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1

Maize or 'Indian Corn' and its wild relatives, the teosintes (Zea species), differ profoundly in both ear  

E-print Network

[]~EVIEWS Maize or 'Indian Corn' and its wild relatives, the teosintes (Zea species), differ evidence suggests that maize and the Mexican annual teosintes (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana,2 reconciled these discrepant observations by proposing (1) that maize is a domesticated form of teosinte

Doebley, John

2

Gene Flow Among Different Teosinte Taxa and Into the Domesticated Maize Gene Pool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from one wild species ancestor, the Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) about 9000 years ago. Higher levels of gene diversity are found in teosinte taxa compared to maize following domestication and selection bottlenecks. Diversity in maize can b...

3

Teosinte Inflorescence Phytolith Assemblages Mirror Zea Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples. PMID:21479186

Hart, John P.; Matson, R. G.; Thompson, Robert G.; Blake, Michael

2011-01-01

4

Inflorescence development in a high-altitude annual Mexican teosinte (Poaceae).  

PubMed

Some have postulated that highland Mexican maize was derived from an ancient high-altitude teosinte and that later introgression between the two taxa occurred. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine the inflorescence development in both the tassel and ear of a high-altitude Toluca teosinte. One of the most interesting observations was the presence of atypical multiranked orthostiches in the central spike of some male Toluca teosinte inflorescences. Most tassels exhibited a central spike with a pure, four-ranked, tetrastichous phyllotaxy or an intermediate (distichous/tetrastichous) phyllotaxy. A few A(1) tassels had a more typical distichous (two-ranked) central spike. Most ears showed the two-rank condition expected for teosintes. However, three ears displayed an intermediate (distichous/tristichous or distichous/ tetrastichous) phyllotaxy and one ear was tetrastichous. Our analysis of spikelet and floret development in all Toluca inflorescences revealed a pattern similar to that in landrace and U.S. maize, as well as to their close relatives, the teosintes. We suggest that this investigation may reveal inflorescence development in a natural maize-teosinte hybrid. This study further supports our hypothesis that both maleness and femaleness in the Zea inflorescences are derived from a common developmental pathway and underpins a proposal that andropogonoid grasses share a common pattern of inflorescence development. PMID:21665599

Orr, Alan R; Mullen, Kevin; Klaahsen, Darcey; Sundberg, Marshall D

2002-11-01

5

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

6

From Teosinte to Maize: The Catastrophic Sexual Transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative to the theory that the ear of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) evolved from a slender female ear of a Mexican annual teosinte holds that it was derived from the central spike of a male teosinte inflorescence (tassel) which terminates the primary lateral branches. This alternative hypothesis is more consistent with morphology and explains the anomalous lack of

Hugh H. Iltis

1983-01-01

7

Fertility Relationships in Maize-Teosinte Hybrids.  

E-print Network

20.7 85-90 11.7 21.6 9.2 32.8 13.2 16.9 80-85 10.7 14.9 13.0 14.5 10.3 11.7 75-80 6.8 10.8 13.0 9.9 3.0 11.7 70-75 2.9 5.4 11.1 6.1 1.5 11.7 65-70 1.9 8.1 3.7 .8 3.0 7.8 60-65 1.0 6.8 7.4 .8 1.5 3.9 55-60 0 4.0 7.4 0 0 0 50-55 1.9 4.0 9.2 0 0... Durango and Florida teosinte the pollen sterility averaged as high as 66.8 percent, and examinations at meiosis I showed more irregular behavior than was found in the Florida teosinte-maize hybrid. Mangelsdorf and Reeves (9) studied the fertility...

Rogers, John S. (John Sinclair)

1950-01-01

8

Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients.  

PubMed

It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

Díez, Concepción M; Gaut, Brandon S; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E; Tenaillon, Maud I

2013-07-01

9

Three New Teosintes (Zea spp., Poaceae) From Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The discovery of new species of teosinte from México motivated the comparative study of populations from México, Guatemala and Nicaragua through detailed ecogeographic, morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterization. The study involved a comparative analysis of morphological, ecogeographic,...

10

A Selfish Gene Governing Pollen-Pistil Compatibility Confers Reproductive Isolation Between Maize Relatives  

PubMed Central

Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat. PMID:16157680

Kermicle, Jerry L.

2006-01-01

11

Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.  

PubMed

Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

2003-09-22

12

MAPPING R-GENES IN RICE WILD RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are the source of several resistance (R-) genes including those for bla...

13

EVALUATING RICE WILDE RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.) FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are an important source of novel pest resistance genes, as well as tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield enhancing traits. Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast, Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa, are major fungal d...

14

Inventory of related wild species of priority crops in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prerequisite in any conservation programme of Plant Genetic Resources is estimation of diversity. The inventory of wild\\u000a and naturalized relatives of priority crops in Venezuela (CWR) is based on the main Catalogues of Flora in the country, selecting\\u000a taxa closely related to crops, according to the concepts of “gene pool” and “taxonomic group”. We included 47 genera, 217\\u000a species

Chiara BerlingeriManuel; Manuel B. Crespo

15

Stress and domestication traits increase the relative fitness of crop?wild hybrids in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of transgenic crop production, the dynamics of gene introgression into wild relatives remain unclear. Taking an ecological genetics approach to investigating fitness in crop-wild hybrid zones, we uncovered both conditions and characteristics that may promote introgression. We compared diverse crop-wild hybrid genotypes relative to wild Helianthus annuus under one benign and three stressful agricultural environments. Whereas relative

Kristin L. Mercer; David A. Andow; Donald L. Wyse; Ruth G. Shaw

2007-01-01

16

Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.  

PubMed

Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion/addition experiments are feasible alternatives when molecular containment of transgenes restricts field experiments with insect resistant crop-wild hybrids. PMID:19419653

Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

2009-01-01

17

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

18

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

19

Genomic relationships between maize and its wild relatives  

PubMed

Recent molecular studies confirm the long-held theory that maize is a tetraploid, but the identity of the ancestral diploid species remains an enigma. The various hypotheses were investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Total genomic DNA from 10 wild relatives of maize were used as probes onto maize chromosomes to see if this could identify the ancestral genome donors in maize. While none of the taxa hybridized to a subset of chromosomes, genomic DNA from Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Z. mays ssp. parviglumis, Z. diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides and Coix lacryma-jobi all showed a similar hybridization pattern consisting of a dispersed signal over all maize chromosomes. Moreover, the first four species also showed highly localized subtelomeric signal on the long arms of maize chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. In contrast, three Sorghum species tested (S. bicolor, S. halapense, and S. versicolor) only showed hybridization at the nucleolar organizer region. In light of recent data on retrotransposon occurrence in maize, the results may provide insights into the timing of speciation of Zea, Tripsacum, and Coix. Data obtained from the tetraploid Z. perennis strongly supported its taxonomic separation from the diploid Z. diploperennis. PMID:10659788

Takahashi; Marshall; Bennett; Leitch

1999-12-01

20

Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

2009-01-01

21

The genetic architecture of complex traits in teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): Evidence from association mapping  

E-print Network

): Evidence from association mapping By Allison L. Weber A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment Major regulatory genes in maize contribute to standing variation in teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis evidence from association mapping Chapter 3 Page 91 Using association mapping to investigate the function

Doebley, John

22

Using Association Mapping in Teosinte to Investigate the Function of Maize Selection-Candidate Genes  

E-print Network

of selection-candidate genes and our association mapping strategy, we found very few significant associationsUsing Association Mapping in Teosinte to Investigate the Function of Maize Selection-Candidate Genes Allison L. Weber1¤a *, Qiong Zhao1¤b , Michael D. McMullen2 , John F. Doebley1 1 Laboratory

Doebley, John

23

Do cultivated varieties of native plants have the ability to outperform their wild relatives?  

PubMed

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term. PMID:23951081

Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

2013-01-01

24

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?"  

E-print Network

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?" Report 2: An Analysis of Annual Trends for Wild Pacific Salmon in British Columbia DECEMBER 2012://people.landfood.ubc.ca/anthony.farrell/) Ms. Diane Gold Ms. Carmen Ho A literature review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12

Farrell, Anthony P.

25

CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML  

PubMed Central

Background Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Results Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. Conclusion CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may be valuable, particularly with regard to the representation of population-specific data and utilisation potential. As crop wild relatives are intrinsically no different to other wild plant species there is potential for the inclusion of CWRML data elements in the emerging standards for representation of biodiversity data. PMID:18298814

Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

2008-01-01

26

Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild\\/weedy relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild\\/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A\\u000a gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild\\/weedy\\u000a relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be

Yann Devos; Adinda De Schrijver; Dirk Reheul

2009-01-01

27

Carbon and Nitrogen Economy of 24 Wild Species Differing in Relative Growth Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between interspecific variation in relative growth rate and carbon and nitrogen economy was investigated. Twenty- four wild species were grown in a growth chamber with a nonlim- iting nutrient supply and growth, whole plant photosynthesis, shoot respiration, and root respiration were determined. No cor- relation was found between the relative growth rate of these species and their rate

Hendrik Poorter; Carlo Remkes; Hans Lambers

1990-01-01

28

The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize  

PubMed Central

Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole plant coordination of biomass accumulation and maize domestication. PMID:24524734

2014-01-01

29

Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.  

PubMed

Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances. PMID:18549768

D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

2008-01-01

30

Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?  

PubMed

Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. PMID:24388514

Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

2014-02-01

31

Cytogenetical analysis of hybrids between sunflower and four wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of chromosome pairing were examined in pollen meiocytes of plants derived from crosses between cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., and four relative species, H. niveus ssp. niveus (Benth) Branbegee, H. maximiliani Schrad., H. ciliaris DC and H. tuberosus L. Except in plants derived from crosses with H. niveus, meioses showed both asyndesis (univalent) and multivalent configurations.

Anne Espinasse; Joseph Foueillassar; Gordon Kimber

1995-01-01

32

Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild/weedy relatives.  

PubMed

In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild/weedy relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be compatible, produce viable and fertile progeny, and the transgenes should persist in natural/weedy populations. Each step was described and scored, resulting in an IHP value for each cross-compatible oilseed rape wild/weedy relative. The gene flow index revealed that Brassica rapa has the highest introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP value = 11.5), followed by Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum (IHP = 6.7), Brassica juncea (IHP = 5.1), Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Sinapis arvensis (IHP = 4.5) in Flanders. Based on the IHP values, monitoring priorities can be defined within the pool of cross-compatible wild/weedy oilseed rape relatives. Moreover, the developed approach enables to select areas where case-specific monitoring of GM oilseed rape could be done in order to detect potential adverse effects on cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives resulting from vertical gene flow. The implementation of the proposed oilseed rape-wild relative gene flow index revealed that the survey design of existing botanical survey networks does not suit general surveillance needs of GM crops in Belgium. The encountered hurdles to implement the gene flow index and proposals to acquire the missing data are discussed. PMID:18253849

Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; Reheul, Dirk

2009-02-01

33

Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species. PMID:24386242

Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

2013-01-01

34

Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.  

PubMed

It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species. PMID:24386242

Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

2013-01-01

35

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

36

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation,

Zengyan Zhang; Zhishan Lin; Zhiyong Xin

2009-01-01

37

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

38

FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WILD RELATIVES OF SUBTROPICAL AND TEMPERATE FRUIT AND NUT CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 50 participants from 15 different countries would spend five days, March 19-23 2011, in open discussion on the status of conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops. This was the first such meeting, co-convened by Dr. ...

39

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta  

E-print Network

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata, UK 2 Kalahari Meerkat Project, Kuruman River Reserve, 8467 Van Zylsrus, Northern Cape, South Africa 3 2014) SUMMARY Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one

Leclaire, Sarah

40

Leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Which factors cause fast-growing plant species to achieve a higher relative growth rate than slow-growing ones? To answer this question 24 wild species were grown from seed in a growth chamber under conditions of optimal nutrient supply and a growth analysis was carried out. Mean relative growth rate, corrected for possible ontogenetic drift, ranged from 113 to 356 mg g-1

Hendrik Poorter; Carlo Remkes

1990-01-01

41

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

42

Molecular-genetic characterization of CMS-S restorer-of-fertility alleles identified in Mexican maize and teosinte.  

PubMed

Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) alleles for S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) are prevalent in Mexican races of maize and teosinte. Forty-five Rf alleles from 26 races of maize and 6 Rf alleles from different accessions of teosinte were found to be homozygous viable, consistent with the hypothesis that they are naturally occurring Rf alleles. Mapping and allelism studies were performed to assess the number of genes represented by these 51 alleles. Forty-two of the Rf alleles mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2 (2L), and 5 of these were further mapped to the whp1-rf3 region. The Rf3 restoring allele, found in some U.S. maize inbred lines, cosegregates with internal processing of CMS-S mitochondrial transcripts. Three of the 5 mapped Rf alleles were associated with a similar RNA processing event. Allelism or tight linkage was confirmed between Rf3 and 2 teosinte alleles (Rf K-69-6 and Rf 9477) and between Rf3 and the Cónico Norteño allele Rf C-N (GTO 22). The rf3 region of 2L potentially encodes a complex of linked rf genes. The prevalence of restoring alleles in this chromosomal region, among normal-cytoplasm accessions of Mexican maize and teosinte, supports the conclusion that these alleles have functions in normal mitochondrial gene expression that by chance allow them to restore male fertility in S cytoplasm. PMID:15020480

Gabay-Laughnan, Susan; Chase, Christine D; Ortega, Victor M; Zhao, Liming

2004-02-01

43

Genetic enhancement in beta for disease resistance using wild relatives: A strong case for the value of genetic conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild relatives of our present crop plants, although agronomically undesirable, may have acquired many desirable stress-resistant\\u000a characteristics as a result of their long exposure to nature’s stresses. Early U.S. collection activities for wild forms ofBeta were conducted by George H. Coons (USDA-ARS) in 1925 and 1935. These collections were mainly wild forms of the sectionBeta, with major emphasis on leaf

D. L. Doney; E. D. Whitney

1990-01-01

44

Antibiosis mechanism of resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera in wild relatives of chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the major constraints to chickpea production worldwide. The levels of resistance to pod borer in the cultivated\\u000a chickpea germplasm are moderate, and therefore, we studied the reaction of 32 accessions of wild relatives of chickpea for\\u000a resistance to H. armigera under greenhouse conditions. Accessions ICC 17257, IG 70002, IG 70003, IG 70012,

H. C. Sharmad; G. Pampapathy; S. K. Lanka; T. J. Ridsdill-Smith

2005-01-01

45

A metapopulation model for the introgression from genetically modified plants into their wild relatives  

PubMed Central

Most models on introgression from genetically modified (GM) plants have focused on small spatial scales, modelling gene flow from a field containing GM plants into a single adjacent population of a wild relative. Here, we present a model to study the effect of introgression from multiple plantations into the whole metapopulation of the wild relative. The most important result of the model is that even very low levels of introgression and selection can lead to a high probability that the transgene goes to fixation in the metapopulation. Furthermore, the overall frequency of the transgene in the metapopulation, after a certain number of generations of introgression, depends on the population dynamics. If there is a high rate of migration or a high rate of population turnover, the overall transgene frequency is much higher than with lower rates. However, under an island model of population structure, this increased frequency has only a very small effect on the probability of fixation of the transgene. Considering these results, studies on the potential ecological risks of introgression from GM plants should look not only at the rate of introgression and selection acting on the transgene, but also at the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. PMID:25567858

Meirmans, Patrick G; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

2009-01-01

46

Chloroplast DNA diversity in Vicia faba and its close wild relatives: implications for reassessment.  

PubMed

To obtain new information on phylogenetic relationships between wild and cultivated broad bean, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNAs from Vicia faba and eight subspecies/species of its close wild relatives grouped together in the Narbonensis complex was carried out using 14 restriction endonucleases. The molecular sizes of the cpDNAs obtained were similar (122.6-123.4 kbp), indicating that they had all lost one of inverted repeats. Among the more than 300 sites surveyed, the three subspecies within V. narbonensis, which exhibit just as many types of karyotypes, were shown to have identical cp fragment patterns. Genetic distances between all of the pairs of species were calculated from RFLP data. The cpDNA diversity within the Narbonensis complex was found to be more extensive than expected, except for the genetic relationship between V. hyaeniscyamus and V. johannis in which a total of three mutations were detected among the 300 sites sampled, thereby showing their close relatedness. The cpDNA of V. faba vis-a-vis its wild relatives also exhibited startling differences, indicating a clear division of Vicia species into two distinct lineages. This analysis unambiguously provides new evidence that the wild species grouped in the complex did not contribute their plastomes to the evolution of V. faba, and hence none of the species can be considered to be putative allies of broad bean. The present study also demonstrates profound cpDNA diversity among closely related species that have lost one of inverted repeats. PMID:24185936

Raina, S N; Ogihara, Y

1994-05-01

47

Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from approximate Bayesian computation in Aegilops triuncialis.  

PubMed

Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km × 20 km area in southern Spain (Grazalema Mountain chain, Andalousia, totalling 458 specimens), is completed with 33 wheat cultivars representative of the European domesticated pool. All specimens were genotyped with amplified fragment length polymorphism with the aim of estimating wheat admixture levels in Ae. triuncialis populations. This survey first confirmed extensive hybridization and backcrossing of wheat into the wild species. We then used explicit modelling of populations and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the selfing rate of Ae. triuncialis along with the magnitude, the tempo and the geographical distance over which wheat alleles introgress into Ae. triuncialis populations. These simulations confirmed that extensive introgression of wheat alleles (2.7 × 10(-4) wheat immigrants for each Ae. triuncialis resident, at each generation) into Ae. triuncialis occurs despite a high selfing rate (Fis ? 1 and selfing rate = 97%). These results are discussed in the light of risks associated with the release of genetically modified wheat cultivars in Mediterranean agrosystems. PMID:25223217

Pajkovic, Mila; Lappe, Sylvain; Barman, Rachel; Parisod, Christian; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jerome; Alvarez, Nadir; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Felber, François; Arrigo, Nils

2014-10-01

48

Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

Nicholson, D.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Stewart, M.D.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2000-01-01

49

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

50

Analysis of genetic diversity of hordein in wild close relatives of barley from Tibet.  

PubMed

We analyzed genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded at Hor-1, Hor-2 and Hor-3 loci in seeds from 211 accessions of wild close relatives of barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon and H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. Altogether 32, 27 and 13 different phenotypes were found for Hor-1, Hor-2 and Hor-3, respectively. A comparison of our results with those of previous studies indicates that Tibetan samples reflect the highest diverse level of hordein phenotypes when compared to samples from Israel and Jordan. This high degree of polymorphism supports the hypothesis that Tibet is one of the original centers of H. vulgare L. PMID:12819910

Yin, Y Q; Ma, D Q; Ding, Y

2003-09-01

51

Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.  

PubMed

In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India. PMID:23380193

Samuels, John

2013-04-01

52

Sorghum: Value as Feed Stuff, Effect on Soil - Teosinte:Analyses at Different Stages of Growth - Miscellaneous Analyses.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTUIlAL EXP ERIMENT STATION. BULLETIN No. 13, DECEMBER, 1890. VALUE AS A FEED STUFF; EFFECT ON SOIL. TEOSINTE : - ANALYSES AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GEOWTH. MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS. All... to decide this point. TABLE OF ANALYSES. In the table of analyses it will be noticed that the time intervening between the two analyses of the same cane is about two weeks. But it was the stage of maturity, rather than the time, that determined when a...

Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill); Adriance, Duncan; Tilson, P. S.

1890-01-01

53

Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci alleles from a wild rice relative, Oryza rufipogon.  

PubMed Central

Wild species are valued as a unique source of genetic variation, but they have rarely been used for the genetic improvement of quantitative traits. To identify trait-improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) alleles from exotic species, an accession of Oryza rufipogon, a relative of cultivated rice, was chosen on the basis of a genetic diversity study. An interspecific BC2 testcross population (V20A/O. rufipogon//V20B///V20B////Ce64) consisting of 300 families was evaluated for 12 agronomically important quantitative traits. The O. rufipogon accession was phenotypically inferior for all 12 traits. However, transgressive segregants that outperformed the original elite hybrid variety, V20A/Ce64, were observed for all traits examined. A set of 122 RFLP and microsatellite markers was used to identify QTL. A total of 68 significant QTL were identified, and of these, 35 (51%) had beneficial alleles derived from the phenotypically inferior O. rufipogon parent. Nineteen (54%) of these beneficial QTL alleles were free of deleterious effects on other characters. O. rufipogon alleles at two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 2 were associated with an 18 and 17% increase in grain yield per plant, respectively, without delaying maturity or increasing plant height. This discovery suggests that the innovative use of molecular maps and markers can alter the way geneticists utilize wild and exotic germplasm. PMID:9755218

Xiao, J; Li, J; Grandillo, S; Ahn, S N; Yuan, L; Tanksley, S D; McCouch, S R

1998-01-01

54

Reply to J. Samuels: Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study "Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication" by Meyer et al. (2012) was to use new and expanded accession sets coupled with molecular data to evaluate possible scenarios of eggplant domestication with as little influence as possible from any previously published nomenclatural scheme, and taking into consideration multiple sources of evidence regarding the history of eggplant in Asia. Samuels (2013) disfavored this system and in his Letter to the Editor attempted to re-evaluate the results according to his system. However, Samuels appears to have misread Meyer et al. and also makes several claims without the support of evidence. We stand by the results of Meyer et al., which are in agreement with the recent and much needed new taxonomic treatment for wild relatives of eggplant. PMID:23769957

Meyer, Rachel S; Knapp, Sandra; Karol, Kenneth G; Little, Damon P; Nee, Michael H; Litt, Amy

2013-10-01

55

Age-related variation in immunity in a wild mammal population  

PubMed Central

Summary Age-related changes in immunity are well documented in humans and laboratory mammals. Using blood samples collected from wild Soay sheep, we show that pronounced differences in T-cell subsets and inflammatory markers amongst age classes are also evident under natural conditions. These shifts parallel those observed in mammals experiencing protected environments. We found progressive declines in the proportion of naïve CD4 T cells with age, a precipitous drop in ?? T cells after the second year of life and an increase in acute phase protein levels amongst geriatric sheep. Our findings suggest immune aging patterns observed in laboratory and domestic mammals may generalize to more complex, challenging environments and could have fitness costs under natural conditions. PMID:22107028

Nussey, Daniel H; Watt, Kathryn; Pilkington, Jill G; Zamoyska, Rose; McNeilly, Tom N

2012-01-01

56

In Vitro Propagation of Salt-Tolerant Wild Rice Relative, Porteresia coarctata Tateoka.  

PubMed

Micropropagation of Porteresia coarctata Tateoka, a wild relative of rice with useful genetic traits of salinity and submergence tolerance, was achieved through nodal segment culture. Woody Plant (WP) medium supplemented with benzyladenine (5.5 µm) and kinetin (2.3 µm) gave the greatest response to initiation and multiplication. The multiplication rate of 11 shoots/explant with an average shoot length of 3.5 cm was observed after 8 weeks of culture period. The rooting response was observed simultaneously in the multiplication media, but subsequent establishment was poor. When the in vitro raised shoots were transferred to optimal 1/2 WP and 1/2 MS media with 10.7 µm alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, the rooting response was enhanced. Such rooted plants were hardened successfully under field conditions. Key Words. Conservation-Mangrove associates-Micropropagation-Nodal explants-Porteresia coarctata-Salt tolerance PMID:9892746

Latha; Ajith; Srinivasa; Eganathan; Balakrishna

1998-12-01

57

Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to biological processes such as fungal diseases and water limited stress. Moreover, it will also facilitate basic and applied research on the genetics of peanut through the development of new molecular markers and the study of adaptive variation across the genus. PMID:22888963

2012-01-01

58

Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses.  

PubMed

With national and global health policymakers facing numerous complex decisions related to achieving and maintaining polio eradication, we expanded our previously developed dynamic poliovirus transmission model using information from an expert literature review process and including additional immunity states and the evolution of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The model explicitly considers serotype differences and distinguishes fecal-oral and oropharyngeal transmission. We evaluated the model by simulating diverse historical experiences with polioviruses, including one country that eliminated wild poliovirus using both OPV and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) (USA), three importation outbreaks of wild poliovirus (Albania, the Netherlands, Tajikistan), one situation in which no circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) emerge despite annual OPV use and cessation (Cuba), three cVDPV outbreaks (Haiti, Madura Island in Indonesia, northern Nigeria), one area of current endemic circulation of all three serotypes (northern Nigeria), and one area with recent endemic circulation and subsequent elimination of multiple serotypes (northern India). We find that when sufficient information about the conditions exists, the model can reproduce the general behavior of poliovirus transmission and outbreaks while maintaining consistency in the generic model inputs. The assumption of spatially homogeneous mixing remains a significant limitation that affects the performance of the differential equation-based model when significant heterogeneities in immunity and mixing may exist. Further studies on OPV virus evolution and improved understanding of the mechanisms of mixing and transmission may help to better characterize poliovirus transmission in populations. Broad application of the model promises to offer insights in the context of global and national policy and economic models. PMID:23521018

Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kalkowska, Dominika A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M

2013-04-01

59

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Consiglio, Federica; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

2010-01-01

60

De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  

PubMed

Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-hui; Li, Yan-fei; Zhang, Wan-ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-juan; Guan, Rong-xia; Wang, Ke-jing; Li, Wen-bin; Chen, Shou-yi; Chang, Ru-zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-juan

2014-10-01

61

How Wild is Wild?  

E-print Network

There is no obvious line or boundary that separates wild animals from those that are not wild. Instead, there are expansive grey areas, of which the most conspicuous encompass the domesticated animals that have reverted ...

Ritvo, Harriet

2014-01-01

62

Age related variation in male-male relationships in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis).  

PubMed

In social organizations characterized by male philopatry, social relationships between males are argued to be the strongest. Little is known about the social relationships of philopatric male spider monkeys. To address this limitation, we investigated social relationships among individually recognized wild adult male spider monkeys from two well-habituated communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, focusing on affiliative behaviors important in regulating male social relationships, including grooming, embracing, arm-wrapping, and grappling. We examined whether behaviors were reciprocated between male partners and whether age was a factor in how the behaviors were distributed or reciprocated, by examining differences between younger adult males (<10 years) and older adult males (?14 years). Although we found evidence that affiliative behaviors were overall reciprocated between spider monkey adult males, there were pronounced differences in the interactions depending on their relative age. Reciprocation in grooming and embraces between same-age males suggests their relationships are valuable to both partners. Among different-age dyads, younger males gave more embraces than they received, were the initiators of grappling and arm-wrapped more often than with same-age males, suggesting relationships between younger and older males are more risky. This confirms that younger males are attracted to older males, probably because they value relationships with older males more than the reverse, but they are also at risk. PMID:21881958

Schaffner, Colleen M; Slater, Kathy Y; Aureli, Filippo

2012-01-01

63

Combination of Multiple Resistance Traits from Wild Relative Species in Chrysanthemum via Trigeneric Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background With the objective of combining multiple resistant traits from wild relative species in florist’s chrysanthemums, trigeneric hybridization was conducted by crossing two intergeneric F1 hybrids Chrysanthemum grandiflorum × Artemisia vulgaris and Chrysanthemum crassum × Crossostephium chinense. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess post-pollination phenomena, we investigated pollen germination on the stigma and embryo development, using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy and paraffin-embedded sections, respectively. We selected eight putative trigeneric hybrid lines that showed the greatest morphological differences from the parents from among the progeny derived via embryo rescue. The hybridity of one trigeneric hybrid was further confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization; in addition, the aphid resistance and salt tolerance of this hybrid were higher than those of the chrysanthemum parent and the C. grandiflorum × A. vulgaris F1 hybrid, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The enhanced aphid resistance of the hybrid line reflects the inheritance of chromosomes from A. vulgaris, which carries genes that encode bioactive components. The enhanced salt tolerance of the trigeneric hybrid is attributable to inheritance of genetic materials from Chrysanthemum crassum and Crossostephium chinense, which act to maintain the compartmentation of Na+ and K+ ions and their selective transportation among different organs to avert deleterious effects and protect the photosynthetic apparatus. The results indicate that trigeneric hybridization between different bigeneric hybrids is a promising method for combination of multiple stress-resistance traits for improvement of chrysanthemum. PMID:22952958

Deng, Yanming; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Teng, Nianjun; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

2012-01-01

64

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

65

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

66

Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.  

PubMed

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

67

Space Use of African Wild Dogs in Relation to Other Large Carnivores  

PubMed Central

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

Darnell, Angela M.; Graf, Jan A.; Somers, Michael J.; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

68

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation, 3 BYDV resistance genes in Th. intermedium, including Bdv2, Bdv3 and Bdv4, were introgressed into common wheat background. Various wheat-Th. intermedium addition and substitution, translocation lines with BYDV-resistance were developed and characterized, such as 7D-7Ai#1 (bearing Bdv2), 7B-7Ai#1, 7D-7E (bearing Bdv3), and 2D-2Ai-2 (bearing Bdv4) translocations. Three wheat varieties with BYDV resistance from Th. intermedium were developed and released in Australia and China, respectively. In addition, wheat-Agropyron cristatum translocation lines, wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition and substitution lines, and a wheat-Leymus multicaulis addition line (line24) with different resistance genes were developed. Cytological analysis, morphological markers, biochemical markers, and molecular markers associated with the alien chromatin carrying BYDV resistance genes were identified and applied to determine the presence of alien, chromosomes or segments, size of alien chromosome segments, and compositions of the alien chromosomes. Furthermore, some resistance-related genes, such as RGA, P450, HSP70, protein kinases, centrin, and transducin, were identified, which expressed specifically in the resistance translocation lines with Bdv2. These studies lay the foundations for developing resistant wheat cultivars and unraveling the resistance mechanism against BYDV. PMID:19782958

Zhang, Zengyan; Lin, Zhishan; Xin, Zhiyong

2009-09-01

69

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A\\/ CinnamonTeal\\/Bolivia\\/4537\\/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to

Erica Spackman; Kevin G. McCracken; Kevin Winker; David E. Swayne

2006-01-01

70

Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.  

PubMed

The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging. PMID:22918749

Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

2013-10-01

71

Winter distribution of wild reindeer in relation to power lines, roads and resorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Norway holds the last remaining population of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Europe. Roads, railroads, and power lines have fragmented the original population into 26 separate herds. The reindeer populations are regulated directly according to availability of winter forage. These winter ranges, generally at lower elevations, are however, often subjected to development. Effects of infrastructure and associated human

C Nellemann; I Vistnes; P Jordhøy; O Strand

2001-01-01

72

Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis  

PubMed Central

Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

2011-01-01

73

Wide Variability in Seed Characteristics, Kernel Quality, and Zein Profiles Among Diverse Maize Inbreds, Landraces, and Teosinte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All crop species have been domesticated from their wild relatives, and geneticists are just now beginning to understand the genetic consequences of artificial (human) selection on agronomic traits that are relevant today. The major consequence is severe reduction in genetic diversity for genes unde...

74

Broadening the genetic base of sugar beet: introgression from wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of sugar beet as an economically important field crop coincided with our increased understanding of modern\\u000a genetic principles. It was developed in the late 1700s from white fodder beet; therefore, the genetic base of sugar beet is\\u000a thought to be narrower than many open-pollinated crops. The wild sea beet is the progenitor of all domesticated beet and cross

L. Panella; R. T. Lewellen

2007-01-01

75

Speciation and domestication in maize and its wild relatives: evidence from the globulin-1 gene.  

PubMed Central

The grass genus Zea contains the domesticate maize and several wild taxa indigenous to Central and South America. Here we study the genetic consequences of speciation and domestication in this group by sampling DNA sequences from four taxa-maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), its wild progenitor (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis), a more distant species within the genus (Z. luxurians), and a representative of the sister genus (Tripsacum dactyloides). We sampled a total of 26 sequences from the glb1 locus, which encodes a nonessential seed storage protein. Within the Zea taxa sampled, the progenitor to maize contains the most sequence diversity. Maize contains 60% of the level of genetic diversity of its progenitor, and Z. luxurians contains even less diversity (32% of the level of diversity of Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). Sequence variation within the glb1 locus is consistent with neutral evolution in all four taxa. The glb1 data were combined with adh1 data from a previous study to make inferences about the population genetic histories of these taxa. Comparisons of sequence data between the two morphologically similar wild Zea taxa indicate that the species diverged approximately 700, 000 years ago from a common ancestor of intermediate size to their present populations. Conversely, the domestication of maize was a recent event that could have been based on a very small number of founding individuals. Maize retained a substantial proportion of the genetic variation of its progenitor through this founder event, but diverged rapidly in morphology. PMID:9755214

Hilton, H; Gaut, B S

1998-01-01

76

Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal  

PubMed Central

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

77

Using Satellite Maps and Related Spatial Data Sets to Identify Remaining Wild Areas of the Eastern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roadless and wild areas of 12 states comprising the eastern United States were derived from a combination of satellite image data products (tree cover, urbanized areas, etc), a road network database, and related spatial data sets. These remote areas were defined as having greater than 60 percent tree cover of at least ~5000 acre (2000 ha) contiguous tracts situated more than 500m from any road. Detailed maps of the region were produced and then overlaid with information on existing parks, protected areas, easements, and state and national forest land boundaries. Statistics were tabulated on a regional and statewide basis, and are presented together with the derived map. A total of 1468 wild areas were mapped in the study area. Forty three percent of those were in areas offering some form of protected land disignation, but only 548 (37 percent) of the areas were at least 50 percent protected. Many of the areas identified as roadless wild lands not known to be currently protected in any form were, not surprisingly, located in the states of Maine and West Virginia. Other significant lands meeting the criteria were identified in New York and Tennessee and, to a lesser extent, Pennsylvania, Vermont and New Hampshire. This work forms, as far as we know, the first quantitative assessment across the region using consistent data sets and accepted national criteria for roadless areas. It underscores the urgent need for reserving some of the remaining wild lands to protect forest resources and biological diversity before exurban development encroaches of the last of these unique resource lands of the East. Our approach may also provide acceptable criteria for a national assessment, and results are discussed in this context.

Jantz, P.; Goetz, S. J.

2005-12-01

78

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

2014-06-01

79

Age-related differences in the cloacal microbiota of a wild bird species  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal bacteria play a central role in the health of animals. The bacteria that individuals acquire as they age may therefore have profound consequences for their future fitness. However, changes in microbial community structure with host age remain poorly understood. We characterised the cloacal bacteria assemblages of chicks and adults in a natural population of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), using molecular methods. Results We show that the kittiwake cloaca hosts a diverse assemblage of bacteria. A greater number of total bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were identified in chicks than adults, and chicks appeared to host a greater number of OTUs that were only isolated from single individuals. In contrast, the number of bacteria identified per individual was higher in adults than chicks, while older chicks hosted more OTUs than younger chicks. Finally, chicks and adults shared only seven OTUs, resulting in pronounced differences in microbial assemblages. This result is surprising given that adults regurgitate food to chicks and share the same nesting environment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chick gastrointestinal tracts are colonised by many transient species and that bacterial assemblages gradually transition to a more stable adult state. Phenotypic differences between chicks and adults may lead to these strong differences in bacterial communities. These data provide the framework for future studies targeting the causes and consequences of variation in bacterial assemblages in wild birds. PMID:23531085

2013-01-01

80

Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The need for quick, reliable, in situ tests of environmental mutagenicity is evidenced by increasing public concern about potential health effects of pollutants. Conventional tests of clastogenicity usually involve treatment of laboratory test systems with pure samples of suspect compounds followed by scoring numerous metaphase cells for chromosome aberrations. There are at least two shortcomings of these test protocols. They are very time consumptive and are generally restricted to controlled laboratory situations which may not realistically indicate the effects of environmental pollution. The use of flow cytometry to study resident rodent species as bioindicators provides a system by which cytogenetic effects of environmental pollutants upon exposed organisms rapidly and accurately can be ascertained. The authors found that two species of wild rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) living at a dump site polluted with a complex mixture of oil, grease, polychlorinated biphenols, hexachlorobenzene, zinc, manganese, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than did animals from two unpolluted control sites. These data suggest that resident small mammals may be useful as in situ monitors of the presence and action of mutagenic pollutants in the environment. This study was conducted to determine if changes in patterns of DNA content indicative of the action of mutagens could be detected by flow cytometric analysis of tissues from these same animals.

McBee, K.; Bickham, J.W.

1988-03-01

81

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed Central

Because cetaceans are difficult to study in the wild, little is known about how they use their sounds in their natural environment. Only the recent development of passive acoustic localization systems has enabled observations of the communication behaviour of individuals for correlation with their surface behaviour. Using such a system, I show that bottlenose dolphins in the Moray Firth, Scotland, produce low-frequency bray calls which are clearly correlated with feeding on salmonids. The production of these calls is followed by fast approaches by conspecifics in the area. In animals which use sound as a foraging tool, it is difficult to distinguish between food calls which have evolved because of their role in attracting conspecifics, and food manipulation or searching calls which may attract conspecifics as a by-product. However, the low-frequency structure of the bottlenose dolphin bray suggests that it evolved because of a role in manipulating prey rather than in attracting conspecifics. This conclusion suggests that dolphins exploit the perceptual systems of their prey to facilitate capture. PMID:10853736

Janik, V M

2000-01-01

82

Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals. PMID:23345575

Crockford, C.; Wittig, R. M.; Langergraber, K.; Ziegler, T. E.; Zuberbühler, K.; Deschner, T.

2013-01-01

83

VpWRKY3, a biotic and abiotic stress-related transcription factor from the Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.  

PubMed

Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession 'Baihe-35-1' is identified as the precious resource with multiple resistances to pathogens. A directional cDNA library was constructed from the young leaves inoculated with Erysiphe necator. A total of 3,500 clones were sequenced, yielding 1,727 unigenes. Among them, 762 unigenes were annotated and classified into three classes, respectively, using Gene Ontology, including 22 ESTs related to transcription regulator activity. A novel WRKY transcription factor was isolated from the library, and designated as VpWRKY3 (GenBank Accession No. JF500755). The full-length cDNA is 1,280 bp, encoding a WRKY protein of 320 amino acids. VpWRKY3 is localized to nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the VpWRKY3 specifically accumulated in response to pathogen, salicylic acid, ethylene and drought stress. Overexpression of VpWRKY3 in tobacco increased the resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, indicating that VpWRKY3 participates in defense response. Furthermore, VpWRKY3 is also involved in abscisic acid signal pathway and salt stress. This experiment provided an important basis for understanding the defense mechanisms mediated by WRKY genes in China wild grapevine. Generation of the EST collection from the cDNA library provided valuable information for the grapevine breeding. Key message We constructed a cDNA library from Chinese wild grapevine leaves inoculated with powdery mildew. VpWRKY3 was isolated and demonstrated that it was involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:22847334

Zhu, Ziguo; Shi, Jiangli; Cao, Jiangling; He, Mingyang; Wang, Yuejin

2012-11-01

84

Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers\\u000a by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to\\u000a now,

Stéphane Fénart; Jean-François Arnaud; Isabelle De Cauwer; Joël Cuguen

2008-01-01

85

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R. Wild  

E-print Network

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R for a modest cost. We also describe some related experi­ ments. #12; 1 Introduction Primary cosmic rays presumed to be a high energy neutrino component. All these components of the cosmic ray beam are currently

Adelaide, University of

86

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

87

Production of interspecific hybrids between commercial cultivars of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids between cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum, which has disease resistance and desirable traits for crop improvement, were obtained by cross-hybridization and embryo rescue. Twenty-one hybrid progenies were obtained and examined based on morphological traits, RAPD and ISSR markers. Five of them were confirmed to be true interspecific hybrids. Eighteen and 14 bands from 7 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers, respectively, were polymorphic and present in all five hybrid seedlings and their parents. The morphological characteristics of leaf margin, inflorescence type and spine positions of the five seedlings were intermediate to the parents. These interspecific hybrids had low pollen viability, probably due to abnormal meiosis. PMID:23546959

Kumchai, J; Wei, Y-C; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

2013-01-01

88

Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.  

PubMed

In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

1984-03-01

89

Characterisation and Analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis Transcriptome, a Wild Relative of Wheat in the Sitopsis Section  

PubMed Central

Aegilopssharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J.; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R.; Wulff, Brande B. H.

2013-01-01

90

Genetic mapping of escalated aggression in wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms: association with serotonin-related genes  

PubMed Central

The Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) retains a wide range of traits related to behavioral wildness, including high levels of emotionality and avoidance of humans. In this study, we observed that MSM showed a markedly higher level of aggression than the standard laboratory strain C57BL/6J. Whereas almost all MSM males showed high frequencies of attack bites and pursuit in the resident-intruder test, only a few C57BL/6J males showed aggressive behaviors, with these behaviors observed at only a low frequency. Sexually mature MSM males in their home cages killed their littermates, or sometimes female pair-mates. To study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the escalated aggression observed in MSM mice, we analyzed reciprocal F1 crosses and five consomic strains of MSM (Chr 4, 13, 15, X and Y) against the background of C57BL/6J. We identified two chromosomes, Chr 4 and Chr 15, which were involved in the heightened aggression observed in MSM. These chromosomes had different effects on aggression: whereas MSM Chr 15 increased agitation and initiation of aggressive events, MSM Chr 4 induced a maladaptive level of aggressive behavior. Expression analysis of mRNAs of serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter and Tph2, an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis in seven brain areas, indicated several differences among MSM, C57BL/6J, and their consomic strains. We found that Tph2 expression in the midbrain was increased in the Chr 4 consomic strain, as well as in MSM, and that there was a strong positive genetic correlation between aggressive behavior and Tph2 expression at the mRNA level. Therefore, it is possible that increased expression of the Tph2 gene is related to escalated aggression observed in MSM. PMID:24966813

Takahashi, Aki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

91

Characterisation and analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis transcriptome, a wild relative of wheat in the Sitopsis section.  

PubMed

Aegilops sharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R; Wulff, Brande B H

2013-01-01

92

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO),

B. Van Droogenbroeck; P. Breyne; P. Goetghebeur; E. Romeijn-Peeters; T. Kyndt; G. Gheysen

2002-01-01

93

H7N3 avian influenza virus found in a South American wild duck is related to the Chilean 2002 poultry outbreak, contains genes from equine and North American wild bird lineages, and is adapted to domestic turkeys.  

PubMed

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 10(5) times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E

2006-08-01

94

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 105 times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G.; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

95

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

96

Molecular relationships between Australian annual wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, and two related perennial forms  

PubMed Central

Background The perennial, Oryza rufipogon distributed from Asia to Australia and the annual O. meridionalis indigenous to Australia are AA genome species in the Oryza. However, recent research has demonstrated that the Australian AA genome perennial populations have maternal genomes more closely related to those of O. meridionalis than to those found in Asian populations of O. rufipogon suggesting that the Australian perennials may represent a new distinct gene pool for rice. Results Analysis of an Oryza core collection covering AA genome species from Asia to Oceania revealed that some Oceania perennials had organellar genomes closely related to that of O meridionalis (meridionalis-type). O. rufipogon accessions from New Guinea carried either the meridionalis-type or rufirpogon-type (like O. rufipogon) organellar genomes. Australian perennials carried only the meridionalis-type organellar genomes when accompanied by the rufipogon-type nuclear genome. New accessions were collected to better characterize the Australian perennials, and their life histories (annual or perennial) were confirmed by field observations. All of the material collected carried only meridionalis-type organellar genomes. However, there were two distinct perennial groups. One of them carried an rufipogon-type nuclear genome similar to the Australian O. rufipogon in the core collection and the other carried an meridionalis-type nuclear genome not represented in the existing collection. Morphologically the rufipogon-type shared similarity with Asian O. rufipogon. The meridionalis-type showed some similarities to O. meridionalis such as the short anthers usually characteristic of annual populations. However, the meridionalis-type perennial was readily distinguished from O. meridionalis by the presence of a larger lemma and higher number of spikelets. Conclusion Analysis of current accessions clearly indicated that there are two distinct types of Australian perennials. Both of them differed genetically from Asian O. rufipogon. One lineage is closely related to O. meridionalis and another to Asian O. rufipogon. The first was presumed to have evolved by divergence from O. meridionalis becoming differentiated as a perennial species in Australia indicating that it represents a new gene pool. The second, apparently derived from Asian O. rufipogon, possibly arrived in Australia later. PMID:24280095

2013-01-01

97

Is relative pollen production or removal a good predictor of relative male fitness? An experimental exploration with a wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana, Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Understanding plant reproduction requires knowledge of genetic contributions through pollen and seeds. Since direct genetic assessments of fitness through pollen are often intractable, reproductive ecologists use components of male fitness such as pollen production and pollen removal as surrogates tot paternity. However, we know little of the strength of the relationship between these components and actual paternity. Here, I report on a study undertaken to examine the relationship of pollen production and removal with paternity in Fragaria virginiana, a wild strawberry. A morphological marker was used to track paternity in experimental arrays exposed to native pollinators. Relative pellen production proved to be a poor predictor of relative paternity in most arrays, and over all arrays there was no significant correlation between relative paternity and relative pellen production. In contrast, relative pollen removed correlated significantly and positively with proportion of seeds sired, suggesting that a plant's contribution to the pool of removed pellen is a good predictor of its male reproductive success. Deviations from expected paternity based on relative pollen removal suggest a systematic overestimation of the siring success of plants with low pollen removal. And, in at least one specific case, low pellen removal may be explained by delayed anther dehiscence, which could lower the effectiveness of the removed pellen. PMID:21685001

Ashman, T

1998-08-01

98

Relating Morphologic and RAPD Marker Varlation to Collection Site Environment in wild Populations of Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genotypic and phenotypic markers are used to describe genetic diversity, describing patterns of variationattributable to geographic differentiation is complex.We examined concordance between morphologic and RAPDmarker classification of 33 wild red clover populations collected from the Caucasus Mountains, Russia andcompared how morphologic and RAPD markers differed in their correspondence to collection site attributes.Wealso examined if wild red clover populations collected

S. L. Greene; M. Gritsenko; G. Vandemark

2004-01-01

99

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

100

Analysis of inflorescence organogenesis in eastern gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides (Poaceae): the wild type and the gynomonoecious gsf1 mutant.  

PubMed

Inflorescence organogenesis of a wild-type and a gynomonoecious (pistillate) mutant in Tripsacum dactyloides was studied using scanning electron microscopy. SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis indicated that wild-type T. dactyloides (Eastern gamagrass) expressed a pattern of inflorescence organogenesis that is observed in other members of the subtribe Tripsacinae (Zea: maize and teosinte), family Poaceae. Branch primordia are initiated acropetally along the rachis of wild-type inflorescences in a distichous arrangement. Branch primordia at the base of some inflorescences develop into long branches, which themselves produce an acropetal series of distichous spikelet pair primordia. All other branch primordia function as spikelet pair primordia and bifurcate into pedicellate and sessile spikelet primordia. In all wild-type inflorescences development of the pedicellate spikelets is arrested in the proximal portion of the rachis, and these spikelets abort, leaving two rows of solitary sessile spikelets. Organogenesis of spikelets and florets in wild-type inflorescences is similar to that previously described in maize and the teosintes. Our analysis of gsf1 mutant inflorescences reveals a pattern of development similar to that of the wild type, but differs from the wild type in retaining (1) the pistillate condition in paired spikelets along the distal portion of the rachis and (2) the lower floret in sessile spikelets in the proximal region of the rachis. The gsf1 mutation blocks gynoecial tissue abortion in both the paired-spikelet and the unpaired-spikelet zone. This study supports the hypothesis that both femaleness and maleness in Zea and Tripsacum inflorescences are derived from a common developmental pathway. The pattern of inflorescence development is not inconsistent with the view that the maize ear was derived from a Tripsacum genomic background. PMID:11250814

Orr, A R; Kaparthi, R; Dewald, C L; Sundberg, M D

2001-03-01

101

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and\\/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent

S. I. Warwick; M.-J. Simard; A. Légère; H. J. Beckie; L. Braun; B. Zhu; P. Mason; G. Séguin-Swartz; C. N. Stewart

2003-01-01

102

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

103

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

104

Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences between species commonly result from changes in the tissue-specific expression of genes. Clustering algorithms are a powerful means to detect coexpression across tissues in single species but are not often applied to multidimensional data sets, such as gene expression across tissues in multiple species. As next-generation sequencing approaches enable interspecific analyses, methods to visualize and explore such data sets will be required. Here, we analyze a data set comprising gene expression profiles across six different tissue types in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii). We find that self-organizing maps are a useful means to analyze interspecies data, as orthologs can be assigned to independent levels of a “super self-organizing map.” We compare various clustering approaches using a principal component analysis in which the expression of orthologous pairs is indicated by two points. We leverage the expression profile differences between orthologs to look at tissue-specific changes in gene expression between species. Clustering based on expression differences between species (rather than absolute expression profiles) yields groups of genes with large tissue-by-species interactions. The changes in expression profiles of genes we observe reflect differences in developmental architecture, such as changes in meristematic activity between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii. Together, our results offer a suite of data-exploration methods that will be important to visualize and make biological sense of next-generation sequencing experiments designed explicitly to discover tissue-by-species interactions in gene expression data. PMID:23585653

Chitwood, Daniel H.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

2013-01-01

105

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms

B. Uwimana; L. D'Andrea; F. Felber; D. A. P. Hooftman; Nijs den H. C. M; M. J. M. Smulders; R. G. F. Visser; Wiel van de C. C. M

2012-01-01

106

Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: A serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. PMID:25466577

Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2015-01-01

107

Plasma testosterone levels are related to various aspects of locomotor activity in wild-caught male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The relationship between plasma testosterone levels and locomotor activity in wild-caught sexually mature male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was assessed in the laboratory. Several aspects of locomotor activity were monitored for 1 h on two consecutive days using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system. Plasma testosterone levels were determined immediately following the second day of activity monitoring. Significant Pearson correlations were obtained between plasma testosterone levels and total distance traveled [r(10) = 0.55, p < 0.05] and amount of time spent in movement [r(10) - 0.55, p < 0.05] on the second day. The wild voles showed a reduction in activity levels from the first to the second day of activity monitoring, which is indicative of habituation to a novel environment. This study provides direct evidence for a significant correlation between laboratory measures of behavioral activity and plasma testosterone levels in a wild-caught rodent. These findings indicate that previous assessments of hormone-behavior relationships in laboratory-bred rodents are consistent with the relationship between hormones and behavior in wild rodents. PMID:9661979

Perrot-Sinal, T S; Innes, D; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P

1998-04-01

108

Genetic variation for big-vein symptom expression and resistance to Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Lactuca virosa L., a wild relative of cultivated lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactuca virosa L. is a wild relative of lettuce that is potentially an important source of resistance to big-vein disease, an economically\\u000a damaging disease of lettuce. Identification of L. virosa accessions with resistance to Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), the disease causing agent, may be useful for lettuce breeding. The objectives of this research were to determine\\u000a the genetic variation

Ryan J. Hayes; Edward J. Ryder; William M. Wintermantel

2008-01-01

109

Wild analysis.  

PubMed

Contemporary debates over psychoanalytic theory and practice warrant a reconsideration of the concept of wild analysis. Freud's initial formulation of the problem, subsequent developments in the Freudian conventions, and the work of Melanie Klein, Kohut, and Gill are compared in order to bring out different conceptions of interpretation that is wild, sound, or too tame. These different conceptions are system-bound. Moral implications of Klein's, Kohut's, and Gill's critiques and alternative systems are taken up. PMID:4020025

Schafer, R

1985-01-01

110

A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1?/? null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1?/? mice from 2 to 12?months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1?/? null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1?/? null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss. PMID:20661454

Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

2010-01-01

111

Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

2012-01-01

112

The N170 observed 'in the wild': robust event-related potentials to faces in cluttered dynamic visual scenes.  

PubMed

As a social species in a constantly changing environment, humans rely heavily on the informational richness and communicative capacity of the face. Thus, understanding how the brain processes information about faces in real-time is of paramount importance. The N170 is a high-temporal resolution electrophysiological index of the brain's early response to visual stimuli that is reliably elicited in carefully controlled laboratory-based studies. Although the N170 has often been reported to be of greatest amplitude to faces, there has been debate regarding whether this effect might be an artefact of certain aspects of the controlled experimental stimulation schedules and materials. To investigate whether the N170 can be identified in more realistic conditions with highly variable and cluttered visual images and accompanying auditory stimuli we recorded EEG 'in the wild', while participants watched pop videos. Scene-cuts to faces generated a clear N170 response, and this was larger than the N170 to transitions where the videos cut to non-face stimuli. Within participants, wild-type face N170 amplitudes were moderately correlated to those observed in a typical laboratory experiment. Thus, we demonstrate that the face N170 is a robust and ecologically valid phenomenon and not an artefact arising as an unintended consequence of some property of the more typical laboratory paradigm. PMID:25344945

Johnston, Patrick; Molyneux, Rebecca; Young, Andrew W

2014-10-24

113

Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1?(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely high salinities, up to 100 psu, this was related to high relative expression for all genes studied, indicating that this imposes increased energy demand for osmotic homeostasis in gill tissues. This study is the first to demonstrate, in fish and in wild populations, that expression of NAKA, VDAC, NDH and COX are interrelated in gill tissues, and are involved in long-term acclimatisation to a salinity range between 0 and 100 psu.

Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2011-01-01

114

First insight into divergence, representation and chromosome distribution of reverse transcriptase fragments from L1 retrotransposons in peanut and wild relative species.  

PubMed

Peanut is an allotetraploid (2n = 2x = 40, AABB) of recent origin. Arachis duranensis and A. ipaënsis, the most probable diploid ancestors of the cultigen, and several other wild diploid species with different genomes (A, B, D, F and K) are used in peanut breeding programs. However, the genomic relationships and the evolutionary pathways of genome differentiation of these species are poorly understood. We performed a sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the L1 reverse transcriptase and estimated its representation and chromosome distribution in species of five genomes and three karyotype groups with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the genomic structure and evolution of peanut and wild diploid relatives. All the isolated rt fragments were found to belong to plant L1 lineage and were named ALI. The best supported phylogenetic groups were not concordant with the genomes or karyotype groups. The copy number of ALI sequences was higher than the expected one for plants and directly related to genome size. FISH experiments revealed that ALI is mainly located on the euchromatin of interstitial and distal regions of most chromosome arms. Divergence of ALI sequences would have occurred before the differentiation of the genomes and karyotype groups of Arachis. The representation and chromosome distribution of ALI in peanut was almost additive of those of the parental species suggesting that the spontaneous hybridization of the two parental species of peanut followed by chromosome doubling would not have induced a significant burst of ALI transposition. PMID:25633099

Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Podio, Maricel; Chalup, Laura; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A; Pessino, Silvina Claudia; Seijo, José Guillermo

2015-02-01

115

Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. PMID:23928036

Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-09-01

116

Sequence variation at cpDNA regions of watermelon and related wild species: implications for the evolution of Citrullus haplotypes.  

PubMed

Sequencing analysis of one coding and four noncoding cpDNA regions was conducted to infer biogeographic and evolutionary relationships in the genus Citrullus. Eighteen taxa from diverse geographical areas were included. A low number of parsimony informative characters (1.1%) was observed at the ?4 kb section of cpDNA. Variability within Citrullus was detected primarily at noncoding regions of high A + T content. Substitution rates varied from 0-0.48% for ndhF with A + T content of 68.4% to 0.39- 1.69% for the intergenic region of atpA with A + T content of 82.8%, mainly resulting in indels and transversions. Indels at several regions acted as valuable parsimony informative markers. Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the cultivated watermelon, and C. ecirrhosus and C. rehmii from Namibia, lacked molecular variability. The genus Citrullus is supported monophyletically and shows two main clades, one of which contains C. colocynthis. In the other clade, C. rehmii is sister to a clade containing C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus. Two clades were recovered within C. lanatus, consisting of domesticated watermelon and wild citron, var. citroides. Five haplotypes within C. colocynthis were used to deduce colonization routes of the species. Biogeographic patterns point to separate colonization events into Africa and the Far East. PMID:21652338

Dane, Fenny; Lang, Ping

2004-11-01

117

Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2013-01-01

118

Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.  

PubMed

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2014-01-01

119

Ecotoxicology of wild mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

2000-01-01

120

Differential selection of growth rate-related traits in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in contrasting greenhouse nutrient environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across-species comparisons show that inherent variation in relative growth rate (RGR) and its underlying traits are correlated with habitat productivity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that growth rate-related traits confer differential selective effects in contrasting nutrient environments. We specif- ically test whether high RGR is targeted by selection in nutrient-rich environments whereas low values of traits that underlie

K. J. F. V ERHOEVEN; A. BIERE; E. N EVO; J. M. M. VAN DAMME

2003-01-01

121

Induction of MDM2-P2 Transcripts Correlates with Stabilized Wild-Type p53 in Betel- and Tobacco-Related Human Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of these proteins (median time, 26 months; P = 0.02). PMID:10934161

Ralhan, Ranju; Sandhya, Agarwal; Meera, Mathur; Bohdan, Wasylyk; Nootan, Shukla K.

2000-01-01

122

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301

Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

123

Different Transcript Patterns in Response to Specialist and Generalist Herbivores in the Wild Arabidopsis Relative Boechera divaricarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPlants defend themselves against herbivorous insects, utilizing both constitutive and inducible defenses. Induced defenses are controlled by several phytohormone-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we analyze transcriptional changes in the North American Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa in response to larval herbivory by the crucifer specialist lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (cabbage semilooper), and compare them

Heiko Vogel; Juergen Kroymann; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Markus Grebe

2007-01-01

124

Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes  

PubMed Central

Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

2013-01-01

125

Calorie Restriction Reduces Ulcerative Dermatitis and Infection-Related Mortality in p53Deficient and Wild-Type Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rodents calorie restriction (CR) reduces cancer incidence, improves health by delaying age-related declines in physiologic measures, and extends both median and maximal life span. The mechanisms underlying the various beneficial effects of CR remain undefined. In this study, heterozygous p53-deficient (p53+\\/–) mice (in which the inactivation of one allele of the p53 tumor suppressor gene increases susceptibility to spontaneous

Susan N. Perkins; Stephen D. Hursting; James M. Phang; Diana C. Haines

1998-01-01

126

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.  

PubMed

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in Saskatchewan. These findings suggest that the probability of gene flow from transgenic B. napus to R. raphanistrum, S. arvensis or E. gallicum is very low (<2-5 x 10(-5)). However, transgenes can disperse in the environment via wild B. rapa in eastern Canada and possibly via commercial B. rapa volunteers in western Canada. PMID:12721639

Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

2003-08-01

127

Highly Diverse Morbillivirus-Related Paramyxoviruses in Wild Fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: Evidence of Exchange between Introduced and Endemic Small Mammals  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of the infectious agents that circulate within wild animal reservoirs is essential for several reasons: (i) infectious disease outbreaks often originate from wild fauna; (ii) anthropological expansion increases the risk of contact between human and animal populations and, as a result, the risk of disease emergence; (iii) evaluation of pathogen reservoirs helps in elaborating preventive measures to limit the risk of disease emergence. Many paramyxoviruses for which bats and rodents serve as major reservoirs have demonstrated their potential to cause disease in humans and animals. In the context of the biodiversity hot spot of southwestern Indian Ocean islands and their rich endemic fauna, we show that highly diverse UMRVs exchange between various endemic animal species, and their dissemination likely is facilitated by the introduced Rattus rattus. Hence, many members of the Paramyxoviridae appear well adapted for the study of the viral phylodynamics that may be associated with disease emergence. PMID:24829336

Mélade, Julien; Dietrich, Muriel; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Lagadec, Erwan; le Minter, Gildas; Tortosa, Pablo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay

2014-01-01

128

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack. PMID:20637125

2010-01-01

129

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

130

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

131

Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of (18)F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from (18)F-FDG relative to 662 keV ?-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from (18)F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte ?H2A.X levels. To test the RBE of (18)F-FDG, mice were injected with a range of activities of (18)F-FDG (0-14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 ?-rays (0-100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24h after the (18)F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for ?H2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the (18)F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in ?H2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq (18)F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq (18)F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical (18)F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by ?H2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. The (18)F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality and/or low dose rate from PET scans is less damaging than equivalent doses of gamma radiation. PMID:24870562

Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A; Boreham, Douglas R

2014-07-01

132

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed Central

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-01-01

133

Density-related effects on the infectivity and aggressiveness of a sterilising smut in a wild population of Digitaria sanguinalis.  

PubMed

Understanding host-pathogen evolutionary dynamics needs characterisation and quantification of processes occurring at many spatiotemporal scales. With this aim, the effects of smut on a naturally infected population of the summer annual Digitaria sanguinalis were followed for 4 years in an uncropped field. The main purpose of the study was to quantify the effects of within-population density on the infectivity and the aggressiveness of the pathogen in a range of densities that occurred naturally. The infectivity-related variable measured was the proportion of smutted plants at the end of each growing season; proportions were analysed using a generalised linear model with a binomial distribution considering the year, the density and their interaction as effects. The aggressiveness-related variables chosen were the number of smutted inflorescences per plant and per area, obtained over the last 2 years; they were analysed by means of ancova considering disease status (seeded or smutted), year, density and all the interactions between them. Although the disease is monocyclic, results showed clearly that infectivity increased with plant density. The number of inflorescences per plant was 1.5 times higher in smutted plants than in healthy plants throughout the range of densities. This variable declined when density increased, but as the infectivity increased at a higher rate, the aggressiveness also increased with density. The surprising results on infectivity are discussed in the context of current knowledge of plant-pathogen interaction dynamics, as well as neighbour effects on pathogen aggressiveness. Moreover, the results could be useful to develop weed biological control strategies. PMID:24990686

Verdú, A M C; Mas, M T

2014-07-01

134

Different Transcript Patterns in Response to Specialist and Generalist Herbivores in the Wild Arabidopsis Relative Boechera divaricarpa  

PubMed Central

Background Plants defend themselves against herbivorous insects, utilizing both constitutive and inducible defenses. Induced defenses are controlled by several phytohormone-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we analyze transcriptional changes in the North American Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa in response to larval herbivory by the crucifer specialist lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (cabbage semilooper), and compare them to wounding and exogenous phytohormone application. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a custom macroarray constructed from B. divaricarpa herbivory-regulated cDNAs identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and from known stress-responsive A. thaliana genes for transcript profiling after insect herbivory, wounding and in response to jasmonate, salicylate and ethylene. In addition, we introduce path analysis as a novel approach to analyze transcript profiles. Path analyses reveal that transcriptional responses to the crucifer specialist P. xylostella are primarily determined by direct effects of the ethylene and salicylate pathways, whereas responses to the generalist T. ni are influenced by the ethylene and jasmonate pathways. Wound-induced transcriptional changes are influenced by all three pathways, with jasmonate having the strongest effect. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that insect herbivory is distinct from simple mechanical plant damage, and that different lepidopteran herbivores elicit different transcriptional responses. PMID:17957263

Vogel, Heiko; Kroymann, Juergen; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2007-01-01

135

Effects of environmental stress on mRNA expression levels of seven genes related to oxidative stress and growth in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of farmed, hybrid and wild origin  

PubMed Central

Background Ten generations of domestication selection has caused farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. to deviate from wild salmon in a range of traits. Each year hundreds of thousands of farmed salmon escape into the wild. Thus, interbreeding between farmed escapees and wild conspecifics represents a significant threat to the genetic integrity of wild salmon populations. In a previous study we demonstrated how domestication has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress in farmed salmon. To complement that study, we have evaluated the expression of seven stress-related genes in head kidney of salmon of farmed, hybrid and wild origin exposed to environmentally induced stress. Results In general, the crowding stressor used to induce environmental stress did not have a strong impact on mRNA expression levels of the seven genes, except for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that was downregulated in the stress treatment relative to the control treatment. mRNA expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and IGF-1 were affected by genetic origin, thus expressed significantly different between the salmon of farmed, hybrid or wild origin. A positive relationship was detected between body size of wild salmon and mRNA expression level of the IGF-1 gene, in both environments. No such relationship was observed for the hybrid or farmed salmon. Conclusion Farmed salmon in this study displayed significantly elevated mRNA levels of the IGF-1 gene relative to the wild salmon, in both treatments, while hybrids displayed a non additive pattern of inheritance. As IGF-1 mRNA levels are positively correlated to growth rate, the observed positive relationship between body size and IGF-1 mRNA levels detected in the wild but neither in the farmed nor the hybrid salmon, could indicate that growth selection has increased IGF-1 levels in farmed salmon to the extent that they may not be limiting growth rate. PMID:23217180

2012-01-01

136

The Effects of Wild Blueberry Consumption on Plasma Markers and Gene Expression Related to Glucose Metabolism in the Obese Zucker Rat.  

PubMed

Abstract Impaired fasting blood glucose is one of the landmark signs of metabolic syndrome, together with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and a chronic proinflammatory, pro-oxidative, and prothrombotic environment. This study investigates the effect of wild blueberry (WB) consumption on blood glucose levels and other parameters involved in glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen OZRs and 16 lean littermate controls (lean Zucker rat [LZR]) were fed an 8% enriched WB diet or a control (C) diet for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured. Expression of the resistin, RBP4, and glucose transporter GLUT4 genes was also determined both in the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, RBP4, and resistin concentrations were significantly lower in OZRs following the WB diet (-20%, -22%, and -27%, respectively, compared to C diet, P<.05). Following WB consumption, resistin expression was significantly downregulated in the liver of both OZRs and LZRs (-28% and -61%, respectively, P<.05), while RBP4 expression was significantly downregulated in the AAT of both OZRs and LZRs (-87% and -43%, respectively, P<.05). All other markers were not significantly affected following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption normalizes some markers related to glucose metabolism in the OZR model of metabolic syndrome, but has no effect on fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations. PMID:25383490

Vendrame, Stefano; Zhao, Alice; Merrow, Thomas; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

2014-11-10

137

Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.  

PubMed

A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 ?m × 75 ?m to 98 ?m × 122 ?m, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. PMID:22112977

Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

2012-05-25

138

Autophagy-related gene, TdAtg8, in wild emmer wheat plays a role in drought and osmotic stress response.  

PubMed

An autophagy-related gene Atg8 was cloned for the first time from wild emmer wheat, named as TdAtg8, and its role on autophagy under abiotic stress conditions was investigated. Examination of TdAtg8 expression patterns indicated that Atg8 expression was strongly upregulated under drought stress, especially in the roots when compared to leaves. LysoTracker(®) red marker, utilized to observe autophagosomes, revealed that autophagy is constitutively active in Triticum dicoccoides. Moreover, autophagy was determined to be induced in plants exposed to osmotic stress when compared to plants grown under normal conditions. Functional studies were executed in yeast to confirm that the TdATG8 protein is functional, and showed that the TdAtg8 gene complements the atg8?::kan MX yeast mutant strain grown under nitrogen deficiency. For further functional analysis, TdATG8 protein was expressed in yeast and analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Atg8-silenced plants were exposed to drought stress and chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) content measurements demonstrated that Atg8 plays a key role on drought stress tolerance. In addition, Atg8-silenced plants exposed to osmotic stress were found to have decreased Atg8 expression level in comparison to controls. Hence, Atg8 is a positive regulator in osmotic and drought stress response. PMID:22569921

Kuzuoglu-Ozturk, Duygu; Cebeci Yalcinkaya, Ozge; Akpinar, Bala Ani; Mitou, Geraldine; Korkmaz, Gozde; Gozuacik, Devrim; Budak, Hikmet

2012-10-01

139

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

140

Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined. PMID:22102853

Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vilà, Carles

2011-01-01

141

Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet improves dyslipidaemia and modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the potential of a wild blueberry (WB)-enriched diet to improve blood lipid profile and modulate the expression of genes related to lipid homeostasis in obese Zucker rats (OZR), a model of the metabolic syndrome with severe dyslipidaemia. For this purpose, twenty OZR and twenty lean Zucker rats (LZR; controls) were placed either on a control (C) or an 8 % WB diet for 8 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations were determined. The relative expression of six genes involved in lipid metabolism was also determined in both the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma TAG and TC concentrations were significantly lower in the OZR following WB consumption (4228 (sem 471) and 2287 (sem 125) mg/l, respectively) than in those on the C diet (5475 (sem 315) and 2631 (sem 129) mg/l, P< 0·05), while there was no change in HDL-cholesterol concentration. No significant effects were observed for plasma lipids in the LZR. Following WB consumption, the expression of the transcription factors PPAR? and PPAR? in the OZR was increased in the AAT, while that of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) was decreased in the liver and AAT. The expression of fatty acid synthase was significantly decreased in both the liver and AAT and that of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 was increased in the AAT following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption appears to improve lipid profiles and modulate the expression of key enzymes and transcription factors of lipid metabolism in severely dyslipidaemic rats. PMID:23920421

Vendrame, Stefano; Daugherty, Allison; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

2014-01-28

142

Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis. Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues.

2001-01-01

143

Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés  

PubMed Central

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

144

Wheat pre-breeding using wild progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the use of wheat wild relatives in conventional breedingprograms, a wheat pre-breeding activity started at ICARDA in 1994\\/1995season. Preliminary results of gene introgression from wild diploidprogenitors, Triticum urartu, T. baeoticum, Aegilops speltoides andAe. tauschii and tetraploid T. dicoccoides are described. Crosseswith wild diploid Triticum spp. yielded high variation in plant andspike morphology. Synthetic hexaploids were produced from crosses

J. J. Valkoun

2001-01-01

145

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.  

PubMed

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. PMID:22512715

Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

2012-06-01

146

Eco-Heroes out of Place and Relations: Decolonizing the Narratives of "Into the Wild" and "Grizzly Man" through Land Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eco-heroic quests for environmental communion continue to be represented, mediated, and glorified through film and media narratives. This paper examines two eco-heroic quests in the Alaskan "wilderness" that have been portrayed in two Hollywood motion pictures: the movies "Grizzly Man" and "Into the Wild". Both films…

Korteweg, Lisa; Oakley, Jan

2014-01-01

147

An insertional mutagenesis programme with an enhancer trap for the identification and tagging of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance in the tomato wild-related species Solanum pennellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity and drought have a huge impact on agriculture since there are few areas free of these abiotic stresses and the problem\\u000a continues to increase. In tomato, the most important horticultural crop worldwide, there are accessions of wild-related species\\u000a with a high degree of tolerance to salinity and drought. Thus, the finding of insertional mutants with other tolerance levels\\u000a could

Alejandro Atarés; Elena Moyano; Belén Morales; Peter Schleicher; José Osvaldo García-Abellán; Teresa Antón; Begoña García-Sogo; Fernando Perez-Martin; Rafael Lozano; Francisco Borja Flores; Vicente Moreno; María del Carmen Bolarin; Benito Pineda

148

Cryopreservation of wild mouse spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatozoa of wild mice from China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, India, Japan and Switzerland were frozen and stored at ?196 °C. After thawing, intact oocytes were inseminated in vitro with relatively high motility frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa from Czechoslovekia, Denmark and India, while oocytes with a partially dissected zona were inseminated with low motility frozen-thawed spermatozoa from China, Japan and Switzerland. Embryos developing

N. Nakagata; S. Ueda; K. Yamanouchi; M. Okamoto; Y. Matsuda; K. Tsuchiya; M. Nishimura; S. Oda; K. Koyasu; S. Azuma; Y. Toyoda

1995-01-01

149

Whales In The Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recurring topic in the media is declining whale populations, now thought to be increasingly caused by increased contamination of the oceans. This resource addresses declines in wild whale populations. From the World Wildlife Fund this is a report on the status of wild whales with emphasis on threats from whaling, fisheries (by-catch), and chemical pollution (DDT and PCBs).

Kemf, Elizabeth.; Phillips, Cassandra.

150

Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species  

PubMed Central

Background The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae) in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA) strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae) and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b) encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3) able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. Conclusions/Significance SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in sweetpotato. A second virus encoding an RNase3-like RNA silencing suppressor was detected. Overall, results provided many novel and important insights into evolutionary biology of SPCSV. PMID:24278443

Tugume, Arthur K.; Amayo, Robert; Weinheimer, Isabel; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

2013-01-01

151

Call of the wild.  

PubMed

Freud described "wild analysis" as an undisciplined version of psychoanalysis; but the new Penguin series of Freud's writings collects many of his papers under the title Wild Analysis, challenging the differentiation. This paper traces wild elements at the core of psychoanalytic thought, crediting Groddeck, Ferenczi, and Winnicott for bringing them to the open. The image of the wild analyst can serve us as the image of the deeply involved, personally motivated analyst, whose work is intense and emotionally risky. This is the opposite of the "civilized" analyst who uses well-defined existing paths, takes no personal risks, and therefore stays at an emotional distance from his/her patients. Every analyst's capacity to develop a unique analytic self, based on his/her genuine life experience and worldview, is endangered if stepping out of line is slandered as "wild analysis" or as insanity. The relevance of these issues for contemporary psychoanalytic thought and education is demonstrated. PMID:17717552

Berman, Emanuel

2007-09-01

152

Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.  

PubMed

American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

2015-01-01

153

Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

2014-12-01

154

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animal’s characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

2012-05-09

155

Comparative analysis of phylogenetic relationships of grain amaranths and their wild relatives (Amaranthus; Amaranthaceae) using internal transcribed spacer, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and double-primer fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat markers.  

PubMed

The most economically important group of species in the genus Amaranthus is the A. hybridus species complex, including three cultivated grain amaranths, A. cruentus, A. caudatus, and A. hypochondriacus, and their putative wild progenitors, A. hybridus, A. quitensis, and A. powellii. Taxonomic confusion exists among these closely related taxa. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and double-primer fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) were employed to reexamine the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of grain amaranths and their wild relatives. Low ITS divergence in these taxa resulted in poorly resolved phylogeny. However, extensive polymorphisms exist at AFLP and ISSR loci both within and among species. In phylogenetic trees based on either AFLP or ISSR or the combined data sets, nearly all intraspecific accessions can be placed in their corresponding species clades, indicating that these taxa are well-separated species. The AFLP trees share many features in common with the ISSR trees, both showing a close relationship between A. caudatus and A. quitensis, placing A. hybridus in the same clade as all grain amaranths, and indicating that A. powellii is the most divergent taxon in the A. hybridus species complex. This study has demonstrated that both AFLP and double-primer fluorescent ISSR have a great potential for generating a large number of informative characters for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially when ITS diversity is insufficient. PMID:11741380

Xu, F; Sun, M

2001-12-01

156

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

157

A Wild Pony of Assateague  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A wild pony on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

158

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Wild mustard  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Wild mustard Sinapis arvensis L. Life cycle Erect winter or summer an. Wild mustard lower leaf. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family to purple seeds. Reproduction Seeds. Wild mustard continued Wild mustard fruit. Kidney-shaped cotyledons

159

Consequences of farmed-wild hybridization across divergent wild populations and multiple traits in salmon.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that hybrid fitness should decrease as population divergence increases. This suggests that the effects of human-induced hybridization might be adequately predicted from the known divergence among parental populations. We tested this prediction by quantifying trait differentiation between multigenerational crosses of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and divergent wild populations from the Northwest Atlantic; the former escape repeatedly into the wild, while the latter are severely depleted. Under common environmental conditions and at the spatiotemporal scale considered (340 km, 12 000 years of divergence), substantial cross differentiation had a largely additive genetic basis at behavioral, life history, and morphological traits. Wild backcrossing did not completely restore hybrid trait distributions to presumably more optimal wild states. Consistent with theory, the degree to which hybrids deviated in absolute terms from their parental populations increased with increasing parental divergence (i.e., the collective environmental and life history differentiation, genetic divergence, and geographic distance between parents). Nevertheless, while these differences were predictable, their implications for risk assessment were not: wild populations that were equally divergent from farmed salmon in the total amount of divergence differed in the specific traits at which this divergence occurred. Combined with ecological data on the rate of farmed escapes and wild population trends, we thus suggest that the greatest utility of hybridization data for risk assessment may be through their incorporation into demographic modeling of the short- and long-term consequences to wild population persistence. In this regard, our work demonstrates that detailed hybridization data are essential to account for life-stage-specific changes in phenotype or fitness within divergent but interrelated groups of wild populations. The approach employed here will be relevant to risk assessments in a range of wild species where hybridization with domesticated relatives is a concern, especially where the conservation status of the wild species may preclude direct fitness comparisons in the wild. PMID:20597281

Fraser, Dylan J; Houde, Aimee Lee S; Debes, Paul V; O'Reilly, Patrick; Eddington, James D; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2010-06-01

160

Pestiviruses in wild animals.  

PubMed

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

2006-08-25

161

The Wild Free Wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Oh! the wild free wind is a Spirit kind,\\u000aAnd it loves the Indian well,\\u000aWhen its course it ploughs thro' the crashing boughs,\\u000aOr moans in the ocean shell.\\u000aOh! the wild free wind is a Spirit kind,\\u000aAnd it loves the Indian well,\\u000aWhen its course it ploughs thro' the crashing boughs,\\u000aOr moans in the ocean

Alexander Lee; Shirley Brooks

1853-01-01

162

Frozen Wild River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS gages the Wild River at Gilead, Maine at station 01054200. This photo was taken during a winter trip to the site. During this trip, the gage equipment was checked and a discharge measurement was made by drilling holes through the ice and lowering velocity meters into the water....

163

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

164

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Mrs. Whaley

2009-04-19

165

Blastomycosis in wild wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

Thiel, R.P.; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

1987-01-01

166

Teaching in Wild Meerkats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their

Alex Thornton; Katherine McAuliffe

2006-01-01

167

Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.  

PubMed

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

2014-02-01

168

Smaylilh or Wild People Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native peoples who inhabit the Pacific Northwest Coast and Interior Plateau possess oral traditions concerning cryptozoology, including the 'wild people' also known as Sasquatch or Bigfoot. For the Squamish Nation, these are Wild People, or \\

Rudy Reimer

2007-01-01

169

Sean Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme  

E-print Network

Se´an Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme Christmas day. We're all at my gran's house, The full, Catholic notes to Wild Mountain Thyme, And our voices warm And swell around The sunken armchair left Empty since

Robertson, Stephen

170

Wild Duck Cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

2005-01-01

171

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

217 MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS IN THE TEXAS PANHANDLE AND SOUTHWESTERN Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range habitat used for different behaviors (displaying, loafing, and foraging) by male Rio Grande wild turkeys

172

Thermal thresholds as predictors of seed dormancy release and germination timing: altitude-related risks from climate warming for the wild grapevine Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The importance of thermal thresholds for predicting seed dormancy release and germination timing under the present climate conditions and simulated climate change scenarios was investigated. In particular, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris was investigated in four Sardinian populations over the full altitudinal range of the species (from approx. 100 to 800 m a.s.l). Methods Dried and fresh seeds from each population were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C), without any pre-treatment and after a warm (3 months at 25 °C) or a cold (3 months at 5 °C) stratification. A thermal time approach was then applied to the germination results for dried seeds and the seed responses were modelled according to the present climate conditions and two simulated scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): B1 (+1·8 °C) and A2 (+3·4 °C). Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy, while very few seeds germinated without treatments or after warm stratification. Fresh, cold-stratified seeds germinated significantly better (>80 %) at temperatures ?20 °C than at lower temperatures. A base temperature for germination (Tb) of 9·0–11·3 °C and a thermal time requirement for 50 % of germination (?50) ranging from 33·6 °Cd to 68·6 °Cd were identified for non-dormant cold-stratified seeds, depending on the populations. This complex combination of thermal requirements for dormancy release and germination allowed prediction of field emergence from March to May under the present climatic conditions for the investigated populations. Conclusions The thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study (Tb and ?50) explained the differences in seed germination detected among populations. Under the two simulated IPCC scenarios, an altitude-related risk from climate warming is identified, with lowland populations being more threatened due to a compromised seed dormancy release and a narrowed seed germination window. PMID:23071219

Orrù, Martino; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2012-01-01

173

Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of root-synthesized ABA in regulating growth and stomatal behaviour under well-watered conditions, isogenic wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient flacca (flc) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reciprocally and self-grafted just below the cotyledonary node. Since flc scions had lower leaf water potentials due to higher transpiration rates, a subset of all graft combinations was grown under a shoot misting treatment to minimize differences in shoot water status. Misting did not alter the relative effects of the different graft combinations on leaf area. WT scions had the greatest leaf area and lowest whole plant transpiration rate irrespective of the rootstock, implying that shoot ABA biosynthesis was sufficient to account for a WT shoot phenotype. In WT scions, the rootstock had no effect on detached leaf ethylene evolution or xylem concentrations of ABA or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In flc scions, although the WT rootstock suppressed stomatal conductance of individual leaves, there was no detectable effect on whole plant transpiration rate. However, leaf area of flc/WT (scion/rootstock) plants increased 1.6-fold compared to flc self-grafts. WT rootstocks increased xylem ABA concentration in flc scions (relative to flc self-grafts) up to 3-fold, and resulted in xylem ACC concentrations and detached leaf ethylene evolution similar to WT scions. Since the WT rootstock normalized shoot ethylene relations but only partially restored the leaf area of flc scions (relative to that of WT scions), shoot ABA biosynthesis can directly promote leaf area via an unknown, ethylene-independent, mechanism. PMID:19648172

Dodd, Ian C.; Theobald, Julian C.; Richer, Sarah K.; Davies, William J.

2009-01-01

174

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

175

Population structure and conservation of wild Pyrus communis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wild relatives of the edible European pears (Pyrus communis L.) are native to Central Asia and Eastern Europe. We have sampled 260 individuals of wild-collected Pyrus communis ssp. caucasica and Pyrus communis ssp. pyraster from their native habitats and used 13 microsatellite markers to determ...

176

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2014-07-01

177

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2013-07-01

178

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2011-07-01

179

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2010-07-01

180

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2012-07-01

181

Teaching in wild meerkats.  

PubMed

Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching. PMID:16840701

Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

2006-07-14

182

Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

183

Incorporating Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance from diverse perennial wild Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the wild sunflower germplasms indicated that most perennial wild species, including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid, possess high level of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk rot. Selected resistant wild species were crossed with cultivated sunflower to transfer Sclerotinia resistance genes, though the frequency of successful crosses was relatively low. Hexaploid H. californicus was crossed with HA 410, a moderately stalk

J. Feng; G. J. Seiler; T. J. Gulya; X. Cai; C. C. Jan

184

Wild Partitions and Number Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of wild partition to describe in combinatorial language an important situation in the theory of p-adic fields. For Q a power of p, we get a sequence of numbers ! Q,n counting the number of certain wild partitions of n. We give an explicit formula for the corresponding generating function ! Q(x) = ! ! Q,nxn

David P. Roberts

185

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

186

Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced?Introduced or Reintroduced?  

E-print Network

11/6/2008 1 Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced turkeyturkey History of wild turkeysHistory of wild turkeys in Californiain California Restoration efforts OcellatedOcellated (Meleagris ocellata)(Meleagris ocellata) Wild turkeyWild turkey (Meleagris gallapavo

Gray, Matthew

187

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity  

PubMed Central

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment. PMID:21686920

Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

2009-01-01

188

Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape ( Brassica rapa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative

Corinne Vacher; Arthur E. Weis; Donald Hermann; Tanya Kossler; Chad Young; Michael E. Hochberg

2004-01-01

189

Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of root-synthesized ABA in regulating growth and stomatal behaviour under well-watered conditions, isogenic wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient flacca (flc) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reciprocally and self-grafted just below the cotyledonary node. Since flc scions had lower leaf water potentials due to higher transpiration rates, a subset of all graft combinations was grown under a shoot misting

Ian C. Dodd; Julian C. Theobald; Sarah K. Richer; William J. Davies

2009-01-01

190

Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.  

PubMed

Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle perspective. Additionally, due to effects of exogenous selection, a given hybrid generation may be especially well-suited to hastening introgression under particular environmental conditions. PMID:25295859

Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

2014-01-01

191

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

192

Echinostomes in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Echinostomes are closely related to wildlife and occasionally have been found to infect domestic animals. The low specificity\\u000a of some species results in a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts acting as natural hosts, and a large geographic\\u000a distribution has been recorded. The zoonotic potential of echinostomes has been related to the ingestion of raw mollusks,\\u000a fishes, and amphibians

Arnaldo Maldonado

193

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

194

The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.  

PubMed

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K; Lipton, Howard L; Delwart, Eric L

2011-09-01

195

A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.  

PubMed

Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

1998-06-01

196

Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach  

E-print Network

of Scotland's biodiversity, and they provide us with healthy food and recreational opportunities. This new Wild deer are an important element of Scotland's biodiversity and ecology, an economic asset and valuedScotland's Wild Deer A National Approach #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach i Scotland's Wild

197

Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.  

PubMed

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine. PMID:25072994

Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

2014-08-01

198

Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Patterns of diversity distribution in the Isa defense locus in wild-barley populations suggest adaptive selection at this locus. The extent to which environmental selection may act at additional nuclear-encoded defense loci and within the whole chloroplast genome has now been examined by analyses in two grass species. Analysis of genetic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) defense genes revealed much greater variation in biotic stress-related genes than abiotic stress-related genes. Genetic diversity at the Isa defense locus in wild populations of weeping ricegrass [Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br.], a very distant wild-rice relative, was more diverse in samples from relatively hotter and drier environments, a phenomenon that reflects observations in wild barley populations. Whole-chloroplast genome sequences of bulked weeping ricegrass individuals sourced from contrasting environments showed higher levels of diversity in the drier environment in both coding and noncoding portions of the genome. Increased genetic diversity may be important in allowing plant populations to adapt to greater environmental variation in warmer and drier climatic conditions. PMID:22173638

Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Shapter, Frances M.; McDonald, Stuart; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Chivers, Ian H.; Drenth, Andre; Nevo, Eviatar; Henry, Robert J.

2011-01-01

199

Alliance for the Wild Rockies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to their mission statement, the goal of Alliance for the Wild Rockies (AWR) is to secure the ecological integrity of the Wild Rockies Bioregion through citizen empowerment and the application of conservation biology, sustainable economic models, and environmental law. The Rockies Bioregion includes wildlands in parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, Alberta, and British Columbia. At any given time, the group is working on several key issues in the Northern Rocky Mountains. These issues include protection of the bull trout and the grizzly bear, and bioregion-wide topics including wildfire and logging, and The Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act (NREPA).

200

Demographic vital rates determine the performance advantage of crop-wild hybrids in lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Hybridization seems possible for many crop species after pollen transfer from crops to wild relatives in the surrounding vegetation. Subsequent introgression of crop-specific traits into wild relatives could lead to invasive introgressants. This process has become a public concern following the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Until now, few studies have used demographic vital rates to compare the

D. A. P. Hooftman; J. G. B. Oostermeijer; M. Jacobs; Nijs den J. C. M

2005-01-01

201

Bee-Wild about Pollinators!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

2014-01-01

202

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

203

Wild QTLs for Rice Improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Domestication of plants for agricultural use has brought about profound genetic change in ancestral plant species. Intensive, scientific breeding of crop varieties by modern plant breeders over the last century hs narrowed the gene pool in many crops. Many wild ancestors of modern crop plants can s...

204

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

205

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa Eco-frontiers vs livelihoods in Pondoland Sylvain Guyot. Introduction to the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.................... 35 3. TRALSO's involvement in Pondoland, South Africa.................................................... 101 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

207

Monitoring wild bird populations for lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), an enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway is extremely sensitive to inhibition by lead (Pb). I evaluated the erythrocyte ALA-d activity ratio (the ratio between the fully restored enzyme activity and that measured without removing any inhibitory influence that might be present) as an indicator of Pb exposure in free-living birds. In the absence of elevated Pb exposure, birds, had comparable ALA-d activity ratios regardless of species, geographical location, or time of year sampled. The normal range of ratios for free-living species was similar to that for aviary-raised birds (1.0-1.3). Individuals with enzyme inhibition were readily identified. In blood collected from free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ALA-d activity ratios were better correlated with blood-Pb than were blood-protoporphyrin (PP) concentrations. At least 9.5% of mallards with blood-Pb>80 {mu}g/dL did not have elevated PP levels. Underestimation of Pb exposure did not occur using the ALA-d activity ratio method. The ALA-d activity ratio was as accurate as blood-Pb measurements for monitoring the relative degree of recent Pb exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and assays can be performed efficiently with minimal training.

Scheuhammer, A.M. (Environment Canada, Ottawa (Canada))

1989-07-01

208

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation\\u000a tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of\\u000a these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the\\u000a field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

209

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

210

Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

211

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

212

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (; )

2007-06-01

213

Wheel running in the wild.  

PubMed

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

2014-07-01

214

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

215

Buffalo Bill' Wild West and John M. Burke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public relations and advertising textbooks either ignore or treat the old fashioned press agent with contempt. Yet the origin of modern day sports and entertainment promotion dates back to a group of press agents who made important contributions to the marketing communication tactics we take for granted. From 1884 to 1917, the promotion of Buffalo Bill' Wild West incorporated advertising,

Jason Berger

2002-01-01

216

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

217

Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA  

PubMed Central

During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

2014-01-01

218

Social play does not reduce aggression in wild meerkats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the numerous hypotheses advanced to explain the adaptive significance of play, several assert that social play increases social harmony, cementing alliances and reducing aggression between group members or littermates. These hypotheses are frequently cited, but their validity remains unknown. We examined the relation between social play and aggression in juvenile meerkats, Suricata suricatta, living in a wild population in

L. L. Sharpe; M. I. Cherry

2003-01-01

219

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

2014-01-01

220

Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres  

PubMed Central

Telomere length and telomerase activity directly affect the replicative capacity of primary human cells. Some have suggested that telomere length influences organismal lifespan. We compared telomere length distributions in a number of inbred and outbred established mouse strains with those of strains recently derived from wild mice. Telomere length was considerably shorter in wild-derived strains than in the established strains. We found no correlation of telomere length with lifespan, even among closely related inbred mouse strains. Thus, while telomere length plays a role in cellular lifespan in cultured human cells, it is not a major factor in determining organismal lifespan. PMID:11071935

Hemann, Michael T.; Greider, Carol W.

2000-01-01

221

Bt crops: Predicting effects of escaped transgenes on the fitness of wild plants and their herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One prominent concern about genetically modified crops is the possibility of environmental impacts from the movement of fitness-enhancing traits to wild plant populations. Decisions to deregulate Bt crops in the USA have relied strongly on arguments that these crops will not interbreed with wild relatives in the permitted growing regions. Limited attention therefore has been directed to analyses of the

Deborah K. Letourneau; Gaden S. Robinson; Joy A. Hagen

2003-01-01

222

Identification and QTL mapping of blast resistance in wild Oryza species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf blast disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch is one of the most devastating rice fungal diseases worldwide. Wild relatives of rice (Oryza spp.) may contain novel genes for biotic and abiotic stress resistance lost during domestication. A collection of 67 wild ...

223

Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

224

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

225

Re-Wilding the Great Plains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new paper published in the journal Nature has proposed re-wilding North America by introducing populations of large animals from Africa related to ones that roamed the Great Plains during the Pleistocene era. This radio broadcast features discussion with one of the architects of this idea about the ecology of America 13,000 years ago; how large mammals interacted with the environment in ways important to biodiversity; how they are thought to have been driven to extinction by humans; and whether re-introduced large animals would fill their ancient niches or become invasive species. There is also discussion about the feasibility of using biotechnology to produce Woolly Mammoths from bone-extracted DNA. The broadcast is 21 minutes in length.

226

Diet traditions in wild orangutans.  

PubMed

This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning. PMID:20853473

Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

2010-10-01

227

Karyological features of wild and cultivated forms of myrtle (Myrtus communis, Myrtaceae).  

PubMed

Myrtle is an evergreen shrub or small tree widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. In Turkey, both cultivated and wild forms, differing in plant and fruit size and fruit composition, can be found. These differences may have resulted from the domestication of the cultivated form over a long period of time. We investigated whether wild and cultivated forms of myrtle differ in karyological features (i.e., number of somatic chromosomes and relative genome size). We sampled two wild forms and six cultivated types of myrtle. All the samples had the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 22). The results were confirmed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Only negligible variation (approximately 3%) in relative fluorescence intensity was observed among the different myrtle accessions, with wild genotypes having the smallest values. We concluded that despite considerable morphological differentiation, cultivated and wild myrtle genotypes in Turkey have similar karyological features. PMID:20309828

Serçe, S; Ekbiç, E; Suda, J; Gündüz, K; Kiyga, Y

2010-01-01

228

Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

2013-01-01

229

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

2010-01-01

230

The laboratory mouse and wild immunology.  

PubMed

The laboratory mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, has been the work-horse of the very successful laboratory study of mammalian immunology. These studies - discovering how the mammalian immune system can work - have allowed the development of the field of wild immunology that is seeking to understand how the immune responses of wild animals contributes to animals' fitness. Remarkably, there have hardly been any studies of the immunology of wild Mus musculus domesticus (or of rats, another common laboratory model), but the general finding is that these wild animals are more immunologically responsive, compared with their laboratory domesticated comparators. This difference probably reflects the comparatively greater previous exposure to antigens of these wild-caught animals. There are now excellent prospects for laboratory mouse immunology to make major advances in the field of wild immunology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25303494

Viney, Mark; Lazarou, Luke; Abolins, Steve

2014-10-01

231

Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

2013-01-01

232

Vocal communication of wild parrots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

Bradbury, Jack

2001-05-01

233

Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons  

PubMed Central

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health. PMID:19046505

Bentler, Kevin T.; Landolt, Gabrielle; Elmore, Stacey A.; Minnis, Richard B.; Campbell, Tyler A.; Barras, Scott C.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Pilon, John; Pabilonia, Kristy; Driscoll, Cindy; Slate, Dennis; Sullivan, Heather; McLean, Robert G.

2008-01-01

234

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

2008-01-01

235

Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression  

PubMed Central

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

2014-01-01

236

Identifying the contribution of wild and hatchery Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to the ocean fishery using otolith microstructure as natural tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the contribution of wild (naturally spawned) and hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to the mixed-stock ocean fishery is critical to understanding their relative importance to the persistence of salmon stocks. The inability to distinguish hatchery and wild salmon has inhibited the detection of declines or recover- ies for many wild populations. By using Chinook salmon of known hatchery and

Rachel Barnett-Johnson; Churchill B. Grimes; Chantell F. Royer; Christopher J. Donohoe

2007-01-01

237

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two- generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F1 and F2 hybrids and BC1 backcrosses to wild and farm salmon.

Philip McGinnity; Paulo Prodohl; Andy Ferguson; Rosaleen Hynes; N. o. Maoileidigh; Natalie Baker; Deirdre Cotter; Brendan O'Hea; Declan Cooke; Ger Rogan; John Taggart; Tom Cross

2003-01-01

238

The Wild Blueberry Industry—Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, presented as part of a symposium at the 9th North American Blueberry Research and Extension Workers Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 18-21, 2002, traces the early history of the wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, Aiton, and Vaccinium myrtilloides, Michaux) in eastern North America. Wild blueberry production is traced from consumption of native blueberries by animals and native North

George W. Wood

2004-01-01

239

Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.  

PubMed

Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir. PMID:3411720

Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

1988-07-01

240

INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

241

Environmental quality and evolutionary potential: lessons from wild populations  

PubMed Central

An essential requirement to determine a population's potential for evolutionary change is to quantify the amount of genetic variability expressed for traits under selection. Early investigations in laboratory conditions showed that the magnitude of the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation can change with environmental conditions. However, there is no consensus as to how the expression of genetic variation is sensitive to different environmental conditions. Recently, the study of quantitative genetics in the wild has been revitalized by new pedigree analyses based on restricted maximum likelihood, resulting in a number of studies investigating these questions in wild populations. Experimental manipulation of environmental quality in the wild, as well as the use of naturally occurring favourable or stressful environments, has broadened the treatment of different taxa and traits. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis on recent studies comparing heritability in favourable versus unfavourable conditions in non-domestic and non-laboratory animals. The results provide evidence for increased heritability in more favourable conditions, significantly so for morphometric traits but not for traits more closely related to fitness. We discuss how these results are explained by underlying changes in variance components, and how they represent a major step in our understanding of evolutionary processes in wild populations. We also show how these trends contrast with the prevailing view resulting mainly from laboratory experiments on Drosophila. Finally, we underline the importance of taking into account the environmental variation in models predicting quantitative trait evolution. PMID:16011915

Charmantier, Anne; Garant, Dany

2005-01-01

242

Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge. PMID:23597086

2013-01-01

243

FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

244

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.  

PubMed

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

2010-03-15

245

Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.  

PubMed

Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5?-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. PMID:25091737

Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

2014-12-01

246

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2010-01-01

247

American Experience: The Wild West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In American history, the West is a place of fact, myth, legend, lore, larger-than-life individuals, and a host of other ideas and notions ripe for discussion and analysis. The PBS program "American Experience" takes all of this on in their series, "The Wild West". They have developed this complementary website which expands on some of the themes of each individual program by offering an interactive "American Frontiers" timeline for visitors, a teacher's guide to using these materials, and two full-length episodes from the series. The "American Frontiers" area allows users to scan through a timeline of important events that begins with the French and Indian War in 1754 and concludes with the annexation of Hawaii in 1898. Moving on, the site also includes "The Westernizer" which asks users to respond to a number of questions to determine what type of person they would have been in the American West. Finally, visitors can watch several episodes from the program in their entirety.

248

Wild immunology: converging on the real world.  

PubMed

Recently, the Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution sponsored a one-day symposium entitled "Wild Immunology." The CIIE is a new Wellcome Trust-funded initiative with the remit to connect evolutionary biology and ecology with research in immunology and infectious diseases in order to gain an interdisciplinary perspective on challenges to global health. The central question of the symposium was, "Why should we try to understand infection and immunity in wild systems?" Specifically, how does the immune response operate in the wild and how do multiple coinfections and commensalism affect immune responses and host health in these wild systems? The symposium brought together a broad program of speakers, ranging from laboratory immunologists to infectious disease ecologists, working on wild birds, unmanaged animals, wild and laboratory rodents, and on questions ranging from the dynamics of coinfection to how commensal bacteria affect the development of the immune system. The meeting on wild immunology, organized by Amy Pedersen, Simon Babayan, and Rick Maizels, was held at the University of Edinburgh on 30 June 2011. PMID:22032399

Babayan, Simon A; Allen, Judith E; Bradley, Jan E; Geuking, Markus B; Graham, Andrea L; Grencis, Richard K; Kaufman, Jim; McCoy, Kathy D; Paterson, Steve; Smith, Kenneth G C; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Viney, Mark E; Maizels, Rick M; Pedersen, Amy B

2011-10-01

249

Hybridization effects on phenotypic plasticity: experimental compensatory growth in farmed-wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Compensatory growth (CG) is a means by which organisms can increase their growth rate above their routine growth rate after a period of environmentally induced growth depression. Despite a focus on the implications of CG for aquaculture, little research has evaluated the effect of domesticated–wild hybridization on CG. Any deviation in the mean compensatory ability of hybrids relative to their wild progenitors, or any notable costs to compensation in terms of body morphology, could affect the ability of hybrids to persist in changing environments. We compared CG of farmed, wild and hybrid (F1, F2, wild backcross) juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Wild salmon experienced both lower routine and CG rates relative to farmed salmon, while hybrids were intermediate. However, the compensatory responses (slopes of the reaction norms) for each cross were parallel, indicating that hybridization did not affect the CG response itself. Morphological costs to compensation were not detected. In addition to contributing to risk assessments of the consequences of interbreeding between wild and escaped domesticated organisms, we conclude that plasticity studies on domesticated–wild hybrids and their progenitors are useful for testing basic predictions about the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, as well as understanding the evolutionary significance of hybrids.

Morris, Matthew R J; Fraser, Dylan J; Eddington, James; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2011-01-01

250

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

251

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

252

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

253

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

254

[The wild children: myth or reality?].  

PubMed

Although Car von Linné described in 1758 on his Systema Naturae the feral man because their characters hirsutus, tetrapus and mutus, he done this work upon 9 children lifted in the forest and suckled by animals. Malson, in 1964, described 53 wild children. The author of these paper, after an analysis of the history and general facts of the actually known wild children, arrives to the deduction that survival and characters of the wild children find the explanation in the recent memetric theory. PMID:11783033

Valtueña Borque, O

2001-01-01

255

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security. PMID:24905808

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

256

Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm  

E-print Network

Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm Stephanie Hiltmann, M. A. Dipl.-Päd. Magdalena Würfl Schritten Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;Sekretariat des Lehrstuhls Prof. Wild Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;silke.schworm@paedagogik.uni-r.de Dr. Silke Schworm klaus-peter.wild@paedagogik.uni-r.de Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild stephanie

Schubart, Christoph

257

A single domestication for maize shown by multilocus microsatellite genotyping  

PubMed Central

There exists extraordinary morphological and genetic diversity among the maize landraces that have been developed by pre-Columbian cultivators. To explain this high level of diversity in maize, several authors have proposed that maize landraces were the products of multiple independent domestications from their wild relative (teosinte). We present phylogenetic analyses based on 264 individual plants, each genotyped at 99 microsatellites, that challenge the multiple-origins hypothesis. Instead, our results indicate that all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. Our analyses also indicate that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands with maize spreading from this region over the Americas along two major paths. Our phylogenetic work is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. We also found only modest evidence for postdomestication gene flow from teosinte into maize. PMID:11983901

Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Vigouroux, Yves; Goodman, Major M.; Sanchez G., Jesus; Buckler, Edward; Doebley, John

2002-01-01

258

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

259

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

260

Abstract The fitness of crop-wild hybrids can influence gene flow between crop and wild populations. Seed pre-  

E-print Network

predation, seeds were collect- ed from wild sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and wild�crop F1 hybrids Crop-wild hybridization · Seed predation · Sunflower · Helianthus annuus Introduction Gene flow between

Snow, Allison A.

261

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

262

Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Biggins, Julia E.; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

2014-01-01

263

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

264

York's Wild Kingdom : a development proposal  

E-print Network

York's Wild Kingdom is a privately held zoo and amusement park in York, a Massachusetts based shopping center developer and investment compa Kingdom and the 150 acres that surround it. The community is culturaIl ( and York ...

Rae, Kimberley Whiting

2008-01-01

265

Wild ungulates as Babesia hosts in northern and central Italy.  

PubMed

Babesia and Theileria species were investigated in wild ungulates of Northern and Central Italy. Of 355 blood samples examined, 108 (30.4%) were positive to molecular diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with specific primers and sequencing). The sequence analysis showed that the roe deer is a susceptible host for several piroplasms belonging both to Babesia (31%) and Theileria (14.2%) species, whereas fallow deer and wild boar harbor only Theileria species (49% and 2.6%, respectively). Strains related to B. divergens are highly present (28.3%) in the roe deer, which, however, also harbors Babesia MO1 type and Babesia microti-like organisms. Babesia EU1 type is described for the first time in a roe deer in Italy. The finding in roe deer of Babesia species involved in human babesiosis is of concern for public health, mainly because ecological changes in progress cause the increase of both the deer species and the vector tick populations. PMID:18454592

Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Bonoli, Cristina; Cancrini, Gabriella; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario

2008-10-01

266

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States  

PubMed Central

The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related. PMID:22840202

Volk, Kylie; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

2012-01-01

267

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are

J. P. Dubey

2002-01-01

268

Interaction of Root Gravitropism and Phototropism in Arabidopsis Wild-Type and Starchless Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototro- pism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects grav- itropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototro- pism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an

Stanislav Vitha; Liming Zhao; Fred David Sack

2000-01-01

269

Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

2014-01-01

270

Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musclus L).  

PubMed

The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner.The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils.The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

Rowe, F P; Bradfield, A; Redfern, R

1974-12-01

271

Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.)*  

PubMed Central

The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner. The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils. The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

Rowe, F. P.; Bradfield, A.; Redfern, R.

1974-01-01

272

Comparison of hemisphere size in wild and domestic geese.  

PubMed

The hemisphere size has been studied in wild and domestic geese (Anser fabalis, n = 77: A. albifrons, n = 48; A. anser, n = 8; A. anser f. domestica, n = 10), which were classified according to particular age category (adult or immature). Material used in studies was fixed in 4% solution of formaldehyde. The brain weight as well as hemispheres' length, width and height was measured with standard method. Morphometric characteristic of geese's brains has been presented in absolute and relative way (by parallel use of index and allometric approach). The appropriate ontogenic, taxonomic and domestication comparisons were carried out. The greatest differences referred to absolute and relative width and height of hemispheres. PMID:9178574

Kalisi?ska, E

1997-03-01

273

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

274

Wide hybridization between Brazilian soybean cultivars and wild perennial relatives.  

PubMed

Employing a different culture strategy, we obtained a greatly improved frequency of embryo rescue in intersubgeneric soybean hybrids. Successful crosses were obtained in 31 different genotype combinations between nine Brazilian soybean lines as the female parents and 12 accessions from Glycine canescens, G. microphylla, G. tabacina and G. tomentella. The hybrid pod retention rate dropped to about 10% during the first 8 days after pollination and stayed largely unchanged up to the 20th day. Immature harvested seeds fell into three size groups: Group 1, smaller than 1.3 mm (mostly empty seed coats); Group 2, 1.9-5.0 mm; Group 3, larger than 5 mm (from selfing). A total of 90 putative hybrid embryos were rescued using a highly enriched B5 medium to nourish the newly dissected embryos. The growing embryos were then placed in a high osmotic, modified B5 medium to induce maturation and dormancy. Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was used to germinate the dormant, partially dehydrated, physiologically mature embryos. Approximately 37% of the rescued embryos developed into plantlets in vitro, and approximately 8% grew into mature plants in the greenhouse. Morphological, cytological and isoenzyme patterns confirmed the hybrid status of all seven mature plants, all of which were generated using G. tomentella G 9943 as the paternal parent. It was observed that all soybean lines crossed with G 9943 were capable of producing mature hybrid plants. There was no correlation between the initial size of Group 2 seeds and plant survival rate. The hybrids were cloned by grafting and treated with colchicine. One of the treated plants displayed chromosome doubling. PMID:24162397

Bodanese-Zanettini, M H; Lauxen, M S; Richter, S N; Cavalli-Molina, S; Lange, C E; Wang, P J; Hu, C Y

1996-10-01

275

Scholarship Updated (date) Illinois State Wild Turkey Scholarship  

E-print Network

Scholarship Updated (date) Illinois State Wild Turkey Scholarship Scholarship source: Illinois State Wild Turkey Federation Address: Dr. Robert E. Reich, Chair Illinois State Wild Turkey Federation: The Illinois state wild turkey federation is awarding scholarships to 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th year

Karonis, Nicholas T.

276

January 2006 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2006  

E-print Network

1 January 2006 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains - 2006 Beverly R. Durgan Weed Scientist - University of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number

Minnesota, University of

277

January 2002 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2002  

E-print Network

January 2002 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains - 2002 Beverly R. Durgan Weed Scientist - University of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number

Minnesota, University of

278

Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink increases bifidobacteria in the human gut.  

PubMed

Wild blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols and other compounds that are highly metabolized by the intestinal microbiota and may, at the same time, affect the intestinal environment itself. A repeated-measure, crossover dietary intervention on human volunteers was designed to study the effect of six week consumption of a wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium ) drink, versus a placebo drink, in modulating the intestinal microbiota. Relative to total eubacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. significantly increased following blueberry treatment (P ? 0.05), while Lactobacillus acidophilus increased after both treatments (P ? 0.05). No significant differences were observed for Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Clostridium coccoides . Bifidobacteria, which have been largely proposed to be of benefit for the host, appeared to be selectively favored suggesting an important role for the polyphenols and fiber present in wild blueberries. Results obtained suggest that regular consumption of a wild blueberry drink can positively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:22060186

Vendrame, Stefano; Guglielmetti, Simone; Riso, Patrizia; Arioli, Stefania; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

2011-12-28

279

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve  

E-print Network

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve. This hands-on course will include a four day stay in historic Coal Creek Camp, a restored mining camp off the Yukon River in the heart of the preserve. Along with park staff

Sikes, Derek S.

280

Evaluation of genetic biodiversity in farm-bred and wild raccoon dogs in Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyze the intra- and inter-group diversity in farm-raised and wild raccoon dogs with the use of molecular markers. Genetic differences between the particular raccoon dog groups were observed, accompanied by a relatively high intra-group genetic variation. It was noted that the wild raccoon dogs were characterized by the highest genetic diversity, compared to the three study groups of farm-bred raccoon dogs. Wild raccoon dogs and farm-bred raccoon dogs constitute separate phylogenetic groups. The results obtained suggest that farm breeding may lead to differentiation into a different phylogenetic lineage than that of the wild raccoon dogs. In each case, the genetic distance between the animals bred on the individual farms was lower than the distances between the farm-raised and wild animals. Since the Polish farm breeding is based entirely on phenotype ranking, the genotype of "native" animals is still closely related to that of wild animals. PMID:20968186

Slaska, Brygida; Zieba, Grzegorz; Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grazyna; Jakubczak, Andrzej

2010-01-01

281

Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.  

PubMed

Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

2014-06-16

282

The WildList Organization International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WildList is a free list of all known computer viruses that are spreading in the world, as compiled by volunteer antivirus experts of the WildList Organization International. It is updated monthly and, as one can imagine, is quite lengthy. The site has many other interesting features besides the list. For example, a somewhat humorous article by the WildList's founder describes his views on "how scientific naming works" for computer viruses. Several other papers are also offered that deal with virus issues. Some links to sites that test products or describe viruses are given as well. This site takes a very objective approach to releasing information and, therefore, does not endorse any particular antivirus software.

1999-01-01

283

Existence of vigorous lineages of crop-wild hybrids in Lettuce under field conditions.  

PubMed

Plant to plant gene flow is a route of environmental exposure for GM plants specifically since crosses with wild relatives could lead to the formation of more vigorous hybrids, which could increase the rate of introgression and the environmental impact. Here, we test the first step in the process of potential transgene introgression: whether hybrid vigor can be inherited to the next generation, which could lead to fixation of altered, i.e., elevated, quantitative traits. The potential for a permanent elevated fitness was tested using individual autogamous progeny lineages of hybrids between the crop Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) and the wild species Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce). We compared progeny from motherplants grown under either greenhouse or field conditions. The survival of young plants depended strongly on maternal environment. Furthermore, we observed that offspring reproductive fitness components were correlated with maternal fitness. Our study demonstrates that post-zygotic genotypic sorting at the young plants stage reduces the number of genotypes non-randomly, leading to inheritance of high levels of reproductive traits in the surviving hybrid lineages, compared to the pure wild relatives. Consequently, directional selection could lead to displacement of the pure wild relative and fixation of more vigorous genome segments originating from crops, stabilizing plant traits at elevated levels. Such information can be used to indentify segments which are less likely to introgress into wild relative populations as a target for transgene insertion. PMID:20883659

Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Den Nijs, Hans J C M

2009-01-01

284

Wild ungulate slaughtering and meat inspection.  

PubMed

The different phases of production of farmed and hunted wild game fresh meat are described. The importance of reducing the stress resulting from handling procedures (capture, restraint, transport) before the slaughtering of animals is highlighted, due to its adverse effects on meat quality. The hygienic and animal welfare criteria to be adopted in the slaughtering of wild game are described. The importance of carcass inspection immediately after slaughtering is stated, so that meat can be destined for human consumption. Possible alterations occurring in fresh and refrigerated meat, that are capable of compromising its consumability, are presented. PMID:16244931

Casoli, C; Duranti, E; Cambiotti, F; Avellini, P

2005-08-01

285

The Space Place: Wild Weather Adventure!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the Wild Weather Adventure game by NASA. Your weather research blimp will explore Earth and its weather. With luck, skill, and strategy, you will race other weather research blimps to be first to travel all the way around the world and win the game. You can play with your friends or by yourself with a computer opponent. For every player’s turn in the Wild Weather Adventure Game, the player must answer either a multiple choice or true or false question. Each question is rated as easy, medium, or hard. Players choose which level to answer.

Diane Fisher

2006-10-13

286

How fast was wild wheat domesticated?  

PubMed

Prehistoric cultivation of wild wheat in the Fertile Crescent led to the selection of mutants with indehiscent (nonshattering) ears, which evolved into modern domestic wheat. Previous estimates suggested that this transformation was rapid, but our analyses of archaeological plant remains demonstrate that indehiscent domesticates were slow to appear, emerging approximately 9500 years before the present, and that dehiscent (shattering) forms were still common in cultivated fields approximately 7500 years before the present. Slow domestication implies that after cultivation began, wild cereals may have remained unchanged for a long period, supporting claims that agriculture originated in the Near East approximately 10,500 years before the present. PMID:16574859

Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Willcox, George

2006-03-31

287

Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

Slota, Paul

2007-01-01

288

Linkage disequilibrium in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.  

PubMed

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for whole-genome mapping of genes underlying phenotypic variation. This field has received considerable attention over the last decade. We present here the first characterization of LD in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris. To assess the pattern and extent of LD, we used a sample of 85 plants from southern France and 36 microsatellite markers distributed over 5 linkage groups. LD was evaluated with independence tests and multiallelic r(2), using both unphased genotypic data and reconstructed haplotypic data. LD decayed rapidly, with r(2) values decreasing to 0.1 within 2.7 cM for genotypic data and within 1.4 cM for haplotypic data. Compared to the results of a previous study on cultivated grapevine subsp. sativa, where significant LD was found up to 16.8 cM, LD in subsp. silvestris was no longer significant past 1.4 cM. LD was therefore 12 times further extended in cultivated than wild grapevine, even though LD in wild grapevine seemed to extend slightly further than in wild relatives of other crops. Domestication bottlenecks and vegetative propagation are the primary factors responsible for this difference between cultivated and wild grapevine. The rapid decay of LD observed in this study seems promising for future association mapping studies of functional variation in wild V. vinifera grapevine. PMID:19844269

Barnaud, A; Laucou, V; This, P; Lacombe, T; Doligez, A

2010-05-01

289

NEOSPORA CANINUM DETECTED IN WILD RODENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of rodents in the epidemiology of neosporosis was investigated by assaying brain tissue of wild mice and rats for Neospora caninum. Both mouse and rat brain tissue were extracted for total DNA, and subjected to two different N. caninum-specific nested PCR assays. A portion of brain tissue...

290

HYBRID SPECIATION IN WILD SUNFLOWERS1  

E-print Network

HYBRID SPECIATION IN WILD SUNFLOWERS1 Loren H. Rieseberg2 ABSTRACT Hybrid speciation refers in chromosome number, a process known as diploid or ``homoploid'' hybrid speciation. The annual sunflowers of the genus Helianthus provide a well- studied example of this latter mode of speciation. Here, I review

Rieseberg, Loren

291

Sunflower germplasm development utilizing wild Helianthus species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. The...

292

ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF EDIBLE WILD BULGARIAN FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts from six Bulgarian wild edible fruits have been studied for their antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and presented as Uric Acid Equivalents (UAE) per gram dry weight. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as Quercetin

Y. Kiselova; S. Marinova; D. Ivanov; D. Gerov; B. Galunska; T. Chervenkov; T Yankova

293

Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

1997-01-01

294

Does Comet WILD-2 contain Gems?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is expected that Comet Wild-2 dust should resemble anhydrous carbon-rich, chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere because some CP IDPs are suspected to be from comets. The rarity of carbonaceous grains and presolar silicates, as well as the presence of high-temperature inner solar nebula minerals in the Wild-2 sample (e.g. osbornite and melilite), appear incompatible with most CP IDPs. However, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about the mineralogy of comet Wild-2 because only approx. 1% of the sample has been examined. The most abundant silicates in CP IDPs are GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides). Nonsolar O isotopic compositions confirm that at least some GEMS in IDPs are presolar amorphous silicates. The presence or absence of GEMS in the Wild-2 sample is important because it addresses, (a) the relationship between CP IDPs and comets, and (b) the hypothesis that other GEMS in IDPs formed in the solar nebula. Here we show that most of the GEMSlike materials so far identified in Stardust aerogel were likely impact generated during collection. At the nanometer scale, they are compositionally and crystallographically distinct from GEMS in IDPs.

Chi, M.; Ishii, H.; Dai, Z. R.; Toppani, A.; Joswiak, D. J.; Leroux, H.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L. P.; Browning, N. D.

2007-01-01

295

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

296

Mayaro Virus in Wild Mammals, French Guiana  

PubMed Central

A serologic survey for Mayaro virus (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) in 28 wild nonflying forest mammal species in French Guiana showed a prevalence ranging from 0% to 52% and increasing with age. Species active during the day and those who spent time in trees were significantly more infected, results consistent with transmission implicating diurnal mosquitoes and continuous infectious pressure. PMID:14609474

de Thoisy, Benoît; Gardon, Jacques; Salas, Rosa Alba; Morvan, Jacques

2003-01-01

297

"Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

Thompson, Virginia P.

2012-01-01

298

"The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

Prinsen, Tammy

299

Multisurface Interaction in the WILD Room  

E-print Network

for exploring the next generation of interactive systems by distributing interaction across diverse computing. (2012), "Multisurface Interaction in the WILD Room", IEEE Computer, vol 45, nº 4, pp. 48-56. DOI navigation systems to fitness monitoring devices. Their integration, however, is hardly seamless: data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.  

PubMed

Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2014-02-01

301

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.  

PubMed

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations. PMID:14667333

McGinnity, Philip; Prodöhl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoiléidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

2003-12-01

302

Early maternal experience shapes offspring performance in the wild.  

PubMed

Both the environments experienced by a mother as a juvenile and an adult can affect her investment in offspring. However, the implications of these maternal legacies, both juvenile and adult, for offspring fitness in natural populations are unclear. We investigated whether the juvenile growth rate and adult reproductive traits (length, body condition, and reproductive investment at spawning) of female wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were related to the growth and survival of their offspring. Adult salmon captured on their upstream migration were used to create experimental full-sib clutches of eggs, which were mixed and then placed in artificial nests in a natural stream that lacked salmon due to a migration barrier. Four months later we resampled the stream to obtain family-level estimates of offspring size and survival. Mothers that had grown slowly as juveniles (as determined by scalimetry) but had invested heavily in reproduction (egg production for a given body length) and were in relatively poor body condition (somatic mass for a given body length) at spawning produced the largest eggs. Larger eggs resulted in larger juveniles and higher juvenile survival. However, after controlling for egg size, offspring growth was positively related to maternal juvenile growth rate and reproductive investment. The predictors of offspring survival (i.e., reproductive success) varied with the juvenile growth rate of the mother: If females grew slowly as juveniles, their reproductive success was negatively related to their own body condition. In contrast, the reproductive success of females that grew quickly as juveniles was instead related positively to their own body condition. Our results show that maternal influences on offspring in the wild can be complex, with reproductive success related to the early life performance of the mother, as well as her state at the time of breeding. PMID:23687888

Burton, Tim; McKelvey, S; Stewart, D C; Armstrong, J D; Metcalfe, N B

2013-03-01

303

Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs. PMID:24962519

Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enik?; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

2014-08-27

304

Roles of maternal effects and nuclear genetic composition change across the life cycle of crop-wild hybrids.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: The fitness of an offspring may depend on its nuclear genetic composition (via both parental genotypes) as well as on genetic maternal effects (via only the maternal parent). Understanding the relative importance of these two genetic factors is particularly important for research on crop-wild hybridization, since traits with important genetic maternal effects (e.g., seed size) often differ among crops and their relatives. We hypothesized that the effects of these genetic factors on fitness components would change across the life cycle of hybrids.• Methods: We followed seed, plant size, and reproductive traits in field experiments with wild and four crop-wild hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which differed in nuclear genetic composition and maternal parent (wild or F1 hybrid).• Key results: We identified strong genetic maternal effects for early life cycle characteristics, with seeds produced on an F1 mother having premature germination, negligible seed dormancy, and greater seedling size. Increased percentages of crop alleles also increased premature germination and reduced dormancy in seeds produced on a wild mother. For mature plants, nuclear genetic composition dominated: greater percentages of crop alleles reduced height, branching, and fecundity.• Conclusions: Particular backcrosses between hybrids and wilds may differentially facilitate movement of crop alleles into wild populations due to their specific features. For example, backcross seeds produced on wild mothers can persist in the seed bank, illustrating the importance of genetic maternal effects, whereas backcross individuals with either wild or F1 mothers have high fecundity, resulting from their wild-like nuclear genetic composition. PMID:25016007

Alexander, Helen M; Emry, D Jason; Pace, Brian A; Kost, Matthew A; Sparks, Kathryn A; Mercer, Kristin L

2014-07-11

305

Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan

2015-01-01

306

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011  

E-print Network

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011 Lecture Theatre 3, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh All (University of Edinburgh): An introduction to Wild Immunology 10:15 Jan Bradley (University of Nottingham

Maizels, Rick

307

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

308

RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar  

E-print Network

This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

2008-05-08

309

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats  

E-print Network

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus  

E-print Network

Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus puddum Roxb, and the associated and their presence is of utmost importance for beekeeping in Himachal Pradesh, India. Wild cherry, Prunus pud- dum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

312

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

1999-01-01

313

Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.  

PubMed

Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9?m?s(-1) (58?m.p.h. or 93?km?h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat. PMID:23765495

Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

2013-06-13

314

Wild orangutan birth at tanjung puting reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ten years (1971–1981) of research on wild orangutans at the Orangutan Research and Conservation Project study area\\u000a in the Tanjung Puting Reserve, Central Indonesian Borneo, parturition was observed twice. Observations centered on parturition\\u000a totalled 1,206 hr and included 95 whole days of observation (when the target individual was followed from nest to nest). The\\u000a two females who gave birth

Biruté M. F. Galdikas

1982-01-01

315

Leaf dynamics and profitability in wild strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf dynamics and carbon gain were evaluated for two species of wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and F. vesca. Five populations on sites representing a gradient of successional regrowth near Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A., were studied for two or three years each. A computer-based model of plant growth and CO2 exchange combined field studies of leaf biomass dynamics with previously-determined gas exchange

Thomas W. Jurik; Brian F. Chabot

1986-01-01

316

STARDUST: Composition of Wild-2 Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Jan 2 2004 NASA s Stardust spacecraft flew through the coma of comet Wild-2 capturing particles in a low-density silica aerogel collector The objective was to capture 1 000 particles 10 micrometers in size Stardust delivered the samples to Earth on Jan 15 2006 A description of the collection and the capture cells is in Tsou et al 1 Wild-2 is a short-period comet believed to have originated in the Kuiper Belt Thus analysis of Wild-2 dust provides the first opportunity to probe conditions in the Kuiper Belt during dust formation and compare them with conditions in the asteroid belt as inferred from primitive meteorites In preparation for the Stardust return F H o rz NASA JSC shot dust from the Allende meteorite and a microprobe standard unknown into aerogel cells Samples of both were provided to each group participating in Stardust composition preliminary examination Allende provides an indication of the elements each instrument can detect in a chondritic sample while the unknown insures consistency in analyses among the laboratories on 4 continents that are participating in the examination In the ideal case aerogel capture results in gentle deceleration giving a single terminal particle at the end of a conical track whose length is a few hundred times the diameter of the particle However weak material e g the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite shot into aerogel at sim 6 km s comparable to the Stardust encounter with Wild-2 frequently leaves many fragments along the track Capture results in accretion

Flynn, G.; Stardust Composition Team

317

Micropropagation of mature British wild cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot tips from accessions of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) selected from British woodland, and also theP. avium rootstock cvs. F12\\/1 and Charger, were successfully establishedin vitro, and most were easily micropropagated on Murashige and Skoog (MS)-based media. In one accession, adventitious shoots occasionally\\u000a developed from the extrafloral nectaries positioned at the base of leaf petioles of the initial explants.

N. Hammatt; N. J. Grant

1997-01-01

318

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

319

Sarcocystis in wild ungulates in Alberta.  

PubMed

Muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in Alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of Sarcocystis. Sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (Cervus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison bison), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), respectively. PMID:6780701

Mahrt, J L; Colwell, D D

1980-10-01

320

Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN  

E-print Network

OPINION Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institutes of Immunology & Infection Research and Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of `wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host

Maizels, Rick

321

Comparing DNS Resolvers in the Wild Bernhard Ager Wolfgang Muhlbauer  

E-print Network

Comparing DNS Resolvers in the Wild Bernhard Ager Wolfgang M¨uhlbauer Georgios Smaragdakis Steve/ETH) Comparing DNS Resolvers in the Wild Nov 1 2010 1 #12;Motivation Domain Name System (DNS) DNS: resolve www of the Internet Its performance is critical Ager et al (TUB/DT Labs/ETH) Comparing DNS Resolvers in the Wild Nov

Smaragdakis, Georgios

322

Cytogenetic research in wild animals at FCAVJ, Brazil. I. Mammals  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic research in wild animals at FCAVJ, Brazil. I. Mammals ML Giannoni JMB Duarte. RP; Toulouse-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) cytogenetics / wild mammals / Brazil The Center of Study and Research in Wild Animals Prof MA Giannoni, established at FCAVJ, is conducting research projects in mammals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGIC VALUES IN CAPTIVE AND WILD BIGHORN SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for establishing physiologic values for a species was recognized and the many variables affecting these must be considered. The physiologic value differences and similarities between captive and wild bighorn sheep (Otis canadensis) was discussed from values obtained from 71 captive and 65 wild bighorns. Similar values between captive and wild sheep occurred with; calcium, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol,

ALBERT W. FRANZMANN

324

Predicting hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlap between flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera Metzger) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.), artificial hybridization between the two species, spontaneous crosses, and backcrossing were assessed to estimate the risk of escape of genes from transgenic crops towards the wild species. In the Burgundy region of France, wild mustard flowers later than oilseed rape. Exposure to cross

E. Lefol; V. Danielou; H. Darmency

1996-01-01

325

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

326

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated by H. Kierdorf D. R. Erxleben :M

Wallace, Mark C.

327

SHORT COMMUNICATION Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis infection in hunted wild  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa samples. The overall prevalence of H. parasuis in wild boars in Germany was 74.2%. H. parasuis a PCR assay to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of H. parasuis infection in wild boars

Boyer, Edmond

328

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

329

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

330

Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population  

E-print Network

Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population Timothe´e D. Fouqueray1 on a long-term study of wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to study the importance, Blumstein DT, Monclu´s R, Martin JGA (2014) Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot

Blumstein, Daniel T.

331

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

E-print Network

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

Altwegg, Res

332

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

333

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

334

Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

The question of whether animals possess ‘cultures’ or ‘traditions’ continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the ‘method of exclusion,’ begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour. PMID:20719777

Langergraber, Kevin E.; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C.; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W.; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

2011-01-01

335

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS  

SciTech Connect

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

2007-05-23

336

Hatching Time and Alevin Growth Prior to the Onset of Exogenous Feeding in Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Norwegian Atlantic Salmon  

PubMed Central

The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1–15 degree-days (0–3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5–6°C), these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding. PMID:25438050

Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

2014-01-01

337

Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase  

SciTech Connect

Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has the structure-sensitive lines greatly upshifted relative to those of the free base protoporphyrin in solution. This could be interpreted as an equilibrium between protein conformers, one of which favors a highly distorted porphyrin macrocycle. Taken together these findings suggest that the mode of porphyrin distortion in murine ferrochelatase is different from that reported for yeast ferrochelatase, which requires metal binding for porphyrin distortion.

Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

1999-05-19

338

Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea  

PubMed Central

During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

339

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia.  

PubMed

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n=94) and red deer (n=45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:19411089

Bilandzi?, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Vratari?, Darija; Peri?, Tomislav; Simi?, Branimir

2009-07-01

340

Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations  

PubMed Central

The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

2012-01-01

341

Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas.  

PubMed

The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic "puzzle", as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders - Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera - responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421

Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-12-01

342

Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

1999-01-01

343

Dynamics of social and energetic stress in wild female chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Stress hormone measurements can reinforce and refine hypotheses about the costs of particular contexts or behaviors in wild animals. For social species, this is complicated because potential stressors may come from the physical environment, social environment, or some combination of both, while the stress response itself is generalized. Here, we present a multivariate examination of urinary cortisol dynamics over 6 years in the lives of wild female chimpanzees in the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. We hypothesized that chimpanzee socioecology provides strong indications of both energetic and social stress to females, but that the salience of these stressors might vary over a female's life history in accordance with their changing reproductive costs and social interactions. Using linear mixed models, we found that urinary cortisol levels increased significantly with age but were also elevated in young immigrants to the community. Across reproductive states, cycling, non-estrous females had relatively low cortisol compared to lactating, estrous, or pregnant females. Aggression from males led to higher cortisol levels among estrous females, frequent targets of aggressive sexual coercion. In contrast, energetic stress was most salient to lactating females, who experienced higher cortisol during months of low fruit consumption. Low dominance rank was associated with increased cortisol, particularly during the energetically demanding period of lactation. The effects of female conflict were felt widely, even among those who were the primary aggressors, providing further evidence that long-term resource competition, while apparently muted, exerts a far-reaching impact on the lives of chimpanzee females. PMID:20546741

Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Kahlenberg, Sonya M; Wrangham, Richard W

2010-08-01

344

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.  

PubMed

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2010-04-01

345

Olfactory recovery of wild yellow perch from metal contaminated lakes.  

PubMed

Fish depend on their sense of smell for a wide range of vital life processes including finding food, avoiding predators and reproduction. Various contaminants, including metals, can disrupt recognition of chemical information in fish at very low concentrations. Numerous studies have investigated metal effects on fish olfaction under controlled laboratory conditions. However, few have measured olfactory acuity using wild fish in source water. In this study, we used electro-olfactography (EOG) to measure the olfactory acuity of wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a clean lake (Geneva Lake) and two metal contaminated lakes (Ramsey and Hannah lakes) from Sudbury, ON, in their own lake water or in water from the other lakes. The results showed that fish from the clean lake had a greater olfactory acuity than those from metal contaminated lakes when fish were tested in their own lake water. However, when fish from the clean lake were held for 24h in water from each of the two contaminated lakes their olfactory acuity was diminished. On the other hand, fish from the contaminated lakes held for 24h in clean lake water showed a significant olfactory recovery relative to that measured in their native lake water. These results show that although fish from a clean lake demonstrated impaired olfaction after only 24h in metal-contaminated water, fish from metal contaminated lakes showed a rapid olfactory recovery when exposed to clean water for only hours. PMID:23164449

Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Forsyth, Heidi L; Pyle, Greg G

2013-02-01

346

THE ROLE OF WILD NORTH AMERICAN UNGULATES IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published reports of Brucella abortus infections in wild North American ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. Bison (Bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. Most elk (Cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was

Scott M. McCorquodale; Ronald F. DiGiacomo

347

Leukocyte Profiles in Wild House Finches with and without Mycoplasmal Conjunctivitis, a Recently Emerged Bacterial Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte profiles (relative numbers of white blood cell types) have been used by a growing number of ecological studies to assess immune function and stress in wild birds. House Finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America are susceptible to an eye disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, providing the opportunity to examine whether leukocyte profiles are associated with

Andrew K. Davis; Katherine C. Cook; Sonia Altizer

2004-01-01

348

Tales from Camp Wilde: Queer(y)ing Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper questions the relative silence of queer theory and theorizing in environmental education research. We explore some possibilities for queering environmental education research by fabricating (and inviting colleagues to fabricate) stories of Camp Wilde, a fictional location that helps us to expose the facticity of the field's…

Gough, Noel; Gough, Annette

2003-01-01

349

Physiological determinants of growth rate in response to phosphorus supply in wild and cultivated Hordeum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under favorable nutrition, accessions of the weedy barleygrass (Hordeum leporinum and H. glaucum) had a higher relative growth rate (RGR) than did accessions of cultivated barley (H. vulgare) or its wild progenitor (H. spontaneum). RGR was not positively correlated with the presumed level of soil fertility at the collection site of an accession either within or among species. RGR was

F. S. Chapin; R. H. Groves; L. T. Evans

1989-01-01

350

SAMPLING REMOTE IN SITU SITES OF USA WILD POTATO CAPTURES MORE DIVERSITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

WILD potato populations in the USA grow both in easily-accessed sites near roads (usually relatively low elevations) and in more remote, high-altitude wilderness areas that can only be accessed by long hikes and overnight camping. Both the Chiricahua and Huachuca mountain ranges (SE Arizona) had bee...

351

and physiology between reared and wild larvae and concluded that results on growth, nutrition,  

E-print Network

and physiology between reared and wild larvae and concluded that results on growth, nutrition, and mortality of laboratory-reared larvae should not be related to the field. My study shows that jack mackerel larvae reared with food in 10 1 containers were smaller and in poorer nutritional condition than larvae

352

Variation in Hematocrit and Total Plasma Proteins of Nestling American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius) in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematocrits and total plasma proteins were determined at 24 days old for 86 female and 85 male nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) from the wild in northern Saskatchewan. No sex differences were detected in either hematocrit or plasma protein. For females, hematocrit and plasma protein were not related to time of sampling, temperature at sampling, mass of nestlings or length

Russell D. Dawson; Gary R. Bortolotti

1997-01-01

353

Evidence for a spatial memory of fruiting states of rainforest trees in wild mangabeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ranging behaviour of two groups of wild mangabey monkeys (sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys atys, and grey-cheeked mangabeys, Lophocebus albigena johnstoni) relative to a number of preselected target trees within their home range. We observed the groups' visiting patterns and speed when they approached within a critical distance of a target tree as a function of the tree's

Karline R. L. Janmaat; Richard W. Byrne; Klaus Zuberbühler

2006-01-01

354

Specialization and development of beach hunting, a rare foraging behavior, by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging behaviors of bottlenose dolphins vary within and among populations, but few studies attempt to ad- dress the causes of individual variation in foraging behavior. We examined how ecological, social, and developmental factors relate to the use of a rare foraging tactic by wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp. Gervais, 1855) in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Beach hunting involves partial and

B. L. Sargeant; J. Mann; P. Berggren; M. Krützen

2005-01-01

355

Seed protein electrophoresis of some cultivated and wild species of Chenopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed protein profiles of 40 cultivated and wild taxa of Chenopodium have been compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative similarity between various taxa, estimated by Jaccard’s similarity index and clustered in UPGMA dendrogram, is generally in accordance with taxonomic position, crossability relationships and other biochemical characters. Eight accessions of C. quinoa studied are clustered together and

A. Bhargava; T. S. Rana; S. Shukla; D. Ohri

2005-01-01

356

Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and growth of wild and cultivated lettuce in response to nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a crop with high water and nutrient demand. Its nearest wild relative, Lactuca serriola, is tolerant of low moisture and nutrient-poor conditions. Due to selection in different types of environments, the two taxa may differ in response to mycorrhizal colonization. Pot experiments were used to determine if mycorrhizal colonization, growth, root allocation, and P and N

L. E. Jackson; D. Miller; S. E. Smith

2002-01-01

357

Existence of vigorous lineages of crop-wild hybrids in Lettuce under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant to plant gene flow is a route of environmental exposure for GM plants specifically since crosses with wild relatives could lead to the formation of more vigorous hybrids, which could increase the rate of introgression and the environmental impact. Here, we test the first step in the process of potential transgene introgression: whether hybrid vigor can be inherited to

D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; J. G. B. Oostermeijer; Nijs den J. C. M

2009-01-01

358

Wild topology, hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between Wild Topology, Hyperbolic Geometry and Fusion Algebra on the one side and the charge and coupling constants of the standard model and quantum gravity on the other is examined.The close connection found between E(?) theory and the Topological theory of four manifolds as well as the theory of fundamental groups is elucidated using various classical theories and

M. S. El Naschie

2002-01-01

359

Effects of Foliar Herbivory on Male and Female Reproductive Traits of Wild Radish, Raphanus raphanistrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this study, we examined how foliar herbivory affected the relative allo- cation to male and female reproductive traits in a hermaphroditic plant. In two experiments, one in the greenhouse and the other in a growth chamber, leaves of full sibling plants of the annual wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum, received one of four damage treatments to leaves (0, 25%

Kari Lehtila; Sharon Y. Strauss

1999-01-01

360

Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch ( Perca flavescens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and

Patrice Couture; Puja Rajender Kumar

2003-01-01

361

Growth and fitness components of wild X cultivated Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) hybrids in Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gene flow between cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor subsp. bicolor (L.) Moench] and its wild relative, shattercane [S. bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan], may contribute to changes in fitness and the potential invasiveness of shattercane. In order to assess the initial pote...

362

Diverse Terpenoids and Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Leaves of Majorana syriaca Growing Wild in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical variability in the essential oil from leaves of individual plants of Majorana syriaca (common names Syrian marjoram, zaatar, zahtar) plants growing wild at various locations in Palestine were analyzed using a static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC\\/MS). Although Palestine represents a relatively small geographical area, a wide range of variations in oil characteristics were observed, indicating the Palestinian

Saleh Abu-Lafi; Imad Odeh; Hasan Dewik; Mohammed Qabajah; Valery M. Dembitsky; Lumír O. Hanuš

2009-01-01

363

The Pattern of Influenza Virus Attachment Varies among Wild Bird Species  

PubMed Central

The ability to attach to host cells is one of the main determinants of the host range of influenza A viruses. By using virus histochemistry, we investigate the pattern of virus attachment of both a human and an avian influenza virus in colon and trachea sections from 12 wild bird species. We show that significant variations exist, even between closely related avian species, which suggests that the ability of wild birds to serve as hosts for influenza viruses strongly varies among species. These results will prove valuable to assess the possibilities of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in natural environments and better understand the ecology of influenza. PMID:21909418

Jourdain, Elsa; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; Kuiken, Thijs; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

2011-01-01

364

The global distribution of wild tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.; Asteraceae) cytotypes with twenty-seven new records from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisia dracunculus (wild or Russian tarragon), is a polymorphic, herbaceous perennial with a widespread distribution that spans western North\\u000a America, Eastern Europe and most temperate of Asia. This wild relative of the culinary herb French tarragon has recently been\\u000a the focus of a number of studies which have investigated its medicinal activity in type 2 diabetes bioassays. The species\\u000a is

Sasha W. Eisenman; Lena Struwe

365

Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

366

Genetic diversity, structure, gene flow and evolutionary relationships within the Sorghum bicolor wild-weedy-crop complex in a western African region.  

PubMed

Gene flow between domesticated plants and their wild relatives is one of the major evolutionary processes acting to shape their structure of genetic diversity. Earlier literature, in the 1970s, reported on the interfertility and the sympatry of wild, weedy and cultivated sorghum belonging to the species Sorghum bicolor in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. However, only a few recent surveys have addressed the geographical and ecological distribution of sorghum wild relatives and their genetic structure. These features are poorly documented, especially in western Africa, a centre of diversity for this crop. We report here on an exhaustive in situ collection of wild, weedy and cultivated sorghum assembled in Mali and in Guinea. The extent and pattern of genetic diversity were assessed with 15 SSRs within the cultivated pool (455 accessions), the wild pool (91 wild and weedy forms) and between them. F (ST) and R (ST) statistics, distance-based trees, Bayesian clustering methods, as well as isolation by distance models, were used to infer evolutionary relationships within the wild-weedy-crop complex. Firstly, our analyses highlighted a strong racial structure of genetic diversity within cultivated sorghum (F (ST) = 0.40). Secondly, clustering analyses highlighted the introgressed nature of most of the wild and weedy sorghum and grouped them into two eco-geographical groups. Such closeness between wild and crop sorghum could be the result of both sorghum's domestication history and preferential post-domestication crop-to-wild gene flow enhanced by farmers' practices. Finally, isolation by distance analyses showed strong spatial genetic structure within each pool, due to spatially limited dispersal, and suggested consequent gene flow between the wild and the crop pools, also supported by R (ST) analyses. Our findings thus revealed important features for the collection, conservation and biosafety of domesticated and wild sorghum in their centre of diversity. PMID:21811819

Sagnard, Fabrice; Deu, Monique; Dembélé, Dékoro; Leblois, Raphaël; Touré, Lassana; Diakité, Mohamed; Calatayud, Caroline; Vaksmann, Michel; Bouchet, Sophie; Mallé, Yaya; Togola, Sabine; Traoré, Pierre C Sibiry

2011-11-01

367

Prevalence and Phylogeny of Coronaviruses in Wild Birds from the Bering Strait Area (Beringia)  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Ádám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

2010-01-01

368

Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?  

PubMed

Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. PMID:25180915

Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

2014-12-01

369

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. PMID:24499160

Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

2014-12-01

370

Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

2015-01-01

371

Persistence of vigilance and flight response behaviour in wild reindeer with varying domestic ancestry.  

PubMed

Knowledge about changes in behavioural traits related to wildness and tameness is for most mammals lacking, despite the increased trend of using domestic stock to re-establish wild populations into historical ranges. To test for persistence of behavioural traits of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) exposed to hunting, we sampled DNA, vigilance and flight responses in wild reindeer herds with varying domestic ancestry. Analyses of 14 DNA microsatellite loci revealed a dichotomous main genetic structure reflecting their native origin, with the Rondane reindeer genetically different from the others and with least differentiation towards the Hardangervidda reindeer. The genetic clustering of the reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell, Ottadalen and Forollhogna, together with domestic reindeer, supports a predominant domestic origin of these herds. Despite extensive hunting in all herds, the behavioural measures indicate increasing vigilance, alert and flight responses with increasing genetic dissimilarity with domestic herds. Vigilance frequency and time spent vigilant were higher in Rondane compared to Hardangervidda, which again were higher than herds with a domestic origin. We conclude that previous domestication has preserved a hard wired behavioural trait in some reindeer herds exhibiting less fright responses towards humans that extensive hunting has, but only slightly, altered. This brings novel and relevant knowledge to discussions about genetic diversity of wildlife in general and wild reindeer herds in Norway in specific. PMID:22587024

Reimers, E; Røed, K H; Colman, J E

2012-08-01

372

Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

2013-01-01

373

Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia).  

PubMed

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Adám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

2010-01-01

374

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex. PMID:21858189

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

375

Perceptions of Community Benefits from Two Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild and Scenic Rivers provide a host of psychological, social, ecological, and economic benefits to local communities. In this study, we use data collected from recreational users of two Wild and Scenic Rivers to examine perceptions of the benefits provided by the rivers to local communities. Our purposes are (1) to determine if similar perceptions of community benefits exist across the two rivers, (2) to determine if individuals' proximity to the rivers are related to the benefits they perceive, (3) to determine if individuals' prior recreation experience on the river is related to variations in perceived benefits, (4) to determine if users' sociodemographic characteristics are related to perceived community benefits, and (5) to determine if the influence of these characteristics on perceived community benefits is similar across the two resource areas. Perceived benefits were found to be analogous across both rivers as individuals consistently ranked ecological/affective benefits as well as tangible benefits similarly. Recreationists living further from the river ranked ecological and affective benefits as significantly less important than those individuals living closer to the river. Women perceived the community benefits produced by the resource areas to be significantly more important when compared to men. Significant relationships were also found between perceived benefits and recreationists' previous use of the river, their age, and their level of education. With the exception of resource proximity and prior use history, the effects of user characteristics on perceived community benefits were not statistically different across the two rivers. These findings imply similar patterns of perceived community benefits exist across distinct resource areas and that the relationships between user characteristics and perceived benefits are also similar across the study rivers.

Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

2011-05-01

376

The role of wild North American ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.  

PubMed

Published reports of Brucella abortus infections in wild North American ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. Bison (Bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. Most elk (Cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. Deer (Odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), moose (Alces alces), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) appeared to be insignificant hosts of Brucella abortus. The lack of significant wild ungulate hosts and the distribution of infected livestock herds in the United States suggests that wild ungulates are of little importance in the epidemiology of infections by B. abortus in cattle. PMID:3908724

McCorquodale, S M; DiGiacomo, R F

1985-10-01

377

Vocalisations of wild common marmosets are influenced by diurnal and ontogenetic factors.  

PubMed

The vocalisations of wild common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, were recorded to investigate whether call rate by individuals is affected by time of day, age, sex or dominance rank within a group. We also investigated how vocalisation pitch was affected by age, focussing on a single common call, the trill call. Adults vocalised more than juveniles or infants during the majority of daylight hours. Only the call rate of juveniles varied significantly over the day. No differences were found between either sex or dominance rank with respect to rate of vocalisations. The trill calls emitted by young wild common marmosets were of a higher pitch than those emitted by adults. We conclude that the auditory communication of wild common marmosets is related to the age of the animals, both in terms of call rate and the physical characteristics of their vocalisations. PMID:19224328

Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Souto, Antonio da Silva; de Oliveira, Maria Adélia Borstelmann; Halsey, Lewis George

2009-07-01

378

Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts. PMID:24991567

Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M.

2014-01-01

379

Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys.  

PubMed

The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well. PMID:21288728

Almeida-Silva, M; Canha, N; Galinha, C; Dung, H M; Freitas, M C; Sitoe, T

2011-11-01

380

Taxonomic counts of cognition in the wild  

PubMed Central

In 1985, Kummer & Goodall pleaded for an ecology of intelligence and proposed that innovations might be a good way to measure cognition in the wild. Counts of innovation per taxonomic group are now available in hundreds of avian and primate species, as are counts of tactical deception, tool use and social learning. Robust evidence suggests that innovation rate and its neural correlates allow birds and mammals to cope better with environmental change. The positive correlations between taxonomic counts, and the increasing number of cognitive and neural measures found to be associated with ecological variables, suggest that domain general processes might be more pervasive than previously thought in the evolution of intelligence. PMID:20719769

Lefebvre, Louis

2011-01-01

381

A Bruce effect in wild geladas.  

PubMed

Female rodents are known to terminate pregnancies after exposure to unfamiliar males ("Bruce effect"). Although laboratory support abounds, direct evidence for a Bruce effect under natural conditions is lacking. Here, we report a strong Bruce effect in a wild primate, the gelada (Theropithecus gelada). Female geladas terminate 80% of pregnancies in the weeks after a dominant male is replaced. Further, data on interbirth intervals suggest that pregnancy termination offers fitness benefits for females whose offspring would otherwise be susceptible to infanticide. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that the Bruce effect can be an adaptive strategy for females. PMID:22362878

Roberts, Eila K; Lu, Amy; Bergman, Thore J; Beehner, Jacinta C

2012-03-01

382

Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

2014-01-01

383

William Wilde and the Early Records of Consumption in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland. PMID:22347740

Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

2011-01-01

384

Q fever in domestic and wild birds  

PubMed Central

The authors report on the results of several years' research into the role of domestic and wild birds in the epidemiology and epizootiology of Q fever in Czechoslovakia. They examined 572 blood specimens taken from domestic birds in an area of endemic Q fever and found positive reactions to the complement-fixation test in hens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and pigeons, with hens showing the highest percentage of positive reactions. In addition, the susceptibility of hens to infection with Rickettsia burnetii was demonstrated experimentally, and excretion of R. burnetii in the stools of hens was demonstrated from the 7th to the 40th day after infection. Complement-fixation tests were also done on 480 blood specimens from wild birds with positive serological reactions in 15.8% of birds living directly on infected farms, 4.3% of birds living in the immediate vicinity of those farms, and 1.8% of birds living independently of human habitations but in an endemic area. R. burnetii was isolated from the spleen and liver of the redstart and the white wagtail and from ectoparasites of swallows. PMID:13383368

Syr??ek, L.; Raška, K.

1956-01-01

385

Pedigree reconstruction in wild cichlid fish populations.  

PubMed

It is common practice to use microsatellites to detect parents and their offspring in wild and captive populations, in order to reconstruct a pedigree. However, correct inference is often constrained by a number of factors, including the absence of demographic data and ignorance regarding the completeness of parental sampling. Here we present a new Bayesian estimator that simultaneously estimates the pedigree and the size of the unsampled population. The method is robust to genotyping error, and can estimate pedigrees in the absence of demographic data. Using a large-scale microsatellite assay in four wild cichlid fish populations of Lake Tanganyika (1000 individuals in total), we assess the performance of the Bayesian estimator against the most popular assignment program, Cervus. We found small but significant pedigrees in each of the tested populations using the Bayesian procedure, but Cervus had very high type I error rates when the size of the unsampled population was assumed to be lower than what it was. The need of pedigree relationships to infer adaptive processes in natural populations places strong constraints on sampling design and identification of multigenerational pedigrees in natural populations. PMID:18986496

Koch, Martin; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Sefc, Kristina M; Sturmbauer, Christian

2008-10-01

386

High-density dependence but low impact on selected reproduction parameters of Brucella suis biovar 2 in wild boar hunting estates from South-Western Spain.  

PubMed

Porcine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella suis, which is characterized by reproductive disorders in pigs. The number of cases of swine brucellosis has risen in many European countries, likely because of the presence of a wild reservoir of B. suis in wild boar. This study aimed at evaluating factors that may influence the probability of infection with Brucella spp. in wild boar and at assessing the impact of a previous contact with Brucella spp. on reproductive parameters of wild boar. Two hundred and four wild boar living in Extremadura (south-western Spain) were studied. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies was determined using an indirect ELISA, while the presence of living bacteria in genital organs was evaluated through microbiological cultures. Sex, age, density of wild boar in summer and presence of outdoor pigs were selected as possible risk factors for being seropositive for Brucella spp. in wild boar. In addition, reproductive parameters such as breeding status or potential fertility in females and testis weight in males were estimated and related to the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 121 animals were seropositive, resulting in a prevalence of 59.3% (95% CI). In addition, seven isolates of B. suis biovar 2 were obtained. Wild boar density in summer, as well as age and sex, was proposed as factors to explain the probability of Brucella seroconversion, although wild boar density in summer was the key factor. Current measures of reproductive parameters were not influenced by a previous contact with Brucella spp. Isolation of B. suis confirms that wild boar could represent a risk to domestic pig health in the study area. Wild boar density seems to have a great influence in the probability of infections with B. suis and suggests that density management could be useful to control Brucella infection in wild boar. PMID:23347330

Risco, D; García, A; Serrano, E; Fernandez-Llario, P; Benítez, J M; Martínez, R; García, W L; de Mendoza, J Hermoso

2014-12-01

387

Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations  

PubMed Central

Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a positive or a negative effect on plant vigour, we hypothesize that genomic regions exist where transgenes could preferentially be located in order to mitigate their persistence in natural populations through genetic hitchhiking. PMID:22448748

2012-01-01

388

Analysis of genetic diversity among Chinese wild Vitis species revealed with SSR and SRAP markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity among 80 Vitis materials including 62 indigenous accessions of 17 wild Vitis species in China and 7 interspecific hybrids, 10 V. vinifera L. cultivars, and 1 V. riparia Michaux were evaluated by simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. A total of 10 simple sequence repeat primers and 11 sequence-related amplified polymorphism primer combinations were amplified, and 260 bands were generated, of which 252 were polymorphic with an average polymorphism rate of 97.02%. Genetic relationships among the different Vitis species indicated that V. ficifolia and V. yeshanensis could be considered a separate species. As for the 4 major ecogeographic regions of Chinese wild Vitis species, the genetic diversities of Chinese wild Vitis species from the Qinling Mountain region (H = 0.1947, I = 0.3067) and the mid-downstream Yangtze River region (H = 0.1834, I = 0.2925) were higher, with results suggesting that these regions may be one of the major centers of Vitis origin. An understanding of the genetic diversity of these Chinese wild Vitis species could provide the theoretical foundation for further protection and reasonable utilization in grape breeding. PMID:23913379

Jing, Z B; Wang, X P; Cheng, J M

2013-01-01

389

Crop-noncrop spillover: arable fields affect trophic interactions on wild plants in surrounding habitats.  

PubMed

Ecosystem processes in agricultural landscapes are often triggered by resource availability in crop and noncrop habitats. We investigated how oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus, Brassicaceae) affects noncrop plants in managed systems and semi-natural habitat, using trophic interactions among wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, Brassicaceae), rape pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus, Nitidulidae) and their parasitoids (Tersilochus heterocerus, Ichneumonidae). We exposed wild mustard as phytometer plants in two cropland habitat types (wheat field, field margin) and three noncrop habitat types (fallow, grassland, wood margin) across eight landscapes along a gradient from simple to complex (quantified as % arable land). Both landscape and local factors affected the abundance of rape pollen beetles and parasitoids. Rape pollen beetle infestation and parasitism rates on these plants were lower in noncrop habitats and higher in wheat fields and field margins, whereas beetles and parasitoids responded differently to landscape scale parameters. We found the hypothesized spillover from OSR crop onto wild plants in surrounding habitats only for parasitoids, but not for pollen beetles. Parasitism rates were not related to landscape simplification, but benefited from increasing proportions of OSR. In contrast, rape pollen beetles benefited from simple landscape structures, presumably due to multi-annual population build-ups resulting from long-term OSR planting (as part of the crop rotation). In conclusion, we showed that spillover from cropland affects parasitism rates on related wild plants outside cropland, which has not been shown so far, but can be expected to be a widespread effect shaping noncrop food webs. PMID:21153737

Gladbach, David J; Holzschuh, Andrea; Scherber, Christoph; Thies, Carsten; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-06-01

390

Seasonal carryover effects following the administration of cortisol to a wild teleost fish.  

PubMed

Stress can have sublethal effects that are manifested either immediately or at spatial or temporal scales that are removed from the stress event (i.e., carryover effects). We tested whether a short-term elevation of plasma cortisol would result in seasonal carryover effects in wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Using exogenous hormone implants, we raised circulating cortisol concentrations in a group of wild fish for approximately 5 d in October 2007. We then compared activity (velocity, distance traveled) of cortisol-treated animals with that of sham-treated and control animals throughout the winter using an automated acoustic telemetry array. Immediately following treatment, the cortisol-treated fish showed increased activity relative to controls. However, this difference disappeared following the cessation of the elevation of circulating cortisol. During the winter of 2007 to 2008, the lake experienced a nearly complete winterkill event, providing insight into how a transient stress response can influence the response of wild animals to subsequent challenges. Most fish carrying acoustic transmitters succumbed during this winterkill event, but cortisol-treated fish died earlier than fish in other groups and showed a decrease in activity relative to controls and sham-treated fish before mortality. This study provides preliminary evidence of seasonal carryover effects in wild fish and yields insight into the ecological consequences of stress across broad temporal scales. PMID:20932160

O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Hasler, Caleb T; Philipp, David P; Cooke, Steven J

2010-01-01

391

Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions  

PubMed Central

Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and closely related wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon and other non-transgenic crosses in hatchery-like conditions. In stream mesocosms designed to more closely emulate natural conditions, transgenic hybrids appeared to express competitive dominance and suppressed the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic (wild-type) salmon by 82 and 54 per cent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of environmental impacts of hybridization between a GM animal and a closely related species. These results provide empirical evidence of the first steps towards introgression of foreign transgenes into the genomes of new species and contribute to the growing evidence that transgenic animals have complex and context-specific interactions with wild populations. We suggest that interspecific hybridization be explicitly considered when assessing the environmental consequences should transgenic animals escape to nature. PMID:23720549

Oke, Krista B.; Westley, Peter A. H.; Moreau, Darek T. R.; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

392

Transcriptome comparison reveals the patterns of selection in domesticated and wild ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud).  

PubMed

Ramie is an old fiber crop, cultivated for thousands of years in China. The cultivar ramie evolved from the wild species Qingyezhuma (QYZM, Boehmeria nivea var. tenacissima). However, the mechanism of domestication of this old fiber crop is poorly understood. In order to characterize the selective pattern in ramie domestication, orthologous genes between the transcriptomes of domesticated ramie variety Zhongzhu 1 (ZZ1) and wild QYZM were assessed using bidirectional best-hit method and ratio of non-synonymous (Ka) to synonymous (Ks) nucleotide substitutions was estimated. Sequence comparison of 56,932 and 59,246 unigenes from the wild QYZM and domesticated ZZ1, respectively, helped identify 10,745 orthologous unigene pairs with a total orthologous length of 10.18 Mb. Among these unigenes, 85 and 13 genes were found to undergo significant purifying and positive selection, respectively. Most of the selected genes were homologs of those involved in abiotic stress tolerance or disease resistance in other plants, suggesting that abiotic and biotic stresses were important selective pressures in ramie domestication. Two genes probably related to the fiber yield of ramie were subjected to positive selection, which may be caused by human manipulation. Thus, our results show the pervasive effects of artificial and natural selections on the accelerated domestication of ramie from its wild relative. PMID:24934879

Liu, Touming; Tang, Shouwei; Zhu, Siyuan; Tang, Qingming; Zheng, Xia

2014-09-01

393

Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon  

PubMed Central

Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are capable of successful spawning, and can reproduce with wild-type fish from natural systems. PMID:25133780

Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

2014-01-01

394

Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation  

PubMed Central

Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness). PMID:22805657

Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

2012-01-01

395

A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals  

PubMed Central

Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

2012-01-01

396

Performance of Generalist and Specialist Herbivores and their Endoparasitoids Differs on Cultivated and Wild Brassica Populations  

PubMed Central

Through artificial selection, domesticated plants often contain modified levels of primary and secondary metabolites compared to their wild progenitors. It is hypothesized that the changed chemistry of cultivated plants will affect the performance of insects associated with these plants. In this paper, the development of several specialist and generalist herbivores and their endoparasitoids were compared when reared on a wild and cultivated population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and a recently established feral Brassica species. Irrespective of insect species or the degree of dietary specialization, herbivores and parasitoids developed most poorly on the wild population. For the specialists, plant population influenced only development time and adult body mass, whereas for the generalists, plant populations also affected egg-to-adult survival. Two parasitoid species, a generalist (Diadegma fenestrale) and a specialist (D. semiclausum), were reared from the same host (Plutella xylostella). Performance of D. semiclausum was closely linked to that of its host, whereas the correlation between survival of D. fenestrale and host performance was less clear. Plants in the Brassicaceae characteristically produce defense-related glucosinolates (GS). Levels of GS in leaves of undamaged plants were significantly higher in plants from the wild population than from the domesticated populations. Moreover, total GS concentrations increased significantly in wild plants after herbivory, but not in domesticated or feral plants. The results of this study reveal that a cabbage cultivar and plants from a wild cabbage population exhibit significant differences in quality in terms of their effects on the growth and development of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Although cultivated plants have proved to be model systems in agroecology, we argue that some caution should be applied to evolutionary explanations derived from studies on domesticated plants, unless some knowledge exists on the history of the system under investigation. PMID:18231835

Bukovinszky, Tibor; van Dam, Nicole M.; Dicke, Marcel; Bullock, James M.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

397

Lower Richness of Small Wild Mammal Species and Chagas Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n?=?649) were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11–89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance) was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test). Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease. PMID:22616021

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Otaviano, Joel Carlos Rodrigues; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho; Jansen, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

398

Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Wild Birds from Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean\\u000a wild birds (n = 37), 2000–2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal

Jungsoo Kim; Ju-Ryul Shin; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

399

Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) chemotypes growing wild in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha spicata is the commonest mint species growing wild in Greece, exhibiting great morphological and chemical variability. The oil content\\u000a from different wild populations examined ranged from 0.3% to 2.2%; the most common value being ca.1%. Though commercially\\u000a exploited M. spicata plants are always rich in carvone and dihydrocarvone, wild populations are very variable; four different\\u000a chemotypes were distinguished within

S. Kokkini; D. Vokou

1989-01-01

400

Genetic endangerment of wild Red Junglefowl *Gallus gallus*?  

E-print Network

Bird Conservation International (1999) 9:387-394. © BirdLife International 199 9 Genetic endangerment of wild Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus? A. TOWNSEND PETERSON and I. LEHR BRISBIN, JR Summary Domestic chickens were derived from the wild Red... Junglefowl Gallus gallus. A survey o f 745 museum specimens o f Red Junglefowl suggest s that most wild populations have been contaminated genetically by introgression of genes from domestic or feral chickens. A male eclipse plumage, which appears...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Brisbin, I. Lehr Jr

1998-01-01

401

The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

2010-01-01

402

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

The ingestion of undercooked meat from wild animals can be a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 175 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and 107 wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) hunted in 2004-2007 in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, by using a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies (LAT, 1:64 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 6.3% of wild boars and 1.9% of sika deer. This is the first record of T. gondii infection in wild deer in Japan, and deer and wild boar meat should be cooked well before human consumption. PMID:21640197

Matsumoto, Jun; Kako, Yune; Morita, Yukio; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sakano, Chieko; Nagai, Akira; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

2011-09-01

403

Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.  

PubMed

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

2005-07-01

404

National Geographic: WildCam Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1985, Pete Le Roux dreamed of a wildlife reserve in Africa. Twenty years later it is a successful reality, as the pond he built from an old irrigation system is alive with the sounds of elephants and impalas. Visitors to this site established by National Geographic Magazine can view "Pete's Pond" via a live webcam offered here. Of course, that's just one of the many highlights that visitors may enjoy. They may also want to read through the weblog authored by researchers Jeanette Selier and Villiers Steyn. Here they post highlights of their work, complemented by a selection of high-quality images of the animals they are studying, such as the African wild cat. Those who are cartographically minded may want to take a look at the map of the Mashatu Game Reserve, which is home to Pete's Pond and its thousands of different animal residents. Overall, this is a fine educational site, and one that warrants several visits.

2005-01-01

405

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taï chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions. PMID:11606765

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

406

Rapid convergent evolution in wild crickets.  

PubMed

The earliest stages of convergent evolution are difficult to observe in the wild, limiting our understanding of the incipient genomic architecture underlying convergent phenotypes. To address this, we capitalized on a novel trait, flatwing, that arose and proliferated at the start of the 21st century in a population of field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Flatwing erases sound-producing structures on male forewings. Mutant males cannot sing to attract females, but they are protected from fatal attack by an acoustically orienting parasitoid fly (Ormia ochracea). Two years later, the silent morph appeared on the neighboring island of Oahu. We tested two hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of flatwings in Hawaii: (1) that the silent morph originated on Kauai and subsequently introgressed into Oahu and (2) that flatwing originated independently on each island. Morphometric analysis of male wings revealed that Kauai flatwings almost completely lack typical derived structures, whereas Oahu flatwings retain noticeably more wild-type wing venation. Using standard genetic crosses, we confirmed that the mutation segregates as a single-locus, sex-linked Mendelian trait on both islands. However, genome-wide scans using RAD-seq recovered almost completely distinct markers linked with flatwing on each island. The patterns of allelic association with flatwing on either island reveal different genomic architectures consistent with the timing of two mutational events on the X chromosome. Divergent wing morphologies linked to different loci thus cause identical behavioral outcomes--silence--illustrating the power of selection to rapidly shape convergent adaptations from distinct genomic starting points. PMID:24881880

Pascoal, Sonia; Cezard, Timothee; Eik-Nes, Aasta; Gharbi, Karim; Majewska, Jagoda; Payne, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Michael G; Zuk, Marlene; Bailey, Nathan W

2014-06-16

407

Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals.  

PubMed

Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati), Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned), Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush), Cavia aperea (restless cavy), Didelphis albiventris (skunk), Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog), and Gallictis vittata (ferret) showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. PMID:20428654

Pedrini, Sílvia Cristina Barboza; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Medri, Isis Meri; Mourão, Guilherme; Bagagli, Eduardo; Lopes, Carlos Alberto de Magalhães

2010-01-01

408

Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy). Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%), Candida tropicalis (4.44%), Candida glabrata (4.44%), Candida parapsilosis (2.22%), Candida lambica (2.22%), Candida stellatoidea (2.22%), Candida rugosa (2.22%) and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%). Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%), Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%), Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89%) and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%). Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144) were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144) of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans. PMID:20307325

2010-01-01

409

Intestinal morphology of the wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The worldwide-industrialized production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has increased dramatically during the last decades, followed by diseases related to the on-going domestication process as a growing concern. Even though the gastrointestinal tract seems to be a target for different disorders in farmed fish, a description of the normal intestinal status in healthy, wild salmon is warranted. Here, we provide such information in addition to suggesting a referable anatomical standardization for the intestine. In this study, two groups of wild Atlantic salmon were investigated, consisting of post smolts on feed caught in the sea and of sexually mature, starved individuals sampled from a river. The two groups represent different stages in the anadromous salmon life cycle, which also are part of the production cycle of farmed salmon. Selected regions of gastrointestinal tract were subjected to morphological investigations including immunohistochemical, scanning electron microscopic, and morphometric analyses. A morphology-based nomenclature was established, defining the cardiac part of the stomach and five different regions of the Atlantic salmon intestine, including pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine with pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine posterior to pyloric caeca, second segment of the mid-intestine and posterior intestinal segment. In each of the above described regions, for both groups of fish, morphometrical measurements and regional histological investigations were performed with regards to magnitude and direction of mucosal folding as well as the composition of the intestinal wall. Additionally, immunohistochemistry showing cells positive for cytokeratins, ?-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in addition to alkaline phosphatase reactivity in the segments is presented. PMID:23520065

Løkka, Guro; Austbø, Lars; Falk, Knut; Bjerkås, Inge; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2013-08-01

410

Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.  

PubMed

Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation. PMID:19754535

Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

2009-07-01

411

Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.  

PubMed

Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of alternative occupational opportunities) that address variation in local activities that threaten plant and animal populations. PMID:21790785

Wittemyer, George

2011-10-01

412

Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations  

PubMed Central

Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species’ remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11–60), averaging between 0.13–0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings. PMID:24376581

de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U. S.; Pushpakumara, T. V.; Weerakoon, Devaka K.; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

413

Use of wild relatives and closely-related species to adapt common bean to climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields less than 600 kg/ha in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combin...

414

Divergence in centromere structure distinguishes related genomes in Coix lacryma-jobi and its wild relative.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the composition and structure of centromeres is critical for understanding how centromeres perform their functional roles. Here, we report the sequences of one centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome clone from a Coix lacryma-jobi library. Two Ty3/gypsy-class retrotransposons, centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi (CRC) and peri-centromeric retrotransposon of C. lacryma-jobi, and a (peri)centromere-specific tandem repeat with a unit length of 153 bp were identified. The CRC is highly homologous to centromere-specific retrotransposons reported in grass species. An 80-bp DNA region in the 153-bp satellite repeat was found to be conserved to centromeric satellite repeats from maize, rice, and pearl millet. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the three repetitive sequences were located in (peri-)centromeric regions of both C. lacryma-jobi and Coix aquatica. However, the 153-bp satellite repeat was only detected on 20 out of the 30 chromosomes in C. aquatica. Immunostaining with an antibody against rice CENH3 indicates that the 153-bp satellite repeat and CRC might be both the major components for functional centromeres, but not all the 153-bp satellite repeats or CRC sequences are associated with CENH3. The evolution of centromeric repeats of C. lacryma-jobi during the polyploidization was discussed. PMID:19756690

Han, Yonghua; Wang, Guixiang; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Jinhua; Yue, Wei; Song, Rentao; Zhang, Xueyong; Jin, Weiwei

2010-02-01

415

Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. PMID:22754378

Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

2012-01-01

416

Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. PMID:22754378

Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

2012-01-01

417

Populations of weedy crop–wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure  

PubMed Central

Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop–wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop–wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop–wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management.

Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

2010-01-01

418

Evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrots (Neophema chrysogaster).  

PubMed

We report the recent emergence of a novel beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) genotype in the last remaining wild population of the critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster). This virus poses a significant threat to the recovery of the species and potentially its survival in the wild. We used PCR to detect BFDV in the blood of three psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD)-affected wild Orange-bellied Parrot fledglings captured as founders for an existing captive breeding recovery program. Complete BFDV genome sequence data from one of these birds demonstrating a 1,993-nucleotide-long read encompass the entire circular genome. Maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis supported the solitary position of this viral isolate in a genetically isolated branch of BFDV. On Rep gene sequencing, a homologous genotype was present in a second wild orange-bellied parrot and the third bird was infected with a distantly related genotype. These viruses have newly appeared in a population that has been intensively monitored for BFDV for the last 13 yr. The detection of two distinct lineages of BFDV in the remnant wild population of Orange-bellied Parrots, consisting of fewer than 50 birds, suggests a role for other parrot species as a reservoir for infection by spillover into this critically endangered species. The potential for such a scenario to contribute to the extinction of a remnant wild animal population is supported by epidemiologic theory. PMID:24484492

Peters, Andrew; Patterson, Edward I; Baker, Barry G B; Holdsworth, Mark; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Raidal, Shane R

2014-04-01

419

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

420

Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Since the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus, wild birds have been suspected of transmitting this virus to poultry. On January 23, 2004, the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand informed the World Health Organization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak. To determine the epidemiology of this viral infection and its relation to poultry outbreaks in Thailand from 2004 through 2007, we investigated how wild birds play a role in transmission. A total of 24,712 serum samples were collected from migratory and resident wild birds. Reverse transcription PCR showed a 0.7% HPAI (H5N1) prevalence. The highest prevalence was observed during January–February 2004 and March–June 2004, predominantly in central Thailand, which harbors most of the country’s poultry flocks. Analysis of the relationship between poultry and wild bird outbreaks was done by using a nonhomogeneous birth and death statistical model. Transmission efficiency among poultry flocks was 1.7× higher in regions with infected wild birds in the given or preceding month. The joint presence of wild birds and poultry is associated with increased spread among poultry flocks. PMID:21749762

Keawcharoen, Juthatip; van den Broek, Jan; Bouma, Annemarie; Tiensin, Thanawat; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E

2011-01-01

421

Analyses of intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains from wild boars suggest adaptation to conventional pig production conditions.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that Escherichia coli populations have adapted to conventional pig production practices, we comparatively tested intestinal commensal E. coli from wild boars versus isolates from domestic pigs by analyzing virulence-associated factors, adhesion, and metabolic activities. Virulence-associated genes typical for intestinal pathogenic E. coli (inVAGs) were sporadically detected among E. coli from wild boars except the adhesion-related gene paa and the enterotoxin-encoding gene astA. In contrast, several VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (exVAGs) were common in E. coli from wild boars. The exVAG chuA occurred more often in E. coli from wild boars compared to E. coli from domestic pigs. 23.5% of E. coli from wild boars belonged to EcoR group B2 which is higher than observed for E. coli from clinically healthy domestic pigs. Furthermore, E. coli from wild boars were more efficient in fermentation of carbohydrate sources (dulcitol, inositol, d-sucrose, d-tagatose), and adhered better to the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In conclusion, our findings point towards an adaptation of porcine intestinal E. coli to a specific intestinal milieu caused by different animal living conditions. PMID:22857976

Römer, Antje; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

2012-12-28

422

Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a

2014-01-01

423

Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

2014-10-01

424

Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.  

PubMed

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space. PMID:25261921

Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

2014-11-01

425

Toxicity of sulfate and chloride to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).  

PubMed

Despite the importance of wild rice (Zizania palustris) in the Great Lakes region of North America, its sensitivity to sulfate is not well understood. A 21-d hydroponic experiment was performed to determine the toxicity of sulfate to wild rice seeds and seedlings. Effects of 6 sulfate concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 5000 mg/L and of chloride salts at equivalent conductivity were evaluated to determine whether adverse effects were attributable to sulfate or to conductivity-related stress. Sulfate treatment decreased root length, shoot length, and leaf number, and increased phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 5000 mg/L relative to a 50 mg/L control. The time to 30% mesocotyl emergence decreased at 2500 mg/L sulfate, indicating a potential stimulatory effect. Sulfate exposures of ? 5000 mg/L had no effect on 5 additional end points. Multiple regression analysis indicated that most observed changes could be attributed to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate per se, with the exception of shoot length and leaf number. Chloride was more toxic than sulfate, as determined by root length and phytotoxicity. In summary, sulfate concentrations below 5000 mg/L did not adversely affect early-life stage wild rice during a 21-d period, and effects at 5000 mg/L sulfate were attributable to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate toxicity in 2 of 4 end points. PMID:25209974

Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Tuominen, Lindsey K; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Grattan, S R; Anderson, Kurt

2014-12-01

426

Phylogeographical structure and conservation genetics of wild grapevine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris, the wild grapevine subspecies of Vitis vinifera L., has been dramatically reduced in its major sites of diffusion, at first by the spread, over the last 150 years, of pathogens from North America and, more recently, with fragmentation of habitat and disbranching by humans. In this work, 418 wild grapevine samples, belonging to 78

F. Grassi; M. Labra; S. Imazio; R. Ocete Rubio; O. Failla; A. Scienza; F. Sala

2006-01-01

427

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts  

E-print Network

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts Department of Zoology, Duke University. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels untested in large mammals. For baboons, as for other animals, two possible mechan- isms of paternal kin

Alberts, Susan C

428

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

429

NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual soybean G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing by insects occurs ...

430

NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual, G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing rates in the cultivated s...

431

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

...2014-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11 Section 16.11 Wildlife... § 16.11 Importation of live wild mammals. (a) The importation, transportation...transportation, and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions set...

2014-10-01

432

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11 Section 16.11 Wildlife... § 16.11 Importation of live wild mammals. (a) The importation, transportation...transportation, and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions set...

2012-10-01

433

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11 Section 16.11 Wildlife... § 16.11 Importation of live wild mammals. (a) The importation, transportation...transportation, and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions set...

2013-10-01

434

The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential  

E-print Network

1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

435

The genetic impacts of human activities on wild fish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature confirms that human activities have caused genetic changes in some wild fish populations, with most of these changes being adverse. These genetic effects include a reduction in growth rate and\\/or possibly in age\\/size at sexual maturity in some heavily fished populations. There was also considerable evidence of hybridization between wild and released populations (sometimes resulting

A. K. Sheridan

1995-01-01

436

The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than six large groups of wild chimpanzees in the study area, which is in the north-eastern part of the Mahali Mountains of Western Tanzainia. One of these groups was provisionized, that is, customarily fed sugar cane and bananas. The characteristics of the social group of wild chimpanzees are clarified by long-term observation of the baited population. The

Toshisada Nishida

1968-01-01

437

SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates in the Cantabrian Mountains /Published online: 11 November 2010 # Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Although brown bears (Ursus arctos documentation regarding bear predation on wild ungulates in Southern Europe. We describe search, detection

Boyer, Edmond

438

PERSPECTIVE / PERSPECTIVE Conservation and enhancement of wild fish  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE / PERSPECTIVE Conservation and enhancement of wild fish populations: preserving genetic quality versus genetic diversity 1 Bryan D. Neff, Shawn R. Garner, and Trevor E. Pitcher Abstract: Nearly to rehabilitate dwindling wild stocks. This failure may in part lie in the lack of knowledge about the genetic

Neff, Bryan D.

439

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

440

Critical Thermal Maxima of Wild and Domestic Strains of Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow growth and high mortality of hatchery-reared brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during summer in a stream that supported wild brown trout prompted us to compare the critical thermal maxima (CTMax) of wild and domestic strains of brown trout, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout. First, we tested the effects of electrofishing exposures on

Robert F. Carline; James F. Machung

2001-01-01