acting to shape their structure of genetic diversity. Earlier literature, in the 1970s, reported on the interfertility and the sympatry of wild, weedy and cultivated sorghum belonging to the species Sorghum bicolor in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. However, only a few recent surveys have addressed the geographical and ecological distribution of sorghum wild relatives and their genetic structure. These features are poorly documented, especially in western Africa, a centre of diversity for this crop. We report here on an exhaustive in situ collection of wild, weedy and cultivated sorghum assembled in Mali and in Guinea. The extent and pattern of genetic diversity were assessed with 15 SSRs within the cultivated pool (455 accessions), the wild pool (91 wild and weedy forms) and between them. F (ST) and R (ST) statistics, distance-based trees, Bayesian clustering methods, as well as isolation by distance models, were used to infer evolutionary relationships within the wild-weedy-crop complex. Firstly, our analyses highlighted a strong racial structure of genetic diversity within cultivated sorghum (F (ST) = 0.40). Secondly, clustering analyses highlighted the introgressed nature of most of the wild and weedy sorghum and grouped them into two eco-geographical groups. Such closeness between wild and crop sorghum could be the result of both sorghum's domestication history and preferential post-domestication crop-to-wild gene flow enhanced by farmers' practices. Finally, isolation by distance analyses showed strong spatial genetic structure within each pool, due to spatially limited dispersal, and suggested consequent gene flow between the wild and the crop pools, also supported by R (ST) analyses. Our findings thus revealed important features for the collection, conservation and biosafety of domesticated and wild sorghum in their centre of diversity. PMID:21811819

Sagnard, Fabrice; Deu, Monique; Dembélé, Dékoro; Leblois, Raphaël; Touré, Lassana; Diakité, Mohamed; Calatayud, Caroline; Vaksmann, Michel; Bouchet, Sophie; Mallé, Yaya; Togola, Sabine; Traoré, Pierre C Sibiry

2011-08-03

338

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

339

Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug. Results We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on several different molecular pathways to reduce anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish. This study provides data that could help identify common molecular mechanisms of fluoxetine action across animal taxa.

2013-01-01

340

A simple protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars.  

PubMed

Insect hemocytes (equivalent to mammalian white blood cells) play an important role in several physiological processes throughout an insect's life cycle. In larval stages of insects belonging to the orders of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and Diptera (true flies), hemocytes are formed from the lymph gland (a specialized hematopoietic organ) or embryonic cells and can be carried through to the adult stage. Embryonic hemocytes are involved in cell migration during development and chemotaxis regulation during inflammation. They also take part in cell apoptosis and are essential for embryogenesis. Hemocytes mediate the cellular arm of the insect innate immune response that includes several functions, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, formation of nodules, phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign invaders. They are also responsible for orchestrating specific insect humoral defenses during infection, such as the production of antimicrobial peptides and other effector molecules. Hemocyte morphology and function have mainly been studied in genetic or physiological insect models, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. However, little information currently exists about the diversity, classification, morphology and function of hemocytes in non-model insect species, especially those collected from the wild. Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars. We use penultimate instar Lithacodes fasciola (yellow-shouldered slug moth) (Figure 1) and Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug) caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and show that sufficient volumes of hemolymph (insect blood) can be isolated and hemocyte numbers counted from individual larvae. This method can be used to efficiently study hemocyte types in these species as well as in other related lepidopteran caterpillars harvested from the field, or it can be readily combined with immunological assays designed to investigate hemocyte function following infection with microbial or parasitic organisms. PMID:23183567

Stoepler, Teresa M; Castillo, Julio C; Lill, John T; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

2012-11-15

341

Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.  

PubMed

Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of alternative occupational opportunities) that address variation in local activities that threaten plant and animal populations. PMID:21790785

Wittemyer, George

2011-07-25

342

Endocrine disruption, parasites and pollutants in wild freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Disruption of the endocrine system has been shown to occur in wild freshwater fish populations across the globe. Effects range from subtle changes in the physiology and sexual behaviour of fish to permanently altered sexual differentiation, impairment of gonad development and/or altered fertility. A wide variety of adverse environmental conditions may induce endocrine disruption, including sub-optimal temperatures, restricted food supply, low pH, environmental pollutants, and/or parasites. Furthermore, it is conceivable that any/all of these factors could act simultaneously to cause a range of disparate or inter-related effects. Some of the strongest evidence for a link between an adverse health effect, as a consequence of endocrine disruption, and a causative agent(s) is between the condition of intersex in wild roach (Rutlius rutilus) in UK rivers and exposure to effluents from sewage treatment works. The evidence to indicate that intersex in roach (and other cyprinid fish living in these rivers) is caused by chemicals that mimic and/or disrupt hormone function/balance in treated sewage effluent is substantial. There are a few parasites that affect the endocrine system directly in fish, including the tape worm Ligula intestinalis and a few parasites from the micropsora phylum. L. intestinalis acts at the level of the hypothalamus restricting GnRH secretion (resulting in poorly developed gonads) and is one of the very few examples where an endocrine disrupting event has been shown to result in a population-level effect (reducing it). It is well established that many parasites affect the immune system and thus the most common effect of parasites on the endocrine system in fish is likely to be an indirect one. PMID:14667177

Jobling, S; Tyler, C R

2003-01-01

343

Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon  

PubMed Central

While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild.

Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

2012-01-01

344

Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon.  

PubMed

While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F(1) females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

2012-10-01

345

Reintroductions and genetic introgression from domestic pigs have shaped the genetic population structure of Northwest European wild boar  

PubMed Central

Background Population genetic studies focus on natural dispersal and isolation by landscape barriers as the main drivers of genetic population structure. However, anthropogenic factors such as reintroductions, translocations and wild x domestic hybridization may also have strong effects on genetic population structure. In this study we genotyped 351 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers evenly spread across the genome in 645 wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Northwest Europe to evaluate determinants of genetic population structure. Results We show that wild boar genetic population structure is influenced by historical reintroductions and by genetic introgression from domestic pigs. Six genetically distinct and geographically coherent wild boar clusters were identified in the Netherlands and Western Germany. The Dutch Veluwe cluster is known to be reintroduced, and three adjacent Dutch and German clusters are suspected to be a result of reintroduction, based on clustering results, low levels of heterozygosity and relatively high genetic distances to nearby populations. Recent wild x domestic hybrids were found geographically widespread across clusters and at low frequencies (average 3.9%). The relationship between pairwise kinship coefficients and geographic distance showed male-biased dispersal at the population genetic level. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that wildlife and landscape management by humans are shaping the genetic diversity of an iconic wildlife species. Historical reintroductions, translocation and recent restocking activities with farmed wild boar have all influenced wild boar genetic population structure. The current trend of wild boar population growth and range expansion has recently led to a number of contact zones between clusters, and further admixture between the different wild boar clusters is to be expected.

2013-01-01

346

Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and closely related wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon and other non-transgenic crosses in hatchery-like conditions. In stream mesocosms designed to more closely emulate natural conditions, transgenic hybrids appeared to express competitive dominance and suppressed the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic (wild-type) salmon by 82 and 54 per cent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of environmental impacts of hybridization between a GM animal and a closely related species. These results provide empirical evidence of the first steps towards introgression of foreign transgenes into the genomes of new species and contribute to the growing evidence that transgenic animals have complex and context-specific interactions with wild populations. We suggest that interspecific hybridization be explicitly considered when assessing the environmental consequences should transgenic animals escape to nature. PMID:23720549

Oke, Krista B; Westley, Peter A H; Moreau, Darek T R; Fleming, Ian A

2013-05-29

347

Technical note: variation in muscle mass in wild chimpanzees: application of a modified urinary creatinine method.  

PubMed

Individual body size and composition are important variables for a variety of questions about the behavioral ecology and life histories of non-human primates. Standard methodologies for obtaining body mass involve either capture, which poses risks to the subject, or provisioning, which can disrupt the processes being studied. There are no methods currently available to assess body composition from living animals in the wild. Because of its derivation in muscle, the amount of creatinine that an individual excretes in 24 hours is a reliable and frequently used indicator of relative muscle mass in humans and laboratory animals. Although it is not feasible to collect 24-hour urine samples from wild primates, we apply here a simple method to approximate muscle mass variation from collections of spot urine samples. Specific gravity (SG), an alternative method for assessing urinary water content, is both highly correlated to creatinine and free of mass-dependent effects. Individuals with greater muscle mass should excrete more creatinine for a given SG. We examine this relationship in a dataset of 12,598 urine samples from wild chimpanzees in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. As expected from known differences in body composition, the slope of the relationship between SG and creatinine is significantly greater in adult males than adult females and in adults versus immature individuals. Growth curves generated through this method closely approximate published weight curves for wild chimpanzees. Consistent with the role of testosterone in muscle anabolism, urinary testosterone predicted relative creatinine excretion among adult male chimpanzees. PMID:23077085

Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W

2012-10-17

348

Lower Richness of Small Wild Mammal Species and Chagas Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n?=?649) were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11–89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance) was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test). Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease.

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, Andre Luiz Rodrigues; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Otaviano, Joel Carlos Rodrigues; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho; Jansen, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

349

Transport of Wild-Type and Recombinant Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Scavenging and Predatory Arthropods.  

PubMed

Wild-type and recombinant nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were compared in their capability to be transported over limited distances by the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and scavengers Sarcophaga bullata (Parker) and Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus) in Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) larvae infesting collards in a greenhouse microcosm. Viruses tested were variants of Autographa californica (Speyer) NPV (AcNPV): wild-type virus (AcNPV.WT), AcNPV expressing a scorpion toxin (AcNPV.AaIT), and AcNPV expressing juvenile hormone esterase (AcJHE.SG). Podisus maculiventris transported AcNPV.WT and S. bullata transported AcNPV.WT and AcNPV.AaIT. Prevalence and transport of AcNPV.WT were greater than those of AcNPV.AaIT and AcJHE.SG, regardless of whether the nontarget organism carriers were present or absent. Podisus maculiventris and S. bullata transported recombinant and wild-type NPVs at a rate of up to 62.5 cm/day, and A. domesticus transported wild-type NPV at 125 cm/day. The infected host insects, T. ni, undoubtedly contributed to viral transport in the current research. In every experiment, both the wild-type and recombinant virus spread to some degree in the plots without predators or scavengers. The relative amounts of NPVs that accumulated in soil, as indicated by bioassay mortality percentages, generally exhibited spatial patterns similar to those of T. ni mortality due to NPV on the collards plants. Thus, the predator and scavengers in the current research demonstrated some capacity to transport wild-type as well as recombinant viruses at significant rates in a greenhouse microcosm. PMID:10882435

Lee; Fuxa

2000-05-01

350

Seropositivity and Risk Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds from Spain  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n?=?610), Strigiformes (n?=?260), Ciconiiformes (n?=?156), Gruiformes (n?=?21), and other orders (n?=?32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ?1?25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC95%:23.5–28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) “vulnerable” Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN “near threatened” red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour.

Cabezon, Oscar; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-Lopez, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M.; Hofle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverria, Israel; Obon, Elena; Hernandez, Mauro; Lavin, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almeria, Sonia

2011-01-01

351

A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals  

PubMed Central

Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Paabo, Svante

2012-01-01

352

Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation.  

PubMed

Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; N(b)) was quite small (harmonic mean N(b)=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low N(b) caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman-Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman-Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness). PMID:22805657

Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

2012-07-18

353

Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramon A.; Vicente, Joaquin; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

2011-01-01

354

Performance of Generalist and Specialist Herbivores and their Endoparasitoids Differs on Cultivated and Wild Brassica Populations  

PubMed Central

Through artificial selection, domesticated plants often contain modified levels of primary and secondary metabolites compared to their wild progenitors. It is hypothesized that the changed chemistry of cultivated plants will affect the performance of insects associated with these plants. In this paper, the development of several specialist and generalist herbivores and their endoparasitoids were compared when reared on a wild and cultivated population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and a recently established feral Brassica species. Irrespective of insect species or the degree of dietary specialization, herbivores and parasitoids developed most poorly on the wild population. For the specialists, plant population influenced only development time and adult body mass, whereas for the generalists, plant populations also affected egg-to-adult survival. Two parasitoid species, a generalist (Diadegma fenestrale) and a specialist (D. semiclausum), were reared from the same host (Plutella xylostella). Performance of D. semiclausum was closely linked to that of its host, whereas the correlation between survival of D. fenestrale and host performance was less clear. Plants in the Brassicaceae characteristically produce defense-related glucosinolates (GS). Levels of GS in leaves of undamaged plants were significantly higher in plants from the wild population than from the domesticated populations. Moreover, total GS concentrations increased significantly in wild plants after herbivory, but not in domesticated or feral plants. The results of this study reveal that a cabbage cultivar and plants from a wild cabbage population exhibit significant differences in quality in terms of their effects on the growth and development of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Although cultivated plants have proved to be model systems in agroecology, we argue that some caution should be applied to evolutionary explanations derived from studies on domesticated plants, unless some knowledge exists on the history of the system under investigation.

Bukovinszky, Tibor; van Dam, Nicole M.; Dicke, Marcel; Bullock, James M.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

355

Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ?1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour. PMID:22216311

Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

2011-12-22

356

Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation  

PubMed Central

Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness).

Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

2012-01-01

357

Jittery, a Mutator Distant Relative with a Paradoxical Mobile Behavior: Excision without Reinsertion  

PubMed Central

The unstable mutation bz-m039 arose in a maize (Zea mays) stock that originated from a plant infected with barley stripe mosaic virus. The instability of the mutation is caused by a 3.9-kb mobile element that has been named Jittery (Jit). Jit has terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of 181 bp, causes a 9-bp direct duplication of the target site, and appears to excise autonomously. It is predicted to encode a single 709–amino acid protein, JITA, which is distantly related to the MURA transposase protein of the Mutator system but is more closely related to the MURA protein of Mutator-like elements (MULEs) from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). Like MULEs, Jit resembles Mutator in the length of the element's TIRs, the size of the target site duplication, and in the makeup of its transposase but differs from the autonomous element Mutator–Don Robertson in that it encodes a single protein. Jit also differs from Mutator elements in the high frequency with which it excises to produce germinal revertants and in its copy number in the maize genome: Jit-like TIRs are present at low copy number in all maize lines and teosinte accessions examined, and JITA sequences occur in only a few maize inbreds. However, Jit cannot be considered a bona fide transposon in its present host line because it does not leave footprints upon excision and does not reinsert in the genome. These unusual mobile element properties are discussed in light of the structure and gene organization of Jit and related elements.

Xu, Zhennan; Yan, Xianghe; Maurais, Steve; Fu, Huihua; O'Brien, David G.; Mottinger, John; Dooner, Hugo K.

2004-01-01

358

Gene pools in wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) from the Americas: evidences for an Andean origin and past migrations.  

PubMed

The aims of this research were to assess the genetic structure of wild Phaseolus lunatus L. in the Americas and the hypothesis of a relatively recent Andean origin of the species. For this purpose, nuclear and non-coding chloroplast DNA markers were analyzed in a collection of 59 wild Lima bean accessions and six allied species. Twenty-three chloroplast and 28 nuclear DNA haplotypes were identified and shown to be geographically structured. Three highly divergent wild Lima bean gene pools, AI, MI, and MII, with mostly non-overlapping geographic ranges, are proposed. The results support an Andean origin of wild Lima beans during Pleistocene times and an early divergence of the three gene pools at an age that is posterior to completion of the Isthmus of Panama and major Andean orogeny. Gene pools would have evolved and reached their current geographic distribution mainly in isolation and therefore are of high priority for conservation and breeding programs. PMID:19729069

Serrano-Serrano, Martha L; Hernández-Torres, Jorge; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis; Debouck, Daniel G; Sánchez, María I Chacón

2009-09-01

359

Fitness of backcross six of hybrids between transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum).  

PubMed

The process of introgression between a transgenic crop modified for better agronomic characters and a wild relative could lead potentially to increased weediness and adaptation to the environment of the wild species. However, the formation of hybrid and hybrid progeny could be associated with functional imbalance and low fitness, which reduces the risk of gene escape and establishment of the wild species in the field. Our work compares the fitness components of parents and different types of backcross in the sixth generation of hybrids between transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38) resistant to the herbicide glufosinate and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18). The backcross with oilseed rape cytoplasm (OBC) has a fitness value 100 times lower than that of the backcross with wild radish cytoplasm (RBC). The herbicide-resistant RBC has similar growth to the susceptible RBC, but final male and female fitness values are two times lower. In turn, susceptible RBC exhibit similar fitness to the control wild radishes. The relative fitnesses of the different types are the same whether or not they grow under competitive conditions. The consequence on fitness of the chromosome location of the transgene conferring resistance and the relevance of these results to the impact of gene flow on the environment are discussed. PMID:12144662

Gueritaine, G; Sester, M; Eber, F; Chevre, A M; Darmency, H

2002-08-01

360

Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow.  

PubMed

Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids--first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background--reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment. PMID:21402904

Ramsey, Justin

2011-03-14

361

Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow  

PubMed Central

Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment.

Ramsey, Justin

2011-01-01

362

Diarylheptanoids from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam).  

PubMed

A fractionation methodology aimed at the metabolomic mining of new phytoconstituents for the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), makes use of 1D qHNMR and 2D NMR profiles along the preparative fractionation pathway. This quantifiable and structural guidance led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids (1-14), including five new compounds (1-5) with a tetrahydropyrano core skeleton. The structures, including the absolute configurations of both new and previously known diarylheptanoids, were assigned by a combination of HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA), and Mosher's ester method. The isolation yields were consistent with yields predicted by qHNMR, which confirms the (semi)quantifiable capabilities of NMR-based preparative metabolomic mining. The qHNMR-aided approach enabled the identification of new and potentially significant chemical entities from a small fraction of the plant extract and, thereby, facilitated the characterization of the residual complexity of the D. villosa secondary metabolome. LC-MS profiling of different D. villosa accessions further confirmed that the diarylheptanoids represent genuine secondary metabolites, which can serve as a new class of markers for botanical integrity analysis of D. villosa. PMID:23245349

Dong, Shi-Hui; Nikoli?, Dejan; Simmler, Charlotte; Qiu, Feng; van Breemen, Richard B; Soejarto, Djaja D; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

2012-12-17

363

Vocal signature in wild infant chimpanzees.  

PubMed

A large array of communication signals supports the fission/fusion social organization in chimpanzees, and among them the acoustic channel plays a large part because of their forest habitat. Adult vocalizations convey social and ecological information to their recipients allowing them to obtain cues about an ongoing event from calls only. In contrast to adult vocalizations, information encoded in infant calls had been hardly investigated. Studies mainly focused on vocal development. The present article aims at assessing the acoustic cues that support individual identity coding in infant chimpanzees. By analyzing recordings performed in the wild from seven 3-year-old infant chimpanzees, we showed that their calls support a well-defined individual vocal signature relying on spectral cues. To assess the reliability of the signature across the calls of an individual, we defined two subsets of recordings on the basis of the characteristics of the frequency modulation (whimpers and screams) and showed that both call types present a reliable vocal signature. Early vocal signature may allow the mother and other individuals in the group to identify the infant caller when visual contact is broken. Chimpanzee mothers may have developed abilities to cope with changing vocal signatures while their infant, still vulnerable, gains in independence in close habitat. PMID:23229622

Levréro, Florence; Mathevon, Nicolas

2012-12-10

364

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons.  

PubMed Central

Mammals commonly avoid mating with maternal kin, probably as a result of selection for inbreeding avoidance. Mating with paternal kin should be selected against for the same reason. However, identifying paternal kin may be more difficult than identifying maternal kin in species where the mother mates with more than one male. Selection should nonetheless favour a mechanism of paternal kin recognition that allows the same level of discrimination among paternal as among maternal kin, but the hypothesis that paternal kin avoid each other as mates is largely untested in large mammals such as primates. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels of affiliative and sexual behaviour during sexual consortships than non-kin, although paternal siblings were not significantly less likely to consort than non-kin. I also examined age proximity as a possible social cue of paternal relatedness, because age cohorts are likely to be paternal sibships. Pairs born within two years of each other were less likely to engage in sexual consortships than pairs born at greater intervals, and were less affiliative and sexual when they did consort. Age proximity may thus be an important social cue for paternal relatedness, and phenotype matching based on shared paternal traits may play a role as well.

Alberts, S C

1999-01-01

365

Hybridization between escaped domestic and wild American mink ( Neovison vison )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of domesticated organisms into natural populations may adversely affect these populations through predation, resource competition, and the introduction of disease. Additionally, the potential for hybridization between wild and domestic conspecifics is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. Wild American mink (Neovison vison) populations may be threatened not only by competi-

A. G. KIDD; J. BOWMAN; D. LESBARRÈRES; A. I. SCHULTE-HOSTEDDE

2009-01-01

366

Conserving Orthoptera in the wild: lessons from Trimerotropis infantilis (Oedipodinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopteran species are increasingly threatened with extinction in the wild. I review the state of orthopteran conservation in the wild, focusing on unique challenges facing these efforts. To provide a basis for discussion, I first review conservation efforts for Trimerotropis infantilis, the Zayante bandwinged grasshopper, which was the first orthopteran given official protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. I

J. M. Hoekstra

1998-01-01

367

Response of Wild Rice to Selected Aquatic Herbicides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invasion of exotic plants such as Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) has contributed to the decline and displacement of native wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) populations in many U.S. water bodies. Wild rice is a popular food source for ...

L. S. Nelson C. S. Owens K. D. Getsinger

2003-01-01

368

CERTIFICATION OF WILD COFFEE IN ETHIOPIA: EXPERIENCES AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffea arabica originates from montane forests in South and Southwest Ethiopia, part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region. Wild coffee refers to coffee that grows and regenerates spontaneously in these forests and that is genetically different from commercial cultivars. Wild coffee is collected as a non-timber forest product both from little disturbed forest as well as from more intensively

K. F. WIERSUM; T. W. GOLE; F. GATZWEILER; J. VOLKMANN; E. BOGNETTEAU; OLANI WIRTU

2008-01-01

369

Hybridization barriers between diploid Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum raphanifolium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild potato germplasm represents a unique, diverse and accessible resource for disease and pest resistance, along with useful agronomic traits that may be introgressed into the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Hybridization of diploid wild Solanum species with haploids (2x) of cultivated po...

370

Omega3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase

ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS

2004-01-01

371

Microsatellite DNA Analysis of Wild Hops, Humulus lupulus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationships and genetic diversity among wild hops, Humulus lupulus, we analyzed 133 samples of wild hops collected from Europe, Asia and North America using polymorphism on 11 microsatellite loci. Although only three primers showed bands in Japanese hops, all other samples showed polymorphic bands at most loci. There were no duplicate genotypes among samples of European, Chinese

Atsushi Murakami; Peter Darby; Branka Javornik; Maria S. S. Pais; Elisabeth Seigner; Anton Lutz; Petr Svoboda

2006-01-01

372

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

373

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions

Jennifer S Ford; Ransom A Myers

2008-01-01

374

THE REINTRODUCTION OF ORPHANED GRIZZLY BEAR CUBS INTO THE WILD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques can be used to return captured orphaned bear cubs to the wild. They can be released immediately in suitable habitat, be adopted by another female with young, or be fattened and then released. The last technique was used successfully to return to the wild an orphaned cub obtained by the Border Grizzly Project of the University of Montana

CHARLES JONKEL; PETER HUSBY; RICHARD RUSSELL; JOHN BEECHAM

375

The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than six large groups of wild chimpanzees in the study area, which is in the north-eastern part of the Mahali Mountains of Western Tanzainia. One of these groups was provisionized, that is, customarily fed sugar cane and bananas. The characteristics of the social group of wild chimpanzees are clarified by long-term observation of the baited population. The

Toshisada Nishida

1968-01-01

376

High-Density Dependence But Low Impact on Selected Reproduction Parameters of Brucella suis Biovar 2 in Wild Boar Hunting Estates from South-Western Spain.  

PubMed

Porcine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella suis, which is characterized by reproductive disorders in pigs. The number of cases of swine brucellosis has risen in many European countries, likely because of the presence of a wild reservoir of B. suis in wild boar. This study aimed at evaluating factors that may influence the probability of infection with Brucella spp. in wild boar and at assessing the impact of a previous contact with Brucella spp. on reproductive parameters of wild boar. Two hundred and four wild boar living in Extremadura (south-western Spain) were studied. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies was determined using an indirect ELISA, while the presence of living bacteria in genital organs was evaluated through microbiological cultures. Sex, age, density of wild boar in summer and presence of outdoor pigs were selected as possible risk factors for being seropositive for Brucella spp. in wild boar. In addition, reproductive parameters such as breeding status or potential fertility in females and testis weight in males were estimated and related to the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 121 animals were seropositive, resulting in a prevalence of 59.3% (95% CI). In addition, seven isolates of B. suis biovar 2 were obtained. Wild boar density in summer, as well as age and sex, was proposed as factors to explain the probability of Brucella seroconversion, although wild boar density in summer was the key factor. Current measures of reproductive parameters were not influenced by a previous contact with Brucella spp. Isolation of B. suis confirms that wild boar could represent a risk to domestic pig health in the study area. Wild boar density seems to have a great influence in the probability of infections with B. suis and suggests that density management could be useful to control Brucella infection in wild boar. PMID:23347330

Risco, D; García, A; Serrano, E; Fernandez-Llario, P; Benítez, J M; Martínez, R; García, W L; de Mendoza, J Hermoso

2013-01-24

377

H-2 antigen frequencies among wild mice from Chile.  

PubMed

Thirty-five wild mice (Mus musculus L.) were captured at four different localities in Chile. The mice were typed for the presence of 15 K-, 11 D-, 14 A-, and two E-region H-2 antigens, using the complement-antibody microcytotoxicity assay. The mice from the sample representing the largest locality had a characteristic antigenic profile distinguishing them from other mouse populations thus far studied. With respect to class I H-2 antigens, the profile was characterized by the presence of antigens H-2K.16, 31, 103, 19, 108, 21, 33, 26, 115, and H-2D.4, 106, 30, 32, 111, 114, and 18 (in order of decreasing antigen frequency), and by the absence of antigens H-2K.15, 17, 20, 113, 116 and H-2D.2, 9, 110, and 112. The profile was, furthermore, characterized by the relatively high frequency of antigens H-2K.16, 31, and H-2D.4 and 106. The profile of class II antigens was also unique to the Chilean population but less conspicuously so than that of the class I antigens. Analysis of antigenic associations suggested that among the 34% blank H-2K alleles there were at least two coding for relatively frequent but as yet unidentified K antigens. Similarly, among the 57% blanks at the H-2D locus there were at least two frequent alleles encoding unidentified D antigens. Analysis of genetic distances suggested similarity between South American mice and mice from coastal regions of Europe. PMID:7314065

Figueroa, F; Klein, J

1981-03-01

378

Corynebacterium sphenisci sp. nov., isolated from wild penguins.  

PubMed

Six unidentified gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms recovered from the cloacae of apparently healthy wild penguins were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of a cell wall based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and long-chain cellular fatty acids of the straight-chain saturated and monounsaturated types, consistent with the genus Corynebacterium. Corynomycolic acids, which are characteristic of the genus, were also detected, albeit in small amounts. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies showed that the unidentified organisms were phylogenetically related to corynebacteria and represent a novel subline associated with a small subcluster of species that includes Corynebacterium xerosis, Corynebacterium amycolatum and Corynebacterium freneyi. The unknown isolates were readily distinguished from their closest phylogenetic relatives and all other Corynebacterium species with validly published names by using a combination of biochemical and chemotaxonomic criteria. Based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence considerations, it is proposed that the unknown isolates recovered from penguins be classified as a novel species in the genus Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium sphenisci sp. nov. The type strain is CECT 5990T (= CCUG 46398T). PMID:12892119

Goyache, J; Ballesteros, C; Vela, A I; Collins, M D; Briones, V; Hutson, R A; Potti, J; García-Borboroglu, P; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

2003-07-01

379

In Situ Phylogenetic Structure and Diversity of Wild Bradyrhizobium Communities? †  

PubMed Central

Bacteria often infect their hosts from environmental sources, but little is known about how environmental and host-infecting populations are related. Here, phylogenetic clustering and diversity were investigated in a natural community of rhizobial bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium. These bacteria live in the soil and also form beneficial root nodule symbioses with legumes, including those in the genus Lotus. Two hundred eighty pure cultures of Bradyrhizobium bacteria were isolated and genotyped from wild hosts, including Lotus angustissimus, Lotus heermannii, Lotus micranthus, and Lotus strigosus. Bacteria were cultured directly from symbiotic nodules and from two microenvironments on the soil-root interface: root tips and mature (old) root surfaces. Bayesian phylogenies of Bradyrhizobium isolates were reconstructed using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the structure of phylogenetic relatedness among bacteria was examined by host species and microenvironment. Inoculation assays were performed to confirm the nodulation status of a subset of isolates. Most recovered rhizobial genotypes were unique and found only in root surface communities, where little bacterial population genetic structure was detected among hosts. Conversely, most nodule isolates could be classified into several related, hyper-abundant genotypes that were phylogenetically clustered within host species. This pattern suggests that host infection provides ample rewards to symbiotic bacteria but that host specificity can strongly structure only a small subset of the rhizobial community.

Sachs, J. L.; Kembel, S. W.; Lau, A. H.; Simms, E. L.

2009-01-01

380

The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee.  

PubMed

Great ape gestural communication is known to be intentional, elaborate and flexible; yet there is controversy over the best interpretation of the system and how gestures are acquired, perhaps because most studies have been made in restricted, captive settings. Here, we report the first systematic analysis of gesture in a population of wild chimpanzees. Over 266 days of observation, we recorded 4,397 cases of intentional gesture use in the Sonso community, Budongo, Uganda. We describe 66 distinct gesture types: this estimate appears close to asymptote, and the Sonso repertoire includes most gestures described informally at other sites. Differences in repertoire were noted between individuals and age classes, but in both cases, the measured repertoire size was predicted by the time subjects were observed gesturing. No idiosyncratic usages were found, i.e. no gesture type was used only by one individual. No support was found for the idea that gestures are acquired by 'ontogenetic ritualization' from originally effective actions; moreover, in detailed analyses of two gestures, action elements composing the gestures did not closely match those of the presumed original actions. Rather, chimpanzee gestures are species-typical; indeed, many are 'family-typical', because gesture types recorded in gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzee overlap extensively, with 24 gestures recorded in all three genera. Nevertheless, chimpanzee gestures are used flexibly across a range of contexts and show clear adjustment to audience (e.g. silent gestures for attentive targets, contact gestures for inattentive ones). Such highly intentional use of a species-typical repertoire raises intriguing questions for the evolution of advanced communication. PMID:21533821

Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W

2011-05-01

381

Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. PMID:22754378

Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

2012-05-24

382

Organics Captured from Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust Spacecraft  

SciTech Connect

Organics found in Comet Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some organics are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and carbonaceous meteorites. A class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in O and N compared to meteoritic organics. Aromatic compounds are present, but the samples tend to be relatively poorer in aromatics than meteorites and IDPs. D and {sup 15}N suggest that some organics have an interstellar/protostellar heritage. While the variable extent of modification of these materials by impact capture is not yet fully constrained, a remarkably diverse suite of organic compounds is present and identifiable within the returned samples. Comets are small bodies that accreted in the outer Solar System during its formation (1) and thus may consist of preserved samples of the ''starting materials'' from which the Solar System was made. Organic materials are expected to be present in cometary samples (2) and may include molecules made and/or modified in stellar outflows, the interstellar medium, and the protosolar nebula, as well as by parent body processing within the comet. The presence of organic compounds in comets and their ejecta is of astrobiological interest since their delivery to the early Earth may have played an important role in the origin of life on Earth (3). An overview of the Stardust Mission and the collection and recovery of Wild 2 samples is provided elsewhere (4,5). We describe the results obtained from the returned samples by the Stardust Organics Preliminary Examination Team (PET). Samples were studied using a wide range of analytical techniques, including two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (L{sub 2}MS), Liquid Chromatography with UV Fluorescence Detection and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-FD/TOF-MS), Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), infrared and Raman spectroscopy, Ion Chromatography with conductivity detection (IC), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) (6). These techniques provide a wealth of information about the chemical nature and relative abundance of the organics in the samples. Our results are compared to organic materials found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere, well as to astronomical and spacecraft observations of comets. Despite some uncertainties associated with the presence of contaminants and alteration of the samples during the capture process, considerable information about the nature of the organics in the samples can be determined.

Stanford, S A; Aleon, J; O'D. Alexander, C M; Araki, T; Bajt, S; Baratta, G A; Borg, J; Brucato, J R; Burchell, M J; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Clemett, S J; Cody, G; Colangeli, L; Cooper, G; D'Hendecourt, L; Djouadi, Z; Dworkin, J P; Ferrini, G; Fleckenstein, H; Flynn, G; Franchi, I A; Fries, M; Gilles, M K; Glavin, D P; Gounelle, M; Grossemy, F; Jacobsen, C; Keller, L P; Kilcoyne, A D; Leitner, J; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Mennella, V; Mostefaoui, S; Nittler, L R; Palumbo, M E; Robert, F; Rotundi, A; Snead, C J; Spencer, M K; Steele, A; Stephan, T; Tyliszczak, T; Westphal, A J; Wirick, S; Wopenka, B; Yabuta, H; Zare, R N; Zolensky, M

2006-10-11

383

Review of metal accumulation and toxicity in wild mammals. I. Mercury  

SciTech Connect

Release of Hg compounds into the environment from point sources has largely been curtailed due to the known impacts of Hg on biological systems. Mercury continues to be released into the environment, however, from nonpoint sources such as combustion of fossil fuels and smelting operations. While the accumulation and toxicity of Hg in aquatic biota, domestic animals, and humans is well documented, relatively little is understood about these processes in wild terrestrial mammals. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on Hg levels and toxicity in wild mammals (excluding marine mammals). It is clear that Hg levels are biomagnified within terrestrial food chains, where carnivores greater than omnivores greater than herbivores. Among carnivorous species, Hg levels are generally highest in fish-eating animals. There is usually a high degree of correlation of Hg levels between different animal tissues. The age and sex of an animal appear to influence observed Hg levels, but field data are conflicting for both factors. Tissue Hg levels are affected by location, with significant differences attributable to both local contamination and natural background variability. Experimental studies have shown many mammal species to sensitive to Hg intoxication, but documented incidents of Hg poisoning in wild mammals are rare. Such rarity may be more a function of our inability to observe and demonstrate Hg poisoning in wild populations, rather than an absence of the disease. 78 references.

Wren, C.D.

1986-06-01

384

Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

Furukawa, Yoshiaki

2012-01-01

385

Linkage disequilibrium and population structure in wild and domesticated populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L.  

PubMed Central

Together with the knowledge of the population structure, a critical aspect for the planning of association and/or population genomics studies is the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) that characterizes the species and the population used for such an analysis. We have analyzed the population structure and LD in wild and domesticated populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, most of which were genetically mapped in two recombinant inbred populations. Our results reflect the previous knowledge of the occurrence of two major wild gene pools of P. vulgaris, from which two independent domestication events originated, one in the Andes and one in Mesoamerica. The high level of LD in the whole sample was mostly due to the gene pool structure, with a much higher LD in domesticated compared to wild populations. In relation to association studies, our results also suggest that whole-genome-scan approaches are feasible in the common bean. Interestingly, an excess of inter-chromosomal LD was found in the domesticated populations, which suggests an important role for epistatic selection during domestication. Moreover, our results indicate the occurrence of a strong bottleneck in the Andean wild population before domestication, suggesting a Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris. Finally, our data support the occurrence of a single domestication event in Mesoamerica, and the same scenario in the Andes.

Rossi, Monica; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Nanni, Laura; Rau, Domenico; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

2009-01-01

386

The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

2013-01-01

387

Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.  

PubMed

Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel

2005-09-01

388

Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild.

Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

2012-01-01

389

Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herpetofauna populations are decreasing worldwide, and the range of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is expanding. Depredation of threatened reptile and amphibian populations by wild pigs could be substantial. By understanding depredation characteristics and rates, more resources can be directed toward controlling populations of wild pigs coincident with threatened or endangered herpetofauna populations. From April 2005 to March 2006 we used firearms to collect wild pigs (n = 68) and examined stomach content for reptiles and amphibians. We found 64 individual reptiles and amphibians, composed of 5 different species, that were consumed by wild pigs during an estimated 254 hours of foraging. Primarily arboreal species (e.g., Anolis carolinensis) became more vulnerable to depredation when temperatures were low and they sought thermal shelter. Other species (e.g., Scaphiopus holbrookii) that exhibit mass terrestrial migrations during the breeding season also faced increased vulnerability to depredation by wild pigs. Results suggest that wild pigs are opportunistic consumers that can exploit and potentially have a negative impact on species with particular life-history characteristics. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Jolley, D. B.; Ditchkoff, S. S.; Sparklin, B. D.; Hanson, L. B.; Mitchell, M. S.; Grand, J. B.

2010-01-01

390

Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for those with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Since neural prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. In this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in wild-type and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro retinal preparations of wild-type and rd1 mice. When the neural network was stimulated with voltage- and current-controlled pulses, RGCs from both wild-type and rd1 mice responded; however the temporal pattern of RGC response is very different. In wild-type RGCs, a single peak within 100 ms appears, while multiple peaks (approximately four peaks) with ~10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear in RGCs in the degenerated retina of rd1 mice. We find that an anodic phase-first biphasic voltage-controlled pulse is more efficient for stimulation than a biphasic current-controlled pulse based on lower threshold charge density. The threshold charge densities for activation of RGCs both with voltage- and current-controlled pulses are overall more elevated for the rd1 mouse than the wild-type mouse. Here, we propose the stimulus range for wild-type and rd1 retinas when the optimal modulation of a RGC response is possible.

Goo, Yong Sook; Ye, Jang Hee; Lee, Seokyoung; Nam, Yoonkey; Ryu, Sang Baek; Kim, Kyung Hwan

2011-06-01

391

Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Since the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus, wild birds have been suspected of transmitting this virus to poultry. On January 23, 2004, the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand informed the World Health Organization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak. To determine the epidemiology of this viral infection and its relation to poultry outbreaks in Thailand from 2004 through 2007, we investigated how wild birds play a role in transmission. A total of 24,712 serum samples were collected from migratory and resident wild birds. Reverse transcription PCR showed a 0.7% HPAI (H5N1) prevalence. The highest prevalence was observed during January–February 2004 and March–June 2004, predominantly in central Thailand, which harbors most of the country’s poultry flocks. Analysis of the relationship between poultry and wild bird outbreaks was done by using a nonhomogeneous birth and death statistical model. Transmission efficiency among poultry flocks was 1.7× higher in regions with infected wild birds in the given or preceding month. The joint presence of wild birds and poultry is associated with increased spread among poultry flocks.

Keawcharoen, Juthatip; van den Broek, Jan; Bouma, Annemarie; Tiensin, Thanawat; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E

2011-01-01

392

Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Soybean Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned some plant disease-resistant gene sequences in existence with some relatively conserved domains. Conserved motifs in NBS domain have been used to isolate resistance gene analogs from soybean. NBS sequence and resistance gene sequence were used as probes to screen a wild soybean cDNA library, conserved motifs such as the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) were found in many characterized

Shi Ming-Wang; Wang Qing-lian; Wang Biao-zhong

2008-01-01

393

Synergy between visual and olfactory cues in nectar feeding by wild hawkmoths, Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed field experiments to measure the relative importance of olfactory and visual cues in nectar foraging by wild tobacco hornworm moths, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, U.S.A. We manipulated flowers of sacred Datura (Datura wrightii; Solanaceae) to experimentally decouple floral scent from visual display and presented these cues to free-flying moths in mixed and

ROBERT A. RAGUSO; M ARK A. W ILLIS

394

Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)  

PubMed Central

Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural embeddedness of local knowledge. The impact of socio-cultural developments on local knowledge may be anticipated from understanding the intracultural variation of knowledge.

2012-01-01

395

Daily home range and activity of wild boar in a Mediterranean area free from hunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen adult wild boar (Sus scrofa) were radiotracked in the Maremma Natural Park fron March to September 1993, to determine home range size and the patterns of daily activity; 24-hr home range size averaged 33.2 ha (SE = 2.81) and 25.1 (SE = 1.73) calculated by the 100% and the 95% Minimum Convex Polygon respectively. No sex- or month-related differences

L. Russo; G. Massei; P. V. Genov

1997-01-01

396

The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 2. Intragroup interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the structure of networks of social interactions is important for understanding the evolution of cooperation,\\u000a transmission of disease, and patterns of social learning, yet little is known of how environmental, ecological, or behavioural\\u000a factors relate to such structures within groups. We observed grooming, dominance, and foraging competition interactions in\\u000a eight groups of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and constructed

Joah R. Madden; Julian A. Drewe; Gareth P. Pearce; Tim H. Clutton-Brock

2009-01-01

397

Rhabdom degradation in white-eyed and wild-type crayfish after long term dark adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdom degradation has been compared in groups of wild-type (WT) and white-eyed mutant (WEM) crayfish exposed to a 12:12 LD cycle after 1 month of continuous darkness. Light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the lysosome-related bodies (LRB) formed during rhabdom degradation show that WEM photore-ceptors produced few LRB during the first 12 h of light exposure, but the microvilli

G. S. Hafner; T. Tokarski; C. Jones; R. Martin

1982-01-01

398

Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice.\\u000a Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted\\u000a process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived\\u000a mouse stocks, loosely

James M. Harper

2008-01-01

399

Neospora caninum: Comparative gene expression profiling of Neospora caninum wild type and a temperature sensitive clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the genetic basis of virulence, gene expression profiles of a temperature-sensitive clone (NCts-8, relatively avirulent) and its wild type (NC-1) of Neospora caninum were characterized and compared using a high-density microarray with approximately 63,000 distinct oligonucleotides. This microarray consists of 5692 unique N. caninum sequences, including 1980 Tentative Consensus sequences and 3712 singleton ESTs from the TIGR N.

Robert W. Li; Wenbin Tuo

2011-01-01

400

Identification of fungal ( Magnaporthe grisea ) stress-induced genes in wild rice ( Oryza minuta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify fungal stress-related genes in wild rice, Oryza minuta, we constructed a subtracted library using suppression subtractive hybridization in combination with mirror orientation selection. DNA chips containing 960 randomly selected cDNA clones were applied by reverse Northern analysis to eliminate false positive clones from the library and to prescreen differentially expressed genes. In total, 377 cDNA clones were selected

K. S. Shim; S. K. Cho; J. U. Jeung; K. W. Jung; M. K. You; S. H. Ok; Y. S. Chung; K. H. Kang; H. G. Hwang; H. C. Choi; H. P. Moon; J. S. Shin

2004-01-01

401

Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews  

PubMed Central

For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations.

Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-Andre; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M.; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer

2008-01-01

402

Lipidated steroid saponins from Dioscorea villosa (wild yam).  

PubMed

Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7-10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for D. villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analog long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates an entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1-5), while series B (6-10) was proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It may also inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G; Nikoli?, Dejan; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; van Breemen, Richard B; Soejarto, Djaja D; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

2013-08-19

403

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan

2003-01-01

404

[Correlations between wild Polygonatum odoratum quality and main ecological factors].  

PubMed

By the methods of stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and grey relational grade analysis, this paper studied the correlations between the effective components (polysaccharides and water- and alcohol-soluble substances) contents and antioxidant activity of wild Polygonatum odoratum in different places and the ecological factors. Among the test ecological factors, the mean air temperature in January and in July, mean annual precipitation, frost-free period, and soil pH and total potassium were the main factors affecting the effective component contents of P. odoratum, with a contribution rate of 99.0%. As compared with soil factors, climatic factors made more contribution to the effective component contents. Soil total potassium was the key factor controlling the effective component contents, mean annual precipitation was the main decision factor, and mean air temperature in January was the main limiting factor. The plant polysaccharides and water-soluble substance contents were the key factors affecting the antioxidant activity of P. odoratum, and the capability of P. odoratum in excavating DPPH free radical increased with increasing contents of polysaccharides and water-soluble substances. PMID:22937629

Bu, Jing; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei

2012-06-01

405

Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.  

PubMed

Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P<0.001). There was no significant association between body condition index and the presence of calculi (P>0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi. PMID:21676988

Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

2011-06-15

406

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins  

PubMed Central

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment.

2011-01-01

407

Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

Mesa, M. G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L. K.

2008-01-01

408

Detection of novel gammaherpesviruses in wild animals of South Africa.  

PubMed

Herpesviral DNA was detected in 24/261 DNA samples that were extracted from whole blood of 13 wild animal species in South Africa. Herpesviral DNA was shown in 22 impalas (Aepyceros melampus) and 2 springboks (Antidorcas marsupialis). All of DNA sequences detected in impalas were identical, whereas two DNA sequences detected in springboks were different each other. These three sequences showed 44 to 72% homology to the corresponding gene of the Gammaherpesvirinae, indicating that these three viruses should be unrecognized novel gammaherpesviruses. The putative novel herpesviruses were tentatively designated as Aepyceros melampus (impala) herpesvirus 1 (ImHV-1), Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok) herpesviruses 1 (SpHV-1) and 2 (SpHV-2). ImHV-1 seems to be a relatively independent virus. SpHV-1 belongs to a group of ruminant lymphotropic herpesviruses and SpHV-2 is closer to a malignant catarrhal fever virus group. Potential threat of these herpesviruses to domestic animals should be considered. PMID:16327234

Pagamjav, Ochir; Sakata, Tohru; Ibrahim, El-Sayed M; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Takai, Shinji; Paweska, Janusz T; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Jun; Fukushi, Hideto

2005-11-01

409

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Foodborne Bacteria in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Wild Deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  

PubMed

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically. PMID:24161070

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Goshima, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Murakami, Mariko; Haruna, Mika; Ito, Kazuo; Yamada, Yukiko

2013-11-01

410

Contrasting Mode of Evolution at a Coat Color Locus in Wild and Domestic Pigs  

PubMed Central

Despite having only begun ?10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies) differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.

Ribeiro, Helena Soares; Li, Ning; Andersson, Leif

2009-01-01

411

High HEV presence in four different wild boar populations in East and West Germany.  

PubMed

Swine Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted from pigs to humans causing hepatitis. A high prevalence of HEV in wild boar populations is reported for several European countries, but actual data for Germany are missing. During the hunting season from October to December 2007 liver, bile and blood samples were collected from wild boars in four different German regions. The samples were tested for HEV RNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and anti-HEV IgG antibodies by two different ELISAs and a Line immunoassay. A seroprevalence of 29.9% using ELISA and 26.2% in the Line immunoassay was determined. The seroprevalence rate varied greatly within the analyzed regions. However, qPCR analysis revealed a higher prevalence of 68.2% positive animals with regional differences. Surprisingly, also adult wild sows and wild boars were highly HEV positive by qPCR. Compared to liver and serum samples, bile samples showed a higher rate of positive qPCR results. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a 969nt fragment within ORF 2 revealed that all isolates clustered within genotype 3 but differed in the subtype depending on the hunting spot. Isolates clustered within genotypes 3i, 3h, 3f and 3e. Within one population HEV isolates were closely related, but social groups of animals in close proximity might be infected with different subtypes. Two full-length genomes of subtypes 3i and 3e from two different geographic regions were generated. The wild boar is discussed as one of the main sources of human autochthonous infections in Germany. PMID:19595519

Adlhoch, Cornelia; Wolf, Alexander; Meisel, Helga; Kaiser, Marco; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Pauli, Georg

2009-06-26

412

Evaluating alternative strategies for minimizing unintended fitness consequences of cultured individuals on wild populations.  

PubMed

Artificial propagation strategies often incur selection in captivity that leads to traits that are maladaptive in the wild. For propagation programs focused on production rather than demographic contribution to wild populations, effects on wild populations can occur through unintentional escapement or the need to release individuals into natural environments for part of their life cycle. In this case, 2 alternative management strategies might reduce unintended fitness consequences on natural populations: (1) reduce selection in captivity as much as possible to reduce fitness load (keep them similar), or (2) breed a separate population to reduce captive-wild interactions as much as possible (make them different). We quantitatively evaluate these 2 strategies with a coupled demographic-genetic model based on Pacific salmon hatcheries that incorporates a variety of relevant processes and dynamics: selection in the hatchery relative to the wild, assortative mating based on the trait under selection, and different life cycle arrangements in terms of hatchery release, density dependence, natural selection, and reproduction. Model results indicate that, if natural selection only occurs between reproduction and captive release, the similar strategy performs better. However, if natural selection occurs between captive release and reproduction, the different and similar strategies present viable alternatives to reducing unintended fitness consequences because of the greater opportunity to purge maladaptive individuals. In this case, the appropriate approach depends on the feasibility of each strategy and the demographic goal (e.g., increasing natural abundance, or ensuring that a high proportion of natural spawners are naturally produced). In addition, the fitness effects of hatchery release are much greater if hatchery release occurs before (vs. after) density-dependent interactions. Given the logistical challenges to achieving both the similar and different strategies, evaluation of not just the preferred strategy but also the consequences of failing to achieve the desired target is critical. PMID:23082984

Baskett, Marissa L; Waples, Robin S

2012-10-19

413

BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: a review.  

PubMed

The distribution of bluetongue virus has changed, possibly related to climate change. Vaccination of domestic ruminants is taking place throughout Europe to control BT expansion. The high density of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in some European regions has raised concerns about the potential role that unvaccinated European wild ungulates might play in maintaining or spreading the virus. Most species of wild ruminants are susceptible to BTV infection, although frequently asymptomatically. The red deer population density in Europe is similar to that of domestic livestock in some areas, and red deer could account for a significant percentage of the BTV-infection susceptible ruminant population in certain regions. High serum antibody prevalence has been found in red deer, and BTV RNA (BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8) has been repeatedly detected in naturally infected European red deer by means of RT-PCR. Moreover, red deer may carry the virus asymptomatically for long periods. Epidemiological studies suggest that there are more BT cases in domestic ungulates in those areas where red deer are present. Vector and host density and environmental factors are implicated in the spatial distribution of BT. As in domestic ruminants, BTV transmission among wild ruminants depends almost exclusively on Culicoides vectors, mainly C. imicola but also members of the C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris complex. However, BTV transmission from red deer to the vector remains to be demonstrated. Transplacental, oral, and mechanical transmissions are also suspected. Thus, wild red deer contribute to the still unclear epidemiology of BTV in Europe, and could complicate BTV control in domestic ruminants. However, further research at the wildlife host-vector-pathogen interface and regarding the epidemiology of BT and BT vectors in wildlife habitats is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, red deer could be used as BT sentinels. Serum and spleen tissue of calves sampled from late autumn onwards should be the target samples when establishing a BTV surveillance program. PMID:21411246

Falconi, Caterina; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Gortázar, Christian

2011-02-23

414

Isolation and characterization of tightly coupled mitochondria from wild type and nap mutant Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

A fast and reproducible procedure was elaborated for isolation of tightly coupled mitochondria from wild type and nap-mutant Neurospora crassa cells harvested at different growth stages. The isolated mitochondrial preparations had controlled metabolic states and were tightly coupled, i.e., displayed good respiratory control and had close to the theoretically expected maximal ADP/O ratios upon oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates and exogenous NADH. They contained the fully competent respiratory chain with all three points of energy conservation. Oxidation of all examined substrates by mitochondria from both wild type and mutant cells was mediated by two alternative terminal oxidative systems, albeit to varying extent, with the more pronounced engagement of the alternative oxidase in the stationary growth phase and with a minor contribution of this non-phosphorylating pathway in the substrate oxidation by mutant mitochondria. Oxidation of NAD-dependent substrates by mitochondria from the two cell types was accommodated via both rotenone-sensitive and rotenone-insensitive pathways, while the level of rotenone-insensitive pathway in mutant cells was lower than in wild type cells. It is suggested that a more limited contribution of alternative non-phosphorylating oxidative pathways to the total respiration in mutant cells, as compared with wild type cells, could, at least partially, explain an elevated ATP level in these cells. However, the absence of principal differences in the arrangement of the respiratory chain in mitochondria of wild type and mutant cells implies that the elevated ATP level in the nap mutant is largely related to reduced ATP expenses for transport processes in these cells. PMID:11952424

Isakova, E P; Gorpenko, L V; Shurubor, E I; Belozerskaya, T A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

2002-02-01

415

Establishment of Inducible Wild Type and Mutant Myocilin-GFP-Expressing RGC5 Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Myocilin is a gene linked directly to juvenile- and adult-onset open angle glaucoma. Mutations including Gln368stop (Q368X) and Pro370Leu (P370L) have been identified in patients. The exact role of myocilin and its functional association with glaucoma are still unclear. In the present study, we established tetracycline-inducible (Tet-on) wild type and mutant myocilin-green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing RGC5 stable cell lines and studied the changes in cell migration and barrier function upon induction. Methodology/Principal Findings After several rounds of selection, clones that displayed low, moderate, or high expression of wild type, Q368X or P370L myocilin-GFP upon doxycycline (Dox) induction were obtained. The levels of wild type and mutant myocilin-GFP in various clones were confirmed by Western blotting. Compared to non-induced controls, the cell migration was retarded, the actin stress fibers were fewer and shorter, and the trypsinization time needed for cells to round up was reduced when wild type or mutant myocilin was expressed. The barrier function was in addition aberrant following induced expression of wild type, Q368X or P370L myocilin. Immunoblotting further showed that tight junction protein occludin was downregulated in induced cells. Conclusions/Significance Tet-on inducible, stable RGC5 cell lines were established. These cell lines, expressing wild type or mutant (Q368X or P370L) myocilin-GFP upon Dox induction, are valuable in facilitating studies such as proteomics, as well as functional and pathogenesis investigations of disease-associated myocilin mutants. The barrier function was found impaired and the migration of cells was hindered with induced expression of wild type and mutant myocilin in RGC5 cell lines. The reduction in barrier function might be related to the declined level of occludin. The retarded cell migration was consistent with demonstrated myocilin phenotypes including the loss of actin stress fibers, lowered RhoA activities and compromised cell-matrix adhesiveness.

Ying, Hongyu; Shen, Xiang; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.

2012-01-01

416

Wilderness and wild lands in the Northern Appalachian Region of ...  

Treesearch

Description: The ecological context of the Northern Appalachian region of North America ... indicating that the amount of wild lands in the region is much higher than the ... community involvement, policy, stewardship, education, spiritual values.

417

Wild Weasel Development Programs, One Run, One Hit, One Error.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traced here are the development and upgrade programs for a specialized program, the F-4G Wild Weasel. Potential reasons why the initial development program for the aircraft succeeded, whereas the follow-on program failed, are examined.

G. J. Stiles

1990-01-01

418

Restoring Wild Salmon to the Pacific Northwest: Chasing an Illusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the pacific Northwest (Northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon 'stocks' (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a 'population') have decli...

R. T. Lackey

2000-01-01

419

Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase; Biochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants ...

G. C. Ferreira R. Franco Y. Lu J. G. Ma J. A. Shelnutt

1999-01-01

420

Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)|

Reed, Nathaniel P.

1974-01-01

421

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

422

Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

1997-01-01

423

Monitoring wild pig populations: a review of methods.  

PubMed

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are widespread across many lan