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1

URGENT NOTICE TO ALL MAIZE RESEARCHERS: DISAPPEARANCE AND EXTINCTION OF THE LAST WILD TEOSINTE POPULATION IS MORE THAN HALF COMPLETED. A MODEST PROPOSAL FOR TEOSINTE EVOLUTION AND CONSERVATION IN SITU: THE BALSAS, GUERRERO, MEXICO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teosinte, the closest wild relative of maize with the largest population, covering over a thousand square kilometers in the 1960's, and the most wild of all the annual diploid forms is now suddenly (2004-5) frag- mented by changing land use. Due to the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) U.S. grown corn has en- tered Mexico and radically lowered the

G. Wilkes

2007-01-01

2

Natural variation in teosinte at the domestication locus teosinte branched1 (tb1)  

PubMed Central

The teosinte branched1(tb1) gene is a major QTL controlling branching differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte. The insertion of a transposable element (Hopscotch) upstream of tb1 is known to enhance the gene’s expression, causing reduced tillering in maize. Observations of the maize tb1 allele in teosinte and estimates of an insertion age of the Hopscotch that predates domestication led us to investigate its prevalence and potential role in teosinte. We assessed the prevalence of the Hopscotch element across an Americas-wide sample of 837 maize and teosinte individuals using a co-dominant PCR assay. Additionally, we calculated population genetic summaries using sequence data from a subset of individuals from four teosinte populations and collected phenotypic data using seed from a single teosinte population where Hopscotch was found segregating at high frequency. Genotyping results indicate the Hopscotch element is found in a number of teosinte populations and linkage disequilibrium near tb1 does not support recent introgression from maize. Population genetic signatures are consistent with selection on the tb1 locus, revealing a potential ecological role, but a greenhouse experiment does not detect a strong association between the Hopscotch and tillering in teosinte. Our findings suggest the role of Hopscotch differs between maize and teosinte. Future work should assess tb1 expression levels in teosinte with and without the Hopscotch and more comprehensively phenotype teosinte to assess the ecological significance of the Hopscotch insertion and, more broadly, the tb1 locus in teosinte.

Vann, Laura; Kono, Thomas; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja

2015-01-01

3

Expression Patterns and Mutant Phenotype of teosinte branched1 Correlate With Growth Suppression in Maize and Teosinte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of domesticated maize from its wild ancestor teosinte is a dramatic example of the effect of human selection on agricultural crops. Maize has one dominant axis of growth, whereas teosinte is highly branched. The axillary branches in maize are short and feminized whereas the axillary branches of teosinte are long and end in a male inflorescence under normal

Lauren Hubbard; Paula McSteen; John Doebley; Sarah Hake

2002-01-01

4

Gene Flow Among Different Teosinte Taxa and Into the Domesticated Maize Gene Pool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from one wild species ancestor, the Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) about 9000 years ago. Higher levels of gene diversity are found in teosinte taxa compared to maize following domestication and selection bottlenecks. Diversity in maize can b...

5

Tolerance to herbivory by a stemboring caterpillar in architecturally distinct maizes and wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a screenhouse experiment in southwest Mexico, we infested two maize cultivars, a land-race and a modern high-yielding variety, and two wild teosintes, Zea diploperennis and Zea mays parviglumis, with newly hatched larvae of the stemborer, Diatraea grandiosella. While subsequent damage levels, when corrected for differences in plant size, were highest in the wild perennial, Zea diploperennis, this taxon showed

J. P. Rosenthal; S. C. Welter

1995-01-01

6

Complex Patterns of Local Adaptation in Teosinte  

PubMed Central

Populations of widely distributed species encounter and must adapt to local environmental conditions. However, comprehensive characterization of the genetic basis of adaptation is demanding, requiring genome-wide genotype data, multiple sampled populations, and an understanding of population structure and potential selection pressures. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and data on numerous environmental variables to describe the genetic basis of local adaptation in 21 populations of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We found complex hierarchical genetic structure created by altitude, dispersal events, and admixture among subspecies, which complicated identification of locally beneficial alleles. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium revealed four large putative inversion polymorphisms showing clinal patterns of frequency. Population differentiation and environmental correlations suggest that both inversions and intergenic polymorphisms are involved in local adaptation. PMID:23902747

Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Hufford, Matthew B.; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

7

Teosinte Inflorescence Phytolith Assemblages Mirror Zea Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples. PMID:21479186

Hart, John P.; Matson, R. G.; Thompson, Robert G.; Blake, Michael

2011-01-01

8

Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

9

Maize or 'Indian Corn' and its wild relatives, the teosintes (Zea species), differ profoundly in both ear  

E-print Network

profoundly in both ear morphology and plant growth form (Figs 1, 2). Nevertheless, substantial genetic by a tassel, while the short lateral branches of maize are tipped by ears. Adapted from Ref. 19. The 'key. In maize, the lateral branches are short and terminated by female inflorescences (ears). Second

Doebley, John

10

A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

11

Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients.  

PubMed

It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

Díez, Concepción M; Gaut, Brandon S; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E; Tenaillon, Maud I

2013-07-01

12

A Selfish Gene Governing Pollen-Pistil Compatibility Confers Reproductive Isolation Between Maize Relatives  

PubMed Central

Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat. PMID:16157680

Kermicle, Jerry L.

2006-01-01

13

Three New Teosintes (Zea spp., Poaceae) From Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The discovery of new species of teosinte from México motivated the comparative study of populations from México, Guatemala and Nicaragua through detailed ecogeographic, morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterization. The study involved a comparative analysis of morphological, ecogeographic,...

14

Identifying novel resistance genes in rice wild relatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast and sheath blight are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. ) that limit Arkansas rough rice yields and market potential. Resistance to these diseases has been found in rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) A collection of these wild relatives originating from outside the U...

15

The GRIN-Taxonomy crop wild relative inventory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to provide an informational tool for assessing and prioritizing germplasm needs for ex situ conservation in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 2008 initiated a project to identify wild relatives (CWR) of major and minor crops. Each cro...

16

An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Significant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources, constraining availability for research. As a fi...

17

MAPPING R-GENES IN RICE WILD RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are the source of several resistance (R-) genes including those for bla...

18

EVALUATING RICE WILDE RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.) FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are an important source of novel pest resistance genes, as well as tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield enhancing traits. Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast, Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa, are major fungal d...

19

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

20

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Expression Patterns and Mutant Phenotype of teosinte branched1 Correlate With  

E-print Network

the organs of the shoot. The Dudley 1996; Pigliucci and Schmitt 1999). Various plant hormones are implicated of teosinte branched1 Correlate With Growth Suppression in Maize and Teosinte Lauren Hubbard,* Paula McSteen,* John Doebley and Sarah Hake*,1 *Plant Gene Expression Center, USDA-ARS and University of California

Doebley, John

21

Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.  

PubMed

Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion/addition experiments are feasible alternatives when molecular containment of transgenes restricts field experiments with insect resistant crop-wild hybrids. PMID:19419653

Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

2009-01-01

22

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

23

Major Regulatory Genes in Maize Contribute to Standing Variation in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis)  

PubMed Central

In plants, many major regulatory genes that control plant growth and development have been identified and characterized. Despite a detailed knowledge of the function of these genes little is known about how they contribute to the natural variation for complex traits. To determine whether major regulatory genes of maize contribute to standing variation in Balsas teosinte we conducted association mapping in 584 Balsas teosinte individuals. We tested 48 markers from nine candidate regulatory genes against 13 traits for plant and inflorescence architecture. We identified significant associations using a mixed linear model that controls for multiple levels of relatedness. Ten associations involving five candidate genes were significant after correction for multiple testing, and two survive the conservative Bonferroni correction. zfl2, the maize homolog of FLORICAULA of Antirrhinum, was associated with plant height. zap1, the maize homolog of APETALA1 of Arabidopsis, was associated with inflorescence branching. Five SNPs in the maize domestication gene, teosinte branched1, were significantly associated with either plant or inflorescence architecture. Our data suggest that major regulatory genes in maize do play a role in the natural variation for complex traits in teosinte and that some of the minor variants we identified may have been targets of selection during domestication. PMID:17947410

Weber, Allison; Clark, Richard M.; Vaughn, Laura; de Jesús Sánchez-Gonzalez, José; Yu, Jianming; Yandell, Brian S.; Bradbury, Peter; Doebley, John

2007-01-01

24

THE GENETIC, MOLECULAR, AND EVOLUTIONARY DISSECTION OF THE TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 GENE  

E-print Network

Page iii Abstract Page iv List of Tables and Figures Page v Preface Page 1 Chapter 1 Page 7? A case study at the maize domestication QTL teosinte branched1. Chapter 3 Page 81 Evidence for a natural. Bernard Mikula, who helped nurture my young scientific enquires at the very beginning of my career

Doebley, John

25

Do cultivated varieties of native plants have the ability to outperform their wild relatives?  

PubMed

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term. PMID:23951081

Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

2013-01-01

26

Do Cultivated Varieties of Native Plants Have the Ability to Outperform Their Wild Relatives?  

PubMed Central

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term. PMID:23951081

Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

2013-01-01

27

Phytochemicals in fruits of Hawaiian wild cranberry relatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phytochemical profile of the Hawaiian Native Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) has not been thoroughly described. Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition of diverse wild and cultivated samples of the low-growing ‘ohelo, V. reticulatum Smith. In 2009, ripe fruit samples were collected f...

28

The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize  

PubMed Central

Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole plant coordination of biomass accumulation and maize domestication. PMID:24524734

2014-01-01

29

Birth-related behaviors in wild proboscis monkeys ( Nasalis larvatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two births of wild proboscis monkeys took place during a 1991\\/1992 field study at Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia.\\u000a After conception, both females continued copulating with their group’s male. One of the births took place during the night,\\u000a the other during mid-morning. In the latter case, the infant was born unassisted while the members of the group watched the\\u000a birthing

Andrea B. Gorzitze

1996-01-01

30

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?"  

E-print Network

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?" Report 2: An Analysis of Annual Trends for Wild Pacific Salmon in British Columbia DECEMBER 2012://people.landfood.ubc.ca/anthony.farrell/) Ms. Diane Gold Ms. Carmen Ho A literature review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12

Farrell, Anthony P.

31

The inheritance and evolution of leaf pigmentation and pubescence in teosinte.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution in natural populations, we employed QTL mapping to dissect the inheritance of leaf sheath characters that distinguish Chalco from Balsas teosinte. Abundant macrohairs (trichomes) and intense anthocyanin accumulation are found in Chalco teosinte sheaths whereas Balsas teosinte leaf sheaths are green and glabrous. These character states may represent adaptations to the cooler highland (Chalco) vs. warmer middle-elevation (Balsas) climates. QTL mapping in multiple populations revealed a mix of major- and minor-effect QTL affecting both sheath color (anthocyanin) and macrohair abundance. The major QTL for macrohairs accounts for 52% of the parental difference. Epistatic interactions were detected between the major-effect QTL and multiple other QTL for both traits, accounting for substantial portions of phenotypic variance. Developmental analyses suggest that regulatory program changes underlie the phenotypic differences. Sheath anthocyanin QTL are clearly associated with b1 and a3, both of which are regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that changes in a small number of QTL can lead to morphological evolution by modulating existing developmental programs. PMID:15342532

Lauter, Nick; Gustus, Charles; Westerbergh, Anna; Doebley, John

2004-01-01

32

A global approach to crop wild relative conservation: securing the gene pool for food and agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In light of the growing concern over the potentially devastating impacts on biodiversity and food security of climate change\\u000a and the massively growing world population, taking action to conserve crop wild relatives (CWR), is no longer an option —\\u000a it is a priority. Crop wild relatives are species closely related to crops, including their progenitors, many of which have\\u000a the

Nigel Maxted; Shelagh Kell; Álvaro Toledo; Ehsan Dulloo; Vernon Heywood; Toby Hodgkin; Danny Hunter; Luigi Guarino; Andy Jarvis; Brian Ford-Lloyd

2010-01-01

33

Proceedings of the first international symposium on wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first International Symposium on Wild Relatives of Subtropical and Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops offered a platform for the scientists and others concerned with conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops. Wild relative...

34

Carbon and Nitrogen Economy of 24 Wild Species Differing in Relative Growth Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between interspecific variation in relative growth rate and carbon and nitrogen economy was investigated. Twenty- four wild species were grown in a growth chamber with a nonlim- iting nutrient supply and growth, whole plant photosynthesis, shoot respiration, and root respiration were determined. No cor- relation was found between the relative growth rate of these species and their rate

Hendrik Poorter; Carlo Remkes; Hans Lambers

1990-01-01

35

Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity analysis of 90 barley samples, including 45 wild close relatives of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers. The results showed that Tibetan wild close relatives of barley had a higher genetic diversity than those from the Middle

Aihua Wang; Zhiyong Yu; Yi Ding

2009-01-01

36

Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.  

PubMed

Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances. PMID:18549768

D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

2008-01-01

37

[Discovery of QTLs increasing yield related traits in common wild rice].  

PubMed

Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) is an important genetic resource. Discovery of desirable alleles in wild rice will make important contributions to rice genetic improvement. In this study, Zhenshan 97 as the recurrent parent and wild rice as the donor parent were used to develop a BC2F1 population. One plant BC2F1-15 in the population showed distinct phenotype from Zhenshan 97 was selected to produce a population of BC2F5 by continuous self-crossing. The genotype assay of the plant BC2F1-15 with 126 polymorphic SSR markers evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes showed that it was heterozygous at 30% of the control marker loci. Four, 3, 4, 2, and 1 QTLs were detected for heading date, plant height, spikelets per panicle, grain weight, and single plant yield in the BC2F5 population, respectively. One QTL region flanked by the marker interval of RM481-RM2 on chromosome 7 had pleiotropic effects on heading date, spikelets per panicle, and grain yield per plant, and the alleles of wild rice increased phenotypic values. At the other 3 QTLs for spikelets per panicle, common wild rice had positive effects. These results clearly showed that common wild rice carried desirable alleles for yield related traits. The favorable alleles from common wild rice are new valuable genes for rice breeding. PMID:22382063

Wu, Bi; Han, Zhong-Min; Li, Zhi-Xin; Xing, Yong-Zhong

2012-02-01

38

Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives  

PubMed Central

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

2012-01-01

39

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Is bill colouration in wild male Blackbirds (Turdus merula) related  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Is bill colouration in wild male Blackbirds (Turdus merula) related potentially reflect changes in individual condition. The bill of the male Common Blackbird (or Blackbird in birds, and Blackbird bill col- ouration has been found to be related to reproductive ability and immune

Figuerola, Jordi

40

Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild/weedy relatives.  

PubMed

In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild/weedy relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be compatible, produce viable and fertile progeny, and the transgenes should persist in natural/weedy populations. Each step was described and scored, resulting in an IHP value for each cross-compatible oilseed rape wild/weedy relative. The gene flow index revealed that Brassica rapa has the highest introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP value = 11.5), followed by Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum (IHP = 6.7), Brassica juncea (IHP = 5.1), Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Sinapis arvensis (IHP = 4.5) in Flanders. Based on the IHP values, monitoring priorities can be defined within the pool of cross-compatible wild/weedy oilseed rape relatives. Moreover, the developed approach enables to select areas where case-specific monitoring of GM oilseed rape could be done in order to detect potential adverse effects on cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives resulting from vertical gene flow. The implementation of the proposed oilseed rape-wild relative gene flow index revealed that the survey design of existing botanical survey networks does not suit general surveillance needs of GM crops in Belgium. The encountered hurdles to implement the gene flow index and proposals to acquire the missing data are discussed. PMID:18253849

Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; Reheul, Dirk

2009-02-01

41

Molecular-genetic characterization of CMS-S restorer-of-fertility alleles identified in Mexican maize and teosinte.  

PubMed Central

Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) alleles for S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) are prevalent in Mexican races of maize and teosinte. Forty-five Rf alleles from 26 races of maize and 6 Rf alleles from different accessions of teosinte were found to be homozygous viable, consistent with the hypothesis that they are naturally occurring Rf alleles. Mapping and allelism studies were performed to assess the number of genes represented by these 51 alleles. Forty-two of the Rf alleles mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2 (2L), and 5 of these were further mapped to the whp1-rf3 region. The Rf3 restoring allele, found in some U.S. maize inbred lines, cosegregates with internal processing of CMS-S mitochondrial transcripts. Three of the 5 mapped Rf alleles were associated with a similar RNA processing event. Allelism or tight linkage was confirmed between Rf3 and 2 teosinte alleles (Rf K-69-6 and Rf 9477) and between Rf3 and the Cónico Norteño allele Rf C-N (GTO 22). The rf3 region of 2L potentially encodes a complex of linked rf genes. The prevalence of restoring alleles in this chromosomal region, among normal-cytoplasm accessions of Mexican maize and teosinte, supports the conclusion that these alleles have functions in normal mitochondrial gene expression that by chance allow them to restore male fertility in S cytoplasm. PMID:15020480

Gabay-Laughnan, Susan; Chase, Christine D; Ortega, Victor M; Zhao, Liming

2004-01-01

42

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

43

Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species. PMID:24386242

Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

2013-01-01

44

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

45

Creation and use of a national inventory of crop wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 target of achieving a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth is particularly pertinent for crop wild relatives (CWR). These taxa are directly associated with wealth creation and food

Nigel Maxted; Maria Scholten; Rosalind Codd; Brian Ford-Lloyd

2007-01-01

46

Hybridization and Introgression between Bread Wheat and Wild and Weedy Relatives in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Anderson and Hubricht, 1938; Arnold 1997). With each successive backcross the hybrid-derived plants progres- Introgression between cultivars and wild relatives is common in sively accumulate the traits of the backcrossing par- several angiosperm taxa including the grass family Poaceae. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a domesticated allohexaploid species ent(s). The formation of fertile hybrids and backcross (genome formula BBAADD)

S. G. Hegde; J. G. Waines

2004-01-01

47

FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WILD RELATIVES OF SUBTROPICAL AND TEMPERATE FRUIT AND NUT CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 50 participants from 15 different countries would spend five days, March 19-23 2011, in open discussion on the status of conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops. This was the first such meeting, co-convened by Dr. ...

48

Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)  

E-print Network

members of their colonies about the location of food patches. Several birds (Elgar 1986; Marler et alFood-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) V. M. Janik{ School correlated with feeding on salmonids. The production of these calls is followed by fast approaches

Aberdeen, University of

49

Identifying wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2008 the Plant Exchange Office (PEO) of the Agricultural Research Service began a concentrated effort to identify, classify, and provide a full treatment in the taxonomy area of the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) for all primary, secondary, and tertiary genetic wild relatives (CWR...

50

Genetic modificationTransgene introgression from genetically modified crops to their wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenes engineered into annual crops could be unintentionally introduced into the genomes of their free-living wild relatives. The fear is that these transgenes might persist in the environment and have negative ecological consequences. Are some crops or transgenic traits of more concern than others? Are there natural genetic barriers to minimize gene escape? Can the genetic transformation process be exploited

Matthew D. Halfhill; Suzanne I. Warwick; C. Neal Stewart

2003-01-01

51

Genetic diversity for seed mineral composition in Teramnus labialis, a wild relative of soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Teramnus labialis (L.) Spreng. is a wild relative of soybean whose seeds are collected and used as a food source by tribal populations in Asia. In order to assess the potential of this legume to provide dietary minerals for humans, fourteen diverse accessions were grown under controlled, nutrient-r...

52

IDENTIFYING NOVEL R-GENES IN RICE WILD RELATIVES WITH MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are an important source of novel R(resistance)-genes for rice improvement. Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and leaf blast, caused by Magnaporthe grisea, are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (O. sativa) in the USA and of irrigated rice world...

53

A case for crop wild relative preservation and utilization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental degradation and climate change pose a threat to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) provide a critical resource to address food security needs by providing genetic diversity for crop improvement, leading to increased plasticity and productivity. However, plant breeders have...

54

Flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Nicaraguan teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (Z. mays subsp. mays). The objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ILs), each containing a chromosome segment from Z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line Mi29. Methods To produce the ILs, a single F1 plant derived from a cross between maize Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis was backcrossed to Mi29 three times, self-pollinated four times and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Flooding tolerance was evaluated at the seedling stage under reducing soil conditions. Key Results By backcrossing and selfing, a series of 45 ILs were developed covering nearly the entire maize genome. Five flooding-tolerant lines were identified from among the ILs by evaluating leaf injury. Among these, line IL#18, containing a Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment on the long arm of chromosome 4, showed the greatest tolerance to flooding, suggesting the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that region. The presence of the QTL was verified by examining flooding tolerance in a population segregating for the candidate region of chromosome 4. There was no significant relationship between the capacity to form constitutive aerenchyma and flooding tolerance in the ILs, indicating the presence of other factors related to flooding tolerance under reducing soil conditions. Conclusions A flooding-tolerant genotype, IL#18, was identified; this genotype should be useful for maize breeding. In addition, because the chromosome segments of Z. nicaraguensis in the ILs cover nearly the entire genome and Z. nicaraguensis possesses several unique traits related to flooding tolerance, the ILs should be valuable material for additional QTL detection and the development of flooding-tolerant maize lines. PMID:23877074

Mano, Y.; Omori, F.

2013-01-01

55

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

56

Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).  

PubMed

Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. PMID:20227048

Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

2010-02-01

57

Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations

Qiang Fu; Peijiang Zhang; Lubin Tan; Zuofeng Zhu; Dan Ma; Yongcai Fu; Xinchun Zhan; Hongwei Cai; Chuanqing Sun

2010-01-01

58

Introgression of Novel Traits from a Wild Wheat Relative Improves Drought Adaptation in Wheat1[W  

PubMed Central

Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat. PMID:23426195

Placido, Dante F.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Folsom, Jing J.; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R.; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

2013-01-01

59

Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.  

PubMed

Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat. PMID:23426195

Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

2013-04-01

60

Introgression potential between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and wild relatives of the genus Carthamus  

PubMed Central

Background Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a thistle that is grown commercially for the production of oil and birdseed and recently, as a host for the production of transgenic pharmaceutical proteins. C. tinctorius can cross with a number of its wild relatives, creating the possibility of gene flow from safflower to weedy species. In this study we looked at the introgression potential between different members of the genus Carthamus, measured the fitness of the parents versus the F1 hybrids, followed the segregation of a specific transgene in the progeny and tried to identify traits important for adaptation to different environments. Results Safflower hybridized and produced viable offspring with members of the section Carthamus and species with chromosome numbers of n = 10 and n = 22, but not with n = 32. The T-DNA construct of a transgenic C. tinctorius line was passed on to the F1 progeny in a Mendelian fashion, except in one specific cross, where it was deleted at a frequency of approximately 21%. Analyzing fitness and key morphological traits like colored seeds, shattering seed heads and the presence of a pappus, we found no evidence of hybrid vigour or increased weediness in the F1 hybrids of commercial safflower and its wild relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that hybridization between commercial safflower and its wild relatives, while feasible in most cases we studied, does not generate progeny with higher propensity for weediness. PMID:21401959

2011-01-01

61

Sorghum: Value as Feed Stuff, Effect on Soil - Teosinte:Analyses at Different Stages of Growth - Miscellaneous Analyses.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTUIlAL EXP ERIMENT STATION. BULLETIN No. 13, DECEMBER, 1890. VALUE AS A FEED STUFF; EFFECT ON SOIL. TEOSINTE : - ANALYSES AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GEOWTH. MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS. All... and address plainly. College Btation, Brazos Co.. Texas. AUSTIh : RTATE PRINTING OFFICE. 1890. 1271 TEXAS AGRICULTUKAL EXPERIMENT STATION. GOVERSING BOARD. BOARD CT' T)iRECTOXF A. AND V. COLLEGE. .... MAJ. A. JcRos~, Presider>+ .... Sai8,do. RON. L. L...

Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill); Adriance, Duncan; Tilson, P. S.

1890-01-01

62

Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from approximate Bayesian computation in Aegilops triuncialis.  

PubMed

Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km × 20 km area in southern Spain (Grazalema Mountain chain, Andalousia, totalling 458 specimens), is completed with 33 wheat cultivars representative of the European domesticated pool. All specimens were genotyped with amplified fragment length polymorphism with the aim of estimating wheat admixture levels in Ae. triuncialis populations. This survey first confirmed extensive hybridization and backcrossing of wheat into the wild species. We then used explicit modelling of populations and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the selfing rate of Ae. triuncialis along with the magnitude, the tempo and the geographical distance over which wheat alleles introgress into Ae. triuncialis populations. These simulations confirmed that extensive introgression of wheat alleles (2.7 × 10(-4) wheat immigrants for each Ae. triuncialis resident, at each generation) into Ae. triuncialis occurs despite a high selfing rate (Fis ? 1 and selfing rate = 97%). These results are discussed in the light of risks associated with the release of genetically modified wheat cultivars in Mediterranean agrosystems. PMID:25223217

Pajkovic, Mila; Lappe, Sylvain; Barman, Rachel; Parisod, Christian; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jerome; Alvarez, Nadir; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Felber, François; Arrigo, Nils

2014-10-01

63

A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to the Colorado Potato Beetle in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild relatives of potato offer a tremendous germplasm resource for breeders. Because the germplasm base of potato is so broad and diverse, we have undertaken a series of studies to determine whether we can predict the distribution of valuable genes in wild Solanum species based on taxonomic or bioge...

64

Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

Nicholson, D.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Stewart, M.D.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2000-01-01

65

Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.  

PubMed

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks. PMID:22595138

Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

2012-10-12

66

The Genomic Signature of Crop-Wild Introgression in Maize  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary significance of hybridization and subsequent introgression has long been appreciated, but evaluation of the genome-wide effects of these phenomena has only recently become possible. Crop-wild study systems represent ideal opportunities to examine evolution through hybridization. For example, maize and the conspecific wild teosinte Zea mays ssp. mexicana (hereafter, mexicana) are known to hybridize in the fields of highland Mexico. Despite widespread evidence of gene flow, maize and mexicana maintain distinct morphologies and have done so in sympatry for thousands of years. Neither the genomic extent nor the evolutionary importance of introgression between these taxa is understood. In this study we assessed patterns of genome-wide introgression based on 39,029 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 189 individuals from nine sympatric maize-mexicana populations and reference allopatric populations. While portions of the maize and mexicana genomes appeared resistant to introgression (notably near known cross-incompatibility and domestication loci), we detected widespread evidence for introgression in both directions of gene flow. Through further characterization of these genomic regions and preliminary growth chamber experiments, we found evidence suggestive of the incorporation of adaptive mexicana alleles into maize during its expansion to the highlands of central Mexico. In contrast, very little evidence was found for adaptive introgression from maize to mexicana. The methods we have applied here can be replicated widely, and such analyses have the potential to greatly inform our understanding of evolution through introgressive hybridization. Crop species, due to their exceptional genomic resources and frequent histories of spread into sympatry with relatives, should be particularly influential in these studies. PMID:23671421

Hufford, Matthew B.; Lubinksy, Pesach; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Devengenzo, Michael T.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

67

Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.  

PubMed

In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India. PMID:23380193

Samuels, John

2013-04-01

68

Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives.  

PubMed

Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum 'Heinz', an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum 'Yellow Pear', and two of cultivated tomato's closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful in deducing true phylogenetic information of S. lycopersicum and identifying regions of introgression from wild species. PMID:25780758

Strickler, Susan R; Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B; Mueller, Lukas A

2015-01-01

69

Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum ‘Heinz’, an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum ‘Yellow Pear’, and two of cultivated tomato’s closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful in deducing true phylogenetic information of S. lycopersicum and identifying regions of introgression from wild species. PMID:25780758

Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D.; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B.; Mueller, Lukas A.

2015-01-01

70

Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

71

Relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in the wild in endangered salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation biologists routinely face the dilemma of keeping small, fragmented populations isolated, wherein inbreeding depression may ensue, or mixing such populations, which may exacerbate population declines via outbreeding depression. The joint evaluation of inbreeding and outbreeding risks in the wild cannot be readily conducted in endangered species, so a suggested 'safe' strategy is to mix ecologically and genetically similar populations. To evaluate this strategy, we carried out a reciprocal transplant experiment involving three neighboring populations of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) now bred in captivity and maintained in captive and wild environments. Pure, inbred, and outbred (first and second generation) cross types were released and recaptured in the wild to simultaneously test for local adaptation, inbreeding depression, and outbreeding depression. We found little evidence of inbreeding depression after one generation of inbreeding and little evidence of either heterosis or outbreeding depression via genetic incompatibilities after one or two generations of outbreeding. A trend for outbreeding depression via the loss of local adaptation was documented in one of three populations. The effects of inbreeding were not significantly different from the effects of outbreeding. Hence, at the geographic scale evaluated (34-50 km), inbreeding for one generation and outbreeding over two generations may have similar effects on the persistence of small populations. The results further suggested that outbreeding outcomes may be highly variable or unpredictable at small genetic distances. Our work highlights the necessity of evaluating the relative costs of inbreeding and outbreeding in the conservation and management of endangered species on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25568011

Houde, Aimee L S; Fraser, Dylan J; O'Reilly, Patrick; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2011-09-01

72

Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.  

PubMed

Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. PMID:24103297

Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

2014-01-01

73

Carbon and Nitrogen Economy of 24 Wild Species Differing in Relative Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

The relation between interspecific variation in relative growth rate and carbon and nitrogen economy was investigated. Twentyfour wild species were grown in a growth chamber with a nonlimiting nutrient supply and growth, whole plant photosynthesis, shoot respiration, and root respiration were determined. No correlation was found between the relative growth rate of these species and their rate of photosynthesis expressed on a leaf area basis. There was a positive correlation, however, with the rate of photosynthesis expressed per unit leaf dry weight. Also the rates of shoot and root respiration per unit dry weight correlated positively with relative growth rate. Due to a higher ratio between leaf area and plant weight (leaf area ratio) fast growing species were able to fix relatively more carbon per unit plant weight and used proportionally less of the total amount of assimilates in respiration. Fast growing species had a higher total organic nitrogen concentration per unit plant weight, allocated more nitrogen to the leaves and had a higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, i.e. a higher rate of photosynthesis per unit organic nitrogen in the leaves. Consequently, their nitrogen productivity, the growth rate per unit organic nitrogen in the plant and per day, was higher compared with that of slow growing species. PMID:16667757

Poorter, Hendrik; Remkes, Carlo; Lambers, Hans

1990-01-01

74

Reply to J. Samuels: Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study "Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication" by Meyer et al. (2012) was to use new and expanded accession sets coupled with molecular data to evaluate possible scenarios of eggplant domestication with as little influence as possible from any previously published nomenclatural scheme, and taking into consideration multiple sources of evidence regarding the history of eggplant in Asia. Samuels (2013) disfavored this system and in his Letter to the Editor attempted to re-evaluate the results according to his system. However, Samuels appears to have misread Meyer et al. and also makes several claims without the support of evidence. We stand by the results of Meyer et al., which are in agreement with the recent and much needed new taxonomic treatment for wild relatives of eggplant. PMID:23769957

Meyer, Rachel S; Knapp, Sandra; Karol, Kenneth G; Little, Damon P; Nee, Michael H; Litt, Amy

2013-10-01

75

Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses.  

PubMed

With national and global health policymakers facing numerous complex decisions related to achieving and maintaining polio eradication, we expanded our previously developed dynamic poliovirus transmission model using information from an expert literature review process and including additional immunity states and the evolution of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The model explicitly considers serotype differences and distinguishes fecal-oral and oropharyngeal transmission. We evaluated the model by simulating diverse historical experiences with polioviruses, including one country that eliminated wild poliovirus using both OPV and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) (USA), three importation outbreaks of wild poliovirus (Albania, the Netherlands, Tajikistan), one situation in which no circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) emerge despite annual OPV use and cessation (Cuba), three cVDPV outbreaks (Haiti, Madura Island in Indonesia, northern Nigeria), one area of current endemic circulation of all three serotypes (northern Nigeria), and one area with recent endemic circulation and subsequent elimination of multiple serotypes (northern India). We find that when sufficient information about the conditions exists, the model can reproduce the general behavior of poliovirus transmission and outbreaks while maintaining consistency in the generic model inputs. The assumption of spatially homogeneous mixing remains a significant limitation that affects the performance of the differential equation-based model when significant heterogeneities in immunity and mixing may exist. Further studies on OPV virus evolution and improved understanding of the mechanisms of mixing and transmission may help to better characterize poliovirus transmission in populations. Broad application of the model promises to offer insights in the context of global and national policy and economic models. PMID:23521018

Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kalkowska, Dominika A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M

2013-04-01

76

Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Retinoblastoma-Related Gene from Chinese Wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.  

PubMed

Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, play important roles in cell differentiation, development, and mammalian cell death; however, little is known of their function in plants. In this study, a RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild grape, Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang clone "Baihe-35-1", and designated as VpRBR. The cDNA sequence of VpRBR was 3,030 bp and contained an open reading frame of 3,024 bp. Conceptual translation of this gene indicated a composition of 1,007 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 117.3 kDa. The predicted protein showed a retinoblastoma-associated protein domain A from amino acid residues 416 to 579, and domain B from residues 726 to 855. The result of expression analysis indicated that VpRBR was expressed in tissues, leaves, stem, tendrils, flower, and grape skin at different expression levels. Further quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicated that VpRBR levels were higher in Erysiphe necator-treated "Baihe-35-1" and "Baihe-13-1", two resistant clones of Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata, than in E. necator-treated "Hunan-1", a susceptible clone of V. pseudoreticulata. Furthermore, the expression of VpRBR in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene (Eth) in grape leaves was also investigated. Taken together, these data indicate that VpRBR may contribute to some aspect of powdery mildew resistance in grape. PMID:24415838

Wen, Zhifeng; Gao, Min; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hui; Walter, Monika; Xu, Weirong; Bassett, Carole; Wang, Xiping

2012-01-01

77

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Maggio, Albino

2010-08-01

78

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Consiglio, Federica; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

2010-01-01

79

Identification of floral scent in chrysanthemum cultivars and wild relatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%-99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, ?-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, ?-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents. PMID:25816078

Sun, Hainan; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Qingqing; Qi, Xiangyu; Zhang, Fei; Fang, Weimin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

2015-01-01

80

Genetic diversity of four closely related wild tomato species revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild tomato species have been exploited for many decades to develop cultivated tomato varieties that can resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The most variable wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four distinct species - Solanum peruvianum sensu stricto...

81

Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus  

PubMed Central

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 ?M), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

2013-01-01

82

A new method for evaluating flowering synchrony to support the temporal isolation of genetically modified crops from their wild relatives.  

PubMed

Hybridization between crops and their wild relatives potentially threatens the genetic identity of the wild plants, particularly in the case of genetically modified crops. Only a few studies have examined the use of temporal isolation to prevent hybridization, and the indices used in those studies, (e.g., the days of flowering overlap), are not precise to evaluate the degree of synchrony in flowering. Here we propose a flowering similarity index that can compare the degree of flowering synchrony between two relevant species and measure the efficiency of temporal isolation. The results showed that the flowering similarity index predicts the likelihood of hybridization much better than the number of flowering-overlap days, regardless of different flowering patterns among cultivars. Thus, temporal isolation of flowering or flowering asynchrony is the most effective means in preventing hybridization between crops and their wild relatives. PMID:24122370

Ohigashi, Kentaro; Mizuguti, Aki; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Miwa, Tetsuhisa

2014-01-01

83

Recent NPGS coordinated expeditions in the Trans-Caucasus Region to collect wild relatives of temperate fruit and nut crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service-managed National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) coordinated several germplasm expeditions in the trans-Caucasus countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia beginning in 2001. One of the goals was to preserve valuable wild relatives of crop species ex situ at g...

84

A model to predict the frequency of integration of fitness-related QTLs from cultivated to wild soybean.  

PubMed

With the proliferation of genetically modified (GM) products and the almost exponential growth of land use for GM crops, there is a growing need to develop quantitative approaches to estimating the risk of escape of transgenes into wild populations of crop relatives by natural hybridization. We assessed the risk of transgene escape by constructing a population genetic model based on information on fitness-related QTLs obtained from an F (2) population of wild soybean G. soja × cultivated soybean Glycine max. Simulation started with ten F (1) and 990 wild soybeans reproducing by selfing or outcrossing. Seed production was determined from the genetic effects of two QTLs for number of seeds (SN). Each seed survived winter according to the maternal genotype at three QTLs for winter survival (WS). We assumed that one neutral transgene was inserted at various sites and calculated its extinction rate. The presence of G. max alleles at SN and WS QTLs significantly decreased the probability of introgression of the neutral transgene at all insertion sites equally. The presence of G. max alleles at WS QTLs lowered the risk more than their presence at SN QTLs. Although most model studies have concentrated only on genotypic effects of transgenes, we show that the presence of fitness-related domestication genes has a large effect on the risk of transgene escape. Our model offers the advantage of considering the effects of both domestication genes and a transgene, and they can be widely applied to other wild × crop relative complexes. PMID:21544624

Kitamoto, N; Kaga, A; Kuroda, Y; Ohsawa, R

2012-02-01

85

Molecular characterization of rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) and accelerating the development of disease resistant germplasm using microsatellite markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild relatives of crop species are a source of unique genes for crop improvement. Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) and blast [Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa] are the major diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the U.S. A set of 150 markers is being used to c...

86

Biological containment of potato (Solanum tuberosum) : outcrossing to the related wild species black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological containment of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) was assessed by establishing the crossability of this tuberous crop with the related wild non-tuberous species in The Netherlands, black nightshade (S. nigrum) and bittersweet (S. dulcamara). To circumvent crossability barriers, genotypes with different ploidy number were employed and crosses were performed under different environmental conditions. S. dulcamara was shown to be

Ronald Eijlander; Willem J. Stiekema

1994-01-01

87

Plant Resistance to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol within Peanut Germplasm and Its Wild Relatives in the US Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

88

Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and

N Basu; A M Scheuhammer; R D Evans; M OBrien; H M Chan

2007-01-01

89

A global assessment of the ex-situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We analyzed the contemporary ex situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum section Petota) to set priorities and guide future collections and conservation. We conducted a gap analysis for 73 taxa involving seven, 63 and three species from the primary, secondary an...

90

Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group  

PubMed Central

Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

2013-01-01

91

Merging ecology and genomics to dissect diversity in wild tomatoes and their relatives.  

PubMed

To understand the origin, history, and function, of natural biological variation, from nucleotide to community levels, is a fundamental promise of ecological genomics. The most fruitful systems for this work are those that possess both ecological and genomic resources. Such systems provide an opportunity to precisely dissect genetic and developmental mechanisms, and to connect genotypes to phenotypes, as well as to directly demonstrate the ecological and evolutionary relevance of this phenotypic variation. Here we synthesize findings emerging from our efforts to understand two fundamental evolutionary processes - speciation and adaptation - using ecological genomics approaches. Many of these studies have been in the wild tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon), a group that has both exceptional diversity and genomic tools. We also highlight the expanding taxonomic reach of this work, especially in two genera - Capsicum and Jaltomata - that are closely related to Solanum. Parallel approaches in these ecologically and reproductively diverse clades enable us to examine novel questions and traits that are not captured within Solanum, while leveraging the power of comparative studies to understand shared ecological and evolutionary patterns. By synthesizing findings from phenotypic, ecophysiological, genetic, and comparative perspectives, our ultimate goal is to understand the complex mechanistic and evolutionary contributions to the formation of new traits and species diversity. PMID:24277305

Haak, David C; Kostyun, Jamie L; Moyle, Leonie C

2014-01-01

92

Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Wild Relatives of Pigeonpea  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis are important nematode pests of pigeonpea. Greenhouse evaluation of 66 accessions of 25 species of Cajanus, Rhynchosia, and Flemingia for resistance to M. javanica based on number and size of galls, galled area of root, and number of egg masses showed resistance to be available in these wild relatives of pigeonpea. Thirty-five accessions had ? 10 galls. Five accessions of C. scarabaeoides (ICPW 92, 101, 103, 128, and 133) had very small or no galls. Damage indices (based on gall number, gall size, and galled area of root) ranged between 1 and 8 on a 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible) scale. ICPW 92 was highly resistant to M. javanica, and 38 other accessions were resistant. Accessions of Flemingia spp. and Rhynchosia spp. showed greater susceptibility than accessions of Cajanus spp. Based on the number of egg masses on roots, no accession of the three genera was highly resistant to R. reniformis, and 83% of the tested accessions were susceptible. Two accessions of C. scarabaeoides (ICPW 38 and 92) and one accession each of R. aurea (ICPW 210), R. minima (ICPW 237), and R. rothii (ICPW 257) were resistant to R. reniformis. Species of Cajanus and Flemingia were generally more susceptible to R. reniformis than were Rhynchosia spp. ICPW 92 was identified as a promising genotype with genes for resistance to both nematodes. PMID:19279848

Sharma, S. B.; Remanandan, P.; McDonald, D.

1993-01-01

93

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

94

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2002-01-01

95

Combination of Multiple Resistance Traits from Wild Relative Species in Chrysanthemum via Trigeneric Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background With the objective of combining multiple resistant traits from wild relative species in florist’s chrysanthemums, trigeneric hybridization was conducted by crossing two intergeneric F1 hybrids Chrysanthemum grandiflorum × Artemisia vulgaris and Chrysanthemum crassum × Crossostephium chinense. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess post-pollination phenomena, we investigated pollen germination on the stigma and embryo development, using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy and paraffin-embedded sections, respectively. We selected eight putative trigeneric hybrid lines that showed the greatest morphological differences from the parents from among the progeny derived via embryo rescue. The hybridity of one trigeneric hybrid was further confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization; in addition, the aphid resistance and salt tolerance of this hybrid were higher than those of the chrysanthemum parent and the C. grandiflorum × A. vulgaris F1 hybrid, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The enhanced aphid resistance of the hybrid line reflects the inheritance of chromosomes from A. vulgaris, which carries genes that encode bioactive components. The enhanced salt tolerance of the trigeneric hybrid is attributable to inheritance of genetic materials from Chrysanthemum crassum and Crossostephium chinense, which act to maintain the compartmentation of Na+ and K+ ions and their selective transportation among different organs to avert deleterious effects and protect the photosynthetic apparatus. The results indicate that trigeneric hybridization between different bigeneric hybrids is a promising method for combination of multiple stress-resistance traits for improvement of chrysanthemum. PMID:22952958

Deng, Yanming; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Teng, Nianjun; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

2012-01-01

96

How Wild is Wild?  

E-print Network

There is no obvious line or boundary that separates wild animals from those that are not wild. Instead, there are expansive grey areas, of which the most conspicuous encompass the domesticated animals that have reverted ...

Ritvo, Harriet

2014-01-01

97

Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.  

PubMed

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

98

Space Use of African Wild Dogs in Relation to Other Large Carnivores  

PubMed Central

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

Darnell, Angela M.; Graf, Jan A.; Somers, Michael J.; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

99

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation, 3 BYDV resistance genes in Th. intermedium, including Bdv2, Bdv3 and Bdv4, were introgressed into common wheat background. Various wheat-Th. intermedium addition and substitution, translocation lines with BYDV-resistance were developed and characterized, such as 7D-7Ai#1 (bearing Bdv2), 7B-7Ai#1, 7D-7E (bearing Bdv3), and 2D-2Ai-2 (bearing Bdv4) translocations. Three wheat varieties with BYDV resistance from Th. intermedium were developed and released in Australia and China, respectively. In addition, wheat-Agropyron cristatum translocation lines, wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition and substitution lines, and a wheat-Leymus multicaulis addition line (line24) with different resistance genes were developed. Cytological analysis, morphological markers, biochemical markers, and molecular markers associated with the alien chromatin carrying BYDV resistance genes were identified and applied to determine the presence of alien, chromosomes or segments, size of alien chromosome segments, and compositions of the alien chromosomes. Furthermore, some resistance-related genes, such as RGA, P450, HSP70, protein kinases, centrin, and transducin, were identified, which expressed specifically in the resistance translocation lines with Bdv2. These studies lay the foundations for developing resistant wheat cultivars and unraveling the resistance mechanism against BYDV. PMID:19782958

Zhang, Zengyan; Lin, Zhishan; Xin, Zhiyong

2009-09-01

100

A cytomolecular approach to assess the potential of gene transfer from a crop ( Triticum turgidum L.) to a wild relative ( Aegilops geniculata Roth.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a crop hybridizes with a wild relative, the potential for stable transmission to the wild of any crop gene is directly\\u000a related to the frequency of crop–wild homoeologous pairing for the chromosomal region where it is located within the crop\\u000a genome. Pairing pattern at metaphase I (MI) has been examined in durum wheat × Aegilops geniculata interspecific hybrids (2n=4x=ABUgMg) by means

Marta Cifuentes; Melisande Blein; Elena Benavente

2006-01-01

101

Differences in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during early fruit development between domesticated tomato and two wild relatives.  

PubMed

Early development and growth of fruit in the domesticated tomato Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Money Maker and two of its wild relatives, S. peruvianum LA0385 and S. habrochaites LA1777, were studied. Although small differences exist, the processes involved and the sequence of events in fruit development are similar in all three species. The growth of developing fruits is exponential and the relative growth rate accelerates from 5 days after pollination (DAP 5) to DAP 8, followed by a decline during further development. Growth is positively correlated to the standard "Brix plus starch'' in the period DAP 8-DAP 20. Carbohydrate composition and levels of sugars and organic acids differ in fruits of the wild accessions compared to domesticated tomato. The wild accessions accumulate sucrose instead of glucose and fructose, and ripe fruits contain higher levels of malate and citrate. The enzymes responsible for the accumulation of glucose and fructose in domesticated tomatoes are soluble invertase and sucrose synthase. The regulation of initial carbohydrate metabolism in the domesticated tomato differs from that in the wild species, as could be concluded from measuring activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, changes in the activity of several enzymes, e.g., cell wall invertase, soluble invertase, fructokinase and phosphoglucomutase, could be attributed to changes in gene expression level. For other enzymes, additional control mechanisms play a role in the developing tomato fruits. Localization by in-situ activity staining of enzymes showed comparable results for fruits of domesticated tomato and the wild accessions. However, in the pericarp of S. peruvianum, less activity staining of phosphogluco-isomerase, phosphoglucomutase and UDP-glucosepyrophosphorylase was observed. PMID:17516079

Kortstee, A J; Appeldoorn, N J G; Oortwijn, M E P; Visser, R G F

2007-09-01

102

Differential Expression of Salt Stress-related Genes in Wild Beta vulgaris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display reverse transcription (DDRT) technique was used to detect differentially expressed genes for wild Beta vulgaris in response to salt stress. Two month-old seedlings were treated with 250 mM Na for 1H, 10H and untreated seedlings were used as controls. A group of differentially di...

103

Mitochondrial genome diversity among cultivars of daucus carota (ssp. sativus ) and their wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 13 carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), wild carrot (ssp. carota), ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius were compared with each other using four restriction endonucleases. The mtDNAs of the 13 carrot cultivars could be classified into three distinct types — I, II and III — and were also clearly distinguishable from the

H. Ichikawa; L. Tanno-Suenaga; J. Imamura

1989-01-01

104

Habitat factors related to wild rabbit conservation in an agricultural landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been decreasing since the 1950s. Changes in agricultural practices have been suggested as reasons for their decline in Mediterranean landscapes. We evaluated the environmental variables affecting rabbit distribution in a semiarid agricultural landscape of Northeastern Spain. Sampling was performed in 147 sites randomly distributed across Zaragoza province. At each site, data were

C. Calvete; R. Estrada; E. Angulo; S. Cabezas-Ruiz

2004-01-01

105

A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to Early Blight in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early blight (caused by the foliar fungus Alternaria solani) is a widespread disease that appears annually in potato crops worldwide. This is our second study of a disease resistance in wild potatoes to test the assumed ability of taxonomy to predict the presence of traits in a group for which the t...

106

Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis  

PubMed Central

Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

2011-01-01

107

Wide Variability in Seed Characteristics, Kernel Quality, and Zein Profiles Among Diverse Maize Inbreds, Landraces, and Teosinte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All crop species have been domesticated from their wild relatives, and geneticists are just now beginning to understand the genetic consequences of artificial (human) selection on agronomic traits that are relevant today. The major consequence is severe reduction in genetic diversity for genes unde...

108

Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

109

Identification of a Maize Nuclear Gene Which Influences the Size and Number of Cox2 Transcripts in Mitochondria of Perennial Teosintes  

PubMed Central

The involvement of nuclear genes in mitochondrial gene expression was investigated by identifying alterations in mitochondrial gene expression that occur when teosinte cytoplasms are introduced into certain maize inbred nuclear backgrounds. The cytoplasms from the teosintes Zea perennis, Zea diploperennis, and Zea luxurians were introduced into the maize A619 or W23 lines by recurrent backcrossing. Northern analysis revealed that the Z. perennis and Z. diploperennis mitochondrial cox2 transcript patterns were dependent upon the maize nuclear genotype. In a W23 nuclear background, these teosinte mitochondria have two major transcripts of 1.9 and 1.7 kb, whereas in an A619 background, they have three major trancripts of 1.9, 1.5 and 1.3 kb. No effect of nuclear background on cox2 transcripts was observed for plants possessing Z. luxurians cytoplasm. All teosinte-maize combinations possess larger, minor cox2 transcripts of 3.9, 3.3 and 3.0 kb; nuclear background has no effect on these transcripts. Immunoblot analysis showed a threefold reduction of the COXII polypeptide in Z. perennis-A619 combinations compared to Z. perennis-W23 combinations. All the major and minor transcripts possess both cox2 exons. The cox2 intron is missing from all the major transcripts and is present only in the 3.9- and 3.0-kb minor transcripts. The 1.7- and 1.3-kb transcripts are missing untranslated regions 3' to the cox2 gene; therefore at least some of the size heterogeneity is due to differential termination or downstream processing. Genetic analyses indicate that a single nuclear gene is responsible for the observed differences in the major cox2 transcripts, and that A619 carries the dominant allele. This gene, designated Mct, is specific for cox2, as no transcript size differences were observed for the other two mitochondrial cox genes. PMID:2174015

Cooper, P.; Butler, E.; Newton, K. J.

1990-01-01

110

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

111

Colocalization methods in pituitary tumorigenesis aged-related in MEN1 KO and wild type mice  

PubMed Central

Background. Colocalization analysis of confocal fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM) are important tools to detect the expression of multiple anterior pituitary hormones within the same cell. Heterozygous (Men1+/-) mice developed pituitary tumors, mostly reported somatolactotrophinomas and ACTH secreting pituitary adenomas but also nonfunctioning tumors. The aim of the study was to run immunohistochemistry protocols to study colocalization of pituitary hormones in newborn mice in tumoral and non-tumoral tissue in MEN1-KO and wild type control mice. Methods: Pituitary samples from nine Men1+/- mice, 29-34 days old male mice (n=8) and one year old (n=1) and control group, four new born (1,5 days old) wild type (mus musculus) mice were analyzed by immunofluorescence immunohistochemistry (GH, PRL, gonadotrophs) to find hormonal colocalization in pituitary cell. Moreover, pituitaries were embedded in LRGold for immunogold labeling technique (GH, PRL, gonadotrophs and alpha-SU) also. Results: Pituitary tumors, immunoreactive only for PRL were found in three MEN1 – KO mice. No sign of pituitary hyperplasia was found in MEN1-KO. MEN1-KO non-tumoral pituitary displayed similar immunoreactivity to wild type pituitary. Colocalization studies revealed individual cells PRL-FSH immunoreactive and GH-FSH immunoreactive in the non-tumoral tissue from MEN1-KO mice and in wild type pituitaries respectively but no colocalization in the tumoral tissue. In conclusion, colocalization is a feature of neonate mouse pituitary but not in adults. The MEN1-KO pituitary tumors were prolactinomas and unlike non-tumoral pituitary tissue of MEN1-KO, displayed no PRL-FSH colocalization.

Stancu, C; Coculescu, M

2014-01-01

112

Wild Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae), and related species in Kenya and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf,Hibiscus cannabinus L., occurs as a wild and ruderal plant in Kenya and Tanzania. It is polymorphic, varying in height, growth habit, spininess,\\u000a flower color, and size of floral parts, capsules, and seeds. It occupies several distinct environmental niches, from low-lying\\u000a meadows close to swamps and streams to semi-arid grassland \\/thornbush plains. It is also found in various weedy situations,

F. D. Wilson

1978-01-01

113

Breeding barriers between the cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa , and related wild germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-hundred interspecific and intergeneric crosses were performed among accessions of the wild strawberries Fragaria vesca(2x), Duchesnea indica (8x), Potentilla tucumanensis (2x) and 9 genotypes of the cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa (8x), following an incomplete diallele mating design. Crosses between D. indica and F.×ananassa produced many putative hybrids when D. indica was used as female but a few achenes and plants when

Arias E. Marta; Elsa L. Camadro; Juan C. Díaz-Ricci; Atilio P. Castagnaro

2004-01-01

114

Assessment of genetic relationships between Setaria italica and its wild relative S. viridis using AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP markers were used to assess genetic diversity and patterns of geographic variation among 39 accessions of foxtail millet\\u000a (Setaria italica) and 22 accessions of green foxtail millet (S. viridis), its putative wild progenitor. A high level of polymorphism was revealed. Dendrograms based on Nei and Li distances from\\u000a a neighbour joining procedure were constructed using 160 polymorphic bands. Bootstrap

M. Le Thierry d’Ennequin; O. Panaud; B. Toupance; A. Sarr

2000-01-01

115

Urine washing and related behaviour in wild moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (callitrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine washing (UW) and urinating onto hand (UH) are reported for the first time for a wild callitrichid monkey, the moustached\\u000a tamarin,Saguinus mystax. Both patterns are very rare and no sex difference in frequency is apparent. The temporal distribution shows a maximum of\\u000a UH\\/UW around midday when ambient temperature is at maximum and humidity at minimum. No seasonal effects were

Eckhard W. Heymann

1995-01-01

116

Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.  

PubMed

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells'), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

117

Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal  

PubMed Central

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

118

Morphological and anatomical determinants of mesophyll conductance in wild relatives of tomato (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, sect. Lycopersicoides; Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Natural selection on photosynthetic performance is a primary factor determining leaf phenotypes. The complex CO2 diffusion path from substomatal cavities to the chloroplasts - the mesophyll conductance (g(m)) - limits photosynthetic rate in many species and hence shapes variation in leaf morphology and anatomy. Among sclerophyllous and succulent taxa, structural investment in leaves, measured as the leaf dry mass per area (LMA), has been implicated in decreased gm . However, in herbaceous taxa with high g(m), it is less certain how LMA impacts CO2 diffusion and whether it significantly affects photosynthetic performance. We addressed these questions in the context of understanding the ecophysiological significance of leaf trait variation in wild tomatoes, a closely related group of herbaceous perennials. Although g(m) was high in wild tomatoes, variation in g(m) significantly affected photosynthesis. Even in these tender-leaved herbaceous species, greater LMA led to reduced g(m). This relationship between g(m) and LMA is partially mediated by cell packing and leaf thickness, although amphistomy (equal distribution of stomata on both sides of the leaf) mitigates the effect of leaf thickness. Understanding the costs of increased LMA will inform future work on the adaptive significance of leaf trait variation across ecological gradients in wild tomatoes and other systems. PMID:24279358

Muir, Christopher D; Hangarter, Roger P; Moyle, Leonie C; Davis, Phillip A

2014-06-01

119

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

2014-06-01

120

Resequencing 302 wild and cultivated accessions identifies genes related to domestication and improvement in soybean.  

PubMed

Understanding soybean (Glycine max) domestication and improvement at a genetic level is important to inform future efforts to further improve a crop that provides the world's main source of oilseed. We detect 230 selective sweeps and 162 selected copy number variants by analysis of 302 resequenced wild, landrace and improved soybean accessions at >11× depth. A genome-wide association study using these new sequences reveals associations between 10 selected regions and 9 domestication or improvement traits, and identifies 13 previously uncharacterized loci for agronomic traits including oil content, plant height and pubescence form. Combined with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) information, we find that, of the 230 selected regions, 96 correlate with reported oil QTLs and 21 contain fatty acid biosynthesis genes. Moreover, we observe that some traits and loci are associated with geographical regions, which shows that soybean populations are structured geographically. This study provides resources for genomics-enabled improvements in soybean breeding. PMID:25643055

Zhou, Zhengkui; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Gou, Zhiheng; Lyu, Jun; Li, Weiyu; Yu, Yanjun; Shu, Liping; Zhao, Yingjun; Ma, Yanming; Fang, Chao; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Tengfei; Li, Congcong; Li, Qing; Wu, Mian; Wang, Min; Wu, Yunshuai; Dong, Yang; Wan, Wenting; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Zhaoli; Gao, Yuedong; Xiang, Hui; Zhu, Baoge; Lee, Suk-Ha; Wang, Wen; Tian, Zhixi

2015-04-01

121

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative  

PubMed Central

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2012-01-01

122

Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.  

PubMed

Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events. PMID:12908976

Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

2003-08-01

123

Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals. PMID:23345575

Crockford, C.; Wittig, R. M.; Langergraber, K.; Ziegler, T. E.; Zuberbühler, K.; Deschner, T.

2013-01-01

124

Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The need for quick, reliable, in situ tests of environmental mutagenicity is evidenced by increasing public concern about potential health effects of pollutants. Conventional tests of clastogenicity usually involve treatment of laboratory test systems with pure samples of suspect compounds followed by scoring numerous metaphase cells for chromosome aberrations. There are at least two shortcomings of these test protocols. They are very time consumptive and are generally restricted to controlled laboratory situations which may not realistically indicate the effects of environmental pollution. The use of flow cytometry to study resident rodent species as bioindicators provides a system by which cytogenetic effects of environmental pollutants upon exposed organisms rapidly and accurately can be ascertained. The authors found that two species of wild rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) living at a dump site polluted with a complex mixture of oil, grease, polychlorinated biphenols, hexachlorobenzene, zinc, manganese, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than did animals from two unpolluted control sites. These data suggest that resident small mammals may be useful as in situ monitors of the presence and action of mutagenic pollutants in the environment. This study was conducted to determine if changes in patterns of DNA content indicative of the action of mutagens could be detected by flow cytometric analysis of tissues from these same animals.

McBee, K.; Bickham, J.W.

1988-03-01

125

Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent–offspring bonding, is likely to facilitate non-kin as well as kin bonds. In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event—food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin. We propose that food-sharing events co-opt neurobiological mechanisms evolved to support mother–infant bonding during lactation bouts, and may act as facilitators of bonding and cooperation between unrelated individuals via the oxytocinergic system across social mammals. PMID:24430853

Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Deschner, Tobias; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2014-01-01

126

Movement of coat protein genes from a commercial virus-resistant transgenic squash into a wild relative.  

PubMed

We monitored pollen-mediated transgene dissemination from commercial transgenic squash CZW-3 into its wild relative Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana (C. texana). Transgenic squash CZW-3 expresses the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the coat protein (CP) genes of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV); thereby, it is resistant to these three aphid-borne viruses. The rate of NPT II and CP transgene introgression increased with overlapping flowering patterns and a high ratio of transgenic F1 hybrids (C. texana x CZW-3) to C. texana. Transgene transfer also readily occurred from transgenic F1 hybrids into C. texana over three generations in field settings where test plants grew sympatrically and viruses were not severely limiting the growth, and fruit and seed production of C. texana. In contrast, introgression of the transgenes into C. texana was not sustained under conditions of high viral disease pressure. As expected, C. texana progeny that acquired the CP transgenes exhibited resistance to CMV, ZYMV, and WMV. This is the first report on transgene dissemination from a transgenic crop that exhibits disease resistance and hybridizes with a wild plant species without loss of fertility. PMID:15612351

Fuchs, Marc; Chirco, Ellen M; Gonsalves, Dennis

2004-01-01

127

Making friends in the Wild West: Singaporean public relations practitioners' perceptions of working in social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of social media on public relations by analysing Singapore-based practitioners' perceptions and attitudes to their work in public relations agencies in an online environment. Social media offers additional communication channels and the capacity to influence stakeholders outside of more traditional media structures. The research suggests that practitioners, in seeking to promote clients' interests through the

Kate Fitch

2009-01-01

128

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R. Wild  

E-print Network

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R for a modest cost. We also describe some related experi­ ments. #12; 1 Introduction Primary cosmic rays presumed to be a high energy neutrino component. All these components of the cosmic ray beam are currently

Adelaide, University of

129

Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.  

PubMed

Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest. PMID:24698177

Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2014-06-01

130

Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.  

PubMed

In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

1984-03-01

131

Production of interspecific hybrids between commercial cultivars of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids between cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum, which has disease resistance and desirable traits for crop improvement, were obtained by cross-hybridization and embryo rescue. Twenty-one hybrid progenies were obtained and examined based on morphological traits, RAPD and ISSR markers. Five of them were confirmed to be true interspecific hybrids. Eighteen and 14 bands from 7 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers, respectively, were polymorphic and present in all five hybrid seedlings and their parents. The morphological characteristics of leaf margin, inflorescence type and spine positions of the five seedlings were intermediate to the parents. These interspecific hybrids had low pollen viability, probably due to abnormal meiosis. PMID:23546959

Kumchai, J; Wei, Y-C; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

2013-01-01

132

Genetic mapping of escalated aggression in wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms: association with serotonin-related genes  

PubMed Central

The Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) retains a wide range of traits related to behavioral wildness, including high levels of emotionality and avoidance of humans. In this study, we observed that MSM showed a markedly higher level of aggression than the standard laboratory strain C57BL/6J. Whereas almost all MSM males showed high frequencies of attack bites and pursuit in the resident-intruder test, only a few C57BL/6J males showed aggressive behaviors, with these behaviors observed at only a low frequency. Sexually mature MSM males in their home cages killed their littermates, or sometimes female pair-mates. To study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the escalated aggression observed in MSM mice, we analyzed reciprocal F1 crosses and five consomic strains of MSM (Chr 4, 13, 15, X and Y) against the background of C57BL/6J. We identified two chromosomes, Chr 4 and Chr 15, which were involved in the heightened aggression observed in MSM. These chromosomes had different effects on aggression: whereas MSM Chr 15 increased agitation and initiation of aggressive events, MSM Chr 4 induced a maladaptive level of aggressive behavior. Expression analysis of mRNAs of serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter and Tph2, an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis in seven brain areas, indicated several differences among MSM, C57BL/6J, and their consomic strains. We found that Tph2 expression in the midbrain was increased in the Chr 4 consomic strain, as well as in MSM, and that there was a strong positive genetic correlation between aggressive behavior and Tph2 expression at the mRNA level. Therefore, it is possible that increased expression of the Tph2 gene is related to escalated aggression observed in MSM. PMID:24966813

Takahashi, Aki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

133

Characterisation and Analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis Transcriptome, a Wild Relative of Wheat in the Sitopsis Section  

PubMed Central

Aegilopssharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J.; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R.; Wulff, Brande B. H.

2013-01-01

134

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

135

Domestication and the Mitochondrial Genome: Comparing Patterns and Rates of Molecular Evolution in Domesticated Mammals and Birds and Their Wild Relatives  

PubMed Central

Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

2014-01-01

136

Rapeseed cytoplasm gives advantage in wild relatives and complicates genetically modified crop biocontainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Biocontainment methods for genetically modified crops closest to commercial reality (chloroplast transformation, male sterility) would be compromised (in absolute terms) by seed-mediated gene flow leading to chloroplast capture. Even in these circumstances, however, it can be argued that biocontainment still represses transgene movement, with the efficacy depending on the relative frequency of seed- and pollen-mediated gene flow.\\u000a• In

J. Allainguillaume; T. Harwood; C. S. Ford; G. Cuccato; C. Norris; C. J. Allender; R. Welters; G. J. King; M. J. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

137

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 105 times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G.; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

138

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

139

Is relative pollen production or removal a good predictor of relative male fitness? An experimental exploration with a wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana, Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Understanding plant reproduction requires knowledge of genetic contributions through pollen and seeds. Since direct genetic assessments of fitness through pollen are often intractable, reproductive ecologists use components of male fitness such as pollen production and pollen removal as surrogates tot paternity. However, we know little of the strength of the relationship between these components and actual paternity. Here, I report on a study undertaken to examine the relationship of pollen production and removal with paternity in Fragaria virginiana, a wild strawberry. A morphological marker was used to track paternity in experimental arrays exposed to native pollinators. Relative pellen production proved to be a poor predictor of relative paternity in most arrays, and over all arrays there was no significant correlation between relative paternity and relative pellen production. In contrast, relative pollen removed correlated significantly and positively with proportion of seeds sired, suggesting that a plant's contribution to the pool of removed pellen is a good predictor of its male reproductive success. Deviations from expected paternity based on relative pollen removal suggest a systematic overestimation of the siring success of plants with low pollen removal. And, in at least one specific case, low pellen removal may be explained by delayed anther dehiscence, which could lower the effectiveness of the removed pellen. PMID:21685001

Ashman, T

1998-08-01

140

Relating Morphologic and RAPD Marker Varlation to Collection Site Environment in wild Populations of Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genotypic and phenotypic markers are used to describe genetic diversity, describing patterns of variationattributable to geographic differentiation is complex.We examined concordance between morphologic and RAPDmarker classification of 33 wild red clover populations collected from the Caucasus Mountains, Russia andcompared how morphologic and RAPD markers differed in their correspondence to collection site attributes.Wealso examined if wild red clover populations collected

S. L. Greene; M. Gritsenko; G. Vandemark

2004-01-01

141

Preliminary note on the relative frequencies of two bees on wild Brassicaceae: oligolectic Andrena agilissima vs polylectic Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee hives presence may have negative effects on the foraging patterns of wild bees, especially when dealing with oligolectic spe- cies. Data are still missing on many of them, mainly for those species not yet included in managed programs. We approached this topic with preliminary observations in the field on a common wild bee, Andrena agilissima (Scopoli) (Hymenoptera Andrenidae), on

Manuela GIOVANETTI; Silvia LUPPINO; Rosanna ZOLA

2006-01-01

142

How immunogenetically different are domestic pigs from wild boars: a perspective from single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 19 immunity-related candidate genes.  

PubMed

The coexistence of wild boars and domestic pigs across Eurasia makes it feasible to conduct comparative genetic or genomic analyses for addressing how genetically different a domestic species is from its wild ancestor. To test whether there are differences in patterns of genetic variability between wild and domestic pigs at immunity-related genes and to detect outlier loci putatively under selection that may underlie differences in immune responses, here we analyzed 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 immunity-related candidate genes on 11 autosomes in three pairs of wild boar and domestic pig populations from China, Iberian Peninsula, and Hungary. Our results showed no statistically significant differences in allele frequency and heterozygosity across SNPs between three pairs of wild and domestic populations. This observation was more likely due to the widespread and long-lasting gene flow between wild boars and domestic pigs across Eurasia. In addition, we detected eight coding SNPs from six genes as outliers being under selection consistently by three outlier tests (BayeScan2.1, FDIST2, and Arlequin3.5). Among four non-synonymous outlier SNPs, one from TLR4 gene was identified as being subject to positive (diversifying) selection and three each from CD36, IFNW1, and IL1B genes were suggested as under balancing selection. All of these four non-synonymous variants were predicted as being benign by PolyPhen-2. Our results were supported by other independent lines of evidence for positive selection or balancing selection acting on these four immune genes (CD36, IFNW1, IL1B, and TLR4). Our study showed an example applying a candidate gene approach to identify functionally important mutations (i.e., outlier loci) in wild and domestic pigs for subsequent functional experiments. PMID:23846851

Chen, Shanyuan; Gomes, Rui; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Charneca, Rui; Zhang, Ya-ping; Liu, Xue-hong; Wang, Shao-qing; Bento, Pedro; Nunes, Jose-Luis; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Anton, István; Zsolnai, Attila; Beja-Pereira, Albano

2013-10-01

143

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

144

Cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activity in relation to mercury levels in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is neurotoxic to many mammalian species. The present study was conducted to determine if the bioaccumulation of Hg by wild river otters (Lontra canadensis) could be related to variations in the activities of key neurochemical enzymes. River otters were collected from Ontario and Nova Scotia (Canada) during the trapping seasons, spanning 2002-2004, and their brains were dissected into the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The activities of cholinesterase (ChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were measured from each sample and correlated with concentrations of brain Hg from the same animal. Significant negative correlations were found between concentrations of brain Hg and ChE (total Hg: r= -0.42; MeHg: r= -0.33) and MAO (total Hg: r= -0.31; MeHg: r= -0.42) activity in the cerebral cortex. The scatterplots relating concentrations of brain Hg and enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex were wedge-shaped, and could be fitted with quantile regression modeling, suggesting that Hg may act as a limiting factor for ChE and MAO activity. No relationships were found in the cerebellum. These data suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg may influence the activities of ChE and MAO in the cerebral cortex of river otters, and by extension, other fish-eating mammals. PMID:17439924

Basu, N; Scheuhammer, A M; Evans, R D; O'Brien, M; Chan, H M

2007-03-01

145

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and\\/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent

S. I. Warwick; M.-J. Simard; A. Légère; H. J. Beckie; L. Braun; B. Zhu; P. Mason; G. Séguin-Swartz; C. N. Stewart

2003-01-01

146

Novel natural genetic variation controlling the competence to form adventitious roots and shoots from the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an attractive model to study the genetic basis of adventitious organ formation capacity, since there is considerable natural genetic variation among wild relatives. Using a set of 46 introgression lines (ILs), each containing a small chromosomal segment of Solanum pennellii LA716 introgressed and mapped into the tomato cultivar M82, we characterized a high shoot-regeneration capacity for ILs 3-2, 6-1, 7-1, 7-2, 8-2, 8-3, 9-1, 9-2, 10-2 and 10-3, when cotyledon explants were cultivated on medium containing 5.0?M BAP. F1 seedlings from the crosses 'Micro-Tom×ILs' and 'ILs×ILs' demonstrated that the shoot regeneration capacity of most ILs was dominant and that the regeneration ability of IL8-3 enhanced that of the other ILs in an additive manner. The ILs 3-2, 7-1, 8-3, and 10-2 also exhibited enhanced root formation on MS medium containing 0.4?M NAA, indicating that these chromosomal segments may contain genes controlling the competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the induction of a specific organ. We also performed the introgression of the genes controlling competence into the model system 'Micro-Tom'. The further isolation of such genes will improve our understanding of the molecular basis of organogenic capacity. PMID:23265325

Arikita, Fernanda Namie; Azevedo, Mariana Silva; Scotton, Danielle Camargo; Pinto, Maísa de Siqueira; Figueira, Antonio; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

2013-02-01

147

The effects of domestication on the relative vulnerability of hatchery and wild origin spring Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested whether,one generation of state-of-the-art hatchery culture influenced the vulnerability of Chinook salmon,(Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) fry to predators. Size-matched hatchery and wild origin spring Chinook salmon,fry were exposed,to rainbow,trout (Oncorhynchus,mykiss) and torrent sculpin (Cottus rhotheus) predators in 10.8 m, net pens. The hatchery origin fry were the offspring of first generation hatchery-reared broodstock, and the wild origin fry had no

Anthony L. Fritts; Jennifer L. Scott; Todd N. Pearsons

2007-01-01

148

Comparison of the major virulence-related genes of Listeria monocytogenes in Internalin A truncated strain 36-25-1 and a clinical wild-type strain  

PubMed Central

Background Internalin A (InlA) facilitates the invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into a host cell. Some strains of Listeria monocytogenes express truncated forms of InlA, which reduces invasiveness. However, few virulence-related genes other than inlA have been analyzed in InlA-truncated strains. In the present study, we sequenced the draft genome of strain 36-25-1, an InlA-truncated strain, with pyrosequencing and compared 36 major virulence-related genes in this strain and a clinical wild-type strain. Results Strain 36-25-1 possessed all of the virulence-related genes analyzed. Of the analyzed genes, only 4 genes (dltA, gtcA, iap, and inlA) differed when the nucleotide sequences of strain 36-25-1 and the clinical wild-type strain were compared. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences found no mutations that significantly influenced virulence in genes other than inlA. Conclusions The virulence-associated genes in strain 36-25-1 differ little from those of the clinical wild-type strain, indicating that a slight mutation in the nucleotide sequence determines the virulence of the InlA-truncated strain. In addition, the results suggest that, aside from InlA-mediated cell invasiveness, there is almost no difference between the virulence of strain 36-25-1 and that of the clinical wild-type strain. PMID:24472083

2014-01-01

149

Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

Blouin, Michael

2003-05-01

150

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

151

Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences between species commonly result from changes in the tissue-specific expression of genes. Clustering algorithms are a powerful means to detect coexpression across tissues in single species but are not often applied to multidimensional data sets, such as gene expression across tissues in multiple species. As next-generation sequencing approaches enable interspecific analyses, methods to visualize and explore such data sets will be required. Here, we analyze a data set comprising gene expression profiles across six different tissue types in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii). We find that self-organizing maps are a useful means to analyze interspecies data, as orthologs can be assigned to independent levels of a “super self-organizing map.” We compare various clustering approaches using a principal component analysis in which the expression of orthologous pairs is indicated by two points. We leverage the expression profile differences between orthologs to look at tissue-specific changes in gene expression between species. Clustering based on expression differences between species (rather than absolute expression profiles) yields groups of genes with large tissue-by-species interactions. The changes in expression profiles of genes we observe reflect differences in developmental architecture, such as changes in meristematic activity between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii. Together, our results offer a suite of data-exploration methods that will be important to visualize and make biological sense of next-generation sequencing experiments designed explicitly to discover tissue-by-species interactions in gene expression data. PMID:23585653

Chitwood, Daniel H.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

2013-01-01

152

Resistance to Leaf Scald Disease Is Associated with Limited Colonization of Sugarcane and Wild Relatives by Xanthomonas albilineans.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A streptomycin- and rifampicin-resistant mutant of Xanthomonas al-bilineans was used to study symptom expression of leaf scald disease (LSD) and colonization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and its wild relatives by this bacterial pathogen. A total of 40 sugarcane cultivars and 15 clones from the Saccharum complex that differed in resistance to LSD were inoculated by a decapitation technique in both field and greenhouse experiments. In the plant crop, disease severity varied between 0 for the most resistant genotypes and 100 for the most susceptible ones. Resistance to LSD was characterized by limited colonization of the host plant by X. albilineans. Although almost all genotypes were colonized by the pathogen, the greatest bacterial population densities were found in the susceptible cultivars. There was a high correlation between disease severity and pathogen population in the apex. Several genotypes exhibited no or slight symptoms even though they were highly colonized in the upper and/or basal nodes of stalks. Two mechanisms, therefore, may play an important role in resistance to LSD: resistance to colonization of the apex, which is characterized by absence of symptoms, and resistance to colonization of the upper and lower parts of the stalk. In contrast, disease severity and pathogen population densities in the first ratoon crop in the field were nil or very low in the stalks, except for the highly susceptible cv. CP68-1026. Sugarcane ratoons, therefore, may recover from the disease after plant cane infection. Nevertheless, because low levels of the pathogen were still detected in some stalks, it is possible that LSD could develop from latent infections if favorable environmental conditions occur. PMID:18945019

Rott, P; Mohamed, I S; Klett, P; Soupa, D; de Saint-Albin, A; Feldmann, P; Letourmy, P

1997-12-01

153

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms

B. Uwimana; L. D'Andrea; F. Felber; D. A. P. Hooftman; Nijs den H. C. M; M. J. M. Smulders; R. G. F. Visser; Wiel van de C. C. M

2012-01-01

154

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia.  

PubMed

Among the fundamental questions regarding cultivated plants is their geographic origin and region of domestication. The genus Cucumis, which includes cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo), has numerous wild African species, and it has therefore been assumed that melon originated in Africa. For cucumber, this seemed less likely because wild cucumbers exist in India and a closely related species lives in the Eastern Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa, Australia, and Asia, we show here that melon and cucumber are of Asian origin and have numerous previously overlooked species-level relatives in Australia and around the Indian Ocean. The wild progenitor of C. melo occurs in India, and our data confirm that the Southeast Asian Cucumis hystrix is the closest relative of cucumber. Most surprisingly, the closest relative of melon is Cucumis picrocarpus from Australia. C. melo diverged from this Australian sister species approximately 3 Ma, and both diverged from the remaining Asian/Australian species approximately 10 Ma. The Asian/Australian Cucumis clade comprises at least 25 species, nine of them new to science, and diverged from its African relatives in the Miocene, approximately 12 Ma. Range reconstruction under maximum likelihood suggests Asia as the ancestral area for the most recent common ancestor of melon and cucumber, fitting with both having progenitor populations in the Himalayan region and high genetic diversity of C. melo landraces in India and China. Future investigations of wild species related to melon and cucumber should concentrate on Asia and Australia. PMID:20656934

Sebastian, Patrizia; Schaefer, Hanno; Telford, Ian R H; Renner, Susanne S

2010-08-10

155

Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.  

PubMed

The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching. PMID:25641359

Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

2015-04-01

156

Plasma testosterone levels are related to various aspects of locomotor activity in wild-caught male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The relationship between plasma testosterone levels and locomotor activity in wild-caught sexually mature male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was assessed in the laboratory. Several aspects of locomotor activity were monitored for 1 h on two consecutive days using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system. Plasma testosterone levels were determined immediately following the second day of activity monitoring. Significant Pearson correlations were obtained between plasma testosterone levels and total distance traveled [r(10) = 0.55, p < 0.05] and amount of time spent in movement [r(10) - 0.55, p < 0.05] on the second day. The wild voles showed a reduction in activity levels from the first to the second day of activity monitoring, which is indicative of habituation to a novel environment. This study provides direct evidence for a significant correlation between laboratory measures of behavioral activity and plasma testosterone levels in a wild-caught rodent. These findings indicate that previous assessments of hormone-behavior relationships in laboratory-bred rodents are consistent with the relationship between hormones and behavior in wild rodents. PMID:9661979

Perrot-Sinal, T S; Innes, D; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P

1998-04-01

157

Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the

M. A. Fregene; J. Vargas; J. Ikea; F. Angel; J. Tohme; R. A. Asiedu; M. O. Akoroda; W. M. Roca

1994-01-01

158

Nucleotide diversity patterns at the drought-related DREB2 encoding genes in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Common beans are an important food legume faced with a series of abiotic stresses the most severe of which is drought. The crop is interesting as a model for the analysis of gene phylogenies due to its domestication process, race structure, and origins in a group of wild common beans found along the South American Andes and the region of Mesoamerica. Meanwhile, the DREB2 transcription factors have been implicated in controlling non-ABA dependent responses to drought stress. With this in mind our objective was to study in depth the genetic diversity for two DREB2 genes as possible candidates for association with drought tolerance through a gene phylogenetic analysis. In this genetic diversity assessment, we analyzed nucleotide diversity at the two candidate genes Dreb2A and Dreb2B, in partial core collections of 104 wild and 297 cultivated common beans with a total of 401 common bean genotypes from world-wide germplasm analyzed. Our wild population sample covered a range of semi-mesic to very dry habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of low to high drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Dreb2B exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to neutral reference loci previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Dreb2A exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection and population expansion. These patterns were more distinct in wild compared to cultivated common beans. These approximations suggested the importance of Dreb2 genes in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. We discuss the utility of allele mining in the DREB gene family for the discovery of new drought tolerance traits from wild common bean. PMID:22772725

Cortés, Andrés J; This, Dominique; Chavarro, Carolina; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

2012-09-01

159

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

160

Wild analysis.  

PubMed

Contemporary debates over psychoanalytic theory and practice warrant a reconsideration of the concept of wild analysis. Freud's initial formulation of the problem, subsequent developments in the Freudian conventions, and the work of Melanie Klein, Kohut, and Gill are compared in order to bring out different conceptions of interpretation that is wild, sound, or too tame. These different conceptions are system-bound. Moral implications of Klein's, Kohut's, and Gill's critiques and alternative systems are taken up. PMID:4020025

Schafer, R

1985-01-01

161

AFLP analysis in pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) revealed close relationship of cultivated genotypes with some of its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 561 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci were generated and used to study the genetic diversity of\\u000a wild and cultivated genotypes of pigeonpea. Out of 561 marker loci, 558 were polymorphic with an average of 76.12 bands. Analysis\\u000a of molecular variation (AMOVA) revealed significant strong population structure when genotypes were structured according to\\u000a continent of origin (FST = 0.22)

K. N. Ganapathy; B. N. Gnanesh; M. Byre Gowda; S. C. Venkatesha; Sunil S. Gomashe; V. Channamallikarjuna

2011-01-01

162

REMOTE SENSING, ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES, AND WILD BIRD MIGRATION RELATED TO OUTBREAKS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA1  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype have occurred in many countries across Asia, Europe, and Africa since 2003. Better understanding of the ecology and risk factors of HPAI is critical for surveillance, risk assessment, and public health policy. We introduce satellite remote sensing as one important tool, and highlight the potential of using satellite images to monitor dynamics of climate and landscapes that are related to wild bird migration and agriculture in the context of avian influenza transmission. PMID:17347392

Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Lei, Fumin; Boles, Stephen

2008-01-01

163

Wild Marshmallows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

Kallas, John N.

1984-01-01

164

Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1?(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely high salinities, up to 100 psu, this was related to high relative expression for all genes studied, indicating that this imposes increased energy demand for osmotic homeostasis in gill tissues. This study is the first to demonstrate, in fish and in wild populations, that expression of NAKA, VDAC, NDH and COX are interrelated in gill tissues, and are involved in long-term acclimatisation to a salinity range between 0 and 100 psu.

Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2011-01-01

165

First insight into divergence, representation and chromosome distribution of reverse transcriptase fragments from L1 retrotransposons in peanut and wild relative species.  

PubMed

Peanut is an allotetraploid (2n = 2x = 40, AABB) of recent origin. Arachis duranensis and A. ipaënsis, the most probable diploid ancestors of the cultigen, and several other wild diploid species with different genomes (A, B, D, F and K) are used in peanut breeding programs. However, the genomic relationships and the evolutionary pathways of genome differentiation of these species are poorly understood. We performed a sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the L1 reverse transcriptase and estimated its representation and chromosome distribution in species of five genomes and three karyotype groups with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the genomic structure and evolution of peanut and wild diploid relatives. All the isolated rt fragments were found to belong to plant L1 lineage and were named ALI. The best supported phylogenetic groups were not concordant with the genomes or karyotype groups. The copy number of ALI sequences was higher than the expected one for plants and directly related to genome size. FISH experiments revealed that ALI is mainly located on the euchromatin of interstitial and distal regions of most chromosome arms. Divergence of ALI sequences would have occurred before the differentiation of the genomes and karyotype groups of Arachis. The representation and chromosome distribution of ALI in peanut was almost additive of those of the parental species suggesting that the spontaneous hybridization of the two parental species of peanut followed by chromosome doubling would not have induced a significant burst of ALI transposition. PMID:25633099

Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Podio, Maricel; Chalup, Laura; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A; Pessino, Silvina Claudia; Seijo, José Guillermo

2015-02-01

166

Wild Things  

Microsoft Academic Search

The children's book Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak was animated using Alice version 2.0 for an introductory undergraduate 14-week programming course at Immaculata University. Using the software development lifecycle, the designers\\/developers collaborated on the requirements and design phases while the implementation phase was completed individually. The animation was designed and developed with the intent of applying objectoriented

Rich Cosgriff Jr.; Lori L. Monk; Mary Elizabeth Jones

2007-01-01

167

Novel LMW glutenin subunit genes from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) in relation to Glu-3 evolution.  

PubMed

Four low-molecular-weight-isoleucine (LMW-i)-type and one novel chimeric (between LMW-i and LMW-methionine (m) types) low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes were characterized from wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides), designated as emmer-1 to emmer-5. All five LMW-GS genes possessed the same primary structure shared by other published LMW-GSs. The three genes emmer-1, emmer-3, and emmer-5 are similar, with the exception that emmer-3 and emmer-5 lost a few repeat motifs compared to emmer-1. Gene duplication and insertions/deletions of repeat motifs mediated through unequal crossing over may be responsible for the generation of these three Glu-3 alleles. Although the first residue of mature peptide of emmer-4 is isoleucine, it is not typical LMW-i-type LMW-GS. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that emmer-4 is located in the LMW-m subgroup, suggesting a closer relationship with LMW-m-type gene Y14104 of T. durum. Sequence alignment indicated that the emmer-4 is likely a chimeric gene generated by illegitimate recombination between LMW-i and LMW-m type. Unequal crossing over and illegitimate recombination are effective mechanisms for enriching both copy numbers and variations of LMW-GSs. PMID:25420747

Qin, Lumin; Liang, Yu; Yang, Daozheng; Sun, Lei; Xia, Guangmin; Liu, Shuwei

2015-01-01

168

Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2013-01-01

169

Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.  

PubMed

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2014-01-01

170

Ecotoxicology of wild mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

2000-01-01

171

Induction of MDM2-P2 Transcripts Correlates with Stabilized Wild-Type p53 in Betel- and Tobacco-Related Human Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of these proteins (median time, 26 months; P = 0.02). PMID:10934161

Ralhan, Ranju; Sandhya, Agarwal; Meera, Mathur; Bohdan, Wasylyk; Nootan, Shukla K.

2000-01-01

172

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis. PMID:23131301

Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

173

Model-based analysis of the likelihood of gene introgression from genetically modified crops into wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of genetically modified crops has created a need for methods to predict the likelihood of gene introgression into related species in situ. We present a model of a modified crop and an associated unmodified plant population removed spatially from the modified crop but not completely isolated from it, reflecting standard practices for isolation of field trials. We develop

C. J. Thompson; B. J. P. Thompson; P. K. Ades; R. Cousens; P. Garnier-Gere; K. Landman; E. Newbigin; M. A. Burgman

2003-01-01

174

Highly Diverse Morbillivirus-Related Paramyxoviruses in Wild Fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: Evidence of Exchange between Introduced and Endemic Small Mammals  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of the infectious agents that circulate within wild animal reservoirs is essential for several reasons: (i) infectious disease outbreaks often originate from wild fauna; (ii) anthropological expansion increases the risk of contact between human and animal populations and, as a result, the risk of disease emergence; (iii) evaluation of pathogen reservoirs helps in elaborating preventive measures to limit the risk of disease emergence. Many paramyxoviruses for which bats and rodents serve as major reservoirs have demonstrated their potential to cause disease in humans and animals. In the context of the biodiversity hot spot of southwestern Indian Ocean islands and their rich endemic fauna, we show that highly diverse UMRVs exchange between various endemic animal species, and their dissemination likely is facilitated by the introduced Rattus rattus. Hence, many members of the Paramyxoviridae appear well adapted for the study of the viral phylodynamics that may be associated with disease emergence. PMID:24829336

Mélade, Julien; Dietrich, Muriel; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Lagadec, Erwan; le Minter, Gildas; Tortosa, Pablo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay

2014-01-01

175

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack. PMID:20637125

2010-01-01

176

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

177

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

178

Full genome sequence analysis of a wild, non-MLV-related type 2 Hungarian PRRSV variant isolated in Europe.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widespread pathogen of pigs causing significant economic losses to the swine industry. The expanding diversity of PRRSV strains makes the diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease more and more difficult. In the present study, the authors report the full genome sequencing of a type 2 PRRSV strain isolated from piglet carcasses in Hungary. Next generation sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequence of the isolate (PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012). Recombination analysis performed with the available full-length genome sequences showed no evidence of such event with other known PRRSV. Unique deletions and an insertion were found in the nsp2 region of PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 when it was compared to the highly virulent VR2332 and JXA-1 prototype strains. The majority of amino acid alterations in GP4 and GP5 of the virus were in the known antigenic regions suggesting an important role for immunological pressure in PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 evolution. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belongs to lineage 1 or 2 of type 2 PRRSV. Considering the lack of related PRRSV in Europe, except for a partial sequence from Slovakia, the ancestor of PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 was most probably transported from North-America. It is the first documented type 2 PRRSV isolated in Europe that is not related to the Ingelvac MLV. PMID:25616050

Balka, Gyula; Wang, Xiong; Olasz, Ferenc; Bálint, Ádám; Kiss, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Rusvai, Miklós; Stadejek, Tomasz; Marthaler, Douglas; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zádori, Zoltán

2015-03-16

179

Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of (18)F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from (18)F-FDG relative to 662 keV ?-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from (18)F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte ?H2A.X levels. To test the RBE of (18)F-FDG, mice were injected with a range of activities of (18)F-FDG (0-14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 ?-rays (0-100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24h after the (18)F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for ?H2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the (18)F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in ?H2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq (18)F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq (18)F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical (18)F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by ?H2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. The (18)F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality and/or low dose rate from PET scans is less damaging than equivalent doses of gamma radiation. PMID:24870562

Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A; Boreham, Douglas R

2014-07-01

180

Density-related effects on the infectivity and aggressiveness of a sterilising smut in a wild population of Digitaria sanguinalis.  

PubMed

Understanding host-pathogen evolutionary dynamics needs characterisation and quantification of processes occurring at many spatiotemporal scales. With this aim, the effects of smut on a naturally infected population of the summer annual Digitaria sanguinalis were followed for 4 years in an uncropped field. The main purpose of the study was to quantify the effects of within-population density on the infectivity and the aggressiveness of the pathogen in a range of densities that occurred naturally. The infectivity-related variable measured was the proportion of smutted plants at the end of each growing season; proportions were analysed using a generalised linear model with a binomial distribution considering the year, the density and their interaction as effects. The aggressiveness-related variables chosen were the number of smutted inflorescences per plant and per area, obtained over the last 2 years; they were analysed by means of ancova considering disease status (seeded or smutted), year, density and all the interactions between them. Although the disease is monocyclic, results showed clearly that infectivity increased with plant density. The number of inflorescences per plant was 1.5 times higher in smutted plants than in healthy plants throughout the range of densities. This variable declined when density increased, but as the infectivity increased at a higher rate, the aggressiveness also increased with density. The surprising results on infectivity are discussed in the context of current knowledge of plant-pathogen interaction dynamics, as well as neighbour effects on pathogen aggressiveness. Moreover, the results could be useful to develop weed biological control strategies. PMID:24990686

Verdú, A M C; Mas, M T

2015-01-01

181

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-02-01

182

Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

183

Impact of transgene inheritance on the mitigation of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives: the example of foxtail millet.  

PubMed

Developing genetically modified crop plants that are biologically contained could reduce significantly the potential spread of transgenes to conventional and organic crop plants and to wild or weedy relatives. Among several strategies, the hereditary mode of transmission of transgenes, whether dominant, recessive, or maternal, could play a major role in interspecific gene flow. Here we report on the gene flow between foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an autogamous crop, and its weedy relative, S. viridis, growing within or beside fields containing the three kinds of inherited herbicide resistance. Over the 6-year study, in the absence of herbicide selection, the maternal chloroplast-inherited resistance was observed at a 2 x 10(-6) frequency in the weed populations. Resistant weed plants were observed 60 times as often, at 1.2 x 10(-4) in the case of the nuclear recessive resistance, and 190 times as often, at 3.9 x 10(-4) in the case of the dominant resistance. Because the recessive gene was not expressed in the first-generation hybrids, it should be more effective than dominant genes in reducing gene flow under normal agricultural conditions where herbicides are sprayed because interspecific hybrids cannot gain from beneficial genes. PMID:18780732

Shi, Yunsu; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu; Darmency, Henri

2008-10-01

184

Identification of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BC 2F 2 population developed from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa (cv IR64) and O. rufipogon (IRGC 105491) was used in an advanced backcross QTL analysis to identify and introduce agronomically useful genes from this wild relative into the cultivated gene pool. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify putative yield and yield component QTLs that

E. M. Septiningsih; J. Prasetiyono; E. Lubis; T. Tjubaryat; S. Moeljopawiro; S. R. McCouch

2003-01-01

185

Phenotypic expression of wild-type tomato and three wilty mutants in relation to abscisic acid accumulation in roots and leaflets of reciprocal grafts  

SciTech Connect

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rheinlands Ruhm (RR) and cv Moneymaker and the three wilty mutants flacca (flc), sitiens (sit), and sitiens{sup w} (sit{sup w}), together with the most reciprocal grafts, were grown in pots and in solution culture. Detached leaflets, and control and stem-girdled intact plants, were left turgid or were wilted in air. Detached leaflets and the leaflets and roots of the intact plants were analyzed for their abscisic acid (ABA) content. Turgid RR leaflets contained about 2.9 ng ABA per miligram dry weight. On average, the flc and sit leaflets contained 33 and 11% of this amount, respectively. The lack of ABA approximately correlated with the severity of the mutant phenotype. Mutant roots also contained less ABA than wild-type roots. Wild-type scions on mutant stocks (wild type/mutant) maintained the normal phenotype of ungrafted plants. Mutant scions grafted onto wild-type stocks reverted to a near wild-type phenotype. After the wild-type leaves were excised from solution culture-grown mutant/wild-type plants, the revertive morphology of the mutant scions was maintained, although endogenous ABA levels in the leaflets fell to typical mutant levels and the leaflets became wilty again. When stressed in air, both leaflets and roots of RR plants produced stress-induced ABA, but the mutant leaflets and roots did not. The roots and leaflets of the grafted plants behaved according to their own genotype, with the notable exception of mutant roots grown with wild-type scions. Roots of flc and sit{sup w} recovered the ability to accumulate stress-induced ABA when grafted with RR scions before the stress was imposed.

Cornish, K.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1988-05-01

186

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

187

Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés  

PubMed Central

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

188

The expression of calcitonin gene-related Peptide and acetylcholine in the vestibular-related nucleus population of wild-type mice and retinal degeneration fast mice after rotary stimulation.  

PubMed

Due to the lack of an appropriate animal model, few studies have addressed the integration of visual and vestibular information in the visual system. Using a mouse model with a visual defect (retinal degeneration fast, rdf), we have verified that the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus (PrH) and the Kooy cap of the inferior olive medial nucleus (IOK) are key regions in which visual and vestibular information integrate. Although the integration regions were identified, the precise mechanisms of integration require further investigation. The rdf mice and wild-type Kunming mice were randomly assigned to experimental and control subgroups, respectively. Mice in the experimental groups were exposed to rotary motion for 30 min three times at 24-h intervals, whereas mice in the control groups were not exposed to rotary motion. Differences in the number of calcitonin gene-related peptide positive (CGRP-positive) and choline acetyltransferase positive (ChAT-positive) neurons in the vestibular-related nucleus populations of two types of mice were determined. After rotatory stimulus, the number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons in the PrH and the IOK was significantly less in rdf mice compared with that in wild-type mice. There were differences in the number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons in the other vestibular-related regions, but the differences were not significant, except the difference in the number of ChAT-positive neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus. The expression patterns of CGRP and ChAT were similar to that of Fos in the vestibular-related regions in the two types of mice after rotatory stimulus. The number of CGRP-positive and ChAT-positive neurons and the number of active nerve cells were consistent in those regions in the two types of mice after rotary stimulus. Therefore, we speculated that CGRP and Ach generated and released by neurons in the PrH and the IOK may play roles in the sensory integration of visual and vestibular information in mice. PMID:24037277

Xiaocheng, Wang; Zhaohui, Shi; Ka, Bian; Junhui, Xue; Lei, Zhang; Feng, Xia; Guoqing, Yang; Lining, Feng; Zuoming, Zhang

2013-10-01

189

A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.  

PubMed

Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. PMID:22512715

Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

2012-06-01

190

Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human?related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) at Mahale Mountains National Park, Western Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, acute and fatal respiratory illnesses have occurred in the habituated group of wild chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Common respiratory viruses, such as measles and influenza, have been considered possible causative agents; however, neither of these viruses had been detected. During the fatal respiratory illnesses in 2003, 2005 and 2006, regular observations

Taranjit Kaur; Jatinder Singh; Suxiang Tong; Charles Humphrey; Donna Clevenger; Wendy Tan; Brian Szekely; Yuhuan Wang; Yan Li; Epaphras Alex Muse; Mieko Kiyono; Shunkichi Hanamura; Eiji Inoue; Michio Nakamura; Michael A. Huffman; Baoming Jiang; Toshisada Nishida

2008-01-01

191

Seasonal variation in the secretory lipids of the uropygial gland of a sub?tropical wild passerine bird, pycnonotus cafer (L) in relation to the testicular cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight and lipid content of the uropygiai gland of male Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus), a common subtropical wild passerine bird exhibit seasonal variations, roughly coinciding with those of testicular activity. At the peak of the spermatogenic phase (June) and in the post?breeding period (July, August) the gland becomes enlarged and contains a high amount of lipid, whereas during the long period

S. P. Bhattacharyya; S. Roy Chowdhury

1995-01-01

192

Eco-Heroes out of Place and Relations: Decolonizing the Narratives of "Into the Wild" and "Grizzly Man" through Land Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eco-heroic quests for environmental communion continue to be represented, mediated, and glorified through film and media narratives. This paper examines two eco-heroic quests in the Alaskan "wilderness" that have been portrayed in two Hollywood motion pictures: the movies "Grizzly Man" and "Into the Wild". Both films…

Korteweg, Lisa; Oakley, Jan

2014-01-01

193

A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

194

Dan's Wild Wild Weather Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a meteorologist, this weather site is for students from 6 to 16 years old and their parents. Information and experiments are provided about radar, tornadoes, clouds, precipitation, lightning, humidity, satellites, temperature, forecasting, hurricanes, wind, and climate. While in the tornado section, students can click on any state on the map to get a hourly weather report, state forecast, zone forecast, short term forecast, forecast discussion, weather summary, public information, climate data, hydro and aviation products, watches, special weather, and warnings and advisories for that state. Lightning safety tips, interactive games and puzzles, related weather games and puzzles, weather quizzes, outline maps of the continents and parts of the United States, and links to other sites can be found. Students can email the author with questions.

Dan Scatterfield

2007-12-12

195

Taming the Wild Things.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Where the Wild Things Are," by Maurice Sendak. Includes excerpts from the speech Sendak gave when he accepted the Caldecott Medal for "Wild Things" and commentaries by child development professionals. Briefly reviews other books written by Sendak. (RJC)

Lystad, Mary

1989-01-01

196

An insertional mutagenesis programme with an enhancer trap for the identification and tagging of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance in the tomato wild-related species Solanum pennellii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity and drought have a huge impact on agriculture since there are few areas free of these abiotic stresses and the problem\\u000a continues to increase. In tomato, the most important horticultural crop worldwide, there are accessions of wild-related species\\u000a with a high degree of tolerance to salinity and drought. Thus, the finding of insertional mutants with other tolerance levels\\u000a could

Alejandro Atarés; Elena Moyano; Belén Morales; Peter Schleicher; José Osvaldo García-Abellán; Teresa Antón; Begoña García-Sogo; Fernando Perez-Martin; Rafael Lozano; Francisco Borja Flores; Vicente Moreno; María del Carmen Bolarin; Benito Pineda

197

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD PYRUS COMMUNIS L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible European pears (Pyrus communis ssp. communis L.) are thought to be derived from wild relatives native to the Caucasus Mountain region and eastern Europe. We collected genotype, phenotype and geographic origin data for 145 P. communis individuals derived from seeds collected from wild relativ...

198

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

PubMed

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

199

A single domestication for maize shown by multilocus microsatellite genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists extraordinary morphological and genetic diversity among the maize landraces that have been developed by pre-Columbian cultivators. To explain this high level of diversity in maize, several authors have proposed that maize landraces were the products of multiple independent domestications from their wild relative (teosinte). We present phylogenetic analyses based on 264 individual plants, each genotyped at 99 microsatellites,

Yoshihiro Matsuoka; Yves Vigouroux; Major M. Goodman; Jesus Sanchez G; Edward Buckler; John Doebley

2002-01-01

200

Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species  

PubMed Central

Background The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae) in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA) strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae) and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b) encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3) able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. Conclusions/Significance SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in sweetpotato. A second virus encoding an RNase3-like RNA silencing suppressor was detected. Overall, results provided many novel and important insights into evolutionary biology of SPCSV. PMID:24278443

Tugume, Arthur K.; Amayo, Robert; Weinheimer, Isabel; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

2013-01-01

201

Pestiviruses in wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species,

Š. Vil?ek; P. F. Nettleton

2006-01-01

202

Whales In The Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recurring topic in the media is declining whale populations, now thought to be increasingly caused by increased contamination of the oceans. This resource addresses declines in wild whale populations. From the World Wildlife Fund this is a report on the status of wild whales with emphasis on threats from whaling, fisheries (by-catch), and chemical pollution (DDT and PCBs).

Kemf, Elizabeth.

203

Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.  

PubMed

American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

2015-01-01

204

Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

2014-12-01

205

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animal’s characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

206

A Wild Pony of Assateague  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A wild pony on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

207

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

208

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

SciTech Connect

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)] [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France)] [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

2011-12-10

209

Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.  

PubMed

The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues. PMID:16421878

Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

2006-03-01

210

Utilization of Wild Sunflower Species in Sunflower Breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop wild relatives, which include the progenitors of crops, have been undeniably beneficial to modern agriculture, providing plant breeders with a broad pool of potentially useful genes. Wild relatives of crop plants typically are genetically much more diverse than related cultivated lineages. Gene...

211

Evaluating wild grapevine tolerance to copper toxicity.  

PubMed

We evaluate copper tolerance and accumulation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris in populations from a copper contaminated site and an uncontaminated site, and in the grapevine rootstock "41B", investigating the effects of copper (0-23 mM) on growth, photosynthetic performance and mineral nutrient content. The highest Cu treatment induced nutrient imbalances and inhibited photosynthetic function, causing a drastic reduction in growth in the three study plants. Effective concentration was higher than 23 mM Cu in the wild grapevines and around 9 mM in the "41B" plants. The wild grapevine accessions studied controlled root Cu concentration more efficiently than is the case with the "41B" rootstock and must be considered Cu-tolerant. Wild grapevines from the Cu-contaminated site present certain physiological characteristics that make them relatively more suitable for exploitation in the genetic improvement of vines against conditions of excess Cu, compared to wild grapevine populations from uncontaminated sites. PMID:25025740

Cambrollé, J; García, J L; Figueroa, M E; Cantos, M

2015-02-01

212

Pestiviruses in wild animals.  

PubMed

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

2006-08-25

213

Leaf age-related differences in apoplastic NH4+ concentration, pH and the NH3 compensation point for a wild perennial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of the foliar apoplast of leaves of different ages of Luzula sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud. were prepared by vacuum infiltration and centrifugation. Measure- ments of pH and NHq 4 concentration were performed on extracts. From these bioassay measurements the relative magnitude of NH3 compensation points for leaves of different ages were inferred. Young leaves were found to have much higher

P. W. Hill; J. A. Raven; M. A. Sutton

2002-01-01

214

The Wild Free Wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Oh! the wild free wind is a Spirit kind,\\u000aAnd it loves the Indian well,\\u000aWhen its course it ploughs thro' the crashing boughs,\\u000aOr moans in the ocean shell.\\u000aOh! the wild free wind is a Spirit kind,\\u000aAnd it loves the Indian well,\\u000aWhen its course it ploughs thro' the crashing boughs,\\u000aOr moans in the ocean

Alexander Lee; Shirley Brooks

1853-01-01

215

Survival and multiplication of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (the wheat take-all fungus) and related fungi on different wild and cultivated grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibilities of different grass species, including currently important annual weeds of cereal crops, to root infection by Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus and related weakly or non-pathogenic fungi, and to G. graminis var. tritici (the take-all fungus), were tested in pot experiments. Amounts of infection on wheat grown subsequently were also compared. Infection by the non-take-all Gaeumannomyces spp., arising from artificial inoculation,

R. J. Gutteridge; J.-P. Zhang; J. F. Jenkyn; G. L. Bateman

2005-01-01

216

Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.  

PubMed

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

2014-02-01

217

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

218

Flooded Wild Rice River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second.  Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris.  The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

219

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Mrs. Whaley

2009-04-19

220

Taming the Wild Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

Allyn, Pam

2012-01-01

221

Frozen Wild River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS gages the Wild River at Gilead, Maine at station 01054200. This photo was taken during a winter trip to the site. During this trip, the gage equipment was checked and a discharge measurement was made by drilling holes through the ice and lowering velocity meters into the water....

222

Blastomycosis in wild wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

Thiel, R.P.; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

1987-01-01

223

Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

White, Carolyn

1987-01-01

224

Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.  

PubMed

Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (p<0.05). These results suggest that activities related to coal mining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health. PMID:24525377

Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

2014-03-01

225

A Novel Group of Avian Astroviruses in Wild Aquatic Birds  

PubMed Central

Using a pan-astrovirus reverse transcription-PCR assay, a great diversity of novel avastroviruses was detected from wild bird and poultry samples. Two groups of astroviruses detected from wild birds are genetically related or highly similar to previously known viruses in poultry. Most interestingly, a novel group of astroviruses was detected in wild aquatic birds. Our results also reveal that different groups of astroviruses might have difference host ranges. This study has expanded our understanding regarding avastrovirus ecology. PMID:23035212

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Perera, Harsha K. K.; Ng, Erica M.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Grioni, Alessandro; Ades, Gary; Guan, Yi

2012-01-01

226

A Translocation Gives Insight into the Effects of Hybridization Between wild Populations: Implications for Understanding the Distributions of Closely Related Species.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If two populations are separated for long enough in evolutionary time, mixing them may result in hybrids with reduced fitness. Possible consequences of this are the development of mechanisms that reduce the chance of hybridization or the extinction of one or other of the two genotypes. In 1995, a number of freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) were translocated between two streams within the Brisbane River drainage. Later analysis of mitochndrial DNA revealed that the two populations were quite divergent genetically and had likely been separated for over 2 million years. Seven years after the translocation, the translocated genotype had sent the resident genotype extinct in the pool where the translocation took place, and in pools above and below in the stream. In this talk, I will present data from the next two generations and show that the translocated genotype has taken over all pools up-stream of the original site (a distance of over 2km), but has not become established more than 500 m below the site. Results suggest that survival of different genotypes within a generation are dependant on position in the stream (up-stream or downstream, but when fitness is calculated between generations, translocated genopyes are superior. Our findings will be related to a more general phylogeographic survey of the shrimp in eastern Australia.

Hughes, J.; Fawcett, J.; Cook, B.; Ponniah, M.

2005-05-01

227

Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?  

PubMed

Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations. PMID:25720180

Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

2014-12-01

228

Smaylilh or Wild People Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native peoples who inhabit the Pacific Northwest Coast and Interior Plateau possess oral traditions concerning cryptozoology, including the 'wild people' also known as Sasquatch or Bigfoot. For the Squamish Nation, these are Wild People, or \\

Rudy Reimer

2007-01-01

229

Thermal thresholds as predictors of seed dormancy release and germination timing: altitude-related risks from climate warming for the wild grapevine Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The importance of thermal thresholds for predicting seed dormancy release and germination timing under the present climate conditions and simulated climate change scenarios was investigated. In particular, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris was investigated in four Sardinian populations over the full altitudinal range of the species (from approx. 100 to 800 m a.s.l). Methods Dried and fresh seeds from each population were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C), without any pre-treatment and after a warm (3 months at 25 °C) or a cold (3 months at 5 °C) stratification. A thermal time approach was then applied to the germination results for dried seeds and the seed responses were modelled according to the present climate conditions and two simulated scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): B1 (+1·8 °C) and A2 (+3·4 °C). Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy, while very few seeds germinated without treatments or after warm stratification. Fresh, cold-stratified seeds germinated significantly better (>80 %) at temperatures ?20 °C than at lower temperatures. A base temperature for germination (Tb) of 9·0–11·3 °C and a thermal time requirement for 50 % of germination (?50) ranging from 33·6 °Cd to 68·6 °Cd were identified for non-dormant cold-stratified seeds, depending on the populations. This complex combination of thermal requirements for dormancy release and germination allowed prediction of field emergence from March to May under the present climatic conditions for the investigated populations. Conclusions The thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study (Tb and ?50) explained the differences in seed germination detected among populations. Under the two simulated IPCC scenarios, an altitude-related risk from climate warming is identified, with lowland populations being more threatened due to a compromised seed dormancy release and a narrowed seed germination window. PMID:23071219

Orrù, Martino; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2012-01-01

230

The Oscar Wilde Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

231

Wild Animal Injury in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan's varied landforms contribute to its abundant wild life species. Despite the decreasing num- ber of wild animals caused by the cultivation of forest zone and over hunting on the island, cases of wild animal bite are still reported each year. The focus of care for these cases includes wound care, tetanus immunization, and human-animal communicable diseases prevention and treatment.

Yu-Ching Chen; Tzong-Luen Wang

2004-01-01

232

Wild 2 Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

These images taken by NASA's Stardust spacecraft highlight the diverse features that make up the surface of comet Wild 2. Side A (see Figure 1) shows a variety of small pinnacles and mesas seen on the limb of the comet. Side B (see Figure 1) shows the location of a 2-kilometer (1.2-mile) series of aligned scarps, or cliffs, that are best seen in the stereo images.

2004-01-01

233

Sensitivity to wild vegetation.  

PubMed

74 patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis to wild vegetation were patch tested with either extracts of 13 plants of the family Compositae and 7 other weeds or trees. Anthemis cotula (dog fennel) and Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur) gave the most frequent positive results, demonstrating a change of frequency in sensitivity compared to the 1950s, when Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) was recognized as the most frequently sensitizing weed. The reasons for these changes of incidence and clinical patterns are examined. PMID:3581826

Menz, J; Winkelmann, R K

1987-03-01

234

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

235

IN PURSUIT OF WILD WESTERN SUNFLOWERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For many domesticated crops, germplasm from wild relatives has provided a source of genes for crop improvement leading to disease resistance and tolerance for biotic stresses such as drought and salinity. To ensure that the sunflower collection in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains ...

236

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds  

PubMed Central

Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

Bonnedahl, Jonas

2014-01-01

237

WILD POTATOES (SOLANUM SECTION PETOTA) OF NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum section Petota, the potato and its wild relatives, contains about 200 wild species distributed from the southwestern United States, to central Argentina and adjacent Chile. Although most species occur in South America, a secondary center of diversity peaks at 20 degrees north in the central ...

238

ORIGINAL PAPER Hunter feedback of individually marked wild boar  

E-print Network

to gain knowledge about space use and dispersal functions. The wild boar is a social species with a strong. 2005). Dispersal in wild boar is male-biased, and social groups are usually formed by closely related. Roth Institute of Forest Botany and Forest Zoology, Chair of Forest Zoology, Dresden University

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Selected parasitosis in cultured and wild fish.  

PubMed

While intensive aquaculture has and will continue to supply the ever growing population with highly nutritious protein, it also comes with problems which include more frequent outbreaks of diseases in fish farms and transmission of diseases between farmed and wild fish. We have selected four Phyla of economically important fish parasites for our present discussion-a haemoflagellate (Cryptobia salmositica), a microsporidian, (Loma salmonae), a monogenean (Gyrodactylus salaries) and two copepods (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus rogercresseyi). This review consists of two parts with a brief description of each parasite and its biology related to transmission, followed by discussions on epizootic outbreaks in both wild and farmed fish, interactions between wild and farmed fish, and disease prevention and control. PMID:19573992

Guo, F C; Woo, P T K

2009-08-01

240

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products...

2011-07-01

241

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products...

2014-07-01

242

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products...

2012-07-01

243

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products...

2013-07-01

244

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products...

2010-07-01

245

The persistence of cultivar alleles in wild populations of sunflowers five generations after hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of transgenic plants has heightened concern about the possible escape of genetically engineered material\\u000a into the wild. Hybridization between crops and their wild relatives provides a mechanism by which this could occur. While\\u000a hybridization has been documented between several crops and wild or weedy relatives, little is known about the persistence\\u000a of cultivar genes in wild populations in

J. Whitton; D. E. Wolf; D. M. Arias; A. A. Snow; L. H. Rieseberg

1997-01-01

246

Wild Cards Issue 4  

E-print Network

at Jump Street, was a muscular guy with wild black hair and feline eyes. Harry Ioki, on the other hand, was small, the golden color of his skin attributed to his Vietnamese heritage. Both men carried bags similar to the one Hansen had brought "Beer... long fingers tangled in the bigger man's spiky brown hair, drawing him down. Their lips connected. Penhall stiffened, but after a second he responded, gathering Tom's little ass into his hands and lift ing. Tongues waged war as heat built within...

Multiple Contributors

1996-01-01

247

Bagheera In the Wild: Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part a larger Bagheera website created by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about, and support activism for, endangered species issues. The Classroom site features an Activities section which provides many short activity ideas under headings like Use Your Imagination, and Inquire, Analyze and Compare. In addition to general activities for endangered species issues, Kasnoff provides a section on Activities Directed at Particular Species in the Case Studies. This site also includes a bibliography, glossary of related terms, and information about "problems facing endangered animals and what can be done to improve their chances of survival." Links are provided to other great sections of the In the Wild site as well, including information about extinct animals, animals facing extinction, and a Spotlight on important issues regarding endangered animals.

Kasnoff, Craig

248

Wild Ennerdale The natural evolution of a wild valley  

E-print Network

for learning and community involvement on Forestry Commission land. · A `Wild Ennerdale' brand and a tourism's experiences and use of the valley. · Provide recreation, learning and employment opportunities

249

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range, displaying, foraging, habitat, Kansas, loafing, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, riparian restoration, roosts

250

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

251

Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

252

Reproductive success of hatchery-produced and wild-born brown trout in an experimental stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Although releases of hatchery-produced salmonids to support conspecific wild populations have increased dramatically during recent decades, little information is available about the performance in the wild of hatchery fish and their offspring. Important factors determining the success and genetic outcomes of supportive breeding programmes include (i) the relative reproductive success of released hatchery fish in the wild, and

Johan Dannewitz; Erik Petersson; Jonas Dahl; Tore Prestegaard; Anna-Carin Lof; Torbjorn Jarvi

2004-01-01

253

Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-08-01

254

Control of African Wild Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the past the control of wild animals, where these conflicted with human interests, has been through destruction, and the rate of destruction has increased greatly in recent years. The possibility of the virtual elimination of the wild ungulates from Africa is a matter for concern if only on the following grounds: (1) The value of these animals as providers

H. K. Buechner

1960-01-01

255

'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

256

Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

257

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

258

Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

259

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

260

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-12-23

261

Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape ( Brassica rapa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative

Corinne Vacher; Arthur E. Weis; Donald Hermann; Tanya Kossler; Chad Young; Michael E. Hochberg

2004-01-01

262

Construction of introgression lines carrying wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) segments in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) background and characterization of introgressed segments associated with yield-related traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgression lines (ILs) are useful tools for precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the evaluation of gene\\u000a action or interaction in theoretical studies. A set of 159 ILs carrying variant introgressed segments from Chinese common\\u000a wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), collected from Dongxiang county, Jiangxi Province, in the background of Indica cultivar (Oryza sativa L.), Guichao 2, was

Feng Tian; De Jun Li; Qiang Fu; Zuo Feng Zhu; Yong Cai Fu; Xiang Kun Wang; Chuan Qing Sun

2006-01-01

263

36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wild horse and burro range in those situations...State agencies where such range is proposed and with...current inventory of wild free-roaming horses and...management and animal husbandry as related to range...

2010-07-01

264

Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.  

PubMed

Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle perspective. Additionally, due to effects of exogenous selection, a given hybrid generation may be especially well-suited to hastening introgression under particular environmental conditions. PMID:25295859

Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

2014-01-01

265

Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression  

PubMed Central

Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle perspective. Additionally, due to effects of exogenous selection, a given hybrid generation may be especially well-suited to hastening introgression under particular environmental conditions. PMID:25295859

Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

2014-01-01

266

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

267

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations.  

PubMed

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10-20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon--proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment--will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D; Saksida, Sonja M; Quinn, Terrance J

2010-12-28

268

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

269

Echinostomes in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Echinostomes are closely related to wildlife and occasionally have been found to infect domestic animals. The low specificity\\u000a of some species results in a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts acting as natural hosts, and a large geographic\\u000a distribution has been recorded. The zoonotic potential of echinostomes has been related to the ingestion of raw mollusks,\\u000a fishes, and amphibians

Arnaldo Maldonado

270

A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.  

PubMed

Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

1998-06-01

271

The Reintroduction and Reinterpretation of the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with changing social representations of the ``wild,'' in particular wild animals. We argue that within a contemporary Western context the old agricultural perception of wild animals as adversarial and as a threat to domestication, is being replaced by an essentially urban fascination with certain emblematic wild animals, who are seen to embody symbols of naturalness and

Eileen O'Rourke

2000-01-01

272

Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress  

PubMed Central

Patterns of diversity distribution in the Isa defense locus in wild-barley populations suggest adaptive selection at this locus. The extent to which environmental selection may act at additional nuclear-encoded defense loci and within the whole chloroplast genome has now been examined by analyses in two grass species. Analysis of genetic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) defense genes revealed much greater variation in biotic stress-related genes than abiotic stress-related genes. Genetic diversity at the Isa defense locus in wild populations of weeping ricegrass [Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br.], a very distant wild-rice relative, was more diverse in samples from relatively hotter and drier environments, a phenomenon that reflects observations in wild barley populations. Whole-chloroplast genome sequences of bulked weeping ricegrass individuals sourced from contrasting environments showed higher levels of diversity in the drier environment in both coding and noncoding portions of the genome. Increased genetic diversity may be important in allowing plant populations to adapt to greater environmental variation in warmer and drier climatic conditions. PMID:22173638

Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Shapter, Frances M.; McDonald, Stuart; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Chivers, Ian H.; Drenth, Andre; Nevo, Eviatar; Henry, Robert J.

2011-01-01

273

Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat  

PubMed Central

The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

2013-01-01

274

Alliance for the Wild Rockies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to their mission statement, the goal of Alliance for the Wild Rockies (AWR) is to secure the ecological integrity of the Wild Rockies Bioregion through citizen empowerment and the application of conservation biology, sustainable economic models, and environmental law. The Rockies Bioregion includes wildlands in parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, Alberta, and British Columbia. At any given time, the group is working on several key issues in the Northern Rocky Mountains. These issues include protection of the bull trout and the grizzly bear, and bioregion-wide topics including wildfire and logging, and The Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act (NREPA).

275

Demographic vital rates determine the performance advantage of crop-wild hybrids in lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Hybridization seems possible for many crop species after pollen transfer from crops to wild relatives in the surrounding vegetation. Subsequent introgression of crop-specific traits into wild relatives could lead to invasive introgressants. This process has become a public concern following the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Until now, few studies have used demographic vital rates to compare the

D. A. P. Hooftman; J. G. B. Oostermeijer; M. Jacobs; Nijs den J. C. M

2005-01-01

276

Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark.  

PubMed

Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields in warmer regions of the world. To test whether hybrids are formed and survive in wild Danish populations, and whether prolonged hybridization has led to introgression of cultivar genes, we collected leaf material from adult individuals growing close to carrot fields and analysed their genotypic composition by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting that neutral or beneficial cultivar alleles can introgress into the wild gene pool. Despite generations of improvement and adaptation of cultivar carrots to highly managed field conditions, hybrids can thus sometimes survive in wild populations close to carrot fields, and their genes transfer to wild populations by introgression. PMID:17473862

Magnussen, L S; Hauser, T P

2007-08-01

277

Wild QTLs for Rice Improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Domestication of plants for agricultural use has brought about profound genetic change in ancestral plant species. Intensive, scientific breeding of crop varieties by modern plant breeders over the last century hs narrowed the gene pool in many crops. Many wild ancestors of modern crop plants can s...

278

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

279

Relationalism  

E-print Network

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

Edward Anderson

2014-07-15

280

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

281

Monitoring wild bird populations for lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), an enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway is extremely sensitive to inhibition by lead (Pb). I evaluated the erythrocyte ALA-d activity ratio (the ratio between the fully restored enzyme activity and that measured without removing any inhibitory influence that might be present) as an indicator of Pb exposure in free-living birds. In the absence of elevated Pb exposure, birds, had comparable ALA-d activity ratios regardless of species, geographical location, or time of year sampled. The normal range of ratios for free-living species was similar to that for aviary-raised birds (1.0-1.3). Individuals with enzyme inhibition were readily identified. In blood collected from free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ALA-d activity ratios were better correlated with blood-Pb than were blood-protoporphyrin (PP) concentrations. At least 9.5% of mallards with blood-Pb>80 {mu}g/dL did not have elevated PP levels. Underestimation of Pb exposure did not occur using the ALA-d activity ratio method. The ALA-d activity ratio was as accurate as blood-Pb measurements for monitoring the relative degree of recent Pb exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and assays can be performed efficiently with minimal training.

Scheuhammer, A.M. (Environment Canada, Ottawa (Canada))

1989-07-01

282

The reintroduction and reinterpretation of the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with changing social representations of the “wild,” in particular wild animals. We argue that within\\u000a a contemporary Western context the old agricultural perception of wild animals as adversarial and as a threat to domestication,\\u000a is being replaced by an essentially urban fascination with certain emblematic wild animals, who are seen to embody symbols\\u000a of naturalness and

Eileen O’Rourke

2000-01-01

283

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

284

Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

285

Contraception of Wild and Feral Equids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility control in wild horses has been attempted with both stallions and mares. Nonreversible surgical sterilazaiton by means of vasectomy has been successful in inhibiting reporcution in wild horses in Montana and Nevada. Administration of a microencapsulated form of testosterone to wild stallions reduced sperm counts and motility and foal counts. In a third approach, intraperitoneal SilasticTM implants containing ethinylesdtradiol

Jay F. Kirkpatrick; Turner J. W. Jr; I. K. M. Liu

1993-01-01

286

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space  

E-print Network

, Travlou, P, Roe, J & Orme, A 2010, Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives. Natural England Thompson, C., Travlou, P., Roe, J., & Orme, A. (2010). Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives NECR025 Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives www.naturalengland.org.uk First published 20

Edinburgh, University of

287

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

288

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

289

Micropropagation of Indian wild strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of micropropagation based on an increased percentage survival of explants and reduced phenol-induced browning\\u000a in wild strawberry has been developed. Serial transfer of nodal explants was carried out at 24-, 48- and 96-h intervals. Nodal\\u000a segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (4.0 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (0.1\\u000a ?M) gave the best (94.4%)

Indra D. Bhatt; Uppeandra Dhar

2000-01-01

290

Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse - the possible life history of a spherically symmetric star; 37. Rotating black holes; 38. Black holes are not black - relativity theory and quantum theory; 39. The conformal structure of infinity; Part VII. Cosmology: 40. Robertson-Walker metrics and their properties; 41. The dynamics of Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann universes; 42. Our Universe as a Friedmann model; 43. General cosmological models; Bibliography; Index.

Stephani, Hans

2004-02-01

291

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (; )

2007-06-01

292

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

293

Wheel running in the wild.  

PubMed

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

2014-07-01

294

Wild Populations of a Reef Fish Suffer from the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial fishery for coral reef fish for the aquarium trade has begun to change, at least in some parts of the world, from destructive methods such as cyanide and dynamite fishing to less-destructive methods such as hand-net fishing. However, data on the effects on wild populations of such relatively nondestructive methods is nonexistent. The Banggai cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni

Niclas Kolm; Anders Berglund

2003-01-01

295

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

296

The wild genetic resources of cultivated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wild Lactuca species: L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Ky., L. scarioloides Boiss., L. azerbaijanica Rech., L. georgica Grossh., L. dregeana DC. and L. altaica Fisch. & C.A. Mey., are taxonomically closely related to the cultivated lettuce. Together with L. sativa they form a distinct natural group. Only scanty information is available on genetic affinities among the various

Daniel Zohary

1991-01-01

297

Buffalo Bill' Wild West and John M. Burke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public relations and advertising textbooks either ignore or treat the old fashioned press agent with contempt. Yet the origin of modern day sports and entertainment promotion dates back to a group of press agents who made important contributions to the marketing communication tactics we take for granted. From 1884 to 1917, the promotion of Buffalo Bill' Wild West incorporated advertising,

Jason Berger

2002-01-01

298

Knemidocoptic mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA.  

PubMed

During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

Mete, Asl?; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

2014-10-01

299

Genetically Diverse Coronaviruses in Wild Bird Populations of Northern England  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a costly respiratory viral disease of chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. We detected diverse coronaviruses by PCR in wildfowl and wading birds in England. Sequence analysis showed some viruses to be related to IBV. PMID:19624927

Savage, Carol; Naylor, Clive; Bennett, Malcolm; Chantrey, Julian; Jones, Richard

2009-01-01

300

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

2014-01-01

301

Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe.  

PubMed

Across Europe, wild boar numbers increased in the 1960s-1970s but stabilised in the 1980s; recent evidence suggests that the numbers and impact of wild boar has grown steadily since the 1980s. As hunting is the main cause of mortality for this species, we reviewed wild boar hunting bags and hunter population trends in 18 European countries from 1982 to 2012. Hunting statistics and numbers of hunters were used as indicators of animal numbers and hunting pressure. The results confirmed that wild boar increased consistently throughout Europe, while the number of hunters remained relatively stable or declined in most countries. We conclude that recreational hunting is insufficient to limit wild boar population growth and that the relative impact of hunting on wild boar mortality had decreased. Other factors, such as mild winters, reforestation, intensification of crop production, supplementary feeding and compensatory population responses of wild boar to hunting pressure might also explain population growth. As populations continue to grow, more human-wild boar conflicts are expected unless this trend is reversed. New interdisciplinary approaches are urgently required to mitigate human-wild boar conflicts, which are otherwise destined to grow further. © 2014 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25512181

Massei, Giovanna; Kindberg, Jonas; Licoppe, Alain; Ga?i?, Dragan; Šprem, Nikica; Kamler, Ji?í; Baubet, Eric; Hohmann, Ulf; Monaco, Andrea; Ozoli?š, Janis; Cellina, Sandra; Podgórski, Tomasz; Fonseca, Carlos; Markov, Nickolay; Pokorny, Boštjan; Rosell, Carme; Náhlik, András

2015-04-01

302

Morphological variation and reproductive characteristics of wild giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos, Araceae) populations in Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was aimed at understanding the morphological variation and reproductive biology of wild populations of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos) in Vanuatu. It is an aroid species, which grows in vigorous, relatively small and dense populations, consisting of phenotypically uniform or very similar individuals. The most variable traits observed in wild populations are number of inflorescences, number of infructescences per

J. Quero Garcia; A. Ivancic; V. Lebot

2008-01-01

303

Bt crops: Predicting effects of escaped transgenes on the fitness of wild plants and their herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One prominent concern about genetically modified crops is the possibility of environmental impacts from the movement of fitness-enhancing traits to wild plant populations. Decisions to deregulate Bt crops in the USA have relied strongly on arguments that these crops will not interbreed with wild relatives in the permitted growing regions. Limited attention therefore has been directed to analyses of the

Deborah K. Letourneau; Gaden S. Robinson; Joy A. Hagen

2003-01-01

304

Isolation and diversity analysis of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) from cultivated and wild strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed based on conserved regions of Nucleotide Binding Site (NBS) domains from previously cloned plant resistance genes, were used to isolate Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) from wild and cultivated strawberries. Seven distinct families of RGAs of the NBS-LRR type were identified from two related wild species, Fragaria vesca and F. chiloensis, and six different Fragaria × ananassa

M. G. Martínez Zamora; A. P. Castagnaro; J. C. Díaz Ricci

2004-01-01

305

A Bt TRANSGENE REDUCES HERBIVORY AND ENHANCES FECUNDITY IN WILD SUNFLOWERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow from transgenic crops can introduce novel traits into related spe- cies, but the ecological importance of this process is unknown. Here, we report the first empirical evidence that wild plants can benefit from a bacterial transgene under uncaged, natural conditions. Cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is known to hybridize fre- quently with wild sunflower ( H. annuus) in

A. A. Snow; D. Pilson; L. H. Rieseberg; M. J. Paulsen; N. Pleskac; M. R. Reagon; D. E. Wolf; S. M. Selbo

2003-01-01

306

Identification and QTL mapping of blast resistance in wild Oryza species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf blast disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch is one of the most devastating rice fungal diseases worldwide. Wild relatives of rice (Oryza spp.) may contain novel genes for biotic and abiotic stress resistance lost during domestication. A collection of 67 wild ...

307

Diversity of wild Malus germplasm available in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant explorers have visited Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and China over the past twenty years to find populations of the wild relatives of apple (Malus). Seeds from wild populations of M. sieversii, M. orientalis, M. hupehensis, M. kansuensis, M. toringo, M. bhutanica, M. transitoria, and M. zhaojia...

308

Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

309

Evidence of diploidy in the wild Amerindian yam, a putative progenitor of the endangered species Dioscorea trifida (Dioscoreaceae).  

PubMed

The fundamental question about Dioscorea trifida (Dioscoreaceae), the most important Amerindian yam, that remains unresolved concerns its evolutionary origin, since no wild relative has been reported. In this paper we report the existence of D. trifida's wild relative for the first time. The diploidy of wild D. trifida (2n = 40) is clearly demonstrated by flow cytometry, chromosome counts, and microsatellite pattern analysis, whereas the cultivated form was previously shown to be autotetraploid (2n = 80). In the coastal region where the wild and cultivated forms are sympatric, tetraploid and triploid cytotypes coexist within the same populations. In the sites where the wild and cultivated forms are allopatric, the wild diploid cytotype predominates. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analyses gave an initial idea of the position of the wild forms in relation to the cultivated forms. All the wild and cultivated types form a monophyletic group structured into two major subgroups corresponding to the tetraploid cytotype of the cultivated form and the diploid cytotype of the wild form. The triploid cytotypes of the wild form are in an intermediary position. Wild accessions are grouped on the basis of their geographic origin. The data presented in this paper are significant for the effective breeding and conservation of D. trifida and to assess its genetic diversity and population structure for the general understanding of the evolution and domestication of the species. PMID:20616868

Bousalem, Mustapha; Viader, Véronique; Mariac, Cedric; Gomez, Rose-Marie; Hochu, Isabelle; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

2010-05-01

310

Transcriptional activation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) gene via STAT3 is increased in F9 REX1 (ZFP-42) knockout teratocarcinoma stem cells relative to wild-type cells.  

PubMed

Rex1 (Zfp42), first identified as a gene that is transcriptionally repressed by retinoic acid (RA), encodes a zinc finger transcription factor expressed at high levels in F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and other stem cells. Loss of both alleles of Rex1 by homologous recombination alters the RA-induced differentiation of F9 cells, a model of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. We identified Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) as a gene that exhibits greatly increased transcriptional activation in RA, cAMP, and theophylline (RACT)-treated F9 Rex1(-/-) cells (approximately 25-fold) as compared to wild-type (WT) cells ( approximately 2.5-fold). By promoter deletion, mutation, and transient transfection analyses, we have shown that this transcriptional increase is mediated by the STAT3 DNA-binding elements located between -99 to -60 in the SOCS-3 promoter. Overexpression of STAT3 dominant-negative mutants greatly diminishes this SOCS-3 transcriptional increase in F9 Rex1(-/-) cells. This increase in SOCS-3 transcription is associated with a four- to fivefold higher level of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 in the RACT-treated F9 Rex1(-/-) cells as compared to WT. Dominant-negative Src tyrosine kinase, Jak2, and protein kinase A partially reduce the transcriptional activation of the SOCS 3 gene in RACT-treated F9 Rex1 null cells. In contrast, parathyroid hormone peptide enhances the effect of RA in F9 Rex1(-/-) cells, but not in F9 WT. Thus, Rex1, which is highly expressed in stem cells, inhibits signaling via the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, thereby modulating the differentiation of F9 cells. PMID:18237746

Xu, Juliana; Sylvester, Renia; Tighe, Ann P; Chen, Siming; Gudas, Lorraine J

2008-03-14

311

TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATION OF THE SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING–3 (SOCS3) GENE VIA STAT3 IS INCREASED IN F9 REX1 (ZFP-42) KNOCKOUT TERATOCARCINOMA STEM CELLS RELATIVE TO WILD TYPE CELLS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Rex1 (Zfp42), first identified as a gene that is transcriptionally repressed by retinoic acid (RA), encodes a zinc finger transcription factor expressed at high levels in F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells, and other stem cells. Loss of both alleles of Rex1 by homologous recombination alters the RA-induced differentiation of F9 cells, a model of pluripotent ES cells. We identified Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS3) as a gene which exhibits greatly increased transcriptional activation in RA, cyclicAMP and theophylline (RACT) treated F9 Rex1?/? cells (~25-fold) as compared to wild type (Wt) cells (~2.5-fold). By promoter deletion, mutation and transient transfection analyses, we have shown that this transcriptional increase is mediated by the STAT3 DNA binding elements located between ?99 to ?60 in the SOCS-3 promoter. Overexpression of STAT3 dominant negative mutants greatly diminishes this SOCS-3 transcriptional increase in F9 Rex1?/? cells. This increase in SOCS-3 transcription is associated with a 4–5 fold higher level of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 in the RACT treated F9 Rex1?/? cells as compared to Wt. Dominant negative Src tyrosine kinase, Jak2, and protein kinase A (PKA) partially reduce the transcriptional activation of the SOCS-3 gene in RACT-treated F9 Rex1 null cells. In contrast, parathyroid hormone peptide enhances the effect of RA in F9 Rex1?/? cells, but not in F9 Wt. Thus, Rex-1, which is highly expressed in stem cells, inhibits signaling via the JAK/STAT pathway, thereby modulating the differentiation of F9 cells. PMID:18237746

Xu, Juliana; Sylvester, Renia; Tighe, Ann P.; Chen, Siming; Gudas, Lorraine J.

2010-01-01

312

Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

313

Scientific American Frontiers: Calls of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As always, PBS offers a fantastic companion Web site to its popular series Scientific American Frontiers, this time for the episode "Calls of the Wild" (aired April 1, 2003). Viewers join researchers as they "listen in on animal communication as birds, bees, bugs, bats and elephants flirt, eavesdrop, and even give directions." Three lesson plans are available, as well as an answer key and a quiz based on the program, each for grades 5-8. The site also includes a number of Web-exclusive features, such as an in-depth interview with a spider biologist (cool audio clip of spider songs provided), a chance to email the scientists featured in the program (before April 8, 2003), and an interactive quiz about pair-bonding rituals (complete with detailed answers and related links for each question). As usual, visitors may view the entire episode online, and this is one that shouldn't be missed!

2003-01-01

314

Wild chrysanthemum extract prevents UVB radiation-induced acute cell death and photoaging.  

PubMed

Wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum L.) is traditionally used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used in the southwest plateau region of China to prevent ultraviolet-induced skin damage. However, the role and mechanism by which wild chrysanthemum prevents UV-induced skin damage and photoaging have never been investigated in vitro. In the present study, we found that aqueous extracts from wild chrysanthemum strongly reduced high-dose UVB-induced acute cell death of human immortalized keratinocytic HaCat cells. Wild chrysanthemum extract was also demonstrated to reduce low-dose UVB-induced expression of the photoaging-related matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. The ROS level elevated by UVB irradiation was strongly attenuated by wild chrysanthemum extract. Further study revealed that wild chrysanthemum extract reduced UVB-triggered ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and their protective role, which is partially dependent on inhibiting p38 activation. These results suggest that wild chrysanthemum extract can protect the skin from UVB-induced acute skin damage and photoaging by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The present study confirmed the protective role of wild chrysanthemum against UV-induced skin disorders in vitro and indicated the possible mechanism. Further study to identify the active components in wild chrysanthemum extract would be useful for developing new drugs for preventing and treating skin diseases, including skin cancer and photoaging, induced by UV irradiation. PMID:25052044

Sun, Sujiao; Jiang, Ping; Su, Weiting; Xiang, Yang; Li, Jian; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Shuangjuan

2014-07-23

315

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

2010-01-01

316

Phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax: mitochondrial DNA variation.  

PubMed

Phylogeographic characteristics and population structure of Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) were investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. Sixteen Japanese wild boar haplotypes detected from partial sequences of the mtDNA control region (574-bp) from 180 Japanese wild boar specimens from 10 local populations on Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu islands and 41 haplotypes from other S. scrofa were analyzed using the neighbor-joining method. The Japanese wild boars were more closely related to Northeast Asian wild boars from Mongolia than to the other Asian continental S. scrofa. The Japanese and Northeast Asian wild boars were not significantly distinguished by corrected average pairwise difference analysis. The ancestors of Japanese wild boars are suggested to have been part of the continental S. scrofa population that spread from Southeast to Northeast Asia during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. The Japanese wild boar mtDNA haplotype cladogram shows 95% parsimoniously plausible branch connections supporting three sympatric clades. Nested clade analysis indicates that these three clades are the result of distinct historical events or gene flow. The present population of Japanese wild boars may have been formed by a few independent migrations of distinct clades from the continent with subsequent mixing on the Japanese Islands. PMID:14709812

Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo

2003-12-01

317

A Novel Simple Assay System to Quantify the Percent HCV-RNA Levels of NS5A Y93H Mutant Strains and Y93 Wild-Type Strains Relative to the Total HCV-RNA Levels to Determine the Indication for Antiviral Therapy with NS5A Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aim Oral treatment with asunaprevir and daclatasvir has been reported to yield a SVR ratio of 80% in patients with genotype 1b HCV infection, however, treatment failure has been reported, especially in patients with HCV strains showing the NS5A-Y93H mutation at baseline. An assay system to detect such strains was established to facilitate selection of appropriate candidates for this antiviral therapy. Methods Primer sets and 2 types of cycling probe mixtures were designed, and real-time PCR was performed with HCV-RNA purified from 332 patients with genotype 1b HCV infection, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct sequencing. Results Both the wild-type and mutant strains were quantified, with a threshold of 4.0 Log copies/mL, in 295 of the 332 patients (88.9%), and the percentage of the mutant strains relative to the total HCV-RNA level in the serum was calculated. The percentage was 0% in 237 patients (80.3%) and 100% in 23 patients (7.8%), identical to the results of direct sequencing. Both wild-type and mutant strains were detected in the remaining 35 patients (11.9%), at levels between 1% and 99%, despite the mutant strains having been undetectable by direct sequencing in 11 patients with percentages of these strains of less than 25%. Conclusion A novel assay system to quantify the percent RNA of Y93H mutant strains relative to the total HCV-RNA level was established. This system may be useful to determine the indication for treatment with NA5A inhibitors in patients with HCV. PMID:25397971

Uchida, Yoshihito; Kouyama, Jun-ichi; Naiki, Kayoko; Mochida, Satoshi

2014-01-01

318

Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).  

PubMed

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

2000-01-01

319

Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

2013-01-01

320

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

2008-01-01

321

[Leukosis in captive wild birds].  

PubMed

Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two). PMID:18766880

Loupal, G

1984-10-01

322

Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression  

PubMed Central

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

2014-01-01

323

Identifying the contribution of wild and hatchery Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) to the ocean fishery using otolith microstructure as natural tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the contribution of wild (naturally spawned) and hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to the mixed-stock ocean fishery is critical to understanding their relative importance to the persistence of salmon stocks. The inability to distinguish hatchery and wild salmon has inhibited the detection of declines or recover- ies for many wild populations. By using Chinook salmon of known hatchery and

Rachel Barnett-Johnson; Churchill B. Grimes; Chantell F. Royer; Christopher J. Donohoe

2007-01-01

324

Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population

Christine Künzl; Sylvia Kaiser; Edda Meier; Norbert Sachser

2003-01-01

325

Australian Wild Rice: an opportunity to develop new sustainable food crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global cereal production sourced from approximately only 0.2% of the world’s grass (Poaceae) species, wild crop relatives present a wealth of largely untapped biodiversity for crop improvement. Due to Australia’s short agricultural history and geographic isolation Australian wild rice relatives, as well as other native grasses, are intrinsically adapted to Australia’s changing climate. This provides a unique genetic pool

Frances M Shapter; Sylvia Malory; Ian Chivers; Robert J Henry

2008-01-01

326

Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor  

PubMed Central

Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

2014-01-01

327

Oscar Wilde, Philosopher And Aesthete: An Examination Of The Evolving Aesthetic Of Oscar Wilde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscar Wilde was one of the many men of intellectual stature in the nineteenth century who openly embraced and lauded Darwin's theory of evolution. However, with Wilde in particular, there is a kind of irony involved in this simple fact, since Wilde himself was a man highly aware and conscious of his own consistent and personal evolution. He anticipated, among

Marcia Irene Macaulay

1972-01-01

328

Structural variation among wild and industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum.  

PubMed

Strain selection and strain improvement are the first, and arguably most important, steps in the industrial production of biological compounds by microorganisms. While traditional methods of mutagenesis and selection have been effective in improving production of compounds at a commercial scale, the genetic changes underpinning the altered phenotypes have remained largely unclear. We utilized high-throughput Illumina short read sequencing of a wild Penicillium chrysogenum strain in order to make whole genome comparisons to a sequenced improved strain (WIS 54-1255). We developed an assembly-free method of identifying chromosomal rearrangements and validated the in silico predictions with a PCR-based assay and Sanger sequencing. Despite many rounds of mutagen treatment and artificial selection, WIS 54-1255 differs from its wild progenitor at only one of the identified rearrangements. We suggest that natural variants predisposed for high penicillin production were instrumental in the success of WIS 54-1255 as an industrial strain. In addition to finding a previously published inversion in the penicillin biosynthesis cluster, we located several genes related to penicillin production associated with these rearrangements. By comparing the configuration of rearrangement events among several historically important strains known to be high penicillin producers to a collection of recently isolated wild strains, we suggest that wild strains with rearrangements similar to those in known high penicillin producers may be viable candidates for further improvement efforts. PMID:24824901

Wong, Valerie L; Ellison, Christopher E; Eisen, Michael B; Pachter, Lior; Brem, Rachel B

2014-01-01

329

Environmental quality and evolutionary potential: lessons from wild populations  

PubMed Central

An essential requirement to determine a population's potential for evolutionary change is to quantify the amount of genetic variability expressed for traits under selection. Early investigations in laboratory conditions showed that the magnitude of the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation can change with environmental conditions. However, there is no consensus as to how the expression of genetic variation is sensitive to different environmental conditions. Recently, the study of quantitative genetics in the wild has been revitalized by new pedigree analyses based on restricted maximum likelihood, resulting in a number of studies investigating these questions in wild populations. Experimental manipulation of environmental quality in the wild, as well as the use of naturally occurring favourable or stressful environments, has broadened the treatment of different taxa and traits. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis on recent studies comparing heritability in favourable versus unfavourable conditions in non-domestic and non-laboratory animals. The results provide evidence for increased heritability in more favourable conditions, significantly so for morphometric traits but not for traits more closely related to fitness. We discuss how these results are explained by underlying changes in variance components, and how they represent a major step in our understanding of evolutionary processes in wild populations. We also show how these trends contrast with the prevailing view resulting mainly from laboratory experiments on Drosophila. Finally, we underline the importance of taking into account the environmental variation in models predicting quantitative trait evolution. PMID:16011915

Charmantier, Anne; Garant, Dany

2005-01-01

330

Heavy metal distribution in some wild birds from Korea.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean wild birds (n=37), 2000-2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead concentrations in livers of almost all birds were within the background levels. Cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys of ancient murrelets exceeded background levels for wild birds, but other birds were within the normal range. Acute and chronic contaminations of lead and cadmium levels differed among groups (or species). We suggest that differences in lead and cadmium concentrations among groups are because of differences in diet and habitat. In ancient murrelets, zinc and manganese concentrations correlated with their cadmium concentration in livers. Zinc, manganese, and cadmium concentrations in murrelet livers were also higher than in other species. Therefore, we suggest that high zinc and manganese concentrations in ancient murrelets were related to their high cadmium concentrations. PMID:18574544

Kim, Jungsoo; Shin, Ju-Ryul; Koo, Tae-Hoe

2009-02-01

331

Wild Brazil: Pantanal Wetlands & Iguaz Falls  

E-print Network

Wild Brazil: Pantanal Wetlands & Iguazú Falls June 15 ­ 27, 2015 with Dr. Wayne Lynch Our journey by wetlands teaming with birds and other wildlife. We will stay in riverside lodges and explore the adjacent wetlands by boat, searching for the wild and wonderful wildlife of the region. After immersing ourselves

de Leon, Alex R.

332

Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.  

PubMed

Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir. PMID:3411720

Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

1988-07-01

333

Visual perception of wild land in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term `wild land' is often used to describe the Highlands of Scotland, but means different things to different people. In biophysical terms there is very little, if any, `wild land' left in Scotland as most of the landscape has been altered by human hand or grazing; what is left is now under pressure from recreational activities and the continued

Dominic Habron

1998-01-01

334

The Wild Animal as a Research Animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e.g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conservation goals. There are several differences between domesticated and wild animals that are relevant for evaluation of the acceptability

Jac. A. A. Swart

2004-01-01

335

Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge. PMID:23597086

2013-01-01

336

Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.  

PubMed

Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5?-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. PMID:25091737

Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

2014-12-01

337

Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.  

PubMed

This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. PMID:24290258

Cohn, Elisha

2013-01-01

338

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2010-01-01

339

Wild Capuchins Show Male-Biased Feeding Tool Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few studies have explored sex differences in the use of foraging tools among primates other than apes. Although\\u000a male primates are thought to be more innovative, researchers have reported a female sex bias in the use of feeding tools in\\u000a wild chimpanzees. We investigate here the nature and extent of sex differences in foraging tool use over 12 mo in

Antonio C. de A. Moura; Phyllis C. Lee

2010-01-01

340

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia; RGWT) were randomly distributed around roads to identify . Line transects . Meleagris gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated

Butler, Matthew J.

341

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

342

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

343

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

344

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

345

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security. PMID:24905808

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

346

Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from wild birds in northern England from 2005 – 2006  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock salmonellosis. However, little is known about the relationship between wild bird S. enterica strains and human- and livestock- associated strains in the United Kingdom. Given the zoonotic potential of salmonellosis, the main aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica infections in wild birds in the north of England and, in particular, to determine if wild bird isolates were similar to those associated with disease in livestock or humans. Results Thirty two Salmonella enterica isolates were collected from wild birds in northern England between February 2005 and October 2006, of which 29 were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium); one S. Newport, one S. Senftenberg, and one isolate could not be classified by serotyping. Further analysis through phage typing and macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that wild passerine deaths associated with salmonellosis were caused by closely-related S. Typhimurium isolates, some of which were clonal. These isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, capable of invading and persisting within avian macrophage-like HD11 cells in vitro, and contained a range of virulence factors associated with both systemic and enteric infections of birds and mammals. However, all the isolates lacked the sopE gene associated with some human and livestock disease outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium. Conclusion The wild bird isolates of S. enterica characterised in this investigation may not represent a large zoonotic risk. Molecular characterisation of isolates suggested that S. Typhimurium infection in wild passerines is maintained within wild bird populations and the causative strains may be host-adapted. PMID:18230128

Hughes, Laura A; Shopland, Sara; Wigley, Paul; Bradon, Hannah; Leatherbarrow, A Howard; Williams, Nicola J; Bennett, Malcolm; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian

2008-01-01

347

Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

Holubetz, Terry B.

1995-11-01

348

Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm  

E-print Network

Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm Stephanie Hiltmann, M. A. Dipl.-Päd. Magdalena Würfl Schritten Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;Sekretariat des Lehrstuhls Prof. Wild Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;silke.schworm@paedagogik.uni-r.de Dr. Silke Schworm klaus-peter.wild@paedagogik.uni-r.de Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild stephanie

Schubart, Christoph

349

Beyond the point of no return? A comparison of genetic diversity in captive and wild populations of two nearly extinct species of Goodeid fish reveals that one is inbred in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of genetic and non-genetic factors in extinction liability has been extensively debated. Here, we examine the levels of genetic variability at 13 (seven informative) loci in wild and captive populations of two endangered species of Mexican Goodeid fish, Ameca splendens and Zoogoneticus tequila. Allelic diversity was higher in the wild populations, and FIS lower. Values of ?

N W Bailey; C Macías Garcia; M G Ritchie

2007-01-01

350

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

351

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

352

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

353

Exercise physiology of wild and random-bred laboratory house mice and their reciprocal hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

(VOzmax > during forced exercise and greater (+ 12%) relative ventricle masses than lab mice. Wild and hybrid mice also showed statistically higher swimming endurance times relative to body mass than lab mice, although these differences were insignificant when body mass was not used as a covariate. No significant differences were found for relative gastrocnemius muscle mass, liver mass, hematocrit,

MICHAEL R. DOHM; CHRISTOPHER S. RICHARDSON; THEODORE GARLAND

1994-01-01

354

Learning to Walk on the Wild Side  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program at Moorpark Community College, in Moorpark, California, offers a two-and-a-half-year major in Exotic Animal Training and Management. Emphasis is on the practical, everyday handling and training of wild animals. (LBH)

Faught, Jon

1977-01-01

355

Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Biggins, Julia E.; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

2014-01-01

356

The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are collecting new information about the secret lives of wild animals using modern technologies like global tracking systems and ultra-miniaturized sensors. Learn about research into some rarely seen behaviors of deer, ocelots, agouti, zebras, dragonflies, and seals.

357

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

358

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

359

The wild ostrich (Struthio camelus): a review.  

PubMed

The aim of the current report was to study the literature pertinent to wild populations of ostriches and their ecological and behavioural adaptations in the wild. Selected areas included palaeontology; ostrich distribution; conservation status and relationships with humans and habitat. There is an immediate and urgent need to conserve and protect the apparently rapidly declining populations of wild ostriches with the committed involvement of governments and funding bodies. Wildlife management is an important complement to the farming of livestock. Scientists need to understand the elements of ostrich behaviour in the wild in order to make informed decisions on their management and contact with other animals. Information of the like should be included in readily-accessible and annually updated wildlife manuals. We deemed that such information was an essential part in the conservation of this dwindling ratite. PMID:19440853

Cooper, R G; Mahrose, Kh M A; Horba?czuk, J O; Villegas-Vizcaíno, R; Kennou Sebei, S; Faki Mohammed, A E

2009-12-01

360

Porcine kobuvirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Fecal samples (N = 10) from 6- to 8-week-old wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa), collected from an animal park in Hungary in April 2011, were analyzed using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. Kobuvirus (genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae) was detected in all (100 %) specimens, with the closest nucleotide (89 %) and amino acid (94 %) sequence identity of the strain wild boar/WB1-HUN/2011/HUN (JX177612) to the prototype porcine kobuvirus S-1-HUN (EU787450). This study suggests that genetically highly similar (practically the same geno-/serotype) porcine kobuvirus circulate in wild boars, the wildlife counterparts of domestic pigs. Wild boars could be an important host and reservoir for kobuvirus. PMID:22926717

Reuter, Gábor; Nemes, Csaba; Boros, Akos; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

2013-01-01

361

Porcine teschovirus in wild boars in Hungary.  

PubMed

The genus Teschovirus, family Picornaviridae, currently includes 12 serotypes (PTV 1 to 12) isolated from swine. PTVs have been well studied in domestic pigs, but knowledge about PTVs in wild boars is deficient. Here, we report the first complete PTV genome sequence from 7 (70 %) of 10 fecal samples of wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa) by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Analysis of the wild boar PTV strain WB2C-TV/2011/HUN (JQ429405) showed considerable difference, especially in VP1 (66-74 % amino acid identity) compared to the available PTVs. PTV is present in wild boars, and WB2C-TV/2011/HUN represents a novel PTV genotype, provisionally named PTV-13. PMID:22569887

Boros, Ákos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

2012-08-01

362

York's Wild Kingdom : a development proposal  

E-print Network

York's Wild Kingdom is a privately held zoo and amusement park in York, a Massachusetts based shopping center developer and investment compa Kingdom and the 150 acres that surround it. The community is culturaIl ( and York ...

Rae, Kimberley Whiting

2008-01-01

363

Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

2014-06-17

364

Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

2014-01-01

365

The Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Samples of Comet Wild 2, provided by the Stardust Mission, have now been examined in terrestrial labs for two years, and are very surprising! Here we describe mainly the critical phases olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, as a guide to the general mineralogy of the returned comet samples.

Zolensky, Michael

2007-01-01

366

Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.)*  

PubMed Central

The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner. The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils. The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

Rowe, F. P.; Bradfield, A.; Redfern, R.

1974-01-01

367

Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musclus L).  

PubMed

The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner.The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils.The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

Rowe, F P; Bradfield, A; Redfern, R

1974-12-01

368

Comparison of hemisphere size in wild and domestic geese.  

PubMed

The hemisphere size has been studied in wild and domestic geese (Anser fabalis, n = 77: A. albifrons, n = 48; A. anser, n = 8; A. anser f. domestica, n = 10), which were classified according to particular age category (adult or immature). Material used in studies was fixed in 4% solution of formaldehyde. The brain weight as well as hemispheres' length, width and height was measured with standard method. Morphometric characteristic of geese's brains has been presented in absolute and relative way (by parallel use of index and allometric approach). The appropriate ontogenic, taxonomic and domestication comparisons were carried out. The greatest differences referred to absolute and relative width and height of hemispheres. PMID:9178574

Kalisi?ska, E

1997-03-01

369

Flavonoid profiling among wild type and related GM wheat varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleiotropic effects are one of the main concerns regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This includes unintended\\u000a side effects of the transgene or its genome insertion site on the regulation of other endogenous genes, which could potentially\\u000a cause the accumulation of different secondary metabolites that may have not only an impact on diet as repeatedly worried by\\u000a the public but also

Jean-Robert Ioset; Bartosz Urbaniak; Karine Ndjoko-Ioset; Judith Wirth; Frédéric Martin; Wilhelm Gruissem; Kurt Hostettmann; Christof Sautter

2007-01-01

370

Interspecific hybridization among domesticated apple and its wild relatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential interspecific hybrids are usually identified in natural populations by their proximity to interbreeding species or their intermediate phenotypes; hybridization can then be confirmed by comparing the genetic make-up of putative hybrids to pure species. In contrast, detecting interspecific ...

371

[Highly pathogenic avian influenza and wild birds].  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 prevails worldwide and causes serious problems in poultry industry. The virus is also known as one of the most important zoonotic agents derived from avian species. Because many bird species other than poultry such as chicken and duck are susceptible for HPAIV infection, wild birds are thought to play an important role in distribution and transmission of the virus. However, the ecological role of wild birds as a reservoir of HPAIV in nature has not been completely understood. To define the ecological role of wild birds in distribution of HPAIV, extensive surveillance in wild birds including migratory and resident birds in Japan was conducted. Until now, 3 strains of H5N1 subtype have been isolated. One was isolated from mountain hawk-eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis) which was found sick at Sagara village, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan on January 2007 and ultimately died after a short while. The other two strains were isolated from whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) which were found at Lake Towada in Aomori prefecture in April and May 2008, respectively. Because the wild birds migrate on a global scale, similar problems could be always happened in any other countries. Consequently, comprehensive surveillance in wild birds with international cooperation is required for efficient global control of HPAI. PMID:19927989

Ito, Toshihiro

2009-06-01

372

Biodemography of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly: Aging, Longevity and Adaptation in the Wild  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to summarize recent research on longevity, aging and adaptation in wild medfly populations and in a close relative of the medfly. The key findings include a new life table identity that relates age structure and the distribution of deaths in stationary populations, seasonal variation in the post-capture longevity of trapped medflies of unknown age, greater longevity of once-wild (wild-caught) adult medflies relative to never-wild (laboratory-emerged) individuals, differences in age specificity of different medfly field capture methods, large variation in the sex-specific longevity of six medfly global biotypes (e.g. Kenya; Brazil; Greece), and the extraordinary longevity of the natal fruit fly—a sister species of the medfly. The Discussion contains a listing of discoveries derived from this recent research that appear to be unique to the investigations on medfly aging in the wild. It is suggested that studies of aging in wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster have the potential to exploit this model organism in an entirely new aging research domain and thus complement the already deep literature on aging in this species. PMID:20933076

Carey, James R.

2010-01-01

373

A genome-wide analysis of differentiation between wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris from Mesoamerica.  

PubMed

Lack of introgression or divergent selection may be responsible for the maintenance of phenotypic differences between sympatric populations of crops and their wild progenitors. To distinguish between these hypotheses, amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were located on a molecular linkage map of Phaseolus vulgaris relative to genes for the domestication syndrome and other traits. Diversity for these same markers was then analyzed in two samples of wild and domesticated populations from Mesoamerica. Differentiation between wild and domesticated populations was significantly higher in parapatric and allopatric populations compared to sympatric populations. It was also significantly higher near genes for domestication compared to those away from these genes. Concurrently, the differences in genetic diversity between wild and domesticated populations were strongest around such genes. These data suggest that selection in the presence of introgression appears to be a major evolutionary factor maintaining the identity of wild and domesticated populations in sympatric situations. Furthermore, alleles from domesticated populations appear to have displaced alleles in sympatric wild populations, thus leading to a reduction in genetic diversity in such populations. These results also provide a possible experimental framework for assessing the long-term risk of transgene escape and the targeting of transgenes inside the genome to minimize the survival of these transgenes into wild populations following introduction by gene flow. PMID:16142467

Papa, R; Acosta, J; Delgado-Salinas, A; Gepts, P

2005-10-01

374

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

375

Chemical Composition of Wild-2 Dust Collected by Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stardust spacecraft collected dust from Comet Wild-2 in two forms: material distributed along tracks in aerogel capture cells and residue in impact craters. To analyze the chemical composition of these samples the tracks produced in the aerogel were extracted as keystones containing complete tracks. Twenty-six tracks were analyzed using an X-Ray Microprobe, providing x-ray fluorescence chemical analysis for elements having K-lines at energies high enough to permit escape from the overlying aerogel (S and the heavier elements, including the moderately-volatile trace elements Cu, Zn, and Ga). Two of these tracks were then split open, exposing the interior for analysis by TOF-SIMS (which allowed detection of the lighter elements, e.g., Mg and Al). Neither Si nor O could be determined for samples captured in the aerogel, since these are the major elements in the aerogel itself. The residue in craters in the Al-foil were analyzed by SEM-EDX and TOF-SIMS. The crater residues provide information on the important light elements (Mg and Si). By combining the results from the craters and the tracks, a comprehensive chemical analysis of the Wild-2 dust was possible. Preliminary Examination of the material indicates that: 1) For particles collected in the aerogel, a significant fraction of the incident mass is frequently deposited along the entry track, suggesting the individual Wild-2 dust particles that hit the aerogel were relatively weak aggregates. 2) The chemical composition of the terminal particle in the track is frequently significantly different from the composition of the material deposited along the track, 3) Most of the elements measured show variations in their Fe-normalized abundances of more than two orders-of-magnitude in both the terminal particles and the material deposited along track walls, indicating that the Wild-2 dust is compositionally heterogeneous at the size scale of the largest particles analyzed, not simply a well-mixed aggregate of sub-micron grains, 4) The mean content of the refractory, rock-forming elements (Mg, Ca, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni) averaged over the whole tracks and/or the crater residues in the Wild-2 grains are approximately chondritic, and, 5) There is an apparent enrichment over CI in some of the moderately-volatile minor elements (Cu, Zn, and Ga) in the Wild-2 dust.

Flynn, G. J.

2006-12-01

376

Distribution of wild wheats and barley.  

PubMed

If we accept the evidence at face value, we are led to conclude that emmer was probably domesticated in the upper Jordan watershed and that einkorn was domesticated in southeast Turkey. Barley could have been domesticated almost anywhere within the arc bordering the fertile crescent. All three cereals may well have been harvested in the wild state throughout their regions of adaptation long before actual farming began. The primary habitats for barley, however, are not the same as those for the wheats. Wild barley is more xerophytic and extends farther downslope and into the steppes and deserts along the wadis. It seems likely that, while all three early cereals were domesticated within an are flanking the fertile crescent, each was domesticated in a different subregion of the zone. Lest anyone should be led to think the problem is solved, we wish to close with a caveat. Domestication may not have taken place where the wild cereals were most abundant. Why should anyone cultivate a cereal where natural stands are as dense as a cultivated field? If wild cereal grasses can be harvested in unlimited quantities, why should anyone bother to till the soil and plant the seed? We suspect that we shall find, when the full story is unfolded, that here and there harvesting of wild cereals lingered on long after some people had learned to farm, and that farming itself may have orig inated in areas adjacent to, rather than in, the regions of greatest abundance of wild cereals. We need far more specific information on the climate during incipient domestication and many more carefully conducted excavations of sites in the appropriate time range. The problem is far from solved, but some knowledge of the present distribution of the wild forms should be helpful. PMID:17737582

Harlan, J R; Zohary, D

1966-09-01

377

Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

Hill, E.F.

1988-01-01

378

Behavioural trait covaries with immune responsiveness in a wild passerine.  

PubMed

Immune system is highly integrated with the nervous and endocrine systems, which is thought to result in covariation between behavioural syndromes and stress- and immune-associated diseases. Very little is known about the associations between behaviour and immune traits in wild animals. Here we describe such an association in passerine birds, the greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). When wild-caught greenfinches are brought into captivity, some individuals damage their tail feathers against cage walls due to excited behaviour, while others retain their feathers in intact condition. We show that damage to tail feathers was associated with flapping flight movements and the frequency of such flapping bouts was individually consistent over 57 days. Birds with intact tails, i.e., relatively 'calm' individuals mounted stronger antibody response to a novel Brucella abortus antigen and their circulating phagocytes were capable of producing stronger oxidative burst in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro. As the behavioural trait was assessed 13-25 days before measuring immune responsiveness, our results demonstrate that individuals' coping styles with captivity predicted how these individuals would respond to forthcoming immune challenges. This is a novel evidence about covariation between immune responsiveness and a behavioural trait in a wild-caught animal. PMID:21473910

Sild, Elin; Sepp, Tuul; Hõrak, Peeter

2011-10-01

379

Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.  

PubMed

The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum. PMID:25144460

Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

2014-09-10

380

Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in wild boars in Hungary.  

PubMed

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) are members of the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. Until now, only three different PEV genotypes (PEV-9 and -10, and PEV-3H/PEV-14) have been detected in domestic pigs, and there is no information about the presence of PEVs in wild animals. Here, we identify and characterize the complete genomes of PEV originated from 5 of 10 (50%) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Wild boar/WBD/2011/HUN (JN807387) PEV showed only 67% amino acid identity in VP1 compared to the most closely related prototype PEV-3H/PEV-14. Wild boar enterovirus represents a novel PEV genotype, provisionally called PEV-15. PMID:22350652

Boros, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

2012-05-01

381

Nowzari et al. Habitat Associations of Persian Wild Ass in Iran HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF PERSIAN WILD  

E-print Network

25 Nowzari et al. · Habitat Associations of Persian Wild Ass in Iran HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF PERSIAN WILD ASS (EQUUS HEMIONUS ONAGER) IN QA- TROUYEH NATIONAL PARK, IRAN HANIYEH NOWZARI, Department of the IVth International Wildlife Management Congress: 25-30, 2013 Horses, zebras and asses, members

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

382

GENETIC VARIATION AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CULTIVATED, WILD, AND SEMI-WILD SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Glycine accessions are intermediate between the standard phenotypes of G. ma and G. soja and have been labeled semi-wild. Few studies have examined both the genetic and phenotypic relationships among G. soja, G. max, and semi-wild types by combining morphological traits and DNA markers. The ob...

383

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve  

E-print Network

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve. This hands-on course will include a four day stay in historic Coal Creek Camp, a restored mining camp off the Yukon River in the heart of the preserve. Along with park staff

Sikes, Derek S.

384

Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals  

SciTech Connect

The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

Blumler, M.A.

1995-12-31

385

Manuscripts and Letters of Oscar Wilde  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Morgan Library in New York City presents a digital version of a slim (50 handwritten pages) bound volume of manuscripts and letters by Oscar Wilde. The volume has an interesting provenance, since it came to the Library through the family of Lord Alfred Douglas, Wilde's lover. Wilde sued Douglas' father, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, for libel, but the trial served to make public salacious details of Wilde's private life, which eventually led to his conviction and imprisonment on charges of indecency. Ironically, the volume's cover is stamped with the Marquess of Queensberry crest, since the letters and manuscripts within were collected by the eleventh Marquess of Queensberry, grandson of John Sholto Douglas. A letter documenting the start of Wilde and Alfred Douglas relationship, written around November 1892, is in the book, as well as manuscript versions of "The Doer of Good," "The Disciple," "The Master," "The House of Judgment," and "The Artist." The "read this page" feature of the web site translates the handwritten pages into easier-to-read typescript.

386

Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.  

PubMed

Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression. PMID:25324464

White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

2014-10-10

387

Existence of vigorous lineages of crop-wild hybrids in Lettuce under field conditions.  

PubMed

Plant to plant gene flow is a route of environmental exposure for GM plants specifically since crosses with wild relatives could lead to the formation of more vigorous hybrids, which could increase the rate of introgression and the environmental impact. Here, we test the first step in the process of potential transgene introgression: whether hybrid vigor can be inherited to the next generation, which could lead to fixation of altered, i.e., elevated, quantitative traits. The potential for a permanent elevated fitness was tested using individual autogamous progeny lineages of hybrids between the crop Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) and the wild species Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce). We compared progeny from motherplants grown under either greenhouse or field conditions. The survival of young plants depended strongly on maternal environment. Furthermore, we observed that offspring reproductive fitness components were correlated with maternal fitness. Our study demonstrates that post-zygotic genotypic sorting at the young plants stage reduces the number of genotypes non-randomly, leading to inheritance of high levels of reproductive traits in the surviving hybrid lineages, compared to the pure wild relatives. Consequently, directional selection could lead to displacement of the pure wild relative and fixation of more vigorous genome segments originating from crops, stabilizing plant traits at elevated levels. Such information can be used to indentify segments which are less likely to introgress into wild relative populations as a target for transgene insertion. PMID:20883659

Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Den Nijs, Hans J C M

2009-01-01

388

Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

Slota, Paul

2007-01-01

389

The Space Place: Wild Weather Adventure!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the Wild Weather Adventure game by NASA. Your weather research blimp will explore Earth and its weather. With luck, skill, and strategy, you will race other weather research blimps to be first to travel all the way around the world and win the game. You can play with your friends or by yourself with a computer opponent. For every player’s turn in the Wild Weather Adventure Game, the player must answer either a multiple choice or true or false question. Each question is rated as easy, medium, or hard. Players choose which level to answer.

Diane Fisher

2006-10-13

390

Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.  

PubMed

Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. PMID:21122483

Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

2010-01-01

391

Reduced reproductive success of hatchery coho salmon in the wild: insights into most likely mechanisms.  

PubMed

Supplementation of wild salmonids with captive-bred fish is a common practice for both commercial and conservation purposes. However, evidence for lower fitness of captive-reared fish relative to wild fish has accumulated in recent years, diminishing the apparent effectiveness of supplementation as a management tool. To date, the mechanism(s) responsible for these fitness declines remain unknown. In this study, we showed with molecular parentage analysis that hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) had lower reproductive success than wild fish once they reproduced in the wild. This effect was more pronounced in males than in same-aged females. Hatchery spawned fish that were released as unfed fry (age 0), as well as hatchery fish raised for one year in the hatchery (released as smolts, age 1), both experienced lower lifetime reproductive success (RS) than wild fish. However, the subset of hatchery males that returned as 2-year olds (jacks) did not exhibit the same fitness decrease as males that returned as 3-year olds. Thus, we report three lines of evidence pointing to the absence of sexual selection in the hatchery as a contributing mechanism for fitness declines of hatchery fish in the wild: (i) hatchery fish released as unfed fry that survived to adulthood still had low RS relative to wild fish, (ii) age-3 male hatchery fish consistently showed a lower relative RS than female hatchery fish (suggesting a role for sexual selection), and (iii) age-2 jacks, which use a sneaker mating strategy, did not show the same declines as 3-year olds, which compete differently for females (again, implicating sexual selection). PMID:21438931

Thériault, Véronique; Moyer, Gregory R; Jackson, Laura S; Blouin, Michael S; Banks, Michael A

2011-05-01

392

Crossability relationships among the wild diploid potato species Solanum kurtzianum , S. chacoense and S. ruiz-lealii from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild tuber-bearing Solanumspecies represent a genetic pool of enormous diversity, embracing high variability for many agronomic traits. S. kurtzianum (ktz), S. chacoense(chc) and S. ruiz-lealii (rzl) are wild diploid self-incompatible relatives of the common potato, Solanum tuberosumssp. tuberosum, with resistance to adverse biotic and abiotic factors. Pollen-pistil\\/style compatibility relations and seed set in intra-\\u000a and interspecific crosses among ktz,

Juan Pablo Raimondi; Rodrigo Germán Sala; Elsa Lucila Camadro

2003-01-01

393

Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolated from wild birds in Korea: epidemiological implications.  

PubMed

To explore the epidemiological link between infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in wild birds and domestic chickens in Korea, we examined 107 free-living wild birds, representing 7 species, that were found dead of apparent natural causes in Korea over the past two years for the presence of IBDV. Five birds were tested positive for IBDV by RT-PCR assay: black-billed magpie (n=1), mallard duck (n=2), bean goose (n=1) and white-fronted goose (n=1). IBDV was isolated from RT-PCR-positive tissues following chicken embryo inoculation. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene indicated that all of the isolates from the wild birds encode amino acids A222, I242, I256, I294 and S299 of VP2, which are conserved among strains of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the wild bird IBDV isolates are closely related to strains of vvIBDV. An IBDV isolate from a magpie showed 60% mortality in SPF chickens and severe bursal atrophy. The epidemiological implications of IBDV in free-living wild birds are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vvIBDV in free-living wild birds. PMID:18652855

Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Joh, Seong-Joon; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Yang, Chang-Bum; Yoon, Yeo-Sung; Choi, Kang-Seuk

2008-10-01

394

Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.  

PubMed

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity. PMID:22417608

Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

2011-10-01

395

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host’s natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV. PMID:23763792

2013-01-01

396

Unexpected Polyploidy in Wild Asian Strawberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The strawberry genus, Fragaria, has a haploid chromosome number of x = 7 and multiple ploidy levels in wild species, which include diploid (2x = 2n = 14), tetraploid (2x = 4n =28), pentaploid (2x = 5n = 35), hexaploid (2x = 6n = 42), and octoploid (2x = 8n = 56) plants. Artificial pentaploids, octop...

397

ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF EDIBLE WILD BULGARIAN FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts from six Bulgarian wild edible fruits have been studied for their antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and presented as Uric Acid Equivalents (UAE) per gram dry weight. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as Quercetin

Y. Kiselova; S. Marinova; D. Ivanov; D. Gerov; B. Galunska; T. Chervenkov; T Yankova

398

Cocaine distribution in wild Erythroxylum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine distribution was studied in leaves of wild Erythroxylum species originating from Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico, USA, Venezuela and Mauritius. Among 51 species, 28 had never been phytochemically investigated before. Cocaine was efficiently and rapidly extracted with methanol, using focused microwaves at atmospheric pressure, and analysed without any further purification by capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

Stefan Bieri; Anne Brachet; Jean-Luc Veuthey; Philippe Christen

2006-01-01

399

WILD BERRIES OF THE WEST REVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book 'Wild Berries of the West' is reviewed. The book is a comfortable field guide to the commonly found berry-type fruits of western North America. This book combines photographs for use as a field guide, ethnobotanical information concerning plant lore, and recipes for using native berries. ...

400

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

401

CRYPTOSPORIDIAL INFECTIONS IN CAPTIVE WILD ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal diarrhea was an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a hand- rearing facility for exotic ruminants at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Studies undertaken to determine the causes of the problem revealed that oocysts of Cryptosponidium sp. were demon- strable in auramine 0 stained feca! smears from 52 of 183 (28.4%) animals examined. Crypto- sporidial infection was

W. P. Heuschele; J. Oosterhuis; D. Janssen; P. T. Robinson; P. K. Ensley; J. E. Meier; T. Olson; M. P. Anderson; K. Benirschke

402

Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…

Horwood, Bert

403

Wild Lake County Building Backyard Habitats  

E-print Network

, and Coyotes, and Bears OH MY!! Humans are not the only animals who call Lake County home. Learn what to doWild Lake County Workshops Building Backyard Habitats Your backyard can be more than just a place species of wildlife. Alien Invaders Non-native plants and animals threaten the vitality of natural

Florida, University of

404

Geographic distribution of wild potato species.  

PubMed

The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77 species the largest distance between two observations of the same species is <100 km. Peru has the highest number of species (93), followed by Bolivia (39). A grid of 50 × 50 km cells and a circular neighborhood with a radius of 50 km to assign points to grid cells was used to map species richness. High species richness occurs in northern Argentina, central Bolivia, central Ecuador, central Mexico, and south and north-central Peru. The highest number of species in a grid cell (22) occurs in southern Peru. To include all species at least once, 59 grid cells need to be selected (out of 1317 cells with observations). Wild potatoes occur between 38° N and 41° S, with more species in the southern hemisphere. Species richness is highest between 8° and 20° S and around 20° N. Wild potatoes typically occur between 2000 and 4000 m altitude. PMID:21669641

Hijmans, R J; Spooner, D M

2001-11-01

405

Lattice Animals: Rigorous Results and Wild Guesses  

E-print Network

Lattice Animals: Rigorous Results and Wild Guesses S.G. Whittington and C.E. Soteros 1 must di#er by unity in exactly one coordinate. A bond animal is a connected subgraph of the lattice and a site animal is a connected section graph of the lattice. The distinction is that for each pair

Grimmett, Geoffrey

406

Does Comet WILD-2 contain Gems?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is expected that Comet Wild-2 dust should resemble anhydrous carbon-rich, chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere because some CP IDPs are suspected to be from comets. The rarity of carbonaceous grains and presolar silicates, as well as the presence of high-temperature inner solar nebula minerals in the Wild-2 sample (e.g. osbornite and melilite), appear incompatible with most CP IDPs. However, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about the mineralogy of comet Wild-2 because only approx. 1% of the sample has been examined. The most abundant silicates in CP IDPs are GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides). Nonsolar O isotopic compositions confirm that at least some GEMS in IDPs are presolar amorphous silicates. The presence or absence of GEMS in the Wild-2 sample is important because it addresses, (a) the relationship between CP IDPs and comets, and (b) the hypothesis that other GEMS in IDPs formed in the solar nebula. Here we show that most of the GEMSlike materials so far identified in Stardust aerogel were likely impact generated during collection. At the nanometer scale, they are compositionally and crystallographically distinct from GEMS in IDPs.

Chi, M.; Ishii, H.; Dai, Z. R.; Toppani, A.; Joswiak, D. J.; Leroux, H.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L. P.; Browning, N. D.

2007-01-01

407

"Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

Thompson, Virginia P.

2012-01-01

408

Population genomics of domestic and wild yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the completion of the genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996 (refs 1, 2), there has been a large increase in complete genome sequences, accompanied by great advances in our understanding of genome evolution. Although little is known about the natural and life histories of yeasts in the wild, there are an increasing number of studies looking at ecological

Gianni Liti; David M. Carter; Alan M. Moses; Jonas Warringer; Leopold Parts; Stephen A. James; Robert P. Davey; Ian N. Roberts; Austin Burt; Vassiliki Koufopanou; Isheng J. Tsai; Douda Bensasson; Michael J. T. O'Kelly; Alexander van Oudenaarden; David B. H. Barton; Elizabeth Bailes; Alex N. Nguyen; Matthew Jones; Michael A. Quail; Ian Goodhead; Sarah Sims; Frances Smith; Anders Blomberg; Richard Durbin; Edward J. Louis

2009-01-01

409

Sunflower germplasm development utilizing wild Helianthus species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. The...

410

"The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

Prinsen, Tammy

411

NEOSPORA CANINUM DETECTED IN WILD RODENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of rodents in the epidemiology of neosporosis was investigated by assaying brain tissue of wild mice and rats for Neospora caninum. Both mouse and rat brain tissue were extracted for total DNA, and subjected to two different N. caninum-specific nested PCR assays. A portion of brain tissue...

412

Wildness in the Cairngorms National Park  

E-print Network

of Scotland's natural and cultural heritage: ­ Wildlife and nature ­ Tourism and economy ­ Identity · Background: What is wild land and why it's important · Can we map it? · Developments in Europe · Mapping and culture ­ Ecosystem goods and services ­ Intrinsic value · Needs sustainable management and protection #12

Haase, Markus

413

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

414

Event Segmentation in the Wild Brendan Jonesrebandt  

E-print Network

Event Segmentation in the Wild Brendan Jonesrebandt Department of Cognitive Science]. When it comes to remembering the details of these events, new data indicates that those individuals. Participants are shown a video of an activity which they are asked to break up into different portions

Kirsh, David

415

Sustainable Fish: Wild caught or Farm raised?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's current fishing practices are unsustainable. Potential solutions such as aquaculture have been researched and implemented to rectify the overfishing problem, but questions still remain as to which practice is more sustainable: commercial fishing or aquaculture. It is partially the responsibility of the consumer to decide which is a more sustainable product to buy: farm-raised or wild caught fish.

Jen Snyder

416

Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

1997-01-01

417

HYBRID SPECIATION IN WILD SUNFLOWERS1  

E-print Network

HYBRID SPECIATION IN WILD SUNFLOWERS1 Loren H. Rieseberg2 ABSTRACT Hybrid speciation refers to the establishment of novel hybrid genotypes that are reproductively isolated from their parental species, in some instances new hybrid species arise and become reproductively isolated without a change

Rieseberg, Loren

418

study guide Oscar Wilde was the witty,  

E-print Network

was at the height of its colonial power and Wilde funneled the aristocratic wealth and snobbery of London's elite novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, for example), The Importance of Being Earnest was subtitled "A Trivial characters that are naturally absurd. A poet and playwright who composed everything from novels to essays

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

419

Comparing alleles between wild and domesticated tomato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the USDA, ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU), we conserve approximately 6,000 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and several hundred accessions of wild tomato species. Characterizing alleles in our collection will aid breeders and other researchers in using the germplasm. Domesti...

420

Mayaro Virus in Wild Mammals, French Guiana  

PubMed Central

A serologic survey for Mayaro virus (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) in 28 wild nonflying forest mammal species in French Guiana showed a prevalence ranging from 0% to 52% and increasing with age. Species active during the day and those who spent time in trees were significantly more infected, results consistent with transmission implicating diurnal mosquitoes and continuous infectious pressure. PMID:14609474

de Thoisy, Benoît; Gardon, Jacques; Salas, Rosa Alba; Morvan, Jacques

2003-01-01

421

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES  

E-print Network

by anthers with sterile appendages, laterally con- nivent forming a flask-shaped cone. All species are native for pure lines in the crop has contributed to its narrow genetic base (Stevens & Rick, 1986). All wild) to the cultivated tomato. They are of great use in breeding pro- grams as sources of disease resistance and agro

Spooner, David

422

Stardust Comet Wild 2 Encounter (Artist's Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artist's rendering of the Stardust spacecraft. The spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999, from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida, aboard a Delta II rocket. The primary goal of Stardust is to collect dust and carbon-based samples during its closest encounter with Comet Wild 2 -- pronounced 'Vilt 2' after the name of its Swiss discoverer.

2005-01-01

423

Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.  

PubMed

Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2014-02-01

424

Roles of maternal effects and nuclear genetic composition change across the life cycle of crop-wild hybrids.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: The fitness of an offspring may depend on its nuclear genetic composition (via both parental genotypes) as well as on genetic maternal effects (via only the maternal parent). Understanding the relative importance of these two genetic factors is particularly important for research on crop-wild hybridization, since traits with important genetic maternal effects (e.g., seed size) often differ among crops and their relatives. We hypothesized that the effects of these genetic factors on fitness components would change across the life cycle of hybrids.• Methods: We followed seed, plant size, and reproductive traits in field experiments with wild and four crop-wild hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which differed in nuclear genetic composition and maternal parent (wild or F1 hybrid).• Key results: We identified strong genetic maternal effects for early life cycle characteristics, with seeds produced on an F1 mother having premature germination, negligible seed dormancy, and greater seedling size. Increased percentages of crop alleles also increased premature germination and reduced dormancy in seeds produced on a wild mother. For mature plants, nuclear genetic composition dominated: greater percentages of crop alleles reduced height, branching, and fecundity.• Conclusions: Particular backcrosses between hybrids and wilds may differentially facilitate movement of crop alleles into wild populations due to their specific features. For example, backcross seeds produced on wild mothers can persist in the seed bank, illustrating the importance of genetic maternal effects, whereas backcross individuals with either wild or F1 mothers have high fecundity, resulting from their wild-like nuclear genetic composition. PMID:25016007

Alexander, Helen M; Emry, D Jason; Pace, Brian A; Kost, Matthew A; Sparks, Kathryn A; Mercer, Kristin L

2014-07-11

425

Wild bees visiting cucumber on midwestern U.S. organic farms benefit from near-farm semi-natural areas.  

PubMed

Wild bees that provide pollination services to vegetable crops depend on forage resources, nesting sites, and overwintering sites in the agricultural landscape. The scale at which crop-visiting bees use resources in the landscape can vary regionally, and has not been characterized in the Midwestern United States. We investigated the effects of seminatural land cover on wild bee visitation frequency to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and on wild bee species richness on 10 organic farms in Indiana. We estimated the spatial scale at which the effects of land cover were strongest, and also examined the effects of nonlandscape factors on wild bees. The visitation frequency of wild bees to cucumber was positively related to the proportion of seminatural land in the surrounding landscape, and this relationship was strongest within 250 m of the cucumber patch. The species richness of wild cucumber visitors was not affected by land cover at any spatial scale, nor by any of the nonlandscape factors we considered. Our results indicate that wild, crop visiting bees benefit from seminatural areas in the agricultural landscape, and benefit most strongly from seminatural areas within 250 m of the crop field. This suggests that setting aside natural areas in the near vicinity of vegetable fields may be an effective way to support wild, crop-visiting bees and secure their pollination services. PMID:23448020

Smith, A A; Bentley, M; Reynolds, H L

2013-02-01

426

Early maternal experience shapes offspring performance in the wild.  

PubMed

Both the environments experienced by a mother as a juvenile and an adult can affect her investment in offspring. However, the implications of these maternal legacies, both juvenile and adult, for offspring fitness in natural populations are unclear. We investigated whether the juvenile growth rate and adult reproductive traits (length, body condition, and reproductive investment at spawning) of female wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were related to the growth and survival of their offspring. Adult salmon captured on their upstream migration were used to create experimental full-sib clutches of eggs, which were mixed and then placed in artificial nests in a natural stream that lacked salmon due to a migration barrier. Four months later we resampled the stream to obtain family-level estimates of offspring size and survival. Mothers that had grown slowly as juveniles (as determined by scalimetry) but had invested heavily in reproduction (egg production for a given body length) and were in relatively poor body condition (somatic mass for a given body length) at spawning produced the largest eggs. Larger eggs resulted in larger juveniles and higher juvenile survival. However, after controlling for egg size, offspring growth was positively related to maternal juvenile growth rate and reproductive investment. The predictors of offspring survival (i.e., reproductive success) varied with the juvenile growth rate of the mother: If females grew slowly as juveniles, their reproductive success was negatively related to their own body condition. In contrast, the reproductive success of females that grew quickly as juveniles was instead related positively to their own body condition. Our results show that maternal influences on offspring in the wild can be complex, with reproductive success related to the early life performance of the mother, as well as her state at the time of breeding. PMID:23687888

Burton, Tim; McKelvey, S; Stewart, D C; Armstrong, J D; Metcalfe, N B

2013-03-01

427

Effects of temperature and growth hormone on individual growth trajectories of wild-type and transgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch.  

PubMed

In this study, individual growth patterns of wild-type and growth-enhanced coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at 8, 12 and 16 degrees C water temperature were followed. Despite large differences among individuals in growth rates, there was generally little variation in the shape of the growth curves among O. kisutch individuals of both genotypes and at all temperatures. Typically, individuals that were relatively large initially were also relatively large at the end of the growth period. The limitation in variation was more pronounced in the growth-enhanced O. kisutch than in the wild type, where the relative size of some individuals reared at 12 and 8 degrees C changed by the end of the trial. As a warmer temperature seems to decrease the plasticity of growth trajectories in wild-type fish, it is possible that global warming will influence the ability of wild fish to adapt their growth to changing conditions. PMID:20666902

Lõhmus, M; Björklund, M; Sundström, L F; Devlin, R H

2010-02-01

428

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

2007-01-01

429

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

430

Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan

2015-01-01

431

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

432

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

433

SNP-revealed genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat correlates with ecological factors  

PubMed Central

Background Patterns of genetic diversity between and within natural plant populations and their driving forces are of great interest in evolutionary biology. However, few studies have been performed on the genetic structure and population divergence in wild emmer wheat using a large number of EST-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Results In the present study, twenty-five natural wild emmer wheat populations representing a wide range of ecological conditions in Israel and Turkey were used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using over 1,000 SNP markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected due to the biallelic property of SNP markers. Clustering based on Bayesian model showed that grouping pattern is related to the geographical distribution of the wild emmer wheat. However, genetic differentiation between populations was not necessarily dependent on the geographical distances. A total of 33 outlier loci under positive selection were identified using a FST-outlier method. Significant correlations between loci and ecogeographical factors were observed. Conclusions Natural selection appears to play a major role in generating adaptive structures in wild emmer wheat. SNP markers are appropriate for detecting selectively-channeled adaptive genetic diversity in natural populations of wild emmer wheat. This adaptive genetic diversity is significantly associated with ecological factors. PMID:23937410

2013-01-01

434

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011  

E-print Network

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011 Lecture Theatre 3, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh All (University of Edinburgh): An introduction to Wild Immunology 10:15 Jan Bradley (University of Nottingham

Maizels, Rick

435

RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar  

E-print Network

This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

2008-05-08

436

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

437

Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo cattle grazing, habitat use, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, nesting ecology, Rio Grande wild turkey. Interactions between cattle and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) varied depending on local habitat

438

Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations.  

PubMed

Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression-namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the genome that is IBD (propIBD), and we apply this method to a wild and a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In each of 948 wild and 1057 captive individuals we analyzed available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (260 SNPs) spread over four different genomic regions in each population. This allowed us to determine whether any of these four regions was completely homozygous within an individual, which indicates IBD with high confidence. In the highly nomadic wild population, we did not find a single case of IBD, implying that inbreeding must be extremely rare (propIBD=0-0.00094, 95% CI). In the captive population, a five-generation pedigree strongly underestimated the average amount of realized inbreeding (FPed=0.013related. We suggest that this SNP-based technique is generally useful for quantifying inbreeding at the individual or population level, and we show analytically that it can capture inbreeding loops that reach back up to a few hundred generations. PMID:25585923

Knief, U; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G; Wittig, M; Franke, A; Griffith, S C; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

2015-04-01

439

Variation in viral shedding patterns between different wild bird species infected experimentally with low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses that originated from wild birds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of infection with avian influenza (AI) virus varies significantly between taxonomic Orders and even between species within the same Order. The current understanding of AI infection and virus shedding parameters in wild birds is limited and largely based on trials conducted in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The objective of the present study was to provide experimental data to examine species-related differences in susceptibility and viral shedding associated with wild bird-origin low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in multiple duck species and gulls. Thus mallards, redheads (Aythya americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were inoculated experimentally with three wild mallard-origin LPAI viruses representing multiple subtypes. Variation in susceptibility and patterns of viral shedding associated with LPAI virus infection was evident between the duck and gull species. Consistent with the literature, mallards excreted virus predominantly via the gastrointestinal tract. In wood ducks, redheads, and laughing gulls, AI virus was detected more often in oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. The results of this study suggest that LPAI shedding varies between taxonomically related avian species. Such differences may be important for understanding the potential role of individual species in the transmission and maintenance of LPAI viruses and may have implications for improving sampling strategies for LPAI detection. Additional comparative studies, which include LPAI viruses originating from non-mallard species, are necessary to further characterize these infections in wild avian species other than mallards and provide a mechanism to explain these differences in viral excretion. PMID:21500030

Costa, Taiana P; Brown, Justin D; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E

2011-04-01

440

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis.  

PubMed

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to > 80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds. PMID:8722273

Samuel, M D; Goldberg, D R; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Robb, J R; Krapu, G L; Nersessian, B N; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

1996-04-01

441

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

1999-01-01

442

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

443

Research article Mortality rates of honey bees in the wild  

E-print Network

Research article Mortality rates of honey bees in the wild R. Dukas Animal Behaviour Group of animals including social insects. It is not clear, however, whether honey bees in the wild live long is an impor- tant factor determining the performance of insects such as honey bees in the wild. Keywords

Dukas, Reuven

444

WILD POLYOMINO WEAK (1,2)-ACHIEVEMENT GAMES  

E-print Network

or wild animal is a finite set of cells of the infinite chessboard that is connected through edges polyomino. Otherwise the polyomino is called a loser. In this paper we classify all wild animals as winners three cells There are three wild animals with fewer than three cells: P0 P1 P2 2000 Mathematics Subject

Sieben, Nándor

445

SHORT COMMUNICATION Lack of evidence of paratuberculosis in wild canids  

E-print Network

animals. We hypothe- sized that wild canids could be used as sentinels for the detection of regions with higher Mycobacterium avium para- tuberculosis (MAP) prevalence in wild and domestic animals. To test, and avian influenza (Scotch et al. 2009). Wild animals can also act as indicators of diseases circulating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ramona DeLorme, Wild Horse and Burro Administrative...authority of 43 CFR part 1784, the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...p.m.) 2:45 p.m.--Animal Welfare 3:35...

2010-05-13

447

Development of an Automated Tracking System of Tagged Wild Animals  

E-print Network

Development of an Automated Tracking System of Tagged Wild Animals Mariya Ishutkina1 Timothy Chan2 and there are about a hundred of them living in the wild. For tracking purposes, each animal is outfitted remaining animals and established a captive-breeding program to restore red wolves in the wild. As pointed

448

Multiscale analysis of geometric planar deformations: application to wild animals  

E-print Network

1 Multiscale analysis of geometric planar deformations: application to wild animals electronic observation datasets, namely wild animal movement paths recorded by electronic tags and satellite observations], [23], [27], [46], [61] initiated the investigation of poorly known behaviors of wild animals (e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

E-print Network

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

Altwegg, Res

450

Wild Parsnip (Pastinaca Sativa): A Troublesome Species of Increasing Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of us fondly associate parsnips with a rustic, home-cooked meal, there is also a wild variety that is increasingly causing problems as a weed in North America. The cultivated variety is a subspecies of Pastinaca sativa (Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa) and contains lower amounts of the problematic furanocoumarins than the wild version. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. PAVSA)

Kristine M. Averill; Antonio DiTommaso

2007-01-01

451

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

452

Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.  

PubMed

We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses. PMID:24949927

Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

2014-10-01