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1

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Teosinte  

PubMed Central

The teosintes, the closest wild relatives of maize, are important resources for the study of maize genetics and evolution and for plant breeding. We genotyped 237 individual teosinte plants for 93 microsatellites. Phylogenetic relationships among species and subspecific taxa were largely consistent with prior analyses for other types of molecular markers. Plants of all species formed monophyletic clades, although relationships among species were not fully resolved. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Mexican annual teosintes divide into two clusters that largely correspond to the previously defined subspecies, Z. mays ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana, although there are a few samples that represent either evolutionary intermediates or hybrids between these two subspecies. The Mexican annual teosintes show genetic substructuring along geographic lines. Hybridization or introgression between some teosintes and maize occurs at a low level and appears most common with Z. mays ssp. mexicana. Phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of the Mexican annual teosintes indicated that ssp. parviglumis diversified in the eastern part of its distribution and spread from east to west and that ssp. mexicana diversified in the Central Plateau of Mexico and spread along multiple paths to the north and east. We defined core sets of collections of Z. mays ssp. mexicana and ssp. parviglumis that attempt to capture the maximum number of microsatellite alleles for given sample sizes.

Fukunaga, Kenji; Hill, Jason; Vigouroux, Yves; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Sanchez G., Jesus; Liu, Kejun; Buckler, Edward S.; Doebley, John

2005-01-01

2

Pollination between maize and teosinte: an important determinant of gene flow in Mexico.  

PubMed

Gene flow between maize [Zea mays (L.)] and its wild relatives does occur, but at very low frequencies. Experiments were undertaken in Tapachula, Nayarit, Mexico to investigate gene flow between a hybrid maize, landraces of maize and teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana, races Chalco and Central Plateau). Hybridization, flowering synchrony, pollen size and longevity, silk elongation rates, silk and trichome lengths and tassel diameter and morphology were measured. Hybrid and open-pollinated maize ears produced a mean of 8 and 11 seeds per ear, respectively, when hand-pollinated with teosinte pollen, which is approximately 1-2% of the ovules normally produced on a hybrid maize ear. Teosinte ears produced a mean of 0.2-0.3 seeds per ear when pollinated with maize pollen, which is more than one-fold fewer seeds than produced on a maize ear pollinated with teosinte pollen. The pollination rate on a per plant basis was similar in the context of a maize plant with 400-500 seeds and a teosinte plant with 30-40 inflorescences and 9-12 fruitcases per inflorescence. A number of other factors also influenced gene-flow direction: (1) between 90% and 95% of the fruitcases produced on teosinte that was fertilized by maize pollen were sterile; (2) teosinte collections were made in an area where incompatibility systems that limit fertilization are present; (3) silk longevity was much shorter for teosinte than for maize (approx. 4 days vs. approx. 11 days); (4) teosinte produced more pollen on a per plant basis than the landraces and commercial hybrid maize; (5) teosinte frequently produced lateral branches with silks close to a terminal tassel producing pollen. Collectively these factors tend to favor crossing in the direction of teosinte to maize. Our results support the hypothesis that gene flow and the subsequent introgression of maize genes into teosinte populations most probably results from crosses where teosinte first pollinates maize. The resultant hybrids then backcross with teosinte to introgress the maize genes into the teosinte genome. This approach would slow introgression and may help explain why teosinte continues to co-exist as a separate entity even though it normally grows in the vicinity of much larger populations of maize. PMID:15592808

Baltazar, Baltazar M; de Jesús Sánchez-Gonzalez, José; de la Cruz-Larios, Lino; Schoper, John B

2005-02-01

3

Genetic Analysis of the Morphological Differences Between Maize and Teosinte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular marker loci were used to investigate the inheritance of morphological traits that distinguish maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from a closely related wild relative, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana). Regression and interval mapping analyses gave largely congruent results concerning the numbers of loci controlling the morphological traits and the magnitudes of their effects; however, interval mapping tended to give

John Doebley; Adrian Stec

1991-01-01

4

Identification of teosinte, maize, and Tripsacum in Mesoamerica by using pollen, starch grains, and phytoliths  

PubMed Central

We examined pollen grains and starch granules from a large number of modern populations of teosinte (wild Zea spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and closely related grasses in the genus Tripsacum to assess their strengths and weaknesses in studying the origins and early dispersals of maize in its Mesoamerican cradle of origin. We report new diagnostic criteria and question the accuracy of others used previously by investigators to identify ancient maize where its wild ancestor, teosinte, is native. Pollen grains from teosinte overlap in size with those of maize to a much greater degree than previously reported, making the differentiation of wild and domesticated maize in palynological studies difficult. There is presently no valid method for separating maize and teosinte pollen on a morphological basis. Starch grain analysis, a recently developed tool of archaeobotany, appears to be of significant utility in distinguishing the seeds of teosinte from maize. We propose that the differences in starch grain morphology and size between wild and domesticated maize defined in this study may be associated with domestication genes in Zea that have been documented in the starch biosynthesis pathway. As previously reported, phytoliths effectively discriminate the female reproductive structures of Tripsacum, teosinte, and maize. Multiproxy microfossil studies of archaeological and paleoecological contexts appear to be effective tools for investigating the earliest stages of maize domestication and dispersals.

Holst, Irene; Moreno, J. Enrique; Piperno, Dolores R.

2007-01-01

5

Pollination between maize and teosinte: an important determinant of gene flow in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow between maize [ Zea mays (L.)] and its wild relatives does occur, but at very low frequencies. Experiments were undertaken in Tapachula, Nayarit, Mexico to investigate gene flow between a hybrid maize, landraces of maize and teosinte ( Z. mays ssp. mexicana, races Chalco and Central Plateau). Hybridization, flowering synchrony, pollen size and longevity, silk elongation rates, silk

Baltazar M. Baltazar; José de Jesús Sánchez-Gonzalez; Lino de la Cruz-Larios; John B. Schoper

2005-01-01

6

Genetic Analysis of the Morphological Differences between Maize and Teosinte  

PubMed Central

Molecular marker loci were used to investigate the inheritance of morphological traits that distinguish maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from a closely related wild relative, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana). Regression and interval mapping analyses gave largely congruent results concerning the numbers of loci controlling the morphological traits and the magnitudes of their effects; however, interval mapping tended to give larger estimates for the magnitudes of the effects of the morphological trait loci. This tendency was exaggerated for traits that were non-normally distributed. Variation for most inflorescence traits is controlled by one or two regions of the genome with large effects plus several other regions with relatively small effects. As such, the data are congruent with a mode of inheritance for most traits involving one or two major loci plus several minor loci. Regions of the genome with large effects on one trait consistently had smaller effects on several other traits, possibly as a result of pleiotropy. Most of the variation for the dramatic differences in inflorescence morphology between maize and teosinte is explained by five restricted regions of the genome. One of these regions encompasses a previously described gene, tb1 (teosinte branched), and the effects of this region on inflorescence architecture are similar to the known effects of tb1. Implications of this work for the genetic basis of morphological evolution in plants are discussed.

Doebley, J.; Stec, A.

1991-01-01

7

Expression patterns and mutant phenotype of teosinte branched1 correlate with growth suppression in maize and teosinte.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of domesticated maize from its wild ancestor teosinte is a dramatic example of the effect of human selection on agricultural crops. Maize has one dominant axis of growth, whereas teosinte is highly branched. The axillary branches in maize are short and feminized whereas the axillary branches of teosinte are long and end in a male inflorescence under normal growth conditions. Previous QTL and molecular analysis suggested that the teosinte branched1 (tb1) gene of maize contributed to the architectural difference between maize and teosinte. tb1 mutants of maize resemble teosinte in their overall architecture. We analyzed the tb1 mutant phenotype in more detail and showed that the highly branched phenotype was due to the presence of secondary and tertiary axillary branching, as well as to an increase in the length of each node, rather than to an increase in the number of nodes. Double-mutant analysis with anther ear1 and tassel seed2 revealed that the sex of the axillary inflorescence was not correlated with its length. RNA in situ hybridization showed that tb1 was expressed in maize axillary meristems and in stamens of ear primordia, consistent with a function of suppressing growth of these tissues. Expression in teosinte inflorescence development suggests a role in pedicellate spikelet suppression. Our results provide support for a role for tb1 in growth suppression and reveal the specific tissues where suppression may occur.

Hubbard, Lauren; McSteen, Paula; Doebley, John; Hake, Sarah

2002-01-01

8

Gene flow among different teosinte taxa and into the domesticated maize gene pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) was domesticated from one wild species ancestor, the Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) about 9000 years ago. Higher levels of gene diversity are found in teosinte taxa compared to maize, following domestication\\u000a and selection bottlenecks. Diversity in maize can be increased via gene flow from teosinte, which has certainly occurred from\\u000a various taxa, but

Garrison Wilkes; S. Taba; Alain Charcosset; Celine Mir; Fabrice Dumas; Delphine Madur; Susanne Dreisigacker; Claudia Bedoya; B. M. Prasanna; C. X. Xie; Sarah Hearne; Jorge Franco

9

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.  

PubMed

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del híbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maíz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos híbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maíz. Como conclusión sugerimos que en México, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresión de los genes transgénicos del maíz al teocintle. PMID:22707759

Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

2012-06-01

10

Teosinte Inflorescence Phytolith Assemblages Mirror Zea Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

Hart, John P.; Matson, R. G.; Thompson, Robert G.; Blake, Michael

2011-01-01

11

Cross-Incompatibility Traits from Teosinte and Their Use in Corn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a teosinte crossing barrier trait. Plants containing said trait exhibit the phenotype of cross-incompatiblity. The present invention also relates to new cross-incompatible plants, including inbred, hybrid, haploid, apomict...

J. L. Kermicle M. M. S. Evans S. R. Gerrish

2005-01-01

12

Variation within teosinte. II. numerical analysis of chromosome knob data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal components analysis of 46 chromosome knob positions and B chromosomes for 61 accessions of annual teosinte (in 12\\u000a groups) and 207 accessions of maize (in 87 groups) produced results which did not entirely agree with previous groupings.\\u000a Teosintes of northwest and southeast Guatemala (races Huehuetenango and Guatemala) were widely separated from maize and from\\u000a all other teosintes; however, teosintes

J. S. C. Smith; M. M. Goodman

1982-01-01

13

Genetic variation for phenotypically invariant traits detected in teosinte: implications for the evolution of novel forms.  

PubMed Central

How new discrete states of morphological traits evolve is poorly understood. One possibility is that single-gene changes underlie the evolution of new discrete character states and that evolution is dependent on the occurrence of new single-gene mutations. Another possibility is that multiple-gene changes are required to elevate an individual or population above a threshold required to produce the new character state. A prediction of the latter model is that genetic variation for the traits should exist in natural populations in the absence of phenotypic variation. To test this idea, we studied traits that are phenotypically invariant within teosinte and for which teosinte is discretely different from its near relative, maize. By employing a QTL mapping strategy to analyze the progeny of a testcross between an F(1) of two teosintes and a maize inbred line, we identified cryptic genetic variation in teosinte for traits that are invariant in teosinte. We argue that such cryptic genetic variation can contribute to the evolution of novelty when reconfigured to exceed the threshold necessary for phenotypic expression or by acting to modify or stabilize the effects of major mutations.

Lauter, Nick; Doebley, John

2002-01-01

14

Teosinte crossing barrier1, a locus governing hybridization of teosinte with maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A teosinte gene or gene cluster, Teosinte crossing barrier1 (Tcb1), that restricts crossability with maize mapped 6 centiMorgans distal to sugary-1 on chromosome 4. Tcb1 is loosely linked with the gametophyte-1 locus whose Ga1-s allele, present in many popcorns, confers nonreceptivity to the pollen of other maize varieties (ga1). Full-strength Tcb1 (positive modifiers present) was nonreceptive to Ga1-s as well

M. M. S. Evans; J. L. Kermicle

2001-01-01

15

Silicon amelioration of aluminium toxicity in teosinte (Zea mays L. ssp. mexicana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different Al concentrations, (0, 60 and 120 µM Al) on growth and internal concentrations of Al, Si and selected organic acids was analysed in plants of teosinte (Zea mays L. ssp. mexicana), a wild form of maize from acid soils from Mexico. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions (pH 4.0) with or without 4 µM silicon.

J. Barcelo; P. Guevara; Ch. Poschenrieder

1993-01-01

16

Effect of Teosinte Cytoplasmic Genomes on Maize Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Determining the contribution of organelle genes to plant phenotype is hampered by several factors, including the paucity of variation in the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. To circumvent this problem, evolutionary divergence between maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and the teosintes, its closest relatives, was utilized as a source of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Maize lines in which the maize organelle genomes were replaced through serial backcrossing by those representing the entire genus, yielding alloplasmic sublines, or cytolines were created. To avoid the confounding effects of segregating nuclear alleles, an inbred maize line was utilized. Cytolines with Z. mays teosinte cytoplasms were generally indistinguishable from maize. However, cytolines with cytoplasm from the more distantly related Z. luxurians, Z. diploperennis, or Z. perennis exhibited a plethora of differences in growth, development, morphology, and function. Significant differences were observed for 56 of the 58 characters studied. Each cytoline was significantly different from the inbred line for most characters. For a given character, variation was often greater among cytolines having cytoplasms from the same species than among those from different species. The characters differed largely independently of each other. These results suggest that the cytoplasm contributes significantly to a large proportion of plant traits and that many of the organelle genes are phenotypically important.

Allen, James O.

2005-01-01

17

Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients.  

PubMed

It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

Díez, Concepción M; Gaut, Brandon S; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E; Tenaillon, Maud I

2013-07-01

18

A Selfish Gene Governing Pollen-Pistil Compatibility Confers Reproductive Isolation Between Maize Relatives  

PubMed Central

Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat.

Kermicle, Jerry L.

2006-01-01

19

Organelle DNA variation and systematic relationships in the genus Zea: Teosinte  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs from six races of annual teosinte (Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Balsas, Central Plateau, Chalco, and Nobogame), perennial teosinte, and maize were compared and grouped by restriction endonuclease fragment analyses. Three groups of chloroplast DNAs were detected: (i) perennial teosinte and Guatemala; (ii) Balsas and Huehuetenango; and (iii) all other teosintes. Four groups of mitochondrial DNAs were separated: (i) perennial teosinte; (ii) Guatemala; (iii) Nobogame; and (iv) all other teosintes. Separation of the teosinte and maize organelle DNAs into five groups (Guatemala; perennial teosinte; Balsas and Huehuetenango; Central Plateau and Chalco; Nobogame and maize) approximated the biosystematic relationships of the taxa. It was suggested that the evolutions of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs may be independent of each other, that variation of organelle DNA within a species complex of an organism may be the common condition, and that the DNAs of the organelle and nuclear systems evolve in reasonable harmony. Images

Timothy, D. H.; Levings, C. S.; Pring, D. R.; Conde, M. F.; Kermicle, J. L.

1979-01-01

20

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence From Association Mapping  

PubMed Central

Previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for association with 31 traits in a population of 817 individuals. Thirty-three significant associations for markers from 15 candidate genes and 10 traits survive correction for multiple testing. Our analyses suggest several new putative causative relationships between specific genes and trait variation in teosinte. For example, two ramosa genes (ra1 and ra2) associate with ear structure, and the MADS-box gene, zagl1, associates with ear shattering. Since zagl1 was previously shown to be a target of selection during maize domestication, we suggest that this gene was under selection for its effect on the loss of ear shattering, a key domestication trait. All observed effects were relatively small in terms of the percentage of phenotypic variation explained (<10%). We also detected several epistatic interactions between markers in the same gene that associate with the same trait. Candidate-gene-based association mapping appears to be a promising method for investigating the inheritance of complex traits in teosinte.

Weber, Allison L.; Briggs, William H.; Rucker, Jesse; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; de Jesus Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jose; Feng, Ping; Buckler, Edward S.; Doebley, John

2008-01-01

21

Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.  

PubMed Central

Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely.

Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

2003-01-01

22

Genetic and Morphological Analysis of a Maize-Teosinte F_2 Population: Implications for the Origin of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes controlling the dramatic morphological differences between maize and its presumed progenitor (teosinte) were investigated in a maize-teosinte F_2 population through the use of molecular markers. Results indicate that the key traits differentiating maize and teosinte are each under multigenic control, although for some traits, such as the number of ranks of cupules, the data are consistent with a mode

John Doebley; Adrian Stec; Jonathan Wendel; Marlin Edwards

1990-01-01

23

Teosinte glume architecture 1: A Genetic Locus Controlling a Key Step in Maize Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teosinte, the probable progenitor of maize, has kernels that are encased in hardened fruitcases, which interfere with the use of the kernels as food. Although the components of the fruitcase are present in maize, their development is disrupted so that the kernels are not encased as in teosinte but exposed on the ear. The change from encased to exposed kernels

Jane Dorweiler; Adrian Stec; Jerry Kermicle; John Doebley

1993-01-01

24

Gene flow from genetically modified rice to its wild relatives: Assessing potential ecological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen-mediated gene flow is the major pathway for transgene escape from GM rice to its wild relatives. Transgene escape to wild Oryza species having AA-genome will occur if GM rice is released to environments with these wild Oryza species. Transgenes may persist to and spread in wild populations after gene flow, resulting unwanted ecological consequences. For assessing the potential consequences

Bao-Rong Lu; Chao Yang

2009-01-01

25

Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.  

PubMed

Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion/addition experiments are feasible alternatives when molecular containment of transgenes restricts field experiments with insect resistant crop-wild hybrids. PMID:19419653

Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

2009-01-01

26

Teosinte Branched1 and the Origin of Maize: Evidence for Epistasis and the Evolution of Dominance  

PubMed Central

Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling differences in plant and inflorescence architecture between maize and its progenitor (teosinte) were analyzed. Complementation tests indicate that one of these, which is on chromosome arm 1L, is the locus for the maize mutant teosinte branched1 (tb1). This QTL has effects on inflorescence sex and the number and length of internodes in the lateral branches and inflorescences. This QTL has strong phenotypic effects in teosinte background but reduced effects in maize background. The second QTL, which is on chromosome arm 3L, affects the same traits as the QTL on 1L. We identify two candidate loci for this QTL. The effects of this QTL on several traits are reduced in both maize and teosinte background as compared to a maize-teosinte F(2) population. Genetic background appears to affect gene action for both QTL. Analysis of a population in which both QTL were segregating revealed that they interact epistatically. Together, these two QTL substantially transform both plant and inflorescence architecture. We propose that tb1 is involved in the teosinte plant's response to local environment to produce either long or short branches and that maize evolution involved a change at this locus to produce short branches under all environments.

Doebley, J.; Stec, A.; Gustus, C.

1995-01-01

27

Inheritance of the Morphological Differences Between Maize and Teosinte: Comparison of Results for Two F2 Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular marker loci (MMLs) were employed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an F:! population derived from a cross of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and its probable progenitor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. pamiglumis). A total of 50 significant associations (putative QTLs) between the MMLs and nine key traits that distinguish maize and teosinte were identified. Results from this

John Doebley; Adrian Stec

28

Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives.  

PubMed

The widespread occurrence of free-ranging domestic or feral carnivores (dogs, cats) or ungulates (pigs, goats), and massive releases of captive-reproduced game stocks (galliforms, waterfowl) is raising fear that introgressive hybridization with wild populations might disrupt local adaptations, leading to population decline and loss of biodiversity. Detecting introgression through hybridization is problematic if the parental populations cannot be sampled (unlike in classical stable hybrid zones), or if hybridization is sporadic. However, the use of hypervariable DNA markers (microsatellites) and new statistical methods (Bayesian models), have dramatically improved the assessment of cryptic population structure, admixture analyses and individual assignment testing. In this paper, I summarize results of projects aimed to identify occurrence and extent of introgressive hybridization in European populations of wolves (Canis lupus), wildcats (Felis silvestris), rock partridges and red-legged partridges (Alectoris graeca and Alectoris rufa), using genetic methods. Results indicate that introgressive hybridization can be locally pervasive, and that conservation plans should be implemented to preserve the integrity of the gene pools of wild populations. Population genetic methods can be fruitfully used to identify introgressed individuals and hybridizing populations, providing data which allow evaluating risks of outbreeding depression. The diffusion in the wild of invasive feral animals, and massive restocking with captive-reproduced game species, should be carefully controlled to avoid loss of genetic diversity and disruption of local adaptations. PMID:18173502

Randi, Ettore

2008-01-01

29

Do Cultivated Varieties of Native Plants Have the Ability to Outperform Their Wild Relatives?  

PubMed Central

Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over the short-term.

Schroder, Roland; Prasse, Rudiger

2013-01-01

30

Morphological variability and resource allocation in the annual teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. mexicana (Schrader) Iltis) of the Toluca Valley, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the morphological variability and resource allocation of weedy, annual teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana (Schrader) Iltis, Chalco race) from the Valley of Toluca, central Mexico, and compares it with data reported for maize. One\\u000a hundred mature and fertile teosinte plants were selected for variation in size and measured. The extremes found for fertile\\u000a plants were 0.12 and

Francisco Perdomo-Roldán; Manuel A. Galindo-Reyes; Heike Vibrans

2009-01-01

31

Diversity of centromeric repeats in two closely related wild rice species, Oryza officinalis and Oryza rhizomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryza officinalis (CC, 2n=24) and Oryza rhizomatis (CC, 2n=24) belong to the Oryza genus, which contains more than 20 identified wild rice species. Although much has been known about the molecular composition\\u000a and organization of centromeres in Oryza sativa, relatively little is known of its wild relatives. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a 126-bp centromeric\\u000a satellite (CentO-C)

Weidong Bao; Wenli Zhang; Qiuying Yang; Yu Zhang; Bin Han; Minghong Gu; Yongbiao Xue; Zhukuan Cheng

2006-01-01

32

Chloroplast DNA diversity in Vicia faba and its close wild relatives: implications for reassessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain new information on phylogenetic relationships between wild and cultivated broad bean, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNAs from Vicia faba and eight subspecies\\/species of its close wild relatives grouped together in the Narbonensis complex was carried out using 14 restriction endonucleases. The molecular sizes of the cpDNAs obtained were similar (122.6–123.4 kbp), indicating that

S. N. Raina; Y. Ogihara

1994-01-01

33

Using Association Mapping in Teosinte to Investigate the Function of Maize Selection-Candidate Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLarge-scale screens of the maize genome identified 48 genes that show the putative signature of artificial selection during maize domestication or improvement. These selection-candidate genes may act as quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the phenotypic differences between maize and its progenitor, teosinte. The selection-candidate genes appear to be located closer in the genome to domestication QTL than expected by

Allison L. Weber; Qiong Zhao; Michael D. McMullen; John F. Doebley; Pär K. Ingvarsson

2009-01-01

34

The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize  

PubMed Central

Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole plant coordination of biomass accumulation and maize domestication.

2014-01-01

35

Phytochrome B Represses Teosinte Branched1 Expression and Induces Sorghum Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Response to Light Signals1  

PubMed Central

Light is one of the environmental signals that regulate the development of shoot architecture. Molecular mechanisms regulating shoot branching by light signals have not been investigated in detail. Analyses of light signaling mutants defective in branching provide insight into the molecular events associated with the phenomenon. It is well documented that phytochrome B (phyB) mutant plants display constitutive shade avoidance responses, including increased plant height and enhanced apical dominance. We investigated the phyB-1 mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and analyzed the expression of the sorghum Teosinte Branched1 gene (SbTB1), which encodes a putative transcription factor that suppresses bud outgrowth, and the sorghum dormancy-associated gene (SbDRM1), a marker of bud dormancy. Buds are formed in the leaf axils of phyB-1; however, they enter into dormancy soon after their formation. The dormant state of phyB-1 buds is confirmed by the high level of expression of the SbDRM1 gene. The level of SbTB1 mRNA is higher in the buds of phyB-1 compared to wild type, suggesting that phyB mediates the growth of axillary shoots in response to light signals in part by regulating the mRNA abundance of SbTB1. These results are confirmed by growing wild-type seedlings with supplemental far-red light that induces shade avoidance responses. We hypothesize that active phyB (Pfr) suppresses the expression of the SbTB1 gene, thereby inducing bud outgrowth, whereas environmental conditions that inactivate phyB allow increased expression of SbTB1, thereby suppressing bud outgrowth.

Kebrom, Tesfamichael H.; Burson, Byron L.; Finlayson, Scott A.

2006-01-01

36

Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

d Background and Aims Transgene escape through gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to their wild relative species may potentially cause environmental biosafety problems. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of gene flow between cultivated rice and two of its close relatives under field conditions. d Methods Experiments were conducted at two sites in Korea

J UAN C HEN; D ONG S UN L EE; Z HI P ING; S ONG; H A K S O O SU; B AO-RONG L U

2004-01-01

37

Morphofunctional State of Epiphysis in Relatively Wild and Domesticated Silver-Black Foxes during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological indices of changes in the epiphysis activity during pregnancy are analyzed in relatively wild and domesticated silver-black foxes. The diameter of light actively functioning nuclei of pinealocytes increased most significantly and reliably in the end of pregnancy and, at the same time, the area of their surface decreased. These signs witness an enhanced protein synthesis. Unlike other stages of

L. A. Kolesnikova

2002-01-01

38

Interpretation of Relative Weight in Three Populations of Wild Bluegills: A Cautionary Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological status of wild fish is inherently variable in time and space, and investigators need to understand how this variation affects the interpretation of condition indices. Our objective was to describe the relationship of relative weight (Wr) to several indicators of nutritional status (lipid, protein, and water content, and weights of internal organs) in two populations of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

Timothy Copeland; Brian R. Murphy; John J. Ney

2008-01-01

39

Mitochondrial genome diversity among cultivars of daucus carota (ssp. sativus) and their wild relatives.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 13 carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), wild carrot (ssp. carota), ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius were compared with each other using four restriction endonucleases. The mtDNAs of the 13 carrot cultivars could be classified into three distinct types - I, II and III - and were also clearly distinguishable from the mtDNAs of wild carrot (type IV), gummifer (V) and D. capillifolius (VI). The proportions of common restriction fragments (F values) shared by two of the three mtDNA types (I, II and III) of carrot cultivars were approximately 0.5-0.6. The F values were 0.4-0.5 for mitochondrial genomes between wild carrot, ssp. gummifer and D. capillifolius. The mitochondrial genomes between wild carrot and the carrot cultivars showed closer homologies those between wild carrot, ssp. gummifer, and D. capillifolius. The diversity of the mitochondrial genomes among the carrot cultivars is too high to presume that it was generated from the cytoplasm of only one common ancestor during the relatively short history of carrot breeding. These results suggested that the three types of cytoplasms found in the carrot cultivars might have existed in a prototype of D. carota in pre-historical times. PMID:24232471

Ichikawa, H; Tanno-Suenaga, L; Imamura, J

1989-01-01

40

Using Association Mapping in Teosinte to Investigate the Function of Maize Selection-Candidate Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale screens of the maize genome identified 48 genes that show the putative signature of artificial selection during maize domestication or improvement. These selection-candidate genes may act as quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the phenotypic differences between maize and its progenitor, teosinte. The selection-candidate genes appear to be located closer in the genome to domestication QTL than expected by chance. Methods and Findings As a step toward defining the traits controlled by these genes, we performed phenotype-genotype association mapping in teosinte for 32 of the 48 plus three other selection-candidate genes. Our analyses assayed 32 phenotypic traits, many of which were altered during maize domestication or improvement. We observed several significant associations between SNPs in the selection-candidate genes and trait variation in teosinte. These included two associations that surpassed the Bonferroni correction and five instances where a gene significantly associated with the same trait in both of our association mapping panels. Despite these significant associations, when compared as a group the selection-candidate genes performed no better than randomly chosen genes. Conclusions Our results suggest association analyses can be helpful for identifying traits under the control of selection-candidate genes. Indeed, we present evidence for new functions for several selection-candidate genes. However, with the current set of selection-candidate genes and our association mapping strategy, we found very few significant associations overall and no more than we would have found with randomly chosen genes. We discuss possible reasons that a large number of significant genotype-phenotype associations were not discovered.

Weber, Allison L.; Zhao, Qiong; McMullen, Michael D.; Doebley, John F.

2009-01-01

41

Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).  

PubMed

Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. PMID:20227048

Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

2010-02-01

42

Plant regeneration from cultured leaf explants of eight wild tomato species and two related Solanum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Optimum conditions for plant regeneration from cultured leaf explants were ascertained for eight different wild tomato (Lycopersicon) species and two closely relatedSolanum species. Of the eight media tested, basal MS medium supplemented with 5 µM of the cytokinin 6-benzyladenine proved to be the best overall regeneration medium. Regeneration frequency varied significantly\\u000a between species with maximum frequency of regeneration observed forL.

S. A. Kut; D. A. Evans

1982-01-01

43

Screening for resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an airborne disease which causes significant yield losses in shallots (A. cepa var. ascalonicum)\\u000a grown in the tropics. Breeding for resistance to this disease in shallots has been scarcely carried out and has been primarily\\u000a focussed on Allium cepa material. Wild species related to shallot might provide sources of resistance and therefore a screening\\u000a of this material

G. A. Galván; W. A. Wietsma; S. Putrasemedja; A. H. Permadi; C. Kik

1997-01-01

44

Introgression potential between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and wild relatives of the genus Carthamus  

PubMed Central

Background Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a thistle that is grown commercially for the production of oil and birdseed and recently, as a host for the production of transgenic pharmaceutical proteins. C. tinctorius can cross with a number of its wild relatives, creating the possibility of gene flow from safflower to weedy species. In this study we looked at the introgression potential between different members of the genus Carthamus, measured the fitness of the parents versus the F1 hybrids, followed the segregation of a specific transgene in the progeny and tried to identify traits important for adaptation to different environments. Results Safflower hybridized and produced viable offspring with members of the section Carthamus and species with chromosome numbers of n = 10 and n = 22, but not with n = 32. The T-DNA construct of a transgenic C. tinctorius line was passed on to the F1 progeny in a Mendelian fashion, except in one specific cross, where it was deleted at a frequency of approximately 21%. Analyzing fitness and key morphological traits like colored seeds, shattering seed heads and the presence of a pappus, we found no evidence of hybrid vigour or increased weediness in the F1 hybrids of commercial safflower and its wild relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that hybridization between commercial safflower and its wild relatives, while feasible in most cases we studied, does not generate progeny with higher propensity for weediness.

2011-01-01

45

Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.  

PubMed

Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat. PMID:23426195

Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

2013-04-01

46

Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

2005-01-01

47

Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

Nicholson, D. S.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Stewart, M. D.; Masters, R. E.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2000-01-01

48

Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.  

PubMed

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks. PMID:22595138

Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

2012-10-12

49

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

50

Mitochondrial DNA variation and crossability of leek (Allium porrum) and its wild relatives from the Allium ampeloprasum complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation in the cultigens leek, kurrat and prei-anak is limited compared to that of their wild relatives\\u000a in the Allium ampeloprasum complex. The phylogenetic relationships among these cultigens and their wild relatives is quite close, with the majority\\u000a of the species clustering within one mitochondrial clade. The presence in leek of an extra-mitochondrial genetic element was\\u000a noted.

C. Kik; A. M. Samoylov; W. H. J. Verbeek; L. W. D. van Raamsdonk

1997-01-01

51

Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.  

PubMed

Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. PMID:24103297

Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

2014-01-01

52

Mechanisms influencing competition between hatchery and wild juvenile anadromous Pacific salmonids in fresh water and their relative competitive abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avoiding negative effects of competition from released hatchery salmonids on wild fish is a primary concern for recovery efforts\\u000a and fisheries management. Several factors affect competition among juvenile salmonids including: (1) whether competition is\\u000a intra- or interspecific, (2) duration of freshwater cohabitation of hatchery and wild fish, (3) relative body size, (4) prior\\u000a residence, (5) environmentally induced developmental differences, and

Christopher P. Tatara; Barry A. Berejikian

53

QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep.

Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

2012-01-01

54

Space Use of African Wild Dogs in Relation to Other Large Carnivores  

PubMed Central

Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

Darnell, Angela M.; Graf, Jan A.; Somers, Michael J.; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

2014-01-01

55

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Maggio, Albino

2010-08-01

56

The Genomic Signature of Crop-Wild Introgression in Maize  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary significance of hybridization and subsequent introgression has long been appreciated, but evaluation of the genome-wide effects of these phenomena has only recently become possible. Crop-wild study systems represent ideal opportunities to examine evolution through hybridization. For example, maize and the conspecific wild teosinte Zea mays ssp. mexicana (hereafter, mexicana) are known to hybridize in the fields of highland Mexico. Despite widespread evidence of gene flow, maize and mexicana maintain distinct morphologies and have done so in sympatry for thousands of years. Neither the genomic extent nor the evolutionary importance of introgression between these taxa is understood. In this study we assessed patterns of genome-wide introgression based on 39,029 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 189 individuals from nine sympatric maize-mexicana populations and reference allopatric populations. While portions of the maize and mexicana genomes appeared resistant to introgression (notably near known cross-incompatibility and domestication loci), we detected widespread evidence for introgression in both directions of gene flow. Through further characterization of these genomic regions and preliminary growth chamber experiments, we found evidence suggestive of the incorporation of adaptive mexicana alleles into maize during its expansion to the highlands of central Mexico. In contrast, very little evidence was found for adaptive introgression from maize to mexicana. The methods we have applied here can be replicated widely, and such analyses have the potential to greatly inform our understanding of evolution through introgressive hybridization. Crop species, due to their exceptional genomic resources and frequent histories of spread into sympatry with relatives, should be particularly influential in these studies.

Hufford, Matthew B.; Lubinksy, Pesach; Pyhajarvi, Tanja; Devengenzo, Michael T.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

57

Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 ?M), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

2013-12-01

58

Fitness effects of derived deleterious mutations in four closely related wild tomato species with spatial structure  

PubMed Central

A key issue in evolutionary biology is an improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms by which species adapt to various environments. Using DNA sequence data, it is possible to quantify the number of adaptive and deleterious mutations, and the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations (its mean and variance) by simultaneously taking into account the demography of a given species. We investigated how selection functions at eight housekeeping genes of four closely related, outcrossing species of wild tomatoes that are native to diverse environments in western South America (Solanum arcanum, S. chilense, S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum). We found little evidence for adaptive mutations but pervasive evidence for strong purifying selection in coding regions of the four species. In contrast, the strength of purifying selection seems to vary among the four species in non-coding (NC) regions (introns). Using FST-based measures of fixation in subdivided populations, we suggest that weak purifying selection has affected the NC regions of S. habrochaites, S. chilense and S. peruvianum. In contrast, NC regions in S. arcanum show a distribution of fitness effects with mutations being either nearly neutral or very strongly deleterious. These results suggest that closely related species with similar genetic backgrounds but experiencing contrasting environments differ in the variance of deleterious fitness effects.

Tellier, A; Fischer, I; Merino, C; Xia, H; Camus-Kulandaivelu, L; Stadler, T; Stephan, W

2011-01-01

59

Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability. PMID:24178017

Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

1994-11-01

60

Age related variation in male-male relationships in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis).  

PubMed

In social organizations characterized by male philopatry, social relationships between males are argued to be the strongest. Little is known about the social relationships of philopatric male spider monkeys. To address this limitation, we investigated social relationships among individually recognized wild adult male spider monkeys from two well-habituated communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, focusing on affiliative behaviors important in regulating male social relationships, including grooming, embracing, arm-wrapping, and grappling. We examined whether behaviors were reciprocated between male partners and whether age was a factor in how the behaviors were distributed or reciprocated, by examining differences between younger adult males (<10 years) and older adult males (?14 years). Although we found evidence that affiliative behaviors were overall reciprocated between spider monkey adult males, there were pronounced differences in the interactions depending on their relative age. Reciprocation in grooming and embraces between same-age males suggests their relationships are valuable to both partners. Among different-age dyads, younger males gave more embraces than they received, were the initiators of grappling and arm-wrapped more often than with same-age males, suggesting relationships between younger and older males are more risky. This confirms that younger males are attracted to older males, probably because they value relationships with older males more than the reverse, but they are also at risk. PMID:21881958

Schaffner, Colleen M; Slater, Kathy Y; Aureli, Filippo

2012-01-01

61

Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese.  

PubMed

In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feather-molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species. PMID:12371495

Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

2002-10-01

62

Mechanisms and diversity of resistance to insect pests in wild relatives of groundnut.  

PubMed

The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut. PMID:14977130

Sharma, H C; Pampapathy, G; Dwivedi, S L; Reddy, L J

2003-12-01

63

Isozyme variation and species relationships in peanut and its wild relatives (Arachis L. - Leguminosae).  

PubMed

Arachis hypogaea (peanut or groundnut) is an AABB allotetraploid whose precise ancestry is not yet clear. Its closest diploid relatives are the annual and perennial wild species included with it in the section Arachis. Variation in these species for 11 different enzymes was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Differences attributed to at least 13 genetic loci were found among eight enzymes, while three enzymes appeared uniform throughout the section. Values for Nei's genetic distance were calculated for all pairs of species and were used to estimate relationships. All diploid species, apart from two whose validity had previously been questioned, could be distinguished by their overall zymotypes, but few contained unique alleles. When species were grouped by their mean genetic distances, they formed two clusters, which agreed reasonably well with the division of the section into annual versus perennial species. The single B-genome species was an outlier within the annual group. A. hypogaea showed fixed heterozygosity at four loci (in ssp. hypogaea) or six loci (in ssp. fastigiata), which agrees with previous conclusions that the peanut is an allotetraploid. None of the diploids included in this survey could be conclusively identified as donors of either the A or the B genome to the tetraploids. The two subspecies of A. hypogaea differed consistently in two of the thirteen putative loci studied. This may call into question the simple hypothesis that A. hypogaea originated from just two diploid species. PMID:24195929

Lu, J; Pickersgill, B

1993-01-01

64

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation, 3 BYDV resistance genes in Th. intermedium, including Bdv2, Bdv3 and Bdv4, were introgressed into common wheat background. Various wheat-Th. intermedium addition and substitution, translocation lines with BYDV-resistance were developed and characterized, such as 7D-7Ai#1 (bearing Bdv2), 7B-7Ai#1, 7D-7E (bearing Bdv3), and 2D-2Ai-2 (bearing Bdv4) translocations. Three wheat varieties with BYDV resistance from Th. intermedium were developed and released in Australia and China, respectively. In addition, wheat-Agropyron cristatum translocation lines, wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition and substitution lines, and a wheat-Leymus multicaulis addition line (line24) with different resistance genes were developed. Cytological analysis, morphological markers, biochemical markers, and molecular markers associated with the alien chromatin carrying BYDV resistance genes were identified and applied to determine the presence of alien, chromosomes or segments, size of alien chromosome segments, and compositions of the alien chromosomes. Furthermore, some resistance-related genes, such as RGA, P450, HSP70, protein kinases, centrin, and transducin, were identified, which expressed specifically in the resistance translocation lines with Bdv2. These studies lay the foundations for developing resistant wheat cultivars and unraveling the resistance mechanism against BYDV. PMID:19782958

Zhang, Zengyan; Lin, Zhishan; Xin, Zhiyong

2009-09-01

65

Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: A wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube

Gajanan B. Zore; Umakanth B. Winston; Babasaheb S. Surwase; Nisha S. Meshram; V. D. Sangle; Smita S. Kulkarni; S. Mohan Karuppayil

2008-01-01

66

Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group  

PubMed Central

Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange.

Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

2013-01-01

67

Specific genetic markers for wheat, spelt, and four wild relatives: comparison of isozymes, RAPDs, and wheat microsatellites.  

PubMed

Three types of markers-isozymes, RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNAs), and wheat microsatellites- were tested on wheat, spelt, and four wild wheat relatives (Aegilops cylindrica, Elymus caninus, Hordeum marinum, and Agropyron junceum). The aim was to evaluate their capability to provide specific markers for differentiation of the cultivated and wild species. The markers were set up for subsequent detection of hybrids and introgression of wheat DNA into wild relatives. All markers allowed differentiation of the cultivated from the wild species. Wheat microsatellites were not amplified in all the wild relatives, whereas RAPDs and isozymes exhibited polymorphism for all species. The dendrograms obtained with RAPD and isozyme data separated Swiss wheat cultivars from those collected in Austria and England, while no difference was found between Swiss spelt and wheat. RAPD data provided a weak discrimination between English and Austrian E. caninus. The microsatellite-based dendrogram discriminated populations of Ae. cylindrica, but no clear separation of H. marinum from E. caninus was revealed. The similarity matrices based on the three different sets of data were strongly correlated. The highest value was recorded between the matrices based on RAPDs and isozymes (Mantel's test, r = 0.93). Correlations between the similarity matrix based on microsatellites and matrices based on RAPDs and isozymes were lower: 0.74 and 0.68, respectively. While microsatellites are very useful for comparisons of closely related accessions, they are less suitable for studies involving less-related taxa. Isozymes provide interesting markers for species differentiation, but their use seems less appropriate for studies of within-species genetic variation. RAPDs can produce a large set of markers, which can be used for the evaluation of both between- and within-species genetic variation, more rapidly and easily than isozymes and microsatellites. PMID:11550895

Guadagnuolo, R; Bianchi, D S; Felber, F

2001-08-01

68

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).  

PubMed

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

2013-07-01

69

Adenoviruses isolated from wild gorillas are closely related to human species C viruses.  

PubMed

We have isolated and cultured three distinct adenoviruses from wild gorillas. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the viruses with human adenovirus species C based on DNA polymerase, hexon, and E4ORF6 genes. The three wild gorilla adenoviruses clustered with the other species C captive gorilla adenoviruses, forming a branch separate from human and chimpanzee/bonobo adenoviruses. Animal sera to the three newly isolated viruses did not cross-neutralize, demonstrating serological distinctiveness. The human adenovirus 5 fiber knob blocked infection, suggesting use of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. These viruses may provide viral vectors with properties distinct from chimpanzee adenovirus and human adenovirus vectors. PMID:23806387

Duncan, McVey; Cranfield, Michael R; Torano, Holly; Kuete, Hubert M; Lee, Grace P; Glenn, Andrew; Bruder, Joseph T; Rangel, David; Brough, Douglas E; Gall, Jason G

2013-09-01

70

New 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives in Fruit of the Wild Eggplant Relative Solanum viarum.  

PubMed

Fruit of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena, Solanum aethiopicum, and Solanum macrocarpon, and wild relatives including Solanum anguivi and Solanum incanum, have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with potential human health benefits. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. By contrast, fruit from accession PI 319855 in the USDA eggplant core collection, unambiguously identified as Solanum viarum by morphological characters, were found to include several major, closely related hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with much longer C18-HPLC retention times than those of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid and other monocaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Four of these compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of lyophilized fruit tissues by C18-HPLC, and structurally elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-TOF-MS. Isomeric compounds 1 and 2 are composed of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid with a malonyl group on the 3- or 4-hydroxyl of quinic acid, respectively, plus a 6-O-sinapoylglucose group 1-O-?-d linked with the 4-hydroxyl on the phenyl ring of the caffeoyl moiety (1?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-carboxyacetoxy- and 1?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-carboxyacetoxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 3 has the same structure as 1 and 2 without malonation of quinic acid (1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 4 differs from 3 by methylation of the carboxyl group on quinic acid (methyl 1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylate). Some features of these four new compounds, such as malonation and the specific linkages between caffeoyl, glucosyl, and sinapoyl moieties, are common in acylated and glycosylated phenylpropanoids, but have not previously been reported in complex derivatives of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. PMID:20886887

Ma, Chunhui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2010-10-27

71

The first case of genotype 4 hepatitis E related to wild boar in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cases of serologically diagnosed hepatitis E have been reported in South Korea; however, there have been no documented cases of zoonotic transmission with virologic characterization of hepatitis E virus (HEV). We report on a sporadic case of autochthonous acute hepatitis E after ingestion of raw bile juice obtained from a wild boar living on a domestic mountain in a

Yeo Myeong Kim; Sook-Hyang Jeong; Jong Yeop Kim; Joon Chang Song; Ji Hye Lee; Jin-Wook Kim; Haesun Yun; Jin Seon Kim

2011-01-01

72

Major gene resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Glycine canescens , a wild relative of soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi in a set of differential lines of the wild plant Glycine canescens showed that resistance was dominant and controlled by genes with major phenotypic effects. Single resistance genes were detected in six of seven host lines. In the seventh line, two independently inherited genes for

J. J. Burdon

1988-01-01

73

Association mapping of yield-related traits and SSR markers in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).  

PubMed

Wild soybean, the progenitor of cultivated soybean, is an important gene pool for ongoing soybean breeding efforts. To identify yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) or gene from wild soybean, 113 wild soybeans accessions were phenotyped for five yield-related traits and genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to conduct association mapping. A total of 892 alleles were detected for the 85 SSR markers, with an average 10.49 alleles; the corresponding PIC values ranged from 0.07 to 0.92, with an average 0.73. The genetic diversity of each SSR marker ranged from 0.07 to 0.93, with an average 0.75. A total of 18 SSR markers were identified for the five traits. Two SSR markers, sct_010 and satt316, which are associated with the yield per plant were stably expressed over two years at two experimental locations. Our results suggested that association mapping can be an effective approach for identifying QTL from wild soybean. PMID:24757383

Hu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Guozheng; Kan, Guizhen; Hong, Delin; Yu, Deyue

2014-03-01

74

Association mapping of yield-related traits and SSR markers in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)  

PubMed Central

Wild soybean, the progenitor of cultivated soybean, is an important gene pool for ongoing soybean breeding efforts. To identify yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) or gene from wild soybean, 113 wild soybeans accessions were phenotyped for five yield-related traits and genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to conduct association mapping. A total of 892 alleles were detected for the 85 SSR markers, with an average 10.49 alleles; the corresponding PIC values ranged from 0.07 to 0.92, with an average 0.73. The genetic diversity of each SSR marker ranged from 0.07 to 0.93, with an average 0.75. A total of 18 SSR markers were identified for the five traits. Two SSR markers, sct_010 and satt316, which are associated with the yield per plant were stably expressed over two years at two experimental locations. Our results suggested that association mapping can be an effective approach for identifying QTL from wild soybean.

Hu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Guozheng; Kan, Guizhen; Hong, Delin; Yu, Deyue

2014-01-01

75

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

76

Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the food supply in the world. Tribe Triticeae, including wheat and barley, possesses tremendous potential for drought and salt tolerance that has been extensively and practically identified, tested, and transferred to wheat cultivars with proven expression of tolerance in experimental trials. Triticum dicoccoides and Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitors of cultivated wheat and barley, have adapted to a broad range of environments and developed rich genetic diversities for drought and salt tolerances. Drought- and salt-tolerant genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in T. dicoccoides and H. spontaneum and have great potential in wheat and barley improvement. Advanced backcross QTL analysis, the introgression libraries based on wild wheat and wild barley as donors, and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles in elucidating the molecular control of drought and salt tolerance. Combining tolerant genes and QTLs in crop breeding programs aimed at improving tolerance to drought and salinity will be achieved within a multidisciplinary context. Wild genetic resistances to drought and salinity will be shifted in the future from field experiments to the farmer. PMID:20040064

Nevo, Eviatar; Chen, Guoxiong

2010-04-01

77

Using seed purity data to estimate an average pollen mediated gene flow from crops to wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow from crops to wild related species has been recently under focus in risk-assessment studies of the ecological consequences\\u000a of growing transgenic crops. However, experimental studies addressing this question are usually temporally or spatially limited.\\u000a Indirect population-structure approaches can provide more global estimates of gene flow, but their assumptions appear inappropriate\\u000a in an agricultural context. In an attempt to

C. Lavigne; E. K. Klein; D. Couvet

2002-01-01

78

Relation between expression pattern of wild-type p53 and multidrug resistance proteins in human nephroblastomas.  

PubMed

One of the best characterized resistance mechanisms of human cancer is multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) and multidrug-resistant related protein (MRP1). In addition to Pgp/MDR1 and MRP1, p53 inactivation or mutation might play a relevant role in therapeutic failure. This study involved 25 children (17 girls and 8 boys) aged 7 months to 10 years treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor. 25 tissue samples of Wilms' tumor and 5 samples of normal human kidneys were obtained from the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Slovak Republic. We used an indirect immunohistochemical method to determine expression of Pgp/MDR1, MRP1 and wild-type p53 in 25 tissue samples of nephroblastoma. The minority of nephroblastoma specimens showed positivity for both MDR proteins, as well as for wild-type p53. 24% of tissue samples revealed positive results for Pgp/MDR1, 48% for MRP1 and 8% for wild-type p53. Furthermore, our study showed a statistically significant difference between p53 and MRP1 protein expression (p<0.01), but not between p53 and Pgp/MDR1 (p>0.05). No correlation was found between the expression of both multidrug resistance proteins (Pgp/MDR1 and MRP1) and the expression of wild-type p53. Immunohistochemical detection of the expression of MDR proteins and wild-type p53 at the time of diagnosis might assist in choosing specific chemotherapeutics to improve prognosis and therapy. PMID:22925562

Hodorová, Ingrid; Rybárová, Silvia; Vecanová, Janka; Solár, Peter; Plank, Lukáš; Mihalik, Jozef

2013-04-01

79

The first case of genotype 4 hepatitis E related to wild boar in South Korea.  

PubMed

Several cases of serologically diagnosed hepatitis E have been reported in South Korea; however, there have been no documented cases of zoonotic transmission with virologic characterization of hepatitis E virus (HEV). We report on a sporadic case of autochthonous acute hepatitis E after ingestion of raw bile juice obtained from a wild boar living on a domestic mountain in a southern part of Korea. It is the first case of hepatitis E acquired through presumably zoonotic transmission, which was verified as genotype 4 HEV. PMID:21130029

Kim, Yeo Myeong; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Jong Yeop; Song, Joon Chang; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Jin-Wook; Yun, Haesun; Kim, Jin Seon

2011-03-01

80

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

2014-06-01

81

Morphological and anatomical determinants of mesophyll conductance in wild relatives of tomato (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, sect. Lycopersicoides; Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Natural selection on photosynthetic performance is a primary factor determining leaf phenotypes. The complex CO2 diffusion path from substomatal cavities to the chloroplasts - the mesophyll conductance (gm ) - limits photosynthetic rate in many species and hence shapes variation in leaf morphology and anatomy. Among sclerophyllous and succulent taxa, structural investment in leaves, measured as the leaf dry mass per area (LMA), has been implicated in decreased gm . However, in herbaceous taxa with high gm , it is less certain how LMA impacts CO2 diffusion and whether it significantly affects photosynthetic performance. We addressed these questions in the context of understanding the ecophysiological significance of leaf trait variation in wild tomatoes, a closely related group of herbaceous perennials. Although gm was high in wild tomatoes, variation in gm significantly affected photosynthesis. Even in these tender-leaved herbaceous species, greater LMA led to reduced gm . This relationship between gm and LMA is partially mediated by cell packing and leaf thickness, although amphistomy (equal distribution of stomata on both sides of the leaf) mitigates the effect of leaf thickness. Understanding the costs of increased LMA will inform future work on the adaptive significance of leaf trait variation across ecological gradients in wild tomatoes and other systems. PMID:24279358

Muir, Christopher D; Hangarter, Roger P; Moyle, Leonie C; Davis, Phillip A

2014-06-01

82

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative  

PubMed Central

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance.

Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2012-01-01

83

Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative.  

PubMed

Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

Bleeker, Petra M; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

2012-12-01

84

Assessment of the possibility of direct crossing between cultivated potato and two wild allotetraploid relatives.  

PubMed

The cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum L. is an autotetraploid with Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) of 4. There are some allotetraploid 2EBN wild species with desirable traits for potato improvement. However, it is very difficult to cross between these two groups due to differences in EBN. Eleven genotypes of autotetraploid cultivated potato including the six cultivars of subsp. Tuberosum (tbr) and five clones of subsp. Andigena (adg) were crossed with two wild allotetraploid species: S. acaule (acl) and S. stoloniferum (sto). For asses the pollen-pistil incompatibility, some ofpollinated flowers were fixed in Carnoy's solution and stained with aniline blue. Evaluation with fluorescent microscope revealed that pre-zygotic pollen-pistil incompatibility in these crosses is frequent. The pistils of both subsp. of cultivated potato were incompatible with pollens of acl but when sto used as staminate parent it was compatible with five cultivars of subsp. Tuberosum, but incompatible with most ofsubsp. Andigena (4 clones). From 739, 4x, 4EBN x 4x, 2EBN crosses we couldn't get any viable seed. In reciprocal crosses, allotetraploid species were pollinated with a mix of pollens from Tuberosum or Andigena clones. The crosses of sto x adg, acl x adg and acl x tbr were compatible but in the case of sto x tbr the situation was not clear. From these crosses 157 fruits were obtained but most of them contained only shrink seed and we find just one hybrid from the sto x tbr combination. The hybrid was tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) and vigorous with profuse flowering and good fertility. When this hybrid was used as the pistillate parent it was compatible with both parental species. PMID:19093439

Panahandeh, J; Valizadeh, M; Khosroshahly, M; Yermishin, A; Khoei, F R

2007-06-15

85

Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: a wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.  

PubMed

Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube formation (in Candida albicans), protection from mutagen toxicity and cytotoxic activities comparable to that of G. glabra. In general, the results suggest that T. cuneifolia could be used as substitute of G. glabra. PMID:17350239

Zore, Gajanan B; Winston, Umakanth B; Surwase, Babasaheb S; Meshram, Nisha S; Sangle, V D; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mohan Karuppayil, S

2008-04-01

86

Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals.

Crockford, C.; Wittig, R. M.; Langergraber, K.; Ziegler, T. E.; Zuberbuhler, K.; Deschner, T.

2013-01-01

87

Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent-offspring bonding, is likely to facilitate non-kin as well as kin bonds. In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event--food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin. We propose that food-sharing events co-opt neurobiological mechanisms evolved to support mother-infant bonding during lactation bouts, and may act as facilitators of bonding and cooperation between unrelated individuals via the oxytocinergic system across social mammals. PMID:24430853

Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Deschner, Tobias; Langergraber, Kevin E; Ziegler, Toni E; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2014-03-01

88

Alteration in expression of hormone-related genes in wild emmer wheat roots associated with drought adaptation mechanisms.  

PubMed

Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles were used to unravel drought adaptation mechanisms in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the progenitor of cultivated wheat, by comparing the response to drought stress in roots of genotypes contrasting in drought tolerance. The differences between the drought resistant (R) and drought susceptible (S) genotypes were characterized mainly by shifts in expression of hormone-related genes (e.g., gibberellins, abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin), including biosynthesis, signalling and response; RNA binding; calcium (calmodulin, caleosin and annexin) and phosphatidylinositol signalling, in the R genotype. ABA content in the roots of the R genotype was higher in the well-watered treatment and increased in response to drought, while in the S genotype ABA was invariant. The metabolomic profiling revealed in the R genotype a higher accumulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and drought-related metabolites, including glucose, trehalose, proline and glycine. The integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics results indicated that adaptation to drought included efficient regulation and signalling pathways leading to effective bio-energetic processes, carbon metabolism and cell homeostasis. In conclusion, mechanisms of drought tolerance were identified in roots of wild emmer wheat, supporting our previous studies on the potential of this genepool as a valuable source for novel candidate genes to improve drought tolerance in cultivated wheat. PMID:21656015

Krugman, Tamar; Peleg, Zvi; Quansah, Lydia; Chagué, Véronique; Korol, Abraham B; Nevo, Eviatar; Saranga, Yehoshua; Fait, Aaron; Chalhoub, Boulos; Fahima, Tzion

2011-12-01

89

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

90

Genetic diversity of Fagopyrum homotropicum, a wild species related to common buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen natural populations of Fagopyrum homotropicum, a self-fertilizing close relative of common buckwheat, from the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China were investigated for their chromosome number and allozyme variation at 16 loci of 11 enzymes. Three populations, 'Deqin', 'Zhongdian', and 'Xiancheng', were revealed to be allotetraploid. Judging from allozyme constitution of the tetraploid and their possible progenitors, diploid progenitors

Ohmi Ohnishi; Noriko Asano

1999-01-01

91

Sex Ratio Adjustment in Relation to Paternal Attractiveness in a Wild Bird Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the relative fitness of sons and daughters differs, sex-allocation theory predicts that it would be adaptive for individuals to adjust their investment in different sexes of offspring. Sex ratio adjustment by females in response to the sexual attractiveness of their mate would be an example of this. In vertebrates the existence of this form of sex ratio adjustment is

Hans Ellegren; Lars Gustafsson; Ben C. Sheldon

1996-01-01

92

Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.  

PubMed

In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

1984-03-01

93

Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.  

PubMed

Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest. PMID:24698177

Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2014-06-01

94

Production of interspecific hybrids between commercial cultivars of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrids between cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum, which has disease resistance and desirable traits for crop improvement, were obtained by cross-hybridization and embryo rescue. Twenty-one hybrid progenies were obtained and examined based on morphological traits, RAPD and ISSR markers. Five of them were confirmed to be true interspecific hybrids. Eighteen and 14 bands from 7 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers, respectively, were polymorphic and present in all five hybrid seedlings and their parents. The morphological characteristics of leaf margin, inflorescence type and spine positions of the five seedlings were intermediate to the parents. These interspecific hybrids had low pollen viability, probably due to abnormal meiosis. PMID:23546959

Kumchai, J; Wei, Y-C; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

2013-01-01

95

Genetic mapping of escalated aggression in wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms: association with serotonin-related genes  

PubMed Central

The Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) retains a wide range of traits related to behavioral wildness, including high levels of emotionality and avoidance of humans. In this study, we observed that MSM showed a markedly higher level of aggression than the standard laboratory strain C57BL/6J. Whereas almost all MSM males showed high frequencies of attack bites and pursuit in the resident-intruder test, only a few C57BL/6J males showed aggressive behaviors, with these behaviors observed at only a low frequency. Sexually mature MSM males in their home cages killed their littermates, or sometimes female pair-mates. To study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the escalated aggression observed in MSM mice, we analyzed reciprocal F1 crosses and five consomic strains of MSM (Chr 4, 13, 15, X and Y) against the background of C57BL/6J. We identified two chromosomes, Chr 4 and Chr 15, which were involved in the heightened aggression observed in MSM. These chromosomes had different effects on aggression: whereas MSM Chr 15 increased agitation and initiation of aggressive events, MSM Chr 4 induced a maladaptive level of aggressive behavior. Expression analysis of mRNAs of serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter and Tph2, an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis in seven brain areas, indicated several differences among MSM, C57BL/6J, and their consomic strains. We found that Tph2 expression in the midbrain was increased in the Chr 4 consomic strain, as well as in MSM, and that there was a strong positive genetic correlation between aggressive behavior and Tph2 expression at the mRNA level. Therefore, it is possible that increased expression of the Tph2 gene is related to escalated aggression observed in MSM.

Takahashi, Aki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

96

Characterisation and analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis transcriptome, a wild relative of wheat in the Sitopsis section.  

PubMed

Aegilops sharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R; Wulff, Brande B H

2013-01-01

97

Genetic mapping of escalated aggression in wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms: association with serotonin-related genes.  

PubMed

The Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) retains a wide range of traits related to behavioral wildness, including high levels of emotionality and avoidance of humans. In this study, we observed that MSM showed a markedly higher level of aggression than the standard laboratory strain C57BL/6J. Whereas almost all MSM males showed high frequencies of attack bites and pursuit in the resident-intruder test, only a few C57BL/6J males showed aggressive behaviors, with these behaviors observed at only a low frequency. Sexually mature MSM males in their home cages killed their littermates, or sometimes female pair-mates. To study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the escalated aggression observed in MSM mice, we analyzed reciprocal F1 crosses and five consomic strains of MSM (Chr 4, 13, 15, X and Y) against the background of C57BL/6J. We identified two chromosomes, Chr 4 and Chr 15, which were involved in the heightened aggression observed in MSM. These chromosomes had different effects on aggression: whereas MSM Chr 15 increased agitation and initiation of aggressive events, MSM Chr 4 induced a maladaptive level of aggressive behavior. Expression analysis of mRNAs of serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter and Tph2, an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis in seven brain areas, indicated several differences among MSM, C57BL/6J, and their consomic strains. We found that Tph2 expression in the midbrain was increased in the Chr 4 consomic strain, as well as in MSM, and that there was a strong positive genetic correlation between aggressive behavior and Tph2 expression at the mRNA level. Therefore, it is possible that increased expression of the Tph2 gene is related to escalated aggression observed in MSM. PMID:24966813

Takahashi, Aki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

98

Evolutionary Dynamics of Retrotransposons Assessed by High-Throughput Sequencing in Wild Relatives of Wheat  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) represent a major fraction of plant genomes and drive their evolution. An improved understanding of genome evolution requires the dynamics of a large number of TE families to be considered. We put forward an approach bypassing the required step of a complete reference genome to assess the evolutionary trajectories of high copy number TE families from genome snapshot with high-throughput sequencing. Low coverage sequencing of the complex genomes of Aegilops cylindrica and Ae. geniculata using 454 identified more than 70% of the sequences as known TEs, mainly long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Comparing the abundance of reads as well as patterns of sequence diversity and divergence within and among genomes assessed the dynamics of 44 major LTR retrotransposon families of the 165 identified. In particular, molecular population genetics on individual TE copies distinguished recently active from quiescent families and highlighted different evolutionary trajectories of retrotransposons among related species. This work presents a suite of tools suitable for current sequencing data, allowing to address the genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of TEs at the family level and advancing our understanding of the evolution of nonmodel genomes.

Senerchia, Natacha; Wicker, Thomas; Felber, Francois; Parisod, Christian

2013-01-01

99

Chloroplast DNA polymorphism and evolutional relationships between Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relatives (O. rufipogon).  

PubMed

We analyzed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) polymorphism and phylogenic relationships between 6 typical indica rice, 4 japonica rice, 8 javanica rice, and 12 Asian common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) strains collected from different latitudes in China by comparing polymorphism at 9 highly variable regions. One hundred and forty-four polymorphic bases were detected. The O. rufipogon samples had 117 polymorphic bases, showing rich genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty-one bases at 13 sites were identified with indica/japonica characteristics; they showed differences between the indica and japonica subspecies at these sites. The javanica strains and japonica shared similar bases at these 131 polymorphic sites, suggesting that javanica is closely related to japonica. On the basis of length analyses of the open reading frame (ORF)100 and (ORF)29-tRNA-Cys(GCA) (TrnC(GCA)) fragments, the O. rufipogon strains were classified into indica/japonica subgroups, which was consistent with the results of the phylogenic tree assay based on concatenated datasets. These results indicated that differences in indica and japonica also exist in the cpDNA genome of the O. rufipogon strains. However, these differences demonstrated a certain degree of primitiveness and incompleteness, as an O. rufipogon line may show different indica/ japonica attributes at different sites. Consequently, O. rufipogon cannot be simply classified into the indica/japonica types as O. sativa. Our data support the hypothesis that Asian cultivated rice, O. indica and O. japonica, separately evolved from Asian common wild rice (O. rufipogon) strains, which have different indica-japonica differentiation trends. PMID:23096910

Li, W J; Zhang, B; Huang, G W; Kang, G P; Liang, M Z; Chen, L B

2012-01-01

100

Study of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance-related mutations in influenza viruses isolated from wild mallards in Sweden.  

PubMed

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species. PMID:24558492

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Järhult, Josef D; Olsen, Björn

2014-01-01

101

Study of Oseltamivir and Zanamivir Resistance-Related Mutations in Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Mallards in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is a growing problem in battle against influenza A virus. However, little is known about the resistance of viruses isolated from dabbling ducks, the natural reservoir of the influenza virus. To our knowledge, no low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus resistant to NAIs has been detected. The aim of this study was to investigate mallard isolates of influenza A virus previously identified to carry oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or zanamivir (ZA) resistance-related mutations. In this work, 21 viruses belonging to the N1, N3, N6 and N9 subtypes were analyzed using a colorimetric NA inhibition assay. The results of assay showed no NAIs-resistant phenotype for any of the viruses. The R118K mutation was the most recurrent, as it was observed in all subtypes except for N6. IC50 values confirmed the differences in sensitivity to OC or ZA observed in the N1 and N2 groups of NAs. Furthermore, both wild types (WTs) in the N6 and one WT in the N9 subtype were less sensitive to ZA than were genotypically related mutants with R152K and R118K change in the respective subtypes. This may indicate that these and probably even other NAIs resistance-related mutations found in our virus collection were not induced by NAIs residuals in the environment and that the impact of such mutations in an avian influenza could be dependent on subtype, strain and host species.

Orozovic, Goran; Orozovic, Kanita; Jarhult, Josef D.; Olsen, Bjorn

2014-01-01

102

H7N3 Avian Influenza Virus Found in a South American Wild Duck Is Related to the Chilean 2002 Poultry Outbreak, Contains Genes from Equine and North American Wild Bird Lineages, and Is Adapted to Domestic Turkeys  

PubMed Central

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 105 times higher for chickens than turkeys.

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G.; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

103

H7N3 avian influenza virus found in a South American wild duck is related to the Chilean 2002 poultry outbreak, contains genes from equine and North American wild bird lineages, and is adapted to domestic turkeys.  

PubMed

An H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) (A/CinnamonTeal/Bolivia/4537/01) during a survey of wild waterfowl in Bolivia in 2001. The NA and M genes had the greatest identity with North American wild bird isolates, the NS was most closely related to an equine virus, and the remaining genes were most closely related to isolates from an outbreak of H7N3 in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002. The HA protein cleavage site and the results of pathogenesis studies in chickens were consistent with a low-pathogenicity virus, and the infective dose was 10(5) times higher for chickens than turkeys. PMID:16840356

Spackman, Erica; McCracken, Kevin G; Winker, Kevin; Swayne, David E

2006-08-01

104

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

105

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-03-01

106

Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.  

PubMed

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-10-01

107

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

108

Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences between species commonly result from changes in the tissue-specific expression of genes. Clustering algorithms are a powerful means to detect coexpression across tissues in single species but are not often applied to multidimensional data sets, such as gene expression across tissues in multiple species. As next-generation sequencing approaches enable interspecific analyses, methods to visualize and explore such data sets will be required. Here, we analyze a data set comprising gene expression profiles across six different tissue types in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii). We find that self-organizing maps are a useful means to analyze interspecies data, as orthologs can be assigned to independent levels of a “super self-organizing map.” We compare various clustering approaches using a principal component analysis in which the expression of orthologous pairs is indicated by two points. We leverage the expression profile differences between orthologs to look at tissue-specific changes in gene expression between species. Clustering based on expression differences between species (rather than absolute expression profiles) yields groups of genes with large tissue-by-species interactions. The changes in expression profiles of genes we observe reflect differences in developmental architecture, such as changes in meristematic activity between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii. Together, our results offer a suite of data-exploration methods that will be important to visualize and make biological sense of next-generation sequencing experiments designed explicitly to discover tissue-by-species interactions in gene expression data.

Chitwood, Daniel H.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

2013-01-01

109

Comparative Analysis of Genome-Wide Chromosomal Histone Modification Patterns in Maize Cultivars and Their Wild Relatives  

PubMed Central

Recent advances demonstrate that epigenome changes can also cause phenotypic diversity and can be heritable across generations, indicating that they may play an important role in evolutionary processes. In this study, we analyzed the chromosomal distribution of several histone modifications in five elite maize cultivars (B73, Mo17, Chang7-2, Zheng58, ZD958) and their two wild relatives (Zea mays L. ssp. parviglumis and Zea nicaraguensis) using a three-dimensional (3D) epigenome karyotyping approach by combining immunostaining and 3D reconstruction with deconvolution techniques. The distribution of these histone modifications along chromosomes demonstrated that the histone modification patterns are conserved at the chromosomal level and have not changed significantly following domestication. The comparison of histone modification patterns between metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei showed that some of the histone modifications were retained as the cell progressed from interphase into metaphase, although remodelling existed. This study will increase comprehension of the function of epigenetic modifications in the structure and evolution of the maize genome.

He, Shibin; Yan, Shihan; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Xiangwu; Shen, Yao; Shao, Kejia; Xin, Haiping; Li, Shaohua; Li, Lijia

2014-01-01

110

Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and\\/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent

S. I. Warwick; M.-J. Simard; A. Légère; H. J. Beckie; L. Braun; B. Zhu; P. Mason; G. Séguin-Swartz; C. N. Stewart

2003-01-01

111

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

112

The Wild Bunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

113

Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

Blouin, Michael

2003-05-01

114

Pollen-mediated gene flow from a commercial potato cultivar to the wild relative S. chacoense Bitter under experimental field conditions in Argentina.  

PubMed

The common potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (tbr, 2n = 4x = 48; 4EBN), has many closely related wild tuber-bearing species. Around 28 to 35 of them spontaneously grow in Argentina overlapping, in some areas, with the crop and/or experimental transgenic potatoes. Although it is well proven that hybridization barriers in potatoes can be incomplete, information on gene flow between cultivated and wild germplasm is scarce. Thus, a gene flow field experiment with a circular array was set up in Balcarce, Argentina, in 2009, and evaluated over two seasons. The tetraploid tbr cultivar Huinkul MAG and one compatible cloned genotype of the related wild potato S. chacoense Bitter (chc, 2n = 2x = 24; 2EBN), which produced 2n eggs, were used, respectively, as pollen donor and receptor. Berries with hybrid seeds - as revealed by ploidy and RAPD profiles - were obtained in one season, at 30 m from the pollen donor. These results reinforce others previously obtained with the same pollen donor and a male sterile tbr cultivar in a similar array, pointing out to the need of increasing isolation distances in areas of overlap between cultivated and wild potato germplasm to prevent or minimize undesirable pollen-mediated gene flow. PMID:24325306

Capurro, Mauricio A; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W

2013-12-01

115

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

116

Wild yam  

MedlinePLUS

... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

117

Genetic variation of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors in pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the trypsin inhibitors (TIs) and the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CIs) among 69 pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] strains from a wide geographical distribution and among 17 accessions representing seven wild Cajanus species was studied by electrophoretic banding pattern comparisons and by spectrophotometric activity assays. The TI and CI electrophoretic migration patterns among the pigeonpea strains were highly uniform but

K. P. Kollipara; L. Singh; T. Hymowitz

1994-01-01

118

Cadmium, copper and zinc toxicity effects on growth, proline content and genetic stability of Solanum nigrum L., a crop wild relative for tomato; comparative study.  

PubMed

Plants like other organisms are affected by environmental factors. Cadmium, copper and zinc are considered the most important types of pollutants in the environment. In this study, a comparison of growth and biochemical parameters between the crop wild relative (CWR) Solanum nigrum versus its cultivated relative Solanum lycopersicum to different levels of Cu, Zn and Cd stress were investigated. The presence of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 in Murashige and Skoog medium affected severely many growth parameters (shoot length, number of roots and leaves, and fresh weight) of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum at high levels. On the other hand, CdCl2 significantly reduced most of the studied growth parameters for both species. S. nigrum exhibited higher tolerance than S. lycopersicum for all types of stress. In addition, results show that as stress level increased in the growing medium, proline content of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum increased. A significant difference was observed between the two species in proline accumulation as a result of stress. In addition, a higher accumulation rate was observed in the crop wild relative (S. nigrum) than in cultivated S. lycopersicum. Changes in Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) pattern of CuSO4 treated S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum plants were also observed. In conclusion, based on growth and biochemical analysis, S. nigrum showed higher level of metals tolerance than S. lycopersicum which indicates the possibility of using it as a crop wild relative for S. lycopersicum. PMID:24554836

Al Khateeb, Wesam; Al-Qwasemeh, Hajer

2014-01-01

119

Progress in Mapping and Cloning Qualitative and Quantitative Resistance Against Phytophthora infestans in Potato and Its Wild Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated potato is susceptible to many pests and pathogens, none of which is more of a threat to potato agriculture than\\u000a the late blight disease, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. To date all efforts to thwart this most adaptive of pathogens have failed, and early attempts to deploy\\u000a ‘R genes’ introgressed from the wild Mexican hexaploid

Ingo Hein; Paul R. J. Birch; Sarah Danan; Véronique Lefebvre; Damaris Achieng Odeny; Christiane Gebhardt; Friederike Trognitz; Glenn J. Bryan

2009-01-01

120

Screening and selection of faba beans ( Vicia faba L.) for cold tolerance and comparison to wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since autumn-sown faba beans possess several advantages including higher seed yield over the spring cultivars, the study was\\u000a aimed to screen and select cold tolerant accessions of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and compare these to wild species in the highland of the west Mediterranean region, Turkey. A total of 114 accessions\\u000a of Vicia species including 109 accessions of faba

Nisa Ertoy Inci; Cengiz Toker

121

Discriminating ability of molecular markers and morphological characterization in the establishment of genetic relationships in cultivated genotypes of almond and related wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total 23 morphological traits, 19 AFLP-primer combinations, 80 RAPD primers and 32 SSR primer pair were used to compare\\u000a the informativeness and efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in establishing genetic relationships among 29 almond cultivars and three related\\u000a wild species. SSRs presented a high level of

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Soghra Kiani; Nazanin Amirbakhtiar; Sadegh Mousavi; Vahid Rouhi; Shahram Mohammady-D; Thomas M. Gradziel; Lyudmyla V. Malysheva-Otto; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

2009-01-01

122

Flow cytometric analysis reveals different nuclear DNA contents in cultivated Fonio ( Digitaria spp.) and some wild relatives from West-Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear DNA amounts of 118 cultivated fonio accessions representing 94 landraces collected from the major growing areas of\\u000a West-Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Togo) and eight accessions of four wild relatives were investigated by\\u000a Laser flow cytometry. In cultivated species, average 2C-values ranged from 1.848 ± 0.031 pg for Digitaria iburua to 1.956 ± 0.004 pg for D.

H. Adoukonou-Sagbadja; V. Schubert; A. Dansi; G. Jovtchev; A. Meister; K. Pistrick; K. Akpagana; W. Friedt

2007-01-01

123

Control of reproduction and sex related behaviour in exotic wild carnivores with the GnRH analogue deslorelin: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting implants, was used in an attempt to temporarily control reproduction or aggression in wild carnivores in southern Africa and the USA. In the southern African study, 6 mg deslorelin was administered to cheetahs (eight females, four males), one female leopard and wild dogs (six females, one male) housed in groups, and 12 mg deslorelin was administered to two lionesses. None of the animals became pregnant after deslorelin administration apart from one wild dog that was mated at the initial treatment-induced oestrus. Two wild dogs and one lioness came into oestrus 12 and 18 months after deslorelin administration, respectively, thus demonstrating that the anti-fertility effects of deslorelin are reversible. Two lionesses and four cheetahs underwent oestrus without allowing mating 2-14 days after treatment. Simultaneous administration of progestins to three bitches and one lioness did not suppress oestrus. Male cheetahs had no spermatozoa on day 82 after treatment and did not impregnate two untreated females. Of three untreated female wild dogs housed with treated males, only the first female to enter oestrus (21 days after deslorelin administration) became pregnant. One month after treatment, plasma testosterone concentrations of male dogs were at basal values. In the USA study, three male sea otters that had been treated with 6 mg deslorelin ceased antagonistic behaviour and blood testosterone concentrations and size of the testes were still sharply reduced 24 months after treatment. Male red (n = 7) and grey (n = 5) wolves received 6 mg deslorelin in December 1998 but no effects on seasonal spermatogenesis and behaviour were observed. In a black-footed cat, sperm production, libido and aggressiveness decreased in response to treatment with 3 mg deslorelin and penile spines were not observed within 3 months after treatment, but were observed again 4-6 months later. Treatment of female red (n = 5) and grey (n = 5) wolves with deslorelin in December 1999 triggered preseason oestrus and mating, which were followed by one abortion and one successful pregnancy. Contraception was achieved in female Fennec foxes (n = 7) and two lionesses, which was observed in the foxes by an absence of increases in faecal progesterone concentrations. In two male bush dogs, administration of 3 mg deslorelin once or twice was insufficient to suppress reproductive function or behaviour. PMID:11787162

Bertschinger, H J; Asa, C S; Calle, P P; Long, J A; Bauman, K; DeMatteo, K; Jöchle, W; Trigg, T E; Human, A

2001-01-01

124

A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1?/? null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1?/? mice from 2 to 12?months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1?/? null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1?/? null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss.

Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

2010-01-01

125

Wild Marshmallows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

Kallas, John N.

1984-01-01

126

Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean.

2012-01-01

127

Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1?(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely high salinities, up to 100 psu, this was related to high relative expression for all genes studied, indicating that this imposes increased energy demand for osmotic homeostasis in gill tissues. This study is the first to demonstrate, in fish and in wild populations, that expression of NAKA, VDAC, NDH and COX are interrelated in gill tissues, and are involved in long-term acclimatisation to a salinity range between 0 and 100 psu.

Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2011-01-01

128

BBC Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Absolutely fabulous photos of the natural world can be found at BBC Wild. This commercial arm of the British Broadcasting Corporation Natural History Unit supports a picture library containing the work of many of the world's top wildlife photographers. The BBC Wild online collection includes some 10,000 images. The site is commercial, but users can enjoy browsing the collection by simply registering at the site. Costs for photos are based on a range of variables, and examples of costs are shown in an online chart. One highlight of the site is its excellent search functionality: after an initial key word search, if you click on a specific photo, you can then automatically find other photos like it by selecting from a list of keywords. Another plus is the "new technique of high quality imaging called 'FlashPix.' This format allows you to zoom in on high quality portions of an image without having the entire 28MB of data pumped down your internet connection." According to the site, FlashPix allows for faster downloads as well as the presentation of images using the highest caliber interface.

129

Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.  

PubMed

This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

2014-01-01

130

Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).  

PubMed

Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species. PMID:20688632

Hernández, M; Margalida, A

2010-04-01

131

Integrative assessment of potential effects of dioxins and related compounds in wild Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): application of microarray and biochemical analyses.  

PubMed

We have previously indicated that accumulation of chlorinated dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2 and 1B1 isozymes in the liver of wild Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica). Here we attempt to assess the potential effects of DRCs triggered by the induction of these CYP1 isozymes in this species, using an integrative approach, combining gene expression monitoring and biochemical assays. To screen genes that may potentially respond to the exposure of DRCs, we constructed a custom cDNA oligo array that can target mRNAs in Baikal seals, and monitored hepatic mRNA expression levels in the wild population. Correlation analyses between the hepatic total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) and mRNA levels supported our previous findings that high accumulation of DRCs induces the transcription of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes. In addition, our integrative assessment indicated that the chronic exposure to DRCs may alter the hepatic transcript levels of genes related to oxidative stress, Fe ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. The expression levels of CYP1A2 showed significant positive correlations with levels of malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and of etheno-dA, a DNA adduct, suggesting that the lipid peroxidation may be enhanced through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by CYP1A2 induction. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between heme oxygenase activities and malondialdehyde levels, suggesting the prompted heme degradation by ROS. Fetuin-A levels, which are suppressed by inflammation, showed a significant negative correlation with TEQ levels, and hepcidin levels, which are conversely increased by inflammation, had significant positive correlations with malondialdehyde and etheno-dA levels, implying the progression of inflammation by DRC-induced oxidative stress. Taken together, we propose here that wild Baikal seals may suffer from effects of chronic exposure to DRCs on the induction of CYP1 isozymes, followed by increased oxidative stress, heme degradation and inflammation. PMID:21703212

Hirakawa, Shusaku; Imaeda, Daisuke; Nakayama, Kei; Udaka, Masayuki; Kim, Eun-Young; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Masako; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsui, Saburo; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

2011-09-01

132

A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the peculiar reproductive biology of Arachis.

Moretzsohn, Marcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, Jose F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

2013-01-01

133

Genetic diversity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and its wild relatives based on the analysis of hypervariable regions of the genome  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Arachis is native to a region that includes Central Brazil and neighboring countries. Little is known about the genetic variability of the Brazilian cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, genome AABB) germplasm collection at the DNA level. The understanding of the genetic diversity of cultivated and wild species of peanut (Arachis spp.) is essential to develop strategies of collection, conservation and use of the germplasm in variety development. The identity of the ancestor progenitor species of cultivated peanut has also been of great interest. Several species have been suggested as putative AA and BB genome donors to allotetraploid A. hypogaea. Microsatellite or SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are co-dominant, multiallelic, and highly polymorphic genetic markers, appropriate for genetic diversity studies. Microsatellite markers may also, to some extent, support phylogenetic inferences. Here we report the use of a set of microsatellite markers, including newly developed ones, for phylogenetic inferences and the analysis of genetic variation of accessions of A. hypogea and its wild relatives. Results A total of 67 new microsatellite markers (mainly TTG motif) were developed for Arachis. Only three of these markers, however, were polymorphic in cultivated peanut. These three new markers plus five other markers characterized previously were evaluated for number of alleles per locus and gene diversity using 60 accessions of A. hypogaea. Genetic relationships among these 60 accessions and a sample of 36 wild accessions representative of section Arachis were estimated using allelic variation observed in a selected set of 12 SSR markers. Results showed that the Brazilian peanut germplasm collection has considerable levels of genetic diversity detected by SSR markers. Similarity groups for A. hypogaea accessions were established, which is a useful criteria for selecting parental plants for crop improvement. Microsatellite marker transferability was up to 76% for species of the section Arachis, but only 45% for species from the other eight Arachis sections tested. A new marker (Ah-041) presented a 100% transferability and could be used to classify the peanut accessions in AA and non-AA genome carriers. Conclusion The level of polymorphism observed among accessions of A. hypogaea analyzed with newly developed microsatellite markers was low, corroborating the accumulated data which show that cultivated peanut presents a relatively reduced variation at the DNA level. A selected panel of SSR markers allowed the classification of A. hypogaea accessions into two major groups. The identification of similarity groups will be useful for the selection of parental plants to be used in breeding programs. Marker transferability is relatively high between accessions of section Arachis. The possibility of using microsatellite markers developed for one species in genetic evaluation of other species greatly reduces the cost of the analysis, since the development of microsatellite markers is still expensive and time consuming. The SSR markers developed in this study could be very useful for genetic analysis of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences among species.

Moretzsohn, Marcio de Carvalho; Hopkins, Mark S; Mitchell, Sharon E; Kresovich, Stephen; Valls, Jose Francisco Montenegro; Ferreira, Marcio Elias

2004-01-01

134

Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice.  

PubMed

Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of (18)F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from (18)F-FDG relative to 662 keV ?-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from (18)F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte ?H2A.X levels. To test the RBE of (18)F-FDG, mice were injected with a range of activities of (18)F-FDG (0-14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 ?-rays (0-100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24h after the (18)F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for ?H2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the (18)F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79±0.04). A 20% reduction in ?H2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq (18)F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq (18)F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical (18)F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by ?H2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. The (18)F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality and/or low dose rate from PET scans is less damaging than equivalent doses of gamma radiation. PMID:24870562

Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A; Boreham, Douglas R

2014-07-01

135

Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.  

PubMed Central

We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

1999-01-01

136

Different Transcript Patterns in Response to Specialist and Generalist Herbivores in the Wild Arabidopsis Relative Boechera divaricarpa  

PubMed Central

Background Plants defend themselves against herbivorous insects, utilizing both constitutive and inducible defenses. Induced defenses are controlled by several phytohormone-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we analyze transcriptional changes in the North American Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa in response to larval herbivory by the crucifer specialist lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (cabbage semilooper), and compare them to wounding and exogenous phytohormone application. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a custom macroarray constructed from B. divaricarpa herbivory-regulated cDNAs identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and from known stress-responsive A. thaliana genes for transcript profiling after insect herbivory, wounding and in response to jasmonate, salicylate and ethylene. In addition, we introduce path analysis as a novel approach to analyze transcript profiles. Path analyses reveal that transcriptional responses to the crucifer specialist P. xylostella are primarily determined by direct effects of the ethylene and salicylate pathways, whereas responses to the generalist T. ni are influenced by the ethylene and jasmonate pathways. Wound-induced transcriptional changes are influenced by all three pathways, with jasmonate having the strongest effect. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that insect herbivory is distinct from simple mechanical plant damage, and that different lepidopteran herbivores elicit different transcriptional responses.

Vogel, Heiko; Kroymann, Juergen; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2007-01-01

137

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack.

2010-01-01

138

Little gene flow between domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild relative Bombyx mandarina in Japan, and possible artificial selection on the CAD gene of B. mori.  

PubMed

We analyzed PCR-amplified carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene fragments from 146 Bombyx mori native strains and found extremely low levels of DNA polymorphism. Two haplotypes were identified, one of which was predominant. CAD haplotype analysis of 42 samples of Japanese B. mandarina revealed four haplotypes. No common haplotype was shared between the two species and at least five base substitutions were detected. This result was suggestive of low levels of gene flow between the two species. The nucleotide diversity (?) scores of the two samples differed markedly: lower ? values were estimated for B. mori native strains than Japanese B. mandarina. We further analyzed 12 Chinese B. mandarina derived from seven areas of China, including Taiwan. The results clearly indicated that the ? score was ~80-fold greater in Chinese B. mandarina than in B. mori. The extremely low level of DNA polymorphism in B. mori compared to its wild relatives suggested that the CAD gene itself or its tightly linked regions are possible targets for silkworm domestication. PMID:23412635

Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Iwata, Kazuya; Ajimura, Masahiro; Gu, Shi-Hong; Wang, Min; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei; Kiuchi, Makoto

2012-01-01

139

Genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Gossypium mustelinum, a wild relative of cotton, in the basin of the De Contas River in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Gossypium mustelinum is a wild cotton relative found only in the semiarid region of Bahia state in Brazil, and changes caused by humans in the natural habitat of this species have endangered the existence of several natural populations. Information about the occurrence and genetic composition of these populations is necessary to design effective conservation measures. The aim of this study was to characterize the in situ maintenance mode and assess the genetic diversity of G. mustelinum populations in the basin of the De Contas River. A sample of 205 G. mustelinum specimens was collected from the margins of the Jacaré, Riacho Quixaba, Riacho Serra Azul, and Riacho Riachão rivers and genotyped using 13 SSR primer pairs. In general, all G. mustelinum populations exhibit inadequate in situ maintenance, predominantly due to the deforestation of riparian vegetation and herbivory. The observed total genetic diversity of G. mustelinum was significant (H E = 0.489), highly structured (F ST = 0.534), and organized in homozygous genotypes (F IS = 0.873). The high observed inbreeding level is consistent with the predominance of self-fertilization and geitonogamy (t m = 0.234). In addition, the pattern of genetic structure tended to form groups that coincided with the collection sites, i.e., first clustering within subpopulations, then within populations, and finally within the closest populations. Thus, the observed genetic diversity is likely to be rapidly lost, and conservation measures should therefore be undertaken. PMID:24473734

de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Hoffmann, Lucia Vieira; Ciampi, Ana Yamaguishi; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna

2014-02-01

140

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

2010-05-14

141

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

142

Sequence variation of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA of soybean and related wild species and its implications for the evolution of different chloroplast haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) are classified into three types (I, II and III) based on RFLP profiles. Type I is mainly\\u000a observed in cultivated soybean (Glycine max), while type II and type III are frequently found in both cultivated and wild soybean (Glycine soja), although type III is predominant in wild soybean. In order to evaluate the diversity of cpDNA

D. H. Xu; J. Abe; M. Sakai; A. Kanazawa; Y. Shimamoto

2000-01-01

143

Effects of environmental stress on mRNA expression levels of seven genes related to oxidative stress and growth in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of farmed, hybrid and wild origin  

PubMed Central

Background Ten generations of domestication selection has caused farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. to deviate from wild salmon in a range of traits. Each year hundreds of thousands of farmed salmon escape into the wild. Thus, interbreeding between farmed escapees and wild conspecifics represents a significant threat to the genetic integrity of wild salmon populations. In a previous study we demonstrated how domestication has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress in farmed salmon. To complement that study, we have evaluated the expression of seven stress-related genes in head kidney of salmon of farmed, hybrid and wild origin exposed to environmentally induced stress. Results In general, the crowding stressor used to induce environmental stress did not have a strong impact on mRNA expression levels of the seven genes, except for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that was downregulated in the stress treatment relative to the control treatment. mRNA expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and IGF-1 were affected by genetic origin, thus expressed significantly different between the salmon of farmed, hybrid or wild origin. A positive relationship was detected between body size of wild salmon and mRNA expression level of the IGF-1 gene, in both environments. No such relationship was observed for the hybrid or farmed salmon. Conclusion Farmed salmon in this study displayed significantly elevated mRNA levels of the IGF-1 gene relative to the wild salmon, in both treatments, while hybrids displayed a non additive pattern of inheritance. As IGF-1 mRNA levels are positively correlated to growth rate, the observed positive relationship between body size and IGF-1 mRNA levels detected in the wild but neither in the farmed nor the hybrid salmon, could indicate that growth selection has increased IGF-1 levels in farmed salmon to the extent that they may not be limiting growth rate.

2012-01-01

144

Prdm9, a Major Determinant of Meiotic Recombination Hotspots, Is Not Functional in Dogs and Their Wild Relatives, Wolves and Coyotes  

PubMed Central

Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

Munoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vila, Carles

2011-01-01

145

Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet improves dyslipidaemia and modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the potential of a wild blueberry (WB)-enriched diet to improve blood lipid profile and modulate the expression of genes related to lipid homeostasis in obese Zucker rats (OZR), a model of the metabolic syndrome with severe dyslipidaemia. For this purpose, twenty OZR and twenty lean Zucker rats (LZR; controls) were placed either on a control (C) or an 8 % WB diet for 8 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations were determined. The relative expression of six genes involved in lipid metabolism was also determined in both the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma TAG and TC concentrations were significantly lower in the OZR following WB consumption (4228 (sem 471) and 2287 (sem 125) mg/l, respectively) than in those on the C diet (5475 (sem 315) and 2631 (sem 129) mg/l, P< 0·05), while there was no change in HDL-cholesterol concentration. No significant effects were observed for plasma lipids in the LZR. Following WB consumption, the expression of the transcription factors PPAR? and PPAR? in the OZR was increased in the AAT, while that of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) was decreased in the liver and AAT. The expression of fatty acid synthase was significantly decreased in both the liver and AAT and that of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 was increased in the AAT following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption appears to improve lipid profiles and modulate the expression of key enzymes and transcription factors of lipid metabolism in severely dyslipidaemic rats. PMID:23920421

Vendrame, Stefano; Daugherty, Allison; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

2014-01-28

146

Dan's Wild Wild Weather Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a meteorologist, this weather site is for students from 6 to 16 years old and their parents. Information and experiments are provided about radar, tornadoes, clouds, precipitation, lightning, humidity, satellites, temperature, forecasting, hurricanes, wind, and climate. While in the tornado section, students can click on any state on the map to get a hourly weather report, state forecast, zone forecast, short term forecast, forecast discussion, weather summary, public information, climate data, hydro and aviation products, watches, special weather, and warnings and advisories for that state. Lightning safety tips, interactive games and puzzles, related weather games and puzzles, weather quizzes, outline maps of the continents and parts of the United States, and links to other sites can be found. Students can email the author with questions.

Scatterfield, Dan

2007-12-12

147

Comparative Analysis of Phylogenetic Relationships of Grain Amaranths and Their Wild Relatives ( Amaranthus; Amaranthaceae) Using Internal Transcribed Spacer, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, and Double-Primer Fluorescent Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most economically important group of species in the genus Amaranthus is the A. hybridus species complex, including three cultivated grain amaranths, A. cruentus, A. caudatus, and A. hypochondriacus, and their putative wild progenitors, A. hybridus, A. quitensis, and A. powellii. Taxonomic confusion exists among these closely related taxa. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, amplified fragment length

Fangxiu Xu; Mei Sun

2001-01-01

148

Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24?bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection.

Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

2010-01-01

149

Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.  

PubMed

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

150

Volatile organic compound emissions induced by the aphid Myzus persicae differ among resistant and susceptible peach cultivars and a wild relative.  

PubMed

Little is known on aphid-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from trees and particularly on their intraspecific variability in association with resistance traits. We compared VOC emissions from five peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and a wild relative (Prunus davidiana (Carrière) Franch) that differ in their level (susceptible/resistant) and type (antixenosis, antibiosis) of resistance to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Additionally, the kinetics of VOC induction in response to aphids was compared with that by mechanical wounding. Qualitative and overall quantitative differences among peach genotypes were found in VOC emissions that were mainly composed of methyl-salicylate, farnesenes, (E)-?-ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Irrespective of the type of resistance, all resistant genotypes had increased VOC emissions upon aphid attack, while in susceptible genotypes emissions remained low. Emission increases were highest in the genotypes that express increased aphid resistance during second infestations, which had also the highest proportions of methyl-salicylate in their emissions. VOC induction by aphids proceeded slowly with a delay of several hours. Artificial wounding of leaves did not result in emissions of aphid-induced VOCs but caused an immediate burst of green leaf volatiles and benzaldehyde. We conclude that VOC induction in resistant peach cultivars is part of a general defence syndrome that is being avoided or suppressed by M. persicae in the susceptible genotypes. The induction likely involves an aphid-specific elicitor and (methyl)-salicylate in the subsequent signalling and regulation processes that should include gene activation due to the marked delay in the emission response. The results are compared with those of the literature and discussed in view of their ecological and environmental significance. PMID:20739428

Staudt, Micheal; Jackson, Benjamin; El-Aouni, Hanane; Buatois, Bruno; Lacroze, Jean-Philippe; Poëssel, Jean-Luc; Sauge, Marie-Helene

2010-10-01

151

Seasonal variation in the secretory lipids of the uropygial gland of a sub?tropical wild passerine bird, pycnonotus cafer (L) in relation to the testicular cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight and lipid content of the uropygiai gland of male Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus), a common subtropical wild passerine bird exhibit seasonal variations, roughly coinciding with those of testicular activity. At the peak of the spermatogenic phase (June) and in the post?breeding period (July, August) the gland becomes enlarged and contains a high amount of lipid, whereas during the long period

S. P. Bhattacharyya; S. Roy Chowdhury

1995-01-01

152

Development of bio-assays and screening for resistance to beet armyworm ( Spodoptera Exigua Hübner) in Allium cepa L. and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)is the most important pest in tropical Alliumcultivations. All shallot (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Alliumspecies, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and A. royleiStearn, next to A. cepa L. were used to screen for resistance. First of all, a reliable

Sijun Zheng; Betty Henken; Willem Wietsma; Eri Sofiari; Evert Jacobsen; Frans A. Krens; Chris Kik

2000-01-01

153

Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is

Blouin

2003-01-01

154

Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.  

PubMed

Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account. PMID:24334846

Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

2013-12-01

155

Mineral and Trace Elements Content in 30 Accessions of Tomato Fruits ( Solanum lycopersicum L.,) and Wild Relatives ( Solanum pimpinellifolium L., Solanum cheesmaniae L. Riley, and Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp & D.M. Spooner)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato quality and its potential health benefits are directly related to its chemical composition. The characterization of\\u000a nutritional properties of Solanum germplasm is essential to choose suitable donor parents for breeding programs. In this sense, wild species could be very\\u000a useful for tomato fruit quality genetic improvement. With this objective, in this work, we characterize micronutrients content\\u000a in Eulycopersicon germplasm

Virginia Fernández-Ruiz; Ana I. Olives; Montaña Cámara; Maria de Cortes Sánchez-Mata; M. Esperanza Torija

2011-01-01

156

Wild-type measles virus infection upregulates poliovirus receptor-related 4 and causes apoptosis in brain endothelial cells by induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.  

PubMed

Small numbers of brain endothelial cells (BECs) are infected in children with neurologic complications of measles virus (MV) infection. This may provide a mechanism for virus entry into the central nervous system, but the mechanisms are unclear. Both in vitro culture systems and animal models are required to elucidate events in the endothelium. We compared the ability of wild-type (WT), vaccine, and rodent-adapted MV strains to infect, replicate, and induce apoptosis in human and murine brain endothelial cells (HBECs and MBECs, respectively). Mice also were infected intracerebrally. All MV stains productively infected HBECs and induced the MV receptor PVRL4. Efficient WT MV production also occurred in MBECs. Extensive monolayer destruction associated with activated caspase 3 staining was observed in HBECs and MBECs, most markedly with WT MV. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not Fas ligand, was induced by MV infection. Treatment of MBECs with supernatants from MV-infected MBEC cultures with an anti-TRAIL antibody blocked caspase 3 expression and monolayer destruction. TRAIL was also expressed in the endothelium and other cell types in infected murine brains. This is the first demonstration that infection of low numbers of BECs with WT MV allows efficient virus production, induction of TRAIL, and subsequent widespread apoptosis. PMID:23771216

Abdullah, Hani'ah; Brankin, Brenda; Brady, Clare; Cosby, Sara Louise

2013-07-01

157

Isolation and expression analysis of a novel pathogenesis-related protein 10 gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata induced by Uncinula necator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel PR10 gene (designated as VpPR10) was isolated from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang Baihe-35-1. VpPR10\\u000a encoded a 159-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 17.46 kDa. Sequence alignment showed that VpPR10 had\\u000a high similarity with the PR10 proteins of other plant species. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated that VpPR10 belonged\\u000a to a multi-gene family

Yan Xu; Hao Yu; Mingyang He; Yazhou Yang; Yuejin Wang

2010-01-01

158

Variegated wild coffee plant "Variegated Wild Coffee"  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A new variety of the wild coffee plant known as Psychotria nervosa has been asexually propagated. The new plant is characterized by having substantial variegated pigmentation. The new plant may be useful as a drought-tolerant plant for native species landscape in southern Florida.

1993-12-07

159

Nitrogen Fixation and Hydrogen Metabolism in Relation to the Dissolved Oxygen Tension in Chemostat Cultures of the Wild Type and a Hydrogenase-Negative Mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans  

PubMed Central

Both the wild type and an isogenic hydrogenase-negative mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans growing ex planta on N2 as the N source were studied in succinate-limited steady-state chemostat cultures under 0.2 to 3.0% dissolved O2 tension. Production or consumption of O2, H2, and CO2 was measured with an on-line-connected mass spectrometer. In the range of 0.2 to 3.0%, growth of both the wild type and the mutant was equally dependent on the dissolved O2 tension: the growth yield decreased, and the specific O2 consumption and CO2 production increased. A similar dependency on the dissolved O2 tension was found for the mutant with 2.5% H2 in the influent gas. The H2/N2 ratio (moles of H2 evolved per mole of N2 consumed via nitrogenase) of the mutant, growing with or without 2.5% H2, increased with increasing dissolved O2 tensions. This increase in the H2/N2 ratio was small but significant. The dependencies of the ATP/N2 ratio (moles of ATP consumed per mole of N2 fixed) and the ATP/2e- ratio [moles of ATP consumed per mole of electron pairs transferred from NAD(P)H to nitrogenase] on the dissolved O2 tension were estimated. These dependencies were interpreted in terms of the physiological concepts of respiratory protection and autoprotection.

Boogerd, Fred C.; Ferdinandy-van Vlerken, Marijke M. A.; Mawadza, Crispen; Pronk, Annemieke F.; Stouthamer, Adriaan H.; van Verseveld, Henk W.

1994-01-01

160

Project Wild (Project Tame).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

Siegenthaler, David

161

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

162

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

PubMed Central

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome (?607–656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurelie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

2011-01-01

163

Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins  

SciTech Connect

Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)] [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France)] [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

2011-12-10

164

Wild fire impact on copper, zinc, lead and cadmium distribution in soil and relation with abundance in selected plants of Lamiaceae family from Vidlic Mountain (Serbia).  

PubMed

Fire has been considered as an improving factor in soil quality, but only if it is controlled. Severe wild fire occurred in the summer 2007 on the Vidlic Mountain (Serbia) overspreading a huge area of meadows and forests. Main soil characteristics and content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in different fractions obtained after sequential extraction of soil from post-fire areas and from fire non disturbed areas were studied. In four plant species of Lamiaceae family (Ajuga genevensis L., Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L., Teucrium chamaedrys L., Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench.), that grow in typical habitats of the mountain, distribution of heavy metals in aerial parts and roots was investigated too. For all samples from post-fire area cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter content are increased while rH is decreased. Fire caused slightly increased bioavailability of the observed metals but more significant rise happened in metal amounts bound to oxides and organics. The plants showed variable behavior. T. chamaedrys collected on the post-fire area contained elevated concentrations of all analyzed metals. A. alpinus showed higher phytoaccumulation for Zn and Cd, while the other two plant species for Pb and Cd in the post-fire areas. PMID:21700316

Stankov Jovanovic, V P; Ilic, M D; Markovic, M S; Mitic, V D; Nikolic Mandic, S D; Stojanovic, G S

2011-09-01

165

Fecundity of transgenic wild–crop hybrids of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae): implications for crop-to-wild gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between crops and their weedy or wild relatives is an area of concern because the widespread use of genetically engineered crops may allow novel, beneficial transgenes to enter nearby populations. We compared fitness components of wild Cucurbita pepo from Arkansas, USA, with wild–crop hybrids derived from yellow squash (a cultivar of C. pepo with transgenic resistance to two viruses).

Lawrence J. Spencer; Allison A. Snow

2001-01-01

166

Wild sex in the grasses.  

PubMed

To date, alien introgression of agronomically important traits into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) from wild relatives has not been readily achievable through traditional breeding practices. However, this door might now be unlocked. The insightful research published recently by Graham Moore and his team delivers a likely candidate in the form of a cdc2-kinase-related gene family for the Ph1 locus--a chromatin region located on chromosome 5B that is responsible for homologous chromosome pairing integrity in bread wheat. PMID:16697246

Able, Jason A; Langridge, Peter

2006-06-01

167

Salmonellosis in wild mammals.  

PubMed Central

One thousand two hundred and sixty-nine freeliving, wild mammals, representative of 16 species from estates in Berkshire, Oxfordshire and Surrey, were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 1 and S. dublin from 7 house mice (Mus musculus). There were no isolations from the other species examined. It was concluded that the house-mice infected with S. dublin acquired the organism from experimentally infected cattle. The wild mammal population does not at present appear to constitute a reservior for infection of domestic animals.

Jones, P. W.; Twigg, G. I.

1976-01-01

168

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Whaley, Mrs.

2009-04-19

169

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

170

Wild termitomyces species collected from Ondo and Ekiti States are more related to African species as revealed by ITS region of rDNA.  

PubMed

Molecular identification of eighteen Termitomyces species collected from two states, Ondo and Ekiti in Nigeria was carried out using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The amplicons obtained from rDNA of Termitomyces species were compared with existing sequences in the NCBI GenBank. The results of the ITS sequence analysis discriminated between all the Termitomyces species (obtained from Ondo and Ekiti States) and Termitomyces sp. sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank. The degree of similarity of T1 to T18 to gene of Termitomyces sp. obtained from NCBI ranges between 82 and 99 percent. Termitomyces species from Garbon with ascension number AF321374 was the closest relative of T1 to T18 except T12 that has T. eurhizus and T. striatus as the closet relative. Phylogenetic tree generated with ITS sequences obtained from NCBI GenBank data revealed that T1 to T18 are more related to Termitomyces species indigenous to African countries such as Senegal, Congo, and Gabon. PMID:22649309

Oyetayo, Victor Olusegun

2012-01-01

171

Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.  

PubMed

Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

2014-02-01

172

Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.  

PubMed

Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (p<0.05). These results suggest that activities related to coal mining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health. PMID:24525377

Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

2014-03-01

173

Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations.  

PubMed

A previous genomewide association study (GWAS) identified SNP markers associated with propensity to migrate of rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a connected population with free access to the ocean in Upper Yakima River (UYR) and a population in Upper Mann Creek (UMC) that has been sequestered from its access to the ocean for more than 50 years. Applying genomic heritability estimation using the same dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population were almost completely determined by additive effects, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Dominance test detected one SNP marker (R30393) with significant dominance effect on smoltification (P = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had the least genomic correlations. These results suggested that blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic diversity and increased genomic similarity associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate. PMID:24834334

Hu, Guo; Wang, Chunkao; Da, Yang

2014-04-01

174

Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations  

PubMed Central

A previous genomewide association study (GWAS) identified SNP markers associated with propensity to migrate of rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a connected population with free access to the ocean in Upper Yakima River (UYR) and a population in Upper Mann Creek (UMC) that has been sequestered from its access to the ocean for more than 50 years. Applying genomic heritability estimation using the same dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population were almost completely determined by additive effects, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Dominance test detected one SNP marker (R30393) with significant dominance effect on smoltification (P = 1.98 × 10?7). Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had the least genomic correlations. These results suggested that blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic diversity and increased genomic similarity associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate.

Hu, Guo; Wang, Chunkao; Da, Yang

2014-01-01

175

Wild Duck Cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

2005-01-01

176

Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial learning abilities. Yet, the contrary seems to be true. Hence, artificial selection and breeding did not lead to a cognitive decline but rather to an adaptation to man-made environment that allows solving the task more efficiently.

2010-01-01

177

The Wild Ones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Children's Education Program of Wildlife Trust has much to offer students and teachers. Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, students can find information about animals, their habitats, and the scientists who study them. The Wild Ones network provides an opportunity for members to communicate with each other, contribute curriculum activities, and share ideas and resources. The Curriculum Library in the teachers section is one of the most beneficial parts of the Web site, with its numerous lesson plans mainly directed towards K-6th grades.

2001-01-01

178

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.  

PubMed

Abstract Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

2014-05-01

179

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds  

PubMed Central

Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance.

Bonnedahl, Jonas

2014-01-01

180

A Novel Group of Avian Astroviruses in Wild Aquatic Birds  

PubMed Central

Using a pan-astrovirus reverse transcription-PCR assay, a great diversity of novel avastroviruses was detected from wild bird and poultry samples. Two groups of astroviruses detected from wild birds are genetically related or highly similar to previously known viruses in poultry. Most interestingly, a novel group of astroviruses was detected in wild aquatic birds. Our results also reveal that different groups of astroviruses might have difference host ranges. This study has expanded our understanding regarding avastrovirus ecology.

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Perera, Harsha K. K.; Ng, Erica M.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Grioni, Alessandro; Ades, Gary; Guan, Yi

2012-01-01

181

Retrovirus Infections and Brazilian Wild Felids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are two retroviruses that are deadly to the domestic cat (Felis catus) and important to the conservation of the threatened wild felids worldwide. Differences in the frequencies of occurrence and the existence of varying related viruses among felid species have incited the search for understanding the relationships among hosts and viruses

Claudia Filoni; José Luiz Catão-Dias; Hans Lutz; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

2008-01-01

182

Babesiosis of wild carnivores and ungulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed

Banie L. Penzhorn

2006-01-01

183

Leaf peroxidase isozyme polymorphism of wild apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aims of the study were to reveal the isozyme resemblances in the leaf peroxidase of wild apple and to define the traits related to the identification of Malus sylvestris Mill. The results of the study are based on leaf isozyme analysis of seven progenies selected according to the specific features of mother trees at their natural sites from

R. Petrokas; V. Stanys

2008-01-01

184

Bagheera In the Wild: Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part a larger Bagheera website created by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about, and support activism for, endangered species issues. The Classroom site features an Activities section which provides many short activity ideas under headings like Use Your Imagination, and Inquire, Analyze and Compare. In addition to general activities for endangered species issues, Kasnoff provides a section on Activities Directed at Particular Species in the Case Studies. This site also includes a bibliography, glossary of related terms, and information about "problems facing endangered animals and what can be done to improve their chances of survival." Links are provided to other great sections of the In the Wild site as well, including information about extinct animals, animals facing extinction, and a Spotlight on important issues regarding endangered animals.

Kasnoff, Craig

185

Nuclear Gene Variation in Wild Brown Rats  

PubMed Central

Although the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is widely used as a model mammal throughout biological sciences, little is known about genetic variation in wild rat populations or the relationship of commonly used inbred strains to their wild relatives. We sampled wild brown rats from the species’ presumed ancestral range in NW China and from a derived population in the UK and estimated nucleotide diversity and population subdivision, based on the sequences of 30 autosomal protein-coding loci. Neutral genetic diversity was close to 0.2% in both populations, which is about five times lower than diversity at the orthologous sites in a population of wild house mice from the species’ putative ancestral range in India. We found significant population differentiation between UK and Chinese populations, as assessed by Fst and the program STRUCTURE. Based on synonymous diversity and divergence between the brown rat and house mouse, we estimate that the recent effective population size in brown rats is approximately 130,000 (approximate 95% confidence interval 85,000-184,000), about fivefold lower than wild house mice.

Ness, Rob W.; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Cong, Lin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Keightley, Peter D.

2012-01-01

186

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals...Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest are included...

2013-07-01

187

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

188

First wild XXY house mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution\\u000a has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been\\u000a karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an

Heidi C. Hauffe; Mabel D. Giménez; Silvia Garagna; Jeremy B. Searle

2010-01-01

189

The Wilde analyst.  

PubMed

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis. PMID:23470974

Miller, Joel

2013-03-01

190

Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cort?s  

PubMed Central

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

2014-01-01

191

Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-08-01

192

Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

193

Wild Turkey Populations and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study Objective: Determine the perceived and actual magnitude of crop damage by wild turkeys and the consequences of expanded hunting opportunity for turkeys in the primary range. Performance: Technology Transfer and Reports. Conduct technology transfer, ...

J. F. Kubisiak

1996-01-01

194

Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids.  

PubMed

Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange carrot cultivar shoots using (1)H NMR showed only quantitative differences in chemical content, indicating relatively low divergence after domestication. Main differences reside in the primary metabolite content and in the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid in the shoots of the different carrot types. Wild×cultivar hybrids cannot be distinguished from wild plants based on the metabolome, suggesting maternal, maternal environment, or dominance effects, and indicating high hybrid fitness in wild conditions. Considering these similarities, introgression is a real possibility in carrots, but understanding its consequences would require further studies using backcrosses in a multiple environments. PMID:21601898

Grebenstein, C; Choi, Y H; Rong, J; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M

2011-08-01

195

Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the

L S Magnussen; T P Hauser

2007-01-01

196

Identification of novel random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) on the W chromosome of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the wild silkworm, B. mandarina, and their retrotransposable element-related nucleotide sequences.  

PubMed

Genomic DNAs were compared between males and females of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, strains C108, C137, J137, p50, and WILD-W (constructed by crossing a wild silkworm, B. mandarina, female with a male of strain C108) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 700 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Four female-specific RAPDs (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai, W-Kamikaze, and W-Yamato) were found. The sex chromosome formulas of B. mori and B. mandarina are ZW (XY) for the female and ZZ (XX) for the male. The four female-specific RAPDs are assumed to be derived from the W chromosome because the other chromosomes are shared by both sexes. A computer search for deduced amino acid sequences of these four RAPDs revealed that all of them showed homology to previously reported amino acid sequences encoded in known retrotransposable elements from various organisms. PMID:9880922

Abe, H; Kanehara, M; Terada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Suzuki, M; Sugasaki, T; Oshiki, T

1998-08-01

197

Morphometric discrimination of wild from farmed Dybowski’s frog ( Rana dybowskii ) based on hindlimb length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial farming of anuran species that are declining in the wild raises a need to discriminate wild from farmed frogs.\\u000a We hypothesized wild frogs might have extended hindlimbs due to greater frequency or intensity of jumping relative to farmed\\u000a frogs, highlighting a morphometric approach to discrimination of wild from farmed frogs using hindlimb length. In the present\\u000a study, Dybowski’s frog

Rui Xia; Xiao-ming Huang; Shu-hui Yang; Yan-chun Xu; Lu Ying; Thomas D. Dahmer

2011-01-01

198

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals.

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

199

Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.  

PubMed

The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points. PMID:23049133

Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

2011-12-01

200

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

201

Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides information on the care and use of birds in captivity as research animals. Wild birds have been used in biomedical and ecological investigations. They tend to be active during the day and are easy to observe. Their use in research is ...

1977-01-01

202

Inbreeding depression in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its practical application in conservation biology and evolutionary theory, the cost of inbreeding in natural populations of plants and animals remains to a large degree unknown. In this review we have gathered estimates of inbreeding depression (?) from the literature for wild species monitored in the field. We have also corrected estimates of ? by dividing by F (coefficient

Peter Crnokrak; Derek A Roff

1999-01-01

203

National Geographic: WildWorld -- Sights & Sounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From National Geographic, this WildWorld -- Sights and Sounds website offers visitors an immersion experience in "some of the world's most distinctive ecoregions through audio, video, photos, interviews, conservation tips, and more." The eight ecoregions include the Bering Sea, Eastern Himalayan Broadleaf and Conifer Forests, Amazon River and Flooded Forest, and Mesoamerican Reef -- just to name a few. Separate ecoregion sites provide a map with links allowing visitors to connect to clear photos and information about various fauna of the region. Additionally, the ecoregion sites offer basic ecological and geographical information as well as related links.

204

Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape ( Brassica rapa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative

Corinne Vacher; Arthur E. Weis; Donald Hermann; Tanya Kossler; Chad Young; Michael E. Hochberg

2004-01-01

205

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

206

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

207

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (;)

2007-06-01

208

Wheel running in the wild.  

PubMed

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

2014-07-01

209

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

210

Babesiosis of wild carnivores and ungulates.  

PubMed

Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed insufficient. Experimental transmission of Babesia spp. from domestic to wild animals is usually only successful in closely related species, or after splenectomy. There are indications that endemic stability, similar to the situation in livestock, is the general pattern in Babesia sp. infections in wildlife. All lions in Kruger National Park were found to be infected with B. leo, which did not lead to clinical disease manifestation in artificially infected lions. Under stressful conditions, infections could flare up and be fatal, as purportedly happened to the famous lioness "Elsa". Similarly black rhinos, which can harbour Babesia bicornis without ill effects, may develop clinical babesiosis during confinement after capture. Zoo-bred animals, which were not exposed to Babesia spp. at a young age, may be fully susceptible when released into a natural environment where other members of their species occur. This could have major implications for ex situ conservation programmes aimed at bolstering natural wildlife populations. PMID:16500026

Penzhorn, Banie L

2006-05-31

211

A European perspective on wild game meat and public health.  

PubMed

This paper presents information on wild game meat from the public health and inspection perspectives, taking as a starting point the preparation and final adoption of European Union Directive 92/45/EEC on public health and animal health problems relating to the killing of wild game and the marketing of wild game meat. National definitions of small and large 'game' and the distribution and population levels of the different species can vary enormously. The vast majority of hunted game is killed with a firearm; other hunting methods (bow-hunting, trapping, capturing with decoys, etc.) are less significant. The importance of trade in wild game among the different Member States of the European Union is not well known and those statistics which are available are often incomplete, so that an evaluation is not possible. Wild game meat is the result of a process of natural selection and not of human 'production'. Veterinary health and hygiene legislation should cover and concentrate on the handling, processing, transport and storage of the meat of wild game. PMID:9501371

Lecocq, Y

1997-08-01

212

Increased germination of diverse crop-wild hybrid sunflower seeds.  

PubMed

Gene flow from crop fields to wild populations produces hybrids that often differ from their wild counterparts in growth form, phenology, and life history characteristics. Germination and dormancy dynamics have a strong influence on population persistence, competitive dynamics, and ultimately, plant fitness. They may also play a role in modifying crop gene introgression, which has been of primary interest since the release of transgenic crops. We investigated how seed germination and dormancy were affected by sunflower crop wild hybridization in both laboratory and field experiments. Hybridization increased seed germination and decreased dormancy. Of the nine wild populations we assayed, most of their hybrids had higher germination than the wilds of the same population. However, absolute germination levels varied by population and testing environment. Hybrids produced by three different crop lines differed in germination, and their germination rankings shifted across populations. Increased germination in hybrids could accelerate crop gene introgression, provided that hybrids germinate in an appropriate period. Differences in relative germination of wild and hybrid seed indicated that the effect of germination on introgression will likely vary by population due, in part, to initial levels of dormancy in the population. Therefore, the implications of gene flow from crops with novel characteristics or from transgenic crops will also vary by population. PMID:16826985

Mercer, Kristin L; Shaw, Ruth G; Wyse, Donald L

2006-06-01

213

An outbreak of trichinellosis in farmed wild boar in Finland.  

PubMed

Nine farmed wild boar out of 25 slaughtered from a single farm were condemned at meat inspection because of trichinellosis. With RAPD-PCR, Trichinella spiralis was identified in all positive wild boar. Out of the available serum samples (n=7), all wild boar which had failed the meat inspection showed seroconversion in ELISA and Western blotting, as did one additional animal which had passed the inspection. The animals became infected during an invasion of rats from an improperly closed dump near the farm. Unfortunately, by the time trichinellosis was discovered in the wild boar, the invasion had already been brought under control; thus, no samples from rats were available. However, having lived through the rat invasion was shown to be a risk factor for trichinellosis in wild boar (relative risk, RR=6.3). In wildlife samples from surrounding areas, sylvatic trichinellosis was found to be very common (74%; n= 19 red foxes). Intriguingly, the prevalent species in trichinella-positive foxes differed from that in wild boar, Trichinella nativa and T. spiralis being found in 12 foxes and in one fox, respectively. PMID:11252814

Oivanen, L; Mikkonen, T; Sukura, A

2000-12-01

214

Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

2011-01-01

215

Survival and flowering of hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota) in Danish grasslands.  

PubMed

Many crop species are able to hybridize with related weedy or wild relatives, which could lead to transfer of cultivar genes, and among them transgenes, into wild populations. It is not clear, however, whether the hybrids and their descendants are able to survive and reproduce in natural habitats, as inherited cultivar traits may be maladaptive under such conditions. To test this, we produced hybrid (F(1)) seeds by controlled crosses between wild [see text for formula] and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. carota and ssp. sativa, respectively) and sowed them into three Danish grasslands of different age, in parallel with seeds of wild carrots. Replicate plots were sown in fall and spring. Survival and flowering of the emerging plants were monitored for the following three years. Both hybrid and wild carrots survived and flowered in highest frequency at a recently disturbed site, and much less at two older sites. Hybrids emerged in higher proportions than wild carrots in the first year and survived to similar or slightly lower frequencies at the end of the experiment. Hybrids flowered as frequently or slightly less frequently than wild plants, and developed fewer and smaller umbels. Despite a somewhat lower reproductive potential compared to wild carrots, first generation hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots are likely to survive and produce offspring in natural grasslands in Denmark. This, together with other studies, suggests that cultivar genes may transfer relatively easily into wild carrot populations. PMID:18289499

Hauser, Thure P; Shim, Sang In

2007-01-01

216

Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

217

Management Plan for Wild Turkeys in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America. Of six subspecies, the eastern wild turkey (M. g. silvestris) is the only one to have occurred in Pennsylvania. Wild turkeys are our largest gallinaceous game bird. The males, or gobblers, ...

W. E. Drake

1999-01-01

218

Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

2011-06-01

219

In vivo and in vitro studies to identify the hypoglycaemic constituents of Momordica charantia wild variant WB24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild bitter melon (the wild variant of Momordica charantia L.) native to the eastern region of Taiwan has been consumed by local residents as a folk medicine for the prevention or treatment of hyperglycaemia and related diseases, yet its hypoglycaemic activities and constituents have not been scientifically characterised. Thus, WB24, a strain of wild bitter melon originating from the eastern

Chi-I Chang; Hsin-I Tseng; Yun-Wen Liao; Chia-Hung Yen; Tz-Min Chen; Chen-Chen Lin; Hsueh-Ling Cheng

2011-01-01

220

TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATION OF THE SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING-3 (SOCS3) GENE VIA STAT3 IS INCREASED IN F9 REX1 (ZFP-42) KNOCKOUT TERATOCARCINOMA STEM CELLS RELATIVE TO WILD TYPE CELLS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Rex1 (Zfp42), first identified as a gene that is transcriptionally repressed by retinoic acid (RA), encodes a zinc finger transcription factor expressed at high levels in F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells, and other stem cells. Loss of both alleles of Rex1 by homologous recombination alters the RA-induced differentiation of F9 cells, a model of pluripotent ES cells. We identified Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS3) as a gene which exhibits greatly increased transcriptional activation in RA, cyclicAMP and theophylline (RACT) treated F9 Rex1?/? cells (~25-fold) as compared to wild type (Wt) cells (~2.5-fold). By promoter deletion, mutation and transient transfection analyses, we have shown that this transcriptional increase is mediated by the STAT3 DNA binding elements located between ?99 to ?60 in the SOCS-3 promoter. Overexpression of STAT3 dominant negative mutants greatly diminishes this SOCS-3 transcriptional increase in F9 Rex1?/? cells. This increase in SOCS-3 transcription is associated with a 4–5 fold higher level of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 in the RACT treated F9 Rex1?/? cells as compared to Wt. Dominant negative Src tyrosine kinase, Jak2, and protein kinase A (PKA) partially reduce the transcriptional activation of the SOCS-3 gene in RACT-treated F9 Rex1 null cells. In contrast, parathyroid hormone peptide enhances the effect of RA in F9 Rex1?/? cells, but not in F9 Wt. Thus, Rex-1, which is highly expressed in stem cells, inhibits signaling via the JAK/STAT pathway, thereby modulating the differentiation of F9 cells.

Xu, Juliana; Sylvester, Renia; Tighe, Ann P.; Chen, Siming; Gudas, Lorraine J.

2010-01-01

221

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01

222

Homeotic Sexual Translocations and the Origin of Maize (Zea Mays, Poaceae): A New look at an old problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Origin of Maize Controversy, the Orthodox Teosinte Hypothesis (OTH; Beadle 1939, 1972; Iltis 1971), five key mutations\\u000a change 2-ranked (distichous) ears of teosinte (wild Zea) with a single row of grains per rank to 4- to many-ranked (polystichous)\\u000a maize ears with a double row of grains per rank. BUT teosinte ears are lateral to the 1° branch axes,

Hugh H. Iltis

2000-01-01

223

Chromosome banding patterns in cultivated and wild barleys (Hordeum SPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of seven species of wild barley and ten different forms of the cultivated species (H. vulgare) has revealed that all the species and cultivars have mostly procentric constitutive heterochromatin. Relatively smaller heterochromatic segments are found in intercalary and distal positions. Larger bands of varying sizes and reacting somewhat differently from the rest of the heterochromatin are generally found

Canio G Vosa

1976-01-01

224

Re-Wilding the Great Plains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new paper published in the journal Nature has proposed re-wilding North America by introducing populations of large animals from Africa related to ones that roamed the Great Plains during the Pleistocene era. This radio broadcast features discussion with one of the architects of this idea about the ecology of America 13,000 years ago; how large mammals interacted with the environment in ways important to biodiversity; how they are thought to have been driven to extinction by humans; and whether re-introduced large animals would fill their ancient niches or become invasive species. There is also discussion about the feasibility of using biotechnology to produce Woolly Mammoths from bone-extracted DNA. The broadcast is 21 minutes in length.

225

Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

226

Sequence evidence for sporadic intergeneric DNA introgression from wheat into a wild Aegilops species.  

PubMed

Introgressive hybridization has played a crucial role in the evolution of many plant species, especially polyploids. The duplicated genetic material and wide geographical distribution facilitate hybridization and introgression among polyploid species having either homologous or homoeologous genomes. Such introgression may lead to the production of recombinant genomes that are more difficult to form at the diploid level. Crop genes that have introgressed into wild relatives can increase the capability of the wild relatives to adapt to agricultural environments and compete with crops or to compete with other wild species. Although the transfer of genes from crops into their conspecific immediate wild progenitors has been reported, little is known about spontaneous gene movement from crops to more distantly related species. We describe recent spontaneous DNA introgression from domesticated polyploid wheat into distantly related, wild tetraploid Aegilops peregrina (syn. Aegilops variabilis) and the stabilization of this sequence in wild populations despite not having homologous chromosomes. Our results show that DNA can spontaneously introgress between homoeologous genomes of species of the tribe Triticeae and, in the case of crop-wild relatives, possibly enrich the wild population. These results also emphasize the need for fail-safe mechanisms in transgenic crops to prevent gene flow where there may be ecological risks. PMID:15972848

Weissmann, Sarit; Feldman, Moshe; Gressel, Jonathan

2005-10-01

227

Locomotor and postural development of wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives and their positional repertoire likely includes elements shared with our common ancestor. Currently, limitations exist in our ability to correlate locomotor anatomy with behavioral function in the wild. Here we provide a detailed description of developmental changes in chimpanzee locomotion and posture. Fieldwork was conducted on wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. The large size of the Ngogo chimpanzee community permitted cross-sectional analysis of locomotor and postural changes across many individuals. Chimpanzee positional behavior proceeds developmentally through a number of distinct stages, each characterized by its own loading regime. Infants principally used their upper limbs while moving; the loading environment changed to more hindlimb dominated locomotion as infants aged. Infants displayed more diversity in their forms of positional behavior than members of any other age-sex class, engaging in behaviors not habitually exhibited by adults. While the most common locomotor mode for infants was torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion, a large shift toward quadrupedal locomotion during infancy occurred at three years of age, when rates of this behavior increased. Overall, the most dramatic transition in positional behavior occurred during juvenility (at approximately five years), with the advent of complete independent locomotion. Juveniles decreased the amount of time they spent clinging and in torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion and increased their time spent sitting and walking and running quadrupedally compared with younger individuals. Juvenility marked the age at which quadrupedal walking became the most frequent locomotor behavior, but quadrupedal walking did not encompass the majority of locomotor time until individuals reached adolescence. Relative to all younger individuals, adolescent chimpanzees (10-13 years) experienced a further increase in the amount of time they walked quadrupedally. Locomotor behavior did not reach adult form until adolescence, closer to the time of epiphyseal fusion than previously thought. These findings provide new data to make predictions about how behavioral transitions influence skeletal change. PMID:24238359

Sarringhaus, L A; MacLatchy, L M; Mitani, J C

2014-01-01

228

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J. S.; Bentler, K. T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S. A.; Minnis, R. B.; Campbell, T. A.; Barras, S. C.; Root, J. J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R. G.

2008-01-01

229

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia.

2014-01-01

230

Ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey on the ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae. The sources of information\\u000a were fieldwork in different regions of Mexico, as well as herbarium specimens and bibliographic references. A total of 34\\u000a wild species (26.5% of the 128 wild mexican species) of Cucurbitaceae are reported as used in 24 of the 32 states

Rafael Lira; Javier Caballero

2002-01-01

231

Bt crops: Predicting effects of escaped transgenes on the fitness of wild plants and their herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One prominent concern about genetically modified crops is the possibility of environmental impacts from the movement of fitness-enhancing traits to wild plant populations. Decisions to deregulate Bt crops in the USA have relied strongly on arguments that these crops will not interbreed with wild relatives in the permitted growing regions. Limited attention therefore has been directed to analyses of the

Deborah K. Letourneau; Gaden S. Robinson; Joy A. Hagen

2003-01-01

232

BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of bluetongue virus has changed, possibly related to climate change. Vaccination of domestic ruminants is taking place throughout Europe to control BT expansion. The high density of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in some European regions has raised concerns about the potential role that unvaccinated European wild ungulates might play in maintaining or spreading the virus. Most species

Caterina Falconi; Jorge Ramón López-Olvera; Christian Gortázar

2011-01-01

233

Ribosomal Gene Structure, Variation and Inheritance in Maize and Its Ancestors  

PubMed Central

We have examined the structure of nuclear genes coding for ribosomal RNAs in maize and its wild relatives, the teosintes and Tripsacum. Digestion of the rDNA (genes coding for 18S, 5.8S and 26S RNAs) with 15 restriction endonucleases (with six base pair recognition sites) yields essentially a single map for the approximately 10,000 repeat units within an individual plant or species. Both length and site variation were detected among species and were concentrated in the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA repeat unit. This result is in agreement with patterns of rDNA change observed among wheat and its relatives (Triticeae), and among vertebrate species. Digestion of these nuclear DNAs with BamHI and subsequent hybridization with a 5S RNA gene-specific probe allowed determination of the size of the 5S gene repeat unit in maize, teosintes, and Tripsacum. Groupings in the genus Zea were characterized by distinct repeat unit types; five Tripsacum species examined shared a 260 base pair major repeat unit type. Additionally, several other restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns differentiated among the 5S DNAs within the genus Zea. The rDNA and 5S DNA restriction site variation among the species can be interpreted phylogenetically and agrees with biochemical, karyotypic, and morphological evidence that places maize closest to the Mexican teosintes. For both gene arrays, contributions from each parental genome can be detected by restriction enzyme analysis of progeny from crosses between maize and two distantly related teosintes, Zea luxurians or Zea diploperennis, but certain teosinte arrays were underrepresented in some of the hybrids.

Zimmer, E. A.; Jupe, E. R.; Walbot, V.

1988-01-01

234

Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany  

PubMed Central

We found antibodies to leptospires in 25 (18%) of 141 wild boars from Berlin (95% confidence interval 12–25). Seropositivity was associated with chronic interstitial nephritis (odds ratio 10.5; p = 0.01), and leptospires were detected in kidney tissues. Wild boars represent a potential source for human leptospirosis in urban environments.

Luge, Enno; Guerra, Beatriz; Wittschen, Petra; Gruber, Achim D.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Lierz, Michael; Ehlert, Derk; Appel, Bernd; Stark, Klaus; Nockler, Karsten

2007-01-01

235

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products.

2010-01-01

236

Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe.

2013-01-01

237

The Viruses of Wild Pigeon Droppings  

PubMed Central

Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.

Phan, Tung Gia; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Boros, Akos; Pankovics, Peter; Reuter, Gabor; Li, Olive T. W.; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Xutao; Poon, Leo L. M.; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

238

Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor  

PubMed Central

Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

2014-01-01

239

Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability.

Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

2013-01-01

240

Structural Variation among Wild and Industrial Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum  

PubMed Central

Strain selection and strain improvement are the first, and arguably most important, steps in the industrial production of biological compounds by microorganisms. While traditional methods of mutagenesis and selection have been effective in improving production of compounds at a commercial scale, the genetic changes underpinning the altered phenotypes have remained largely unclear. We utilized high-throughput Illumina short read sequencing of a wild Penicillium chrysogenum strain in order to make whole genome comparisons to a sequenced improved strain (WIS 54–1255). We developed an assembly-free method of identifying chromosomal rearrangements and validated the in silico predictions with a PCR-based assay and Sanger sequencing. Despite many rounds of mutagen treatment and artificial selection, WIS 54–1255 differs from its wild progenitor at only one of the identified rearrangements. We suggest that natural variants predisposed for high penicillin production were instrumental in the success of WIS 54–1255 as an industrial strain. In addition to finding a previously published inversion in the penicillin biosynthesis cluster, we located several genes related to penicillin production associated with these rearrangements. By comparing the configuration of rearrangement events among several historically important strains known to be high penicillin producers to a collection of recently isolated wild strains, we suggest that wild strains with rearrangements similar to those in known high penicillin producers may be viable candidates for further improvement efforts.

Eisen, Michael B.; Pachter, Lior; Brem, Rachel B.

2014-01-01

241

FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS' CATS  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host.

Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien1, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

242

Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge.

2013-01-01

243

Ripening Behavior of Wild Tomato Species 1  

PubMed Central

Nine wild tomato species were surveyed for variability in ripening characteristics. External signs of ripening, age of fruit at ripening, and ethylene production patterns were compared. Ethylene production was monitored using an ethylene-free air stream system and gas chromatography. Based on these ripening characteristics, the fruits fell into three general categories: those that change color when they ripen, green-fruited species that abscise prior to ripening, and green-fruited species that ripen on the vine. The fruits that change color, Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and Lycopersicon cheesmanii, exhibited a peak of ethylene production similar to the cultivated tomato; there were differences, however, in the timing and magnitude of the ethylene production. Peak levels of ethylene production are correlated with age at maturity. For the two species that abscise prior to ripening, Lycopersicon chilense and Lycopersicon peruvianum, ability to produce ethylene varied with stage of maturity. The two species differed from each other in time of endogenous ethylene production relative to abscission, suggesting differences in the control mechanisms regulating their ripening. For two of the green-fruited species that ripen on the vine, Lycopersicon chmielewskii and Lycopersicon parviflorum, ethylene production was correlated to fruit softening. For Lycopersicon hirsutum and Solanum pennellii, however, ethylene production was not correlated with external ripening changes, making questionable the role of ethylene as the ripening hormone in these fruits.

Grumet, Rebecca; Fobes, Jon F.; Herner, Robert C.

1981-01-01

244

Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

2014-06-17

245

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

246

The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are collecting new information about the secret lives of wild animals using modern technologies like global tracking systems and ultra-miniaturized sensors. Learn about research into some rarely seen behaviors of deer, ocelots, agouti, zebras, dragonflies, and seals.

247

Effects of culling Eurasian wild boar on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis and Aujeszky's disease virus.  

PubMed

Worldwide, failure to eradicate a disease in livestock has sometimes been related to wildlife reservoirs of infection. We describe the effects of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) abundance reduction through increased culling on the prevalence of two chronic infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) and Aujeszky's disease (AD), in a region of South-central Spain (SCS). The two infections studied responded differently to an approximately 50% reduction of wild boar abundance. Wild boar TB prevalence remained stable in control sites, whereas it decreased by 21-48% in treatment sites. In one treatment site, the annual wild boar abundance was positively correlated with the annual percentage of skin test reactor cattle. In another treatment site, red deer (Cervus elaphus) M. bovis infection prevalence decreased after culling wild boar. No significant effect of wild boar culling on wild boar ADV seroprevalence was found. The reduction in wild boar TB was achieved despite no alternative M. bovis host being included in the culling strategy. We advocate that culling could become a part of integrated control strategies including habitat and game management changes and vaccination, contributing to increase their success likelihood, or reducing the total expenses. PMID:22743215

Boadella, M; Vicente, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; de la Fuente, J; Gortázar, C

2012-12-01

248

Flavonoid profiling among wild type and related GM wheat varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleiotropic effects are one of the main concerns regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This includes unintended\\u000a side effects of the transgene or its genome insertion site on the regulation of other endogenous genes, which could potentially\\u000a cause the accumulation of different secondary metabolites that may have not only an impact on diet as repeatedly worried by\\u000a the public but also

Jean-Robert Ioset; Bartosz Urbaniak; Karine Ndjoko-Ioset; Judith Wirth; Frédéric Martin; Wilhelm Gruissem; Kurt Hostettmann; Christof Sautter

2007-01-01

249

The Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Samples of Comet Wild 2, provided by the Stardust Mission, have now been examined in terrestrial labs for two years, and are very surprising! Here we describe mainly the critical phases olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, as a guide to the general mineralogy of the returned comet samples.

Zolensky, Michael

2007-01-01

250

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are

J. P. Dubey

2002-01-01

251

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two- generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F1 and F2 hybrids and BC1 backcrosses to wild and farm salmon.

Philip McGinnity; Paulo Prodohl; Andy Ferguson; Rosaleen Hynes; N. o. Maoileidigh; Natalie Baker; Deirdre Cotter; Brendan O'Hea; Declan Cooke; Ger Rogan; John Taggart; Tom Cross

2003-01-01

252

Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.  

PubMed

Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. PMID:22687350

Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-15

253

Wild ungulates as Babesia hosts in northern and central Italy.  

PubMed

Babesia and Theileria species were investigated in wild ungulates of Northern and Central Italy. Of 355 blood samples examined, 108 (30.4%) were positive to molecular diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with specific primers and sequencing). The sequence analysis showed that the roe deer is a susceptible host for several piroplasms belonging both to Babesia (31%) and Theileria (14.2%) species, whereas fallow deer and wild boar harbor only Theileria species (49% and 2.6%, respectively). Strains related to B. divergens are highly present (28.3%) in the roe deer, which, however, also harbors Babesia MO1 type and Babesia microti-like organisms. Babesia EU1 type is described for the first time in a roe deer in Italy. The finding in roe deer of Babesia species involved in human babesiosis is of concern for public health, mainly because ecological changes in progress cause the increase of both the deer species and the vector tick populations. PMID:18454592

Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Bonoli, Cristina; Cancrini, Gabriella; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario

2008-10-01

254

Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar.  

PubMed

To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the 'coin-flipping' tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability. By contrast, adult females adjusted their relative allocation to littermates to the amount of food resources, by providing a similar allocation to all littermates in years of poor food resources but producing highly diversified offspring phenotypes within a litter in years of abundant food resources. By minimizing sibling rivalry, such a plastic reproductive tactic allows adult wild boar females to maximize the number of littermates for a given breeding event. PMID:23904566

Gamelon, Marlène; Douhard, Mathieu; Baubet, Eric; Gimenez, Olivier; Brandt, Serge; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-10-23

255

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated and Tibetan Wild Barley  

PubMed Central

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement.

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

256

Mesophilic aeromonads in wild and aquacultured freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Numbers and species of motile Aeromonas were determined in freshly caught freshwater fish, in the surrounding environment, and also during iced chilled storage of fish specimens. Although no significant differences were observed in water samples, initial levels for skin, gill, and intestines were significantly lower in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) than in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). During storage of wild specimens, naturally occurring aeromonads grew fairly well on the surfaces of skin and body cavity. Of 171 strains assigned to the genus Aeromonas, 88% were identified to phenospecies and putative genospecies level by using comprehensive biochemical schemes. The isolates were allocated to putative hybridization groups (HGs) 1 and 3 Aeromonas hydrophila (29%); putative HG 8 Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (19%); putative HG 2 Aeromonas bestiarum (18%); putative HG 9 Aeromonas jandaei (16%); putative HGs 4 and 5a Aeromonas caviae (2%); putative HG 12 Aeromonas schubertii (2%); and putative HG 11 (unnamed, 0.6%). The remaining 20 isolates (12%) resembled A. schubertii but could not be allocated to currently recognized phenospecies or to putative HGs. Although cultured rainbow trout yielded strains of putative HGs 1, 4, and 8, which appear to be of major clinical importance, most isolates assigned to putative HGs 1 and 8 were recovered from pike. Differences among HGs found in wild animals could be related to their origin (unpolluted rivers for brown trout and urban rivers for pike). The recovery of these aeromonads species was not related to sampling site. The initial levels of motile aeromonads, their behavior during storage, and the strong potential spoilage activity of most isolates confirm that these bacteria can contribute to deterioration of iced wild freshwater fish. Although adequate cooking would inactivate motile aeromonads, the high incidence of isolates belonging to gastroenteritis-associated HGs should be regarded as a potential health concern, particularly for susceptible populations when there is a possibility of cross-contamination. PMID:11348001

González, C J; Santos, J A; García-López, M L; González, N; Otero, A

2001-05-01

257

Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from wild birds in northern England from 2005 - 2006  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock salmonellosis. However, little is known about the relationship between wild bird S. enterica strains and human- and livestock- associated strains in the United Kingdom. Given the zoonotic potential of salmonellosis, the main aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica infections in wild birds in the north of England and, in particular, to determine if wild bird isolates were similar to those associated with disease in livestock or humans. Results Thirty two Salmonella enterica isolates were collected from wild birds in northern England between February 2005 and October 2006, of which 29 were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium); one S. Newport, one S. Senftenberg, and one isolate could not be classified by serotyping. Further analysis through phage typing and macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that wild passerine deaths associated with salmonellosis were caused by closely-related S. Typhimurium isolates, some of which were clonal. These isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, capable of invading and persisting within avian macrophage-like HD11 cells in vitro, and contained a range of virulence factors associated with both systemic and enteric infections of birds and mammals. However, all the isolates lacked the sopE gene associated with some human and livestock disease outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium. Conclusion The wild bird isolates of S. enterica characterised in this investigation may not represent a large zoonotic risk. Molecular characterisation of isolates suggested that S. Typhimurium infection in wild passerines is maintained within wild bird populations and the causative strains may be host-adapted.

Hughes, Laura A; Shopland, Sara; Wigley, Paul; Bradon, Hannah; Leatherbarrow, A Howard; Williams, Nicola J; Bennett, Malcolm; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian

2008-01-01

258

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

259

A single domestication for maize shown by multilocus microsatellite genotyping  

PubMed Central

There exists extraordinary morphological and genetic diversity among the maize landraces that have been developed by pre-Columbian cultivators. To explain this high level of diversity in maize, several authors have proposed that maize landraces were the products of multiple independent domestications from their wild relative (teosinte). We present phylogenetic analyses based on 264 individual plants, each genotyped at 99 microsatellites, that challenge the multiple-origins hypothesis. Instead, our results indicate that all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. Our analyses also indicate that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands with maize spreading from this region over the Americas along two major paths. Our phylogenetic work is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. We also found only modest evidence for postdomestication gene flow from teosinte into maize.

Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Vigouroux, Yves; Goodman, Major M.; Sanchez G., Jesus; Buckler, Edward; Doebley, John

2002-01-01

260

Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.  

PubMed

Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

2014-06-16

261

Manuscripts and Letters of Oscar Wilde  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Morgan Library in New York City presents a digital version of a slim (50 handwritten pages) bound volume of manuscripts and letters by Oscar Wilde. The volume has an interesting provenance, since it came to the Library through the family of Lord Alfred Douglas, Wilde's lover. Wilde sued Douglas' father, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, for libel, but the trial served to make public salacious details of Wilde's private life, which eventually led to his conviction and imprisonment on charges of indecency. Ironically, the volume's cover is stamped with the Marquess of Queensberry crest, since the letters and manuscripts within were collected by the eleventh Marquess of Queensberry, grandson of John Sholto Douglas. A letter documenting the start of Wilde and Alfred Douglas relationship, written around November 1892, is in the book, as well as manuscript versions of "The Doer of Good," "The Disciple," "The Master," "The House of Judgment," and "The Artist." The "read this page" feature of the web site translates the handwritten pages into easier-to-read typescript.

262

Chemical Composition of Wild-2 Dust Collected by Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stardust spacecraft collected dust from Comet Wild-2 in two forms: material distributed along tracks in aerogel capture cells and residue in impact craters. To analyze the chemical composition of these samples the tracks produced in the aerogel were extracted as keystones containing complete tracks. Twenty-six tracks were analyzed using an X-Ray Microprobe, providing x-ray fluorescence chemical analysis for elements having K-lines at energies high enough to permit escape from the overlying aerogel (S and the heavier elements, including the moderately-volatile trace elements Cu, Zn, and Ga). Two of these tracks were then split open, exposing the interior for analysis by TOF-SIMS (which allowed detection of the lighter elements, e.g., Mg and Al). Neither Si nor O could be determined for samples captured in the aerogel, since these are the major elements in the aerogel itself. The residue in craters in the Al-foil were analyzed by SEM-EDX and TOF-SIMS. The crater residues provide information on the important light elements (Mg and Si). By combining the results from the craters and the tracks, a comprehensive chemical analysis of the Wild-2 dust was possible. Preliminary Examination of the material indicates that: 1) For particles collected in the aerogel, a significant fraction of the incident mass is frequently deposited along the entry track, suggesting the individual Wild-2 dust particles that hit the aerogel were relatively weak aggregates. 2) The chemical composition of the terminal particle in the track is frequently significantly different from the composition of the material deposited along the track, 3) Most of the elements measured show variations in their Fe-normalized abundances of more than two orders-of-magnitude in both the terminal particles and the material deposited along track walls, indicating that the Wild-2 dust is compositionally heterogeneous at the size scale of the largest particles analyzed, not simply a well-mixed aggregate of sub-micron grains, 4) The mean content of the refractory, rock-forming elements (Mg, Ca, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni) averaged over the whole tracks and/or the crater residues in the Wild-2 grains are approximately chondritic, and, 5) There is an apparent enrichment over CI in some of the moderately-volatile minor elements (Cu, Zn, and Ga) in the Wild-2 dust.

Flynn, G. J.

2006-12-01

263

Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that

Erica Spackman; David E Swayne; Martin Gilbert; Damien O Joly; William B Karesh; David L Suarez; Ruuragchaa Sodnomdarjaa; Purevtseren Dulam; Carol Cardona

2009-01-01

264

Differences in the BAL proteome after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in wild type and SPA\\/- mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) has been shown to play a variety of roles related to lung host defense function. Mice lacking SP-A are more susceptible to infection than wild type C57BL\\/6 mice. We studied bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein expression in wild type and SP-A-\\/- mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae by 2D-DIGE. METHODS: Mice were infected intratracheally with K. pneumoniae and

Mehboob Ali; Todd M Umstead; Rizwanul Haque; Anatoly N Mikerov; Willard M Freeman; Joanna Floros; David S Phelps

2010-01-01

265

The WildList Organization International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WildList is a free list of all known computer viruses that are spreading in the world, as compiled by volunteer antivirus experts of the WildList Organization International. It is updated monthly and, as one can imagine, is quite lengthy. The site has many other interesting features besides the list. For example, a somewhat humorous article by the WildList's founder describes his views on "how scientific naming works" for computer viruses. Several other papers are also offered that deal with virus issues. Some links to sites that test products or describe viruses are given as well. This site takes a very objective approach to releasing information and, therefore, does not endorse any particular antivirus software.

1999-01-01

266

Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

Hill, E.F.

1988-01-01

267

[Wild birds--a reservoir for influenza A virus].  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field. PMID:18581906

Griot, C; Hoop, R

2007-11-01

268

High prevalence of porcine Hokovirus in German wild boar populations  

PubMed Central

Porcine Hokovirus (PHoV) was recently discovered in Hong Kong. This new Parvovirus of pigs is closely related to the human Parvoviruses 4 and 5 (PARV4/5) and bovine Hokovirus (BHoV). So far, nothing is known about the presence and prevalence of PHoV in regions of the world other than Hong Kong. A study was initiated to investigate PHoV in German wild boars from five different geographical regions, using a newly established quantitative real-time PCR assay. Analysis of collected liver and serum samples revealed high overall prevalence (32.7%; 51/156) of PHoV in wild boars. The prevalence differed between the regions and increased with age. Two near full-length genomes and a large fragment for three additional isolates from different regions were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The German PHoV sequences from wild boars showed a close relationship with sequences of isolates from Hong Kong.

2010-01-01

269

Behavioural trait covaries with immune responsiveness in a wild passerine.  

PubMed

Immune system is highly integrated with the nervous and endocrine systems, which is thought to result in covariation between behavioural syndromes and stress- and immune-associated diseases. Very little is known about the associations between behaviour and immune traits in wild animals. Here we describe such an association in passerine birds, the greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). When wild-caught greenfinches are brought into captivity, some individuals damage their tail feathers against cage walls due to excited behaviour, while others retain their feathers in intact condition. We show that damage to tail feathers was associated with flapping flight movements and the frequency of such flapping bouts was individually consistent over 57 days. Birds with intact tails, i.e., relatively 'calm' individuals mounted stronger antibody response to a novel Brucella abortus antigen and their circulating phagocytes were capable of producing stronger oxidative burst in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro. As the behavioural trait was assessed 13-25 days before measuring immune responsiveness, our results demonstrate that individuals' coping styles with captivity predicted how these individuals would respond to forthcoming immune challenges. This is a novel evidence about covariation between immune responsiveness and a behavioural trait in a wild-caught animal. PMID:21473910

Sild, Elin; Sepp, Tuul; Hõrak, Peeter

2011-10-01

270

Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

Slota, Paul

2007-01-01

271

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

272

Feeding success of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti: the effects of group size and kleptoparasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longer-term ecosystem level dynamics are often neglected in conservation studies involving single species. In this study, a retrospective analysis is presented on the feeding performance of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus in the Serengeti in relation to a competing species, the spotted hyenaCrocuta crocuta, to test whether hyenas had an effect on feeding performance of wild dogs in this ecosystem.

C. Carbone; L. Frame; G. Frame; J. Malcolm; J. Fanshawe; C. FitzGibbon; G. Schaller; I. J. Gordon; J. M. Rowcliffe; J. T. Du Toit

2005-01-01

273

Leptospires Isolated from Wild Mammals in Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a leptospire survey of 364 wild mammals (12) species from Egypt, serotype isolates were 7 of grippotyphosa from mice (Mus musculus) and 3 of icterohaemorrhagiae from 2 mongooses (Herpestes i. ichneumon) and 1 fox (Vulpes v. niloticus), Antibodies to th...

I. S. Barsoum R. W. Moch B. A. M. Botros M. N. Kaiser

1973-01-01

274

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

275

"Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

Thompson, Virginia P.

2012-01-01

276

Tutoring in Wild Golden Lion Tamarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among most nonhuman primates, juveniles must acquire most of their solid food independently. Information gleaned from adults results from efforts initiated by the juveniles. Donation of food or foraging information by adults to immatures is rare among apes and virtually unknown among monkeys. We report 3 observations in which wild adult golden lion tamarins appear to have directed their immature

Lisa G. Rapaport; Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda

2002-01-01

277

Synoptic circulation control on wild fire occurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild fires have gained increasing interest during the last decade worldwide. Millions of hectares are burned out every year in various countries in all continents. Most of them are burned by the villagers to increase the areas which are available to cultivation but many fires also start by natural causes. Especially in the Mediterranean regions the demise of the traditional

Pavlos Kassomenos

2010-01-01

278

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

279

Mineral Nutrient Composition of Edible Wild Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral element composition is given for the leaves of eight species of edible wild plants used by the first European farmers and still consumed at the present day in a primitive way. Amounts of moisture, ash, organic nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese were computed. Plants harvested in several places where these species grow were

J. L. Guil Guerrero; J. J. Giménez Mart??nez; M. E. Torija Isasa

1998-01-01

280

Saving Wild Species through Habitat Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the conservation approach adopted by World Wildlife Fund which focuses on habitat protection to save wild plant and animal species. Priority attention to tropical forests is explained. Examples are given of techniques (e.g., radiotelemetry and aerial survey) for studying ecological behavior patterns of specific animals. (CS)

Bohlen, Janet

1980-01-01

281

Mayaro Virus in Wild Mammals, French Guiana  

PubMed Central

A serologic survey for Mayaro virus (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) in 28 wild nonflying forest mammal species in French Guiana showed a prevalence ranging from 0% to 52% and increasing with age. Species active during the day and those who spent time in trees were significantly more infected, results consistent with transmission implicating diurnal mosquitoes and continuous infectious pressure.

de Thoisy, Benoit; Gardon, Jacques; Salas, Rosa Alba; Morvan, Jacques

2003-01-01

282

Does Comet WILD-2 contain Gems?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is expected that Comet Wild-2 dust should resemble anhydrous carbon-rich, chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere because some CP IDPs are suspected to be from comets. The rarity of carbonaceous grains and presolar silicates, as well as the presence of high-temperature inner solar nebula minerals in the Wild-2 sample (e.g. osbornite and melilite), appear incompatible with most CP IDPs. However, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about the mineralogy of comet Wild-2 because only approx. 1% of the sample has been examined. The most abundant silicates in CP IDPs are GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides). Nonsolar O isotopic compositions confirm that at least some GEMS in IDPs are presolar amorphous silicates. The presence or absence of GEMS in the Wild-2 sample is important because it addresses, (a) the relationship between CP IDPs and comets, and (b) the hypothesis that other GEMS in IDPs formed in the solar nebula. Here we show that most of the GEMSlike materials so far identified in Stardust aerogel were likely impact generated during collection. At the nanometer scale, they are compositionally and crystallographically distinct from GEMS in IDPs.

Chi, M.; Ishii, H.; Dai, Z. R.; Toppani, A.; Joswiak, D. J.; Leroux, H.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L. P.; Browning, N. D.

2007-01-01

283

Theorizing Scientific Literacy in the Wild  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper is to contribute to the effort of rethinking scientific literacy in a form that is appropriate for describing and theorizing its occurrence "in the wild," that is, in the everyday world that we share with others (as opposed to testing situations in classrooms and laboratories). Consistent with our commitment to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2010-01-01

284

QTL clusters reflect character associations in wild and cultivated rice.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of character association related to differentiation found in the primary gene pool of rice was investigated based on the genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Major evolutionary trends in cultivated rice of Asiatic origin ( Oryza sativa) and its wild progenitor ( O. rufipogon) are: (1) differentiation from wild to domesticated types (domestication), (2) ecotype differentiation between the perennial and annual types in wild races, and (3) the Indica versus Japonica type differentiation in cultivated races. Using 125 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between an Indica cultivar of O. sativa and a strain of O. rufipogon carrying some Japonica-like characteristics, we mapped 147 markers, mostly RFLPs, on 12 chromosomes. Thirty-seven morphological and physiological quantitative traits were evaluated, and QTLs for 24 traits were detected. The mapped loci showed a tendency to form clusters that are composed of QTLs of the domestication-related traits as well as Indica/Japonica diagnostic traits. QTLs for perennial/annual type differences did not cluster. This cluster phenomenon could be considered "multifactorial linkages" followed by natural selection favoring co-adapted traits. Further, it is possible that the clustering phenomenon is partly due to pleiotropy of some unknown key factor(s) controlling various traits through diverse metabolic pathways. Chromosomal regions where QTL clusters were found coincided with the regions harboring genes or gene blocks where the frequency of cultivar-derived alleles in RILs is higher than expected. This distortion may be partly due to unconscious selection favoring cultivated plant type during the establishment of RILs. PMID:12582574

Cai, W.; Morishima, H.

2002-06-01

285

Cross-experimental analysis of coat color variations and morphological characteristics of the japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus.  

PubMed

There are many coat colors in the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. On the basis of traditional genetics, there are four loci, A-D, related to coat color expressions. As shown by previous studies, Japanese wild mice have gray backs and white bellies and are assumed to carry the A(w) allele at the A (agouti) locus, which is dominant over any other alleles. However, we collected Japanese wild mice from central Honshu with black coats. To understand this black coat expression, we performed cross experiments concerning the four loci using wild-caught mice and DBA/2 laboratory mice from the standpoint of traditional genetics. The offspring of the current crosses showed the wild type, the blackish type, and the intermediate type from some combinations of parents. Considering the coat colors of the offspring, we did not obtain any evidence that the Japanese wild mice always carry the A(w) allele at the A locus. Furthermore, we were not able to explain the current coat color expressions using the traditional logic with regard to the A-D loci and concluded that it is possible for another locus (loci) to be related to the coat color expressions. On the other hand, skull characteristics and external body measurements of the captured wild mice were fundamentally different from those of DBA/2 and offspring from captured wild mice and DBA/2 combinations. Thus, we concluded that the Japanese wild mice had original criteria from a morphological viewpoint. PMID:23357943

Suzuki, Taichi A; Iwasa, Masahiro A

2013-01-01

286

Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.  

PubMed

Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9?m?s(-1) (58?m.p.h. or 93?km?h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat. PMID:23765495

Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

2013-06-13

287

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

288

Genome size in wild Pisum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome size was measured in 75 samples of the wild pea species Pisum abyssinicum, P. elatius, P. fulvum and P. humile by ethidium-bromide (EB) flow cytometry (internal standard: Triticum monococcum) and Feulgen densitometry (internal standard: Pisum sativum Kleine Rheinländerin). Total variation of EB-DNA between samples covered 97.7% to 114.9% of the P. sativum value, and Feulgen DNA values were strongly

M. Baranyi; J. Greilhuber; W. K. Swi?cicki

1996-01-01

289

Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.  

PubMed

The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating. PMID:21453121

Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2011-08-01

290

STARDUST: Composition of Wild-2 Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Jan 2 2004 NASA s Stardust spacecraft flew through the coma of comet Wild-2 capturing particles in a low-density silica aerogel collector The objective was to capture 1 000 particles 10 micrometers in size Stardust delivered the samples to Earth on Jan 15 2006 A description of the collection and the capture cells is in Tsou et al 1 Wild-2 is a short-period comet believed to have originated in the Kuiper Belt Thus analysis of Wild-2 dust provides the first opportunity to probe conditions in the Kuiper Belt during dust formation and compare them with conditions in the asteroid belt as inferred from primitive meteorites In preparation for the Stardust return F H o rz NASA JSC shot dust from the Allende meteorite and a microprobe standard unknown into aerogel cells Samples of both were provided to each group participating in Stardust composition preliminary examination Allende provides an indication of the elements each instrument can detect in a chondritic sample while the unknown insures consistency in analyses among the laboratories on 4 continents that are participating in the examination In the ideal case aerogel capture results in gentle deceleration giving a single terminal particle at the end of a conical track whose length is a few hundred times the diameter of the particle However weak material e g the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite shot into aerogel at sim 6 km s comparable to the Stardust encounter with Wild-2 frequently leaves many fragments along the track Capture results in accretion

Flynn, G.; Stardust Composition Team

291

Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

The question of whether animals possess ‘cultures’ or ‘traditions’ continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the ‘method of exclusion,’ begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

Langergraber, Kevin E.; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C.; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W.; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

2011-01-01

292

Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.  

PubMed

Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

2011-06-13

293

A multivariate comparison of dental variation in wild and captive populations of baboons (Papio hamadryas)  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic variation is critical to many aspects of biological research. Use of a captive population to address questions concerning the genetics and evolution of dental variation raises the question of how the pattern of phenotypic variation under study compares with that in a wild population of the same species. Differences in the pattern of variation within wild and captive populations may indicate different genetic and non-genetic factors, and also may have implications for how well the captive group can serve as a model for its wild type relatives. We compared dental size measures from two Papio hamadryas populations, one captive and one wild. Lengths and widths of maxillary and mandibular second molars (M2s) were collected from 630 baboons from a captive pedigreed breeding colony housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center in San Antonio, Texas, and 125 baboons from a wild population culled from a sisal plantation in Kibweze, Kenya. Although the two populations consistently differed with respect to lengths and widths of the M2s, principal components analyses show that the basic pattern to variation in these molar crown traits is remarkably similar in both populations; and linear functions based on these measures cannot reliably discriminate between the two groups. This similarity in the pattern of variation among these dental crown measures in these two groups suggests that analyses to dissect their genetic architecture in captive populations is likely to be highly relevant to dental variation in wild baboons as well.

Mahaney, Michael C.

2009-01-01

294

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions.  

PubMed

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host's natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV. PMID:23763792

Herrick, Keiko A; Huettmann, Falk; Lindgren, Michael A

2013-01-01

295

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host’s natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV.

2013-01-01

296

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

297

Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs. PMID:24962519

Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enik?; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

2014-08-27

298

WILDE AND SHAKESPEARE IN SHAW'S YOU NEVER CAN TELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friendly rivalry between Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde began when the two exchanged gift volumes of Widowers' Houses and Lady Windermere's Fan and continued until Shaw reviewed The Importance of Being Earnest.1 Wilde took exception to Shaw's theory that Earnest must have been an old play dusted off by Wilde. As evidence to support his guess, Shaw suggested the

John A. Bertolini

299

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

300

Frost sensitivity of hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frost could potentially limit the survival ofhybrids between cultivated and wild carrots innatural habitats, and thereby the likelihoodthat (trans)genes spread from the crop to wildplants. To test this, cultivated, wild carrotsand their hybrids were exposed to differentfrost treatments. Hybrids survivedsignificantly less than the wild carrots, butonly slightly better than the cultivars,indicating that frost will indeed limit theirsurvival.

Thure P. Hauser

2002-01-01

301

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

302

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

303

Biomolecule profiles in inedible wild mushrooms with antioxidant value.  

PubMed

The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC??) value 60 ?g/mL similar to the standard Trolox®). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds. PMID:21613974

Reis, Filipa S; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-01-01

304

Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions. PMID:24789405

Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L

2013-11-01

305

A genetic approach to the species problem in wild potato.  

PubMed

Wild potatoes are native to the Americas, where they present very wide geographical and ecological distribution. Most are diploid, obligate out-crossers due to a multiallelic gametophytic self-incompatibility (S) locus that prevents self-fertilisation and crossing between individuals carrying identical S-alleles. They have two alternative modes of reproduction: sexual (by seeds) and asexual (by stolons and tubers), which provide, respectively, for genetic flexibility in changing environments and high fitness of adapted genotypes under stable conditions. Since the early twentieth century, their taxonomic classification has been mostly based on morphological phenotypes (Taxonomic Species Concept). More recently, attempts have been made to establish phylogenetic relationships, applying molecular tools in samples of populations (accessions) with a previously assigned specific category. However, neither the reproductive biology and breeding relations among spontaneous populations nor the morphological and genetic variability expected in obligate allogamous populations are considered when the taxonomic species concept is applied. In nature, wild potato populations are isolated through external and internal hybridisation barriers; the latter, which are genetically determined, can be either pre-zygotic (pollen-pistil incompatibility) or post-zygotic (abortion of embryo, endosperm or both tissues, sterility, and hybrid weakness and breakdown in segregating generations). The internal barriers, however, can be incomplete, providing opportunities for hybridisation and introgression within and between populations and ploidy levels in areas of overlap. The widespread occurrence of spontaneous hybrids in nature was recognised in the mid-twentieth century. Using genetic approaches, results have been obtained that provide strong support to the assertion that populations are at different stages of genetic divergence and are not at the end of the evolutionary process, as presupposed by the Taxonomic Species Concept. Furthermore, since wild potatoes have uniparental and biparental overlapping generations, the Biological Species Concept - developed for sexually reproducing biparental organisms - cannot be applied to them. In this paper, morphological, genetic, molecular and taxonomic studies in wild potato are reviewed, considering the genetic consequences of their reproductive biology, in an attempt to shed light on the species problem, because of its relevance in germplasm conservation and breeding. PMID:22372767

Camadro, E L; Erazzú, L E; Maune, J F; Bedogni, M C

2012-07-01

306

Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase  

SciTech Connect

Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has the structure-sensitive lines greatly upshifted relative to those of the free base protoporphyrin in solution. This could be interpreted as an equilibrium between protein conformers, one of which favors a highly distorted porphyrin macrocycle. Taken together these findings suggest that the mode of porphyrin distortion in murine ferrochelatase is different from that reported for yeast ferrochelatase, which requires metal binding for porphyrin distortion.

Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

1999-05-19

307

SNP-revealed genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat correlates with ecological factors  

PubMed Central

Background Patterns of genetic diversity between and within natural plant populations and their driving forces are of great interest in evolutionary biology. However, few studies have been performed on the genetic structure and population divergence in wild emmer wheat using a large number of EST-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Results In the present study, twenty-five natural wild emmer wheat populations representing a wide range of ecological conditions in Israel and Turkey were used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using over 1,000 SNP markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected due to the biallelic property of SNP markers. Clustering based on Bayesian model showed that grouping pattern is related to the geographical distribution of the wild emmer wheat. However, genetic differentiation between populations was not necessarily dependent on the geographical distances. A total of 33 outlier loci under positive selection were identified using a FST-outlier method. Significant correlations between loci and ecogeographical factors were observed. Conclusions Natural selection appears to play a major role in generating adaptive structures in wild emmer wheat. SNP markers are appropriate for detecting selectively-channeled adaptive genetic diversity in natural populations of wild emmer wheat. This adaptive genetic diversity is significantly associated with ecological factors.

2013-01-01

308

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.  

PubMed Central

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.

McGinnity, Philip; Prodohl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoileidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

2003-01-01

309

The distribution of molybdenum in the tissues of wild ducks.  

PubMed

The Mo contents and the relations between Mo and Cu or Cr contents were investigated in the organs of Japanese wild ducks (spotbill duck, pintail, wigeon, scaup and tufted duck). The highest Mo content in kidney and liver of the dabbling ducks were more than 30 microg g(-1) dry weight (microg g(-1) d. wt.), though that of diving ducks were less than 11 microg g(-1) d. wt. The contents were lower in the ducks migrating within Japan, Eurasia and North America than those in the birds migrating between Japan and Eurasia. The contents of liver in all species were more than 50 and less than 5 microg g(-1) d. wt. for Cu and Cr, respectively. Significant correlations were found between Mo and both elements in pintail and scaup, and Mo and Cr in tufted duck. These results suggest that the contamination of wild ducks reflects the reproductive area, and not the collected area. Mo contents closely correlated with the Cu and/or Cr contaminations. PMID:12180653

Mochizuki, Mariko; Sasaki, Rei; Yamashita, Yuko; Akinaga, Mayumi; Anan, Nana; Sasaki, Sakura; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

2002-07-01

310

Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews  

PubMed Central

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

2010-01-01

311

Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population  

PubMed Central

The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes is affected by the animal’s social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules.

Onyango, Patrick O.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

2013-01-01

312

Amebicidal activity of wild animal serum.  

PubMed

The sera of 16 species of wild animals representing 5 classes of vertebrates were assayed for amebicidal activity against species of Naegleria. The greatest activity was observed for sera of bullfrogs, muskrats, and raccoons, all of which are animals associated with water. In contrast, the sera from animals such as toads, box turtles, sparrows, and squirrels exhibited minimal or no amebicidal activity. In general, pathogenic Naegleria tended to be less susceptible than nonpathogenic Naegleria to the lytic effect of raccoon serum. Heat-inactivated serum was not amebicidal, suggesting that perhaps complement may be involved in the serum-mediated lysis of amebas. PMID:9267424

John, D T; Smith, B L

1997-08-01

313

Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds?†‡  

PubMed Central

We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacoronaviruses between duck species. In contrast, deltacoronaviruses may have more stringent host specificities. Our analysis of these avian viral and host mitochondrial DNA sequences also suggests that some, but not all, coronaviruses may have coevolved with birds from the same order.

Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Ng, Erica M.; Tse, Tsemay M.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Poon, Leo L. M.

2011-01-01

314

Normal expression of insect-resistant transgene in progeny of common wild rice crossed with genetically modified rice: its implication in ecological biosafety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgene outflow from genetically modified (GM) rice to its wild relatives may cause undesirable ecological consequences.\\u000a Understanding the level of transgene expression in wild rice following gene flow is important for assessing such consequences,\\u000a providing that transgene escape from GM rice cannot be prevented. To determine the expression of a transgene in common wild\\u000a rice (Oryza rufipogon), we analyzed the

Hui Xia; Bao-Rong Lu; Jun Su; Rui Chen; Jun Rong; Zhiping Song; Feng Wang

2009-01-01

315

Q fever in domestic and wild birds  

PubMed Central

The authors report on the results of several years' research into the role of domestic and wild birds in the epidemiology and epizootiology of Q fever in Czechoslovakia. They examined 572 blood specimens taken from domestic birds in an area of endemic Q fever and found positive reactions to the complement-fixation test in hens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and pigeons, with hens showing the highest percentage of positive reactions. In addition, the susceptibility of hens to infection with Rickettsia burnetii was demonstrated experimentally, and excretion of R. burnetii in the stools of hens was demonstrated from the 7th to the 40th day after infection. Complement-fixation tests were also done on 480 blood specimens from wild birds with positive serological reactions in 15.8% of birds living directly on infected farms, 4.3% of birds living in the immediate vicinity of those farms, and 1.8% of birds living independently of human habitations but in an endemic area. R. burnetii was isolated from the spleen and liver of the redstart and the white wagtail and from ectoparasites of swallows.

Syrucek, L.; Raska, K.

1956-01-01

316

Pedigree reconstruction in wild cichlid fish populations.  

PubMed

It is common practice to use microsatellites to detect parents and their offspring in wild and captive populations, in order to reconstruct a pedigree. However, correct inference is often constrained by a number of factors, including the absence of demographic data and ignorance regarding the completeness of parental sampling. Here we present a new Bayesian estimator that simultaneously estimates the pedigree and the size of the unsampled population. The method is robust to genotyping error, and can estimate pedigrees in the absence of demographic data. Using a large-scale microsatellite assay in four wild cichlid fish populations of Lake Tanganyika (1000 individuals in total), we assess the performance of the Bayesian estimator against the most popular assignment program, Cervus. We found small but significant pedigrees in each of the tested populations using the Bayesian procedure, but Cervus had very high type I error rates when the size of the unsampled population was assumed to be lower than what it was. The need of pedigree relationships to infer adaptive processes in natural populations places strong constraints on sampling design and identification of multigenerational pedigrees in natural populations. PMID:18986496

Koch, Martin; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Sefc, Kristina M; Sturmbauer, Christian

2008-10-01

317

Mobile Life - Innovation in the Wild  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a decade of work in our research labs on mobile and ubiquitous technology, often formed by the early visions of ubiquitous computing, with the urge to move interaction from the desktop out into the wild, these technologies have now moved out into the world - into the wild. We are in the middle of a second IT-revolution, caused by the spread of mobile and ubiquitous services, in combination with a broad consumer-oriented market pull. The first ITrevolution, the introduction and deployment of Internet and the World Wide Web during the 1990’s, had a major impact on all parts of our society. As mobile, ubiquitous technology now becomes wide-spread, the design and evaluation of mobile services - i.e. information technology that can be accessed and used in virtually any setting - represents an important business arena for the IT- and telecom industry. Together we have to look for a sustainable web of work, leisure and ubiquitous technology we can call the mobile life.

Höök, Kristina

318

Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies  

PubMed Central

The primary function of fruit is to attract animals that disperse viable seeds, but the nutritional rewards that attract beneficial consumers also attract consumers that kill seeds instead of dispersing them. Many of these unwanted consumers are microbes, and microbial defense is commonly invoked to explain the bitter, distasteful, occasionally toxic chemicals found in many ripe fruits. This explanation has been criticized, however, due to a lack of evidence that microbial consumers influence fruit chemistry in wild populations. In the present study, we use wild chilies to show that chemical defense of ripe fruit reflects variation in the risk of microbial attack. Capsaicinoids are the chemicals responsible for the well known pungency of chili fruits. Capsicum chacoense is naturally polymorphic for the production of capsaicinoids and displays geographic variation in the proportion of individual plants in a population that produce capsaicinoids. We show that this variation is directly linked to variation in the damage caused by a fungal pathogen of chili seeds. We find that Fusarium fungus is the primary cause of predispersal chili seed mortality, and we experimentally demonstrate that capsaicinoids protect chili seeds from Fusarium. Further, foraging by hemipteran insects facilitates the entry of Fusarium into fruits, and we show that variation in hemipteran foraging pressure among chili populations predicts the proportion of plants in a population producing capsaicinoids. These results suggest that the pungency in chilies may be an adaptive response to selection by a microbial pathogen, supporting the influence of microbial consumers on fruit chemistry.

Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Reagan, Karen M.; Machnicki, Noelle J.; Carlo, Tomas A.; Haak, David C.; Penaloza, Alejandra Lorena Calderon; Levey, Douglas J.

2008-01-01

319

Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea  

PubMed Central

During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

320

Twenty/Twenty: Projects and Activities for Wild School Sites. An Ohio Project Wild Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 20 projects and 20 activities designed to encourage students and teachers to use the school site as part of an environmental education program with the focus on creating a place for wildlife. The projects and activities coincide with other materials from Project WILD and are easily adaptable by teachers at any grade level. The…

Schiff, Paul D.

321

Role of Wild Game in the Diet of Recreationists in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessors have devoted considerable attention to the consumption of fish in the diet of recreational and subsistence anglers, but little attention has been directed toward the percentage that wild game contributes to total protein intake for people who engage in hunting and fishing. While recall studies have limitations, the relative errors should be similar for different types of fish

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2002-01-01

322

RAPD analysis of genetic variation between a group of rose cultivars and selected wild rose species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability based on random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers was analysed among 10 cultivated rose varieties and 9 wild species from three different series of the genus Rosa. Using 13 different RAPD primers, 104 polymorphic DNA fragments with a high potential to differentiate rose genotypes could be produced. A dendrogram displaying the relative genetic similarities among the genotypes shows the

Thomas Debener; Christian Bartels; Lore Mattiesch

1996-01-01

323

Evidence for a spatial memory of fruiting states of rainforest trees in wild mangabeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ranging behaviour of two groups of wild mangabey monkeys (sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys atys, and grey-cheeked mangabeys, Lophocebus albigena johnstoni) relative to a number of preselected target trees within their home range. We observed the groups' visiting patterns and speed when they approached within a critical distance of a target tree as a function of the tree's

Karline R. L. Janmaat; Richard W. Byrne; Klaus Zuberbühler

2006-01-01

324

Nucleotide Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Populations of the Partial Selfer Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the relative contributions of different evolutionary forces on an organism's genome requires an accurate description of the patterns of genetic variation within and between natural populations. To this end, I report a survey of nucleotide polymorphism in six loci from 118 strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These strains derive from wild populations of several regions within

Asher D. Cutter

2006-01-01

325

Evaluation of the Wonders in Nature-Wonders in Neighborhoods Conservation Education Program: Stakeholders Gone Wild!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wonders in Nature-Wonders in Neighborhoods ((W.I.N.-W.I.N.) has been providing wild-life related conservation education to schoolchildren throughout the Denver metropolitan area since 1996. Specifically designed for students in early childhood education classes through fifth grade, W.I.N.-W.I.N. is intended to heighten children's awareness and…

Somers, Cindy

2005-01-01

326

Identification of fatty acids in edible wild plants by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total lipidic content and the distribution of fatty acids in twenty edible wild plants in S.E. Spain was determined by GC. The lipidic content was higher than usual in the common vegetables. The high ratio of the ?3 series of unsaturated fatty acids relative to the ?6 series demonstrates the good nutritional qualities of these plants.

J. L. Guil; M. E. Torija; J. J. Giménez; I. Rodríguez

1996-01-01

327

Specialization and development of beach hunting, a rare foraging behavior, by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging behaviors of bottlenose dolphins vary within and among populations, but few studies attempt to ad- dress the causes of individual variation in foraging behavior. We examined how ecological, social, and developmental factors relate to the use of a rare foraging tactic by wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp. Gervais, 1855) in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Beach hunting involves partial and

B. L. Sargeant; J. Mann; P. Berggren; M. Krützen

2005-01-01

328

Evolutionary genetics of ageing in the wild: empirical patterns and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Classical evolutionary theory states that senescence should arise as a consequence of the declining force of selection late in life. Although the quantitative genetic predictions of hypotheses derived from this theory have been extensively tested in laboratory studies of invertebrate systems, relatively little is known about the genetics of ageing in the wild. 2. Data from long-term ecological

A. J. Wilson; A. Charmantier; J. D. Hadfield

2008-01-01

329

Leukocyte Profiles in Wild House Finches with and without Mycoplasmal Conjunctivitis, a Recently Emerged Bacterial Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte profiles (relative numbers of white blood cell types) have been used by a growing number of ecological studies to assess immune function and stress in wild birds. House Finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America are susceptible to an eye disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, providing the opportunity to examine whether leukocyte profiles are associated with

Andrew K. Davis; Katherine C. Cook; Sonia Altizer

2004-01-01

330

An analysis of recent taxonomic concepts in wild potatoes ( Solarium sect. Petota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort., the potato and its wild relatives, contains 232 species, according to the latest taxonomic interpretation of Hawkes (1990). Section Petota is distributed in the Americas from the southwestern United States to southern Chile. This economically important group has attracted the attention of numerous taxonomists with various taxonomic philosophies. There are 531 validly published basionyms in

David M. Spooner; Ronald G. Berg

1992-01-01

331

The Pattern of Influenza Virus Attachment Varies among Wild Bird Species  

PubMed Central

The ability to attach to host cells is one of the main determinants of the host range of influenza A viruses. By using virus histochemistry, we investigate the pattern of virus attachment of both a human and an avian influenza virus in colon and trachea sections from 12 wild bird species. We show that significant variations exist, even between closely related avian species, which suggests that the ability of wild birds to serve as hosts for influenza viruses strongly varies among species. These results will prove valuable to assess the possibilities of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in natural environments and better understand the ecology of influenza.

Jourdain, Elsa; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; Kuiken, Thijs; Waldenstrom, Jonas; Olsen, Bjorn; Ellstrom, Patrik

2011-01-01

332

Is spring wild turkey gobbler harvest additive or compensatory?  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: We compared survival rates of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) gobblers in hunted (Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve [CWMA]) and unhunted (Savannah River Site [SRS]) populations in South Carolina to assess impact of spring gobbler-only hunts. Annual survival rate of gobblers on SRS (0.71) was greater (?2 = 5.11; df = 1; P = 0.02) than that of gobblers on CWMA (0.54). Our results indicate that spring gobbler harvests constitute additive mortality to turkey populations. However, even in years when reproductive rates were relatively low, a spring-only gobbler harvest rate of 25% appeared to have a minimal effect on turkey populations.

Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C., Jr.; Davis, James, R.

2008-10-01

333

Organics Captured from Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organics found in Comet Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and carbonaceous meteorites. A new class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in O and N compared to meteoritic organics. Aromatic compounds are present, but the samples tend to be relatively poorer in aromatics than meteorites and IDPs. D and 15N suggest that some organics have an interstellar/protostellar heritage. While the variable extent of modification of these materials by impact capture is not yet fully constrained, a remarkably diverse suite of organic compounds is present and identifiable within the returned samples.

Sandford, Scott A.; Aleon, Jerome; Araki, Tohru; Bajt, Sasa; Baratta, Giuseppe A.; Borg, Janet; Brucato, John R.; Burchell, Mark J.; Busemann, Henner; Butterworth, Anna; Clemett, Simon J.; Cody, George; Colangeli, Luigi; Cooper, George; D'Hendecourt, Louis; Djouadi, Zahia; Dworkin, Jason P.; Ferrini, Gianluca; Fleckenstein, Holger; Flynn, George J.; Franchi, Ian A.; Fries, Mark; Gilles, Mary K.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Gounelle, Matthieu

2007-01-01

334

Quantitation of nine organic acids in wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

The organic acids composition of six wild edible mushroom species (Amanita caesarea, Boletus edulis, Gyroporus castaneus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus collinitus, and Xerocomus chrysenteron) was determined by an HPLC-UV detector method. The results showed that all of the samples presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: citric, ketoglutaric, malic, succinic, and fumaric acids. Several samples also contained oxalic, ascorbic, quinic, and shikimic acids. In a general way, the quantitation of the identified compounds indicated that malic acid, followed by the pair citric plus ketoglutaric acids, were the main compounds in the analyzed species, with the exception of A. caesarea, in which malic and ascorbic acids were the most abundant compounds. The relative amounts and the presence/absence of each identified compound may be useful for the differentiation of the species. PMID:15853411

Valentão, Patrícia; Lopes, Graciliana; Valente, Miguel; Barbosa, Paula; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M

2005-05-01

335

Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink  

PubMed Central

Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus’ molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild.

Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

2012-01-01

336

Persistence of vigilance and flight response behaviour in wild reindeer with varying domestic ancestry.  

PubMed

Knowledge about changes in behavioural traits related to wildness and tameness is for most mammals lacking, despite the increased trend of using domestic stock to re-establish wild populations into historical ranges. To test for persistence of behavioural traits of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) exposed to hunting, we sampled DNA, vigilance and flight responses in wild reindeer herds with varying domestic ancestry. Analyses of 14 DNA microsatellite loci revealed a dichotomous main genetic structure reflecting their native origin, with the Rondane reindeer genetically different from the others and with least differentiation towards the Hardangervidda reindeer. The genetic clustering of the reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell, Ottadalen and Forollhogna, together with domestic reindeer, supports a predominant domestic origin of these herds. Despite extensive hunting in all herds, the behavioural measures indicate increasing vigilance, alert and flight responses with increasing genetic dissimilarity with domestic herds. Vigilance frequency and time spent vigilant were higher in Rondane compared to Hardangervidda, which again were higher than herds with a domestic origin. We conclude that previous domestication has preserved a hard wired behavioural trait in some reindeer herds exhibiting less fright responses towards humans that extensive hunting has, but only slightly, altered. This brings novel and relevant knowledge to discussions about genetic diversity of wildlife in general and wild reindeer herds in Norway in specific. PMID:22587024

Reimers, E; Røed, K H; Colman, J E

2012-08-01

337

Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia).  

PubMed

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Adám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

2010-01-01

338

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex.

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

339

RAPD-based study of genetic variation and relationships among wild fig genotypes in Turkey.  

PubMed

The fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is of significant socio-economic importance in Turkey, with 25% of the world's fig production. Genetic variation and relationships among 14 wild-grown figs sampled from Coruh Valley in Turkey were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Ninety-eight DNA fragments were scored after amplification of DNA samples with 13 random primers; 70% of the scored bands were polymorphic. Genetic distances between the fig genotypes ranged from 0.21 to 0.62. Genotypes 08-ART-02 and 08-ART-06 were found to be the most closely related, whereas 08-ART-09 and 08-ART-10 were the most distant. The 14 wild-grown genotypes were grouped into six main clusters and one outgroup. We conclude that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown fig genotypes. PMID:19768673

Akbulut, M; Ercisli, S; Karlidag, H

2009-01-01

340

Wild wall crossing and BPS giants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BPS spectrum of pure SU(3) four-dimensional super Yang-Mills with = 2 supersymmetry exhibits a surprising phenomenon: there are regions of the Coulomb branch where the growth of the BPS degeneracies with the charge is exponential. We show this using spectral networks and independently using wall-crossing formulae and quiver methods. The computations using spectral networks provide a very nontrivial example of how these networks determine the four-dimensional BPS spectrum. We comment on some physical implications of the wild spectrum: for example, exponentially many field-theoretic BPS states with large charge are gigantic. Finally, we exhibit some surprising, thus far unexplained, regularities of the BPS spectrum.

Galakhov, Dmitry; Longhi, Pietro; Mainiero, Tom; Moore, Gregory W.; Neitzke, Andrew

2013-11-01

341

Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus.  

PubMed

Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been isolated from a wide-diversity of free-living avian species representing several taxonomic orders. Isolations are most frequently reported from aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, which are believed to be the primordial reservoirs for all AI viruses. Since first recognized in the late 1800s, AI viruses have been an important agent of disease in poultry and, occasionally, of non-gallinaceous birds and mammals. However, recent infections of humans with AI viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and low pathogenicity H7N9 AI virus in China during 2013, have increased the awareness of their potential to impact agricultural, wildlife, and public health. This chapter is intended to give general concepts and guidelines for planning and implementing surveillance programs for AI virus in wild birds. PMID:24899421

Brown, Justin D; Poulson, Rebecca; Stallknecht, David E

2014-01-01

342

Growth Modulation during Juvenile Rearing Can Reduce Rates of Residualism in the Progeny of Wild Steelhead Broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residualism is the failure of some hatchery-reared salmonid juveniles to out-migrate as smolts with the rest of their cohort. We released hatchery-reared juveniles from domesticated- and wild-origin broodstock steelhead and measured their relative rates of residualism. The residualism rate exhibited by the offspring of wild broodstock was more than one order of magnitude greater than that of domesticated stock. Further,

Cameron S. Sharpe; Brian R. Beckman; Kathleen A. Cooper; Patrick L. Hulett

2007-01-01

343

Rapid convergent evolution in wild crickets.  

PubMed

The earliest stages of convergent evolution are difficult to observe in the wild, limiting our understanding of the incipient genomic architecture underlying convergent phenotypes [1, 2]. To address this, we capitalized on a novel trait, flatwing, that arose and proliferated at the start of the 21(st) century in a population of field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai [3]. Flatwing erases sound-producing structures on male forewings. Mutant males cannot sing to attract females, but they are protected from fatal attack by an acoustically orienting parasitoid fly (Ormia ochracea). Two years later, the silent morph appeared on the neighboring island of Oahu. We tested two hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of flatwings in Hawaii: (1) that the silent morph originated on Kauai and subsequently introgressed into Oahu and (2) that flatwing originated independently on each island. Morphometric analysis of male wings revealed that Kauai flatwings almost completely lack typical derived structures, whereas Oahu flatwings retain noticeably more wild-type wing venation. Using standard genetic crosses, we confirmed that the mutation segregates as a single-locus, sex-linked Mendelian trait on both islands. However, genome-wide scans using RAD-seq recovered almost completely distinct markers linked with flatwing on each island. The patterns of allelic association with flatwing on either island reveal different genomic architectures consistent with the timing of two mutational events on the X chromosome. Divergent wing morphologies linked to different loci thus cause identical behavioral outcomes-silence-illustrating the power of selection to rapidly shape convergent adaptations from distinct genomic starting points. PMID:24881880

Pascoal, Sonia; Cezard, Timothee; Eik-Nes, Aasta; Gharbi, Karim; Majewska, Jagoda; Payne, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Michael G; Zuk, Marlene; Bailey, Nathan W

2014-06-16

344

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taï chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions.

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

345

Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii.  

PubMed

We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium [>180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found. PMID:19901374

Jacobson, Elliott R; Berry, Kristin H; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M; Kalasinsky, Victor F; Fleetwood, Michelle L; Mense, Mark G

2009-10-01

346

Serial Recombination during Circulation of Type 1 Wild-Vaccine Recombinant Polioviruses in China  

PubMed Central

Type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses sharing a 367-nucleotide (nt) block of Sabin 1-derived sequence spanning the VP1 and 2A genes circulated widely in China from 1991 to 1993. We surveyed the sequence relationships among 34 wild-vaccine recombinants by comparing six genomic intervals: the conserved 5?-untranslated region (5?-UTR) (nt 186 to 639), the hypervariable portion of the 5?-UTR (nt 640 to 742), the VP4 and partial VP2 genes (nt 743 to 1176), the VP1 gene (nt 2480 to 3385), the 2A gene (nt 3386 to 3832), and the partial 3D gene (nt 6011 to 6544). The 5?-UTR, capsid (VP4-VP2 and VP1), and 2A sequence intervals had similar phylogenies. By contrast, the partial 3D sequences could be distributed into five divergent genetic classes. Most (25 of 34) of the wild-vaccine recombinant isolates showed no evidence of additional recombination beyond the initial wild-Sabin recombination event. Eight isolates from 1992 to 1993, however, appear to be derived from three independent additional recombination events, and one 1993 isolate was derived from two consecutive events. Complete genomic sequences of a representative isolate for each 3D sequence class demonstrated that these exchanges had occurred in the 2B, 2C, and 3D genes. The 3D gene sequences were not closely related to those of the Sabin strains or 53 diverse contemporary wild poliovirus isolates from China, but all were related to the 3D genes of species C enteroviruses. The appearance within approximately 2.5 years of five recombinant classes derived from a single ancestral infection illustrates the rapid emergence of new recombinants among circulating wild polioviruses.

Liu, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Du-Ping; Zhang, Li-Bi; Oberste, M. Steven; Kew, Olen M.; Pallansch, Mark A.

2003-01-01

347

Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

Diez-Delgado, Iratxe; Martin-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, Jose Angel; Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Barrio, David; Vicente, Joaquin; Garrido, Joseba M.

2014-01-01

348

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TURNIP-TYPE AND OILSEED-TYPE BRASSICA RAPA CROPS FROM THE WILD-TYPE IN EUROPE - AN OVERVIEW OF BOTANICAL, HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC FACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lot of botanical, historical and linguistic evidence that the use of turnip-type Brassica rapa is very old in Europe. It was probably domesticated directly from its wild progenitor, the wild- type B. rapa. The use of European oilseed-type Brassica crops is relatively new. This paper gives a short overview on the history of B. rapa and presents

H. REINER; W. HOLZNER; R. EBERMANN

349

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

350

The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase.

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

2010-01-01

351

Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug. Results We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on several different molecular pathways to reduce anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish. This study provides data that could help identify common molecular mechanisms of fluoxetine action across animal taxa.

2013-01-01

352

Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants.  

PubMed

Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of alternative occupational opportunities) that address variation in local activities that threaten plant and animal populations. PMID:21790785

Wittemyer, George

2011-10-01

353

Responses toward a trapped animal by wild bonobos at Wamba.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of humans and diverged relatively recently in their phylogenetic history. However, a number of reports have suggested behavioral discrepancies between the two Pan species, such as more cooperative and tolerant social interaction and poorer tool-using repertoires in bonobos. Concerning hunting behavior and meat consumption, recent studies from the field have confirmed both behaviors not only in chimpanzees but also in bonobos. The present study reports an encounter by wild bonobos at Wamba with a duiker trapped in a snare. Bonobos interacted with the live duiker for about 10 min but did not eventually kill the animal. They showed fear responses when the duiker moved and exhibited behaviors related to anxiety and stress such as branch-drag displays and self-scratching. Although bonobos manipulated nearby saplings and parts of the snare, they did not use detached objects to make indirect contact with the duiker. Juveniles and adults of both sexes engaged in active interactions with the trapped duiker. Overall, bonobos' behavioral responses indicated species-specific cognitive characteristics largely different from those of chimpanzees. PMID:22411619

Hayashi, Misato; Ohashi, Gaku; Ryu, Heung Jin

2012-07-01

354

Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon.  

PubMed

While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F(1) females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

2012-11-01

355

Crop-noncrop spillover: arable fields affect trophic interactions on wild plants in surrounding habitats.  

PubMed

Ecosystem processes in agricultural landscapes are often triggered by resource availability in crop and noncrop habitats. We investigated how oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus, Brassicaceae) affects noncrop plants in managed systems and semi-natural habitat, using trophic interactions among wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, Brassicaceae), rape pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus, Nitidulidae) and their parasitoids (Tersilochus heterocerus, Ichneumonidae). We exposed wild mustard as phytometer plants in two cropland habitat types (wheat field, field margin) and three noncrop habitat types (fallow, grassland, wood margin) across eight landscapes along a gradient from simple to complex (quantified as % arable land). Both landscape and local factors affected the abundance of rape pollen beetles and parasitoids. Rape pollen beetle infestation and parasitism rates on these plants were lower in noncrop habitats and higher in wheat fields and field margins, whereas beetles and parasitoids responded differently to landscape scale parameters. We found the hypothesized spillover from OSR crop onto wild plants in surrounding habitats only for parasitoids, but not for pollen beetles. Parasitism rates were not related to landscape simplification, but benefited from increasing proportions of OSR. In contrast, rape pollen beetles benefited from simple landscape structures, presumably due to multi-annual population build-ups resulting from long-term OSR planting (as part of the crop rotation). In conclusion, we showed that spillover from cropland affects parasitism rates on related wild plants outside cropland, which has not been shown so far, but can be expected to be a widespread effect shaping noncrop food webs. PMID:21153737

Gladbach, David J; Holzschuh, Andrea; Scherber, Christoph; Thies, Carsten; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-06-01

356

Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions  

PubMed Central

Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and closely related wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon and other non-transgenic crosses in hatchery-like conditions. In stream mesocosms designed to more closely emulate natural conditions, transgenic hybrids appeared to express competitive dominance and suppressed the growth of transgenic and non-transgenic (wild-type) salmon by 82 and 54 per cent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of environmental impacts of hybridization between a GM animal and a closely related species. These results provide empirical evidence of the first steps towards introgression of foreign transgenes into the genomes of new species and contribute to the growing evidence that transgenic animals have complex and context-specific interactions with wild populations. We suggest that interspecific hybridization be explicitly considered when assessing the environmental consequences should transgenic animals escape to nature.

Oke, Krista B.; Westley, Peter A. H.; Moreau, Darek T. R.; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

357

Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas.  

PubMed

The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time and place around the Mediterranean. Additionally, it is important to study such knowledge systems and find innovative ways of infusing them to the future Mediterranean generations. During the years 2003-2006 a circum-Mediterranean ethnobotanical field survey for wild food plants was conducted in selected study sites in seven Mediterranean areas (European Union-funded RUBIA Project). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires have been administered to indigenous people and 294 wild food plant taxa were documented in the survey. A comparative analysis of the data was undertaken showing that the quantity and quality of traditional knowledge varies among the several study areas and is closely related to the traditions, environment and cultural heritage of each country. More similarities of wild edible popular use were revealed between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Mediterranean. PMID:18979618

Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Della, Athena; Giusti, Maria Elena; De Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Elena; Gonzales-Tejero, Maria Reyes; Sanchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutierrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Pieroni, Andrea

2008-08-01

358

Wild barley eibi1 mutation identifies a gene essential for leaf water conservation.  

PubMed

Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and crop productivity. A spontaneous wilty mutant (eibi1) hypersensitive to drought was identified from wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch). eibi1 showed the highest relative water loss rate among the known wilty mutants, which indicates that eibi1 is one of the most drought-sensitive mutants. eibi1 had the same abscisic acid (ABA) level, the same ability to accumulate stress-induced ABA, and the same stomatal movement in response to light, dark, drought, and exogenous ABA as the wild type, revealing that eibi1 was neither an ABA-deficient nor an ABA-insensitive mutant. The eibi1 leaves had a larger chlorophyll efflux rate in 80% ethanol than the wild-type leaves; and the transpiration rate of eibi1 was more closely related to chlorophyll efflux rate than to stomatal density, demonstrating that the cuticle of eibi1 was defective. eibi1 will be a promising candidate to study the actual barrier layer in the cuticle that limits water loss of the plant. Exogenous ABA reduced leaf length growth in eibi1 more than in the wild type, implying an interaction on plant growth of ABA signal transduction and the eibi1 product. One may infer that the eibi1 product may reverse the growth inhibition induced by ABA. PMID:15197591

Chen, Guoxiong; Sagi, Moshe; Weining, Song; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Nevo, Eviatar

2004-08-01

359

Transport of Wild-Type and Recombinant Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Scavenging and Predatory Arthropods.  

PubMed

Wild-type and recombinant nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were compared in their capability to be transported over limited distances by the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and scavengers Sarcophaga bullata (Parker) and Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus) in Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) larvae infesting collards in a greenhouse microcosm. Viruses tested were variants of Autographa californica (Speyer) NPV (AcNPV): wild-type virus (AcNPV.WT), AcNPV expressing a scorpion toxin (AcNPV.AaIT), and AcNPV expressing juvenile hormone esterase (AcJHE.SG). Podisus maculiventris transported AcNPV.WT and S. bullata transported AcNPV.WT and AcNPV.AaIT. Prevalence and transport of AcNPV.WT were greater than those of AcNPV.AaIT and AcJHE.SG, regardless of whether the nontarget organism carriers were present or absent. Podisus maculiventris and S. bullata transported recombinant and wild-type NPVs at a rate of up to 62.5 cm/day, and A. domesticus transported wild-type NPV at 125 cm/day. The infected host insects, T. ni, undoubtedly contributed to viral transport in the current research. In every experiment, both the wild-type and recombinant virus spread to some degree in the plots without predators or scavengers. The relative amounts of NPVs that accumulated in soil, as indicated by bioassay mortality percentages, generally exhibited spatial patterns similar to those of T. ni mortality due to NPV on the collards plants. Thus, the predator and scavengers in the current research demonstrated some capacity to transport wild-type as well as recombinant viruses at significant rates in a greenhouse microcosm. PMID:10882435

Lee; Fuxa

2000-05-01

360

Seropositivity and Risk Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds from Spain  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n?=?610), Strigiformes (n?=?260), Ciconiiformes (n?=?156), Gruiformes (n?=?21), and other orders (n?=?32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ?1?25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC95%:23.5–28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) “vulnerable” Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN “near threatened” red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour.

Cabezon, Oscar; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-Lopez, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M.; Hofle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverria, Israel; Obon, Elena; Hernandez, Mauro; Lavin, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almeria, Sonia

2011-01-01

361

A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals  

PubMed Central

Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Paabo, Svante

2012-01-01

362

Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ?1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour. PMID:22216311

Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

2011-01-01

363

Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation  

PubMed Central

Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness).

Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

2012-01-01

364

Long-Lasting, Kin-Directed Female Interactions in a Spatially Structured Wild Boar Social Network  

PubMed Central

Individuals can increase inclusive fitness benefits through a complex network of social interactions directed towards kin. Preferential relationships with relatives lead to the emergence of kin structures in the social system. Cohesive social groups of related individuals and female philopatry of wild boar create conditions for cooperation through kin selection and make the species a good biological model for studying kin structures. Yet, the role of kinship in shaping the social structure of wild boar populations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of associations and the social network structure of the wild boar Sus scrofa population in Bia?owie?a National Park, Poland, which offered a unique opportunity to understand wild boar social interactions away from anthropogenic factors. We used a combination of telemetry data and genetic information to examine the impact of kinship on network cohesion and the strength of social bonds. Relatedness and spatial proximity between individuals were positively related to the strength of social bond. Consequently, the social network was spatially and genetically structured with well-defined and cohesive social units. However, spatial proximity between individuals could not entirely explain the association patterns and network structure. Genuine, kin-targeted, and temporarily stable relationships of females extended beyond spatial proximity between individuals while males interactions were short-lived and not shaped by relatedness. The findings of this study confirm the matrilineal nature of wild boar social structure and show how social preferences of individuals translate into an emergent socio-genetic population structure.

Podgorski, Tomasz; Lusseau, David; Scandura, Massimo; Sonnichsen, Leif; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila

2014-01-01

365

Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow  

PubMed Central

Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment.

Ramsey, Justin

2011-01-01

366

Suspected myotoxicity of edible wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

Recently, the widely consumed yellow tricholoma Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis and fatalities in humans in France and Poland and triggered elevated plasma creatine kinase activities in mice. Furthermore, the highly appreciated king boletus (Boletus edulis) caused similar responses in experimental mice. Because of this, it was hypothesized that other fungi could also contain chemical compounds that would cause similar myotoxic effects. To test the suspected myotoxicity of other wild mushrooms consumed by tradition, 86 mice were exposed for 5 days to 3, 6, or 9 g/kg body mass/day of edible mushrooms representing diverse genera (Russula spp, Cantharellus cibarius, Albatrellus ovinus, and Leccinium versipelle) mixed with regular laboratory rodent diet. The plasma creatine kinase activity increased with all studied mushroom species at 9 g/kg body mass/day, whereas the histologic appearance of muscle and liver samples was unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that the previously observed toxic effects are not specific to T. flavovirens, but probably represent an unspecific response requiring individual sensitivity and a significant amount of ingested mushroom to manifest itself. PMID:16446499

Nieminen, Petteri; Kirsi, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

2006-02-01

367

Besnoitiosis in wild and domestic goats in Iran.  

PubMed

Besnoitia cysts and lesions were observed in the skin, blood vessels, epididymis and testes of two wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and in the subcutaneous tissues of two domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the Fars Province of Iran. The seminiferous tubules in the wild goats showed aspermatogenesis, degeneration and atrophy of germinal epithelium. PMID:467078

Cheema, A H; Toofanian, F

1979-04-01

368

Second cropping of wild blueberries — Effects of management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eaton, L. J. and Nams, V. O. 2006. Second cropping of wild blueberries — Effects of management practices. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86: 1189-1195. Wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) are normally managed on a biennial basis. Pruning forces the plant into a vegetative year without fruit, followed by the first crop year, which provides the greatest harvest. In subsequent years,

Leonard J. Eaton; Vilis O. Nams

2006-01-01

369

Wild 2 approach maneuver strategy for Stardust spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

14th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting Maui, Hawaii, USAStardust will return samples of dust from comet Wild 2 to be collected during an encounter in January 2004. Approach to Wild 2 will be performed with a number of trajectory correction maneuvers following a period of solar conjunction ending in early October 2003.

Williams, Kenneth E.

2004-01-01

370

Ecotourism as a threatening process for wild orchids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orchids are a charismatic and highly diverse group of plants, many of which are threatened by human activities. Nature-based tourism is contributing to the decline of some wild orchid populations, although this has rarely been discussed in the tourism literature. We therefore provide a scoping assessment to demonstrate that tourism contributes to the loss of some orchids in the wild

Mark Ballantyne; Catherine Pickering

2011-01-01

371

Ecotourism as a threatening process for wild orchids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orchids are a charismatic and highly diverse group of plants, many of which are threatened by human activities. Nature-based tourism is contributing to the decline of some wild orchid populations, although this has rarely been discussed in the tourism literature. We therefore provide a scoping assessment to demonstrate that tourism contributes to the loss of some orchids in the wild

Mark Ballantyne; Catherine Pickering

2012-01-01

372

Omega3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase

ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS

2004-01-01

373

Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans the world over have depended on wild-growing plants in their diets for hundreds of thousands of years, and many people continue to rely on these species to meet at least part of their daily nutritional needs. Wild harvested plant foods include: roots and other underground parts; shoots and leafy greens; berries and other fleshy fruits; grains, nuts and seeds;

Nancy J. Turner; ?ukasz Jakub ?uczaj; Paola Migliorini; Andrea Pieroni; Angelo Leandro Dreon; Linda Enrica Sacchetti; Maurizio G. Paoletti

2011-01-01

374

The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than six large groups of wild chimpanzees in the study area, which is in the north-eastern part of the Mahali Mountains of Western Tanzainia. One of these groups was provisionized, that is, customarily fed sugar cane and bananas. The characteristics of the social group of wild chimpanzees are clarified by long-term observation of the baited population. The

Toshisada Nishida

1968-01-01

375

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

376

Touring the other: Buffalo Bill's Wild West in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show which toured Europe on a number of occasions between 1887 and 1906 and in particular the central role of the native American (Indian) performers. The Wild West combined both realism and an emerging mythology to present a moral narrative of the triumph of civilisation, and the settlement of the

Kevin Meethan

2010-01-01

377

Selective Defecation and Selective Foraging: Antiparasite Behavior in Wild Ungulates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective defecation and selective foraging are two potential antiparasite behaviors used by grazing ungulates to reduce infection by fecal-oral transmitted parasites. While there is some evidence that domestic species use these strategies, less is known about the occurrence and efficacy of these behaviors in wild ungulates. In this study, I examined whether wild antelope use selective defecation and selective foraging

Vanessa O. Ezenwa

2004-01-01

378

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

379

Measuring senescence in wild animal populations: towards a longitudinal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. A major current challenge in ageing research is to understand why senescence rates vary between individuals, populations and species in wild populations. 2. Recent studies clearly illustrate that senescent declines in key demographic and life-history traits can be observed in many wild animal systems. 3. Here, we summarize the key challenges facing researchers working to understand senescence in

D. H. Nussey; T. Coulson; M. Festa-Bianchet; J.-M. Gaillard

2008-01-01

380

Variation in personality and fitness in wild female baboons  

PubMed Central

Studies of personality in nonhuman primates have usually relied on assessments by humans and seldom considered the function of the resulting “trait” classifications. In contrast, we applied exploratory principal component analysis to seven behaviors among 45 wild female baboons over 7 y to determine whether the personality dimensions that emerged were associated with measures of reproductive success. We identified three relatively stable personality dimensions, each characterized by a distinct suite of behaviors that were not redundant with dominance rank or the availability of kin. Females scoring high on the “Nice” dimension were friendly to all females and often grunted to lower-ranking females to signal benign intent. “Aloof” females were aggressive, less friendly, and grunted primarily to higher-ranking females. “Loner” females were often alone, relatively unfriendly, and also grunted most often to higher-ranking females. Aloof and Loner females were rarely approached by others. Personality dimensions were correlated in different ways with three measures previously shown to be associated with fitness: stress levels and two behavioral indices reflecting the closeness of dyadic bonds formed by individuals. Females who scored high on Nice had high composite sociality indices (CSI) and stable partner preferences, whereas females who scored high on Aloof had lower CSI scores but significantly more stable partner preferences. Loner females had significantly lower CSI scores, less stable partner preferences, and significantly higher glucocorticoid levels. It remains to be determined which of the Nice or Aloof personality dimensions is more adaptive, or whether variation is maintained by contrasting effects on fitness.

Seyfarth, Robert M.; Silk, Joan B.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

2012-01-01

381

The conservation and restoration of wild bees.  

PubMed

Bees pollinate most of the world's wild plant species and provide economically valuable pollination services to crops; yet knowledge of bee conservation biology lags far behind other taxa such as vertebrates and plants. There are few long-term data on bee populations, which makes their conservation status difficult to assess. The best-studied groups are the genus Bombus (the bumble bees), and bees in the EU generally; both of these are clearly declining. However, it is not known to what extent these groups represent the approximately 20,000 species of bees globally. As is the case for insects in general, bees are underrepresented in conservation planning and protection efforts. For example, only two bee species are on the global IUCN Red List, and no bee is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, even though many bee species are known to be in steep decline or possibly extinct. At present, bee restoration occurs mainly in agricultural contexts, funded by government programs such as agri-environment schemes (EU) and the Farm Bill (USA). This is a promising approach given that many bee species can use human-disturbed habitats, and bees provide valuable pollination services to crops. However, agricultural restorations only benefit species that persist in agricultural landscapes, and they are more expensive than preserving natural habitat elsewhere. Furthermore, such restorations benefit bees in only about half of studied cases. More research is greatly needed in many areas of bee conservation, including basic population biology, bee restoration in nonagricultural contexts, and the identification of disturbance-sensitive bee species. PMID:20536823

Winfree, Rachael

2010-05-01

382

A consensus endocrine profile for chronically stressed wild animals does not exist.  

PubMed

Given the connection between chronic stress and health, there has been a growing emphasis on identifying chronically stressed wild animals, especially in relation to anthropogenic disturbances. There is considerable confusion, however, in how to identify chronically stressed wild animals, but the most common assumption is that measures of glucocorticoid (GC) function will increase. In an attempt to determine an "endocrine profile" of a chronically stressed wild animal, this review collected papers from the literature that measured baseline GC, stress-induced GC, measures of integrated GC, negative feedback, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis sensitivity, and/or body weight in chronically stressed animals. The collected studies encompassed laboratory and field studies, numerous diverse species, and multiple techniques for inducing chronic stress. Each paper was ranked according to its relevance to wild animals and scored as to whether the measured response increased, decreased, or stayed the same after exposure to chronic stress. The analyses uncovered so much variation between studies that the literature does not support a generalized endocrine profile in how wild animals respond to chronic stress. The common predictions appear to be based almost entirely on theoretical models rather than empirical data. The three most important variables affecting GC responses were the stressors used to induce chronic stress, the potential for those stressors to induce habituation, and the taxon of the focal species. The best approach for identifying a chronically stressed population appears to be documentation of changes at multiple levels of GC regulation, but the direction of the change (increase or decrease) may be relatively unimportant compared to the fact that the response changes at all. The conclusion is that a consistent, predictable, endocrine response to chronic stress, regardless of the protocol used to induce chronic stress and the species under study, does not exist. PMID:23816765

Dickens, Molly J; Romero, L Michael

2013-09-15

383

Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with highest mCI values, are currently gathered and utilized in all the areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Palestinian regions. The habit of using wild edible plants is still alive in the PA, but is disappearing. Therefore, the recording, preserving, and infusing of this knowledge to future generations is pressing and fundamental.

Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

2008-01-01

384

Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.  

PubMed

Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel

2005-09-01

385

Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions. PMID:20017486

Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

2010-01-13

386

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

PubMed Central

Recent empirical evidence indicates that although fitness and fitness components tend to have low heritability in natural populations, they may nonetheless have relatively large components of additive genetic variance. The molecular basis of additive genetic variation has been investigated in model organisms but never in the wild. In this article we describe an attempt to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for birth weight (a trait positively associated with overall fitness) in an unmanipulated, wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Two approaches were used: interval mapping by linear regression within half-sib families and a variance components analysis of a six-generation pedigree of >350 animals. Evidence for segregating QTL was found on three linkage groups, one of which was significant at the genome-wide suggestive linkage threshold. To our knowledge this is the first time that a QTL for any trait has been mapped in a wild mammal population. It is hoped that this study will stimulate further investigations of the genetic architecture of fitness traits in the wild.

Slate, J; Visscher, P M; MacGregor, S; Stevens, D; Tate, M L; Pemberton, J M

2002-01-01

387

The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

2013-01-01

388

Populations of weedy crop-wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure  

PubMed Central

Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop–wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop–wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop–wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management.

Arnaud, Jean-Francois; Fenart, Stephane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joel

2010-01-01

389

Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for those with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Since neural prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. In this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in wild-type and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro retinal preparations of wild-type and rd1 mice. When the neural network was stimulated with voltage- and current-controlled pulses, RGCs from both wild-type and rd1 mice responded; however the temporal pattern of RGC response is very different. In wild-type RGCs, a single peak within 100 ms appears, while multiple peaks (approximately four peaks) with ~10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear in RGCs in the degenerated retina of rd1 mice. We find that an anodic phase-first biphasic voltage-controlled pulse is more efficient for stimulation than a biphasic current-controlled pulse based on lower threshold charge density. The threshold charge densities for activation of RGCs both with voltage- and current-controlled pulses are overall more elevated for the rd1 mouse than the wild-type mouse. Here, we propose the stimulus range for wild-type and rd1 retinas when the optimal modulation of a RGC response is possible.

Goo, Yong Sook; Ye, Jang Hee; Lee, Seokyoung; Nam, Yoonkey; Ryu, Sang Baek; Kim, Kyung Hwan

2011-06-01

390

Evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrots (Neophema chrysogaster).  

PubMed

We report the recent emergence of a novel beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) genotype in the last remaining wild population of the critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster). This virus poses a significant threat to the recovery of the species and potentially its survival in the wild. We used PCR to detect BFDV in the blood of three psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD)-affected wild Orange-bellied Parrot fledglings captured as founders for an existing captive breeding recovery program. Complete BFDV genome sequence data from one of these birds demonstrating a 1,993-nucleotide-long read encompass the entire circular genome. Maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis supported the solitary position of this viral isolate in a genetically isolated branch of BFDV. On Rep gene sequencing, a homologous genotype was present in a second wild orange-bellied parrot and the third bird was infected with a distantly related genotype. These viruses have newly appeared in a population that has been intensively monitored for BFDV for the last 13 yr. The detection of two distinct lineages of BFDV in the remnant wild population of Orange-bellied Parrots, consisting of fewer than 50 birds, suggests a role for other parrot species as a reservoir for infection by spillover into this critically endangered species. The potential for such a scenario to contribute to the extinction of a remnant wild animal population is supported by epidemiologic theory. PMID:24484492

Peters, Andrew; Patterson, Edward I; Baker, Barry G B; Holdsworth, Mark; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Raidal, Shane R

2014-04-01

391

Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:16328068

Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Liggett, Jason L; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Baek, Seung Joon

2006-01-01

392

Trichinella infection in wild animals from endemic regions of Argentina.  

PubMed

Natural infection with Trichinella has been described in more than 150 mammalian species. However, few reports of Trichinella infection in wild animals have come from Argentina. In this study, muscle tissue was obtained from wild animals in Argentina with the aim of evaluating the presence of Trichinella. A total of 169 muscle samples were collected to determine the presence of Trichinella larvae by artificial digestion. The 169 muscle samples originated from 12 species including 36 opossums (Didelphis albiventris), 19 armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus), 9 capybaras (Hydrocaeris hydrocaeris), 1 puma (Puma concolor), 3 grey fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), 6 coypus (Myocastor coypus), 6 skunks (Conepatus chinga), 2 ferrets (Galictis cuja), 66 rats (Rattus norvegicus), 6 mice (Mus musculus), 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 3 wild cats (Felis geoffroyi). Trichinella infection was detected in 1 puma [2 larvae per gram (LPG)], 3 wild boars (8-420 LPG), 3 armadillos (0.04-0.08 LPG), and 9 rats (0.1 to 150 LPG). Only 3 Trichinella isolates, of 1 rat and 2 wild boars from Neuquén, were identified as Trichinella spiralis by nested PCR. The presence of Trichinella infection among wild animal populations suggests a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Argentina, which can serve as a reservoir for humans and domestic animals. Further, evidence of high prevalence in rats emphasizes the need to improve pig management, mainly in small individual farms without adequate technology, to enhance the quality of feeds, and to improve veterinary services to avoid exposure of pigs to Trichinella. PMID:20424859

Ribicich, Mabel; Gamble, H R; Bolpe, Jorge; Scialfa, Exequiel; Krivokapich, Silvio; Cardillo, Natalia; Betti, Adriana; Holzmann, Maria Laura Cambiaggi; Pasqualetti, Mariana; Fariña, Fernando; Rosa, Adriana

2010-07-01

393

Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a

2014-01-01

394

Poor survival with wild-type TP53 ovarian cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether wild-type TP53 status in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is associated with poorer survival. Methods Clinical and genomic data of 316 sequenced samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGOSC) study were downloaded from TCGA data portal. Association between wild-type TP53 and survival was analyzed with Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression. The diagnosis of HGOSC was evaluated by reviewing pathological reports and high-resolution hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) images from frozen sections. The authenticity of wild-type TP53 in these tumor samples was assessed by analyzing SNP array data with ASCAT algorithm, reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and RNAseq data. Results Fifteen patients with HGOSCs were identified to have wild-type TP53, which had significantly shorter survival and higher chemoresistance than those with mutated TP53. The authenticity of wild-type TP53 status in these fifteen patients was supported by SNP array, RPPA, and RNAseq data. Except four cases with mixed histology, the classification as high grade serous carcinomas was supported by pathological reports and H&E images. Using RNAseq data, it was found that EDA2R gene, a direct target of wild-type TP53, was highly up-regulated in samples with wild-type TP53 in comparison to samples with either nonsense or missense TP53 mutations. Conclusion Patients with wild-type TP53 high grade ovarian serous carcinomas appeared to have a poorer survival and were more chemoresistant than those with mutated TP53. Differentially expressed genes in these TP53 wild-type tumors may provide insight in the molecular mechanism in chemotherapy resistance.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Izaguirre, Daisy I.; Kwan, Suetyan; King, Erin R.; Deavers, Michael T.; Sood, Anil K.; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.

2014-01-01

395

A solitary case of duck plague in a wild mallard  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Duck plague was diagnosed on the basis of pathology and virus isolation in a wild female mallard Anas platyrhynchos found dead near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Day-old Pekin ducklings and one of two adult mallards died with lesions typical of duck plague following inoculation of tissue from the wild bird. This is believed to be the only reported case of duck plague in a wild bird since a major outbreak occurred in South Dakota in 1973, and the fourth such report in North America.

Wobeser, G.; Docherty, D. E.

1987-01-01

396

Salt stress induction of some key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites in eight Iranian wild almond species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes the changes in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some metabolites in\\u000a relation to salt tolerance in eight wild almond species. All the species were exposed to four levels of NaCl (control, 40,\\u000a 80 and 120 mM). Plant fresh biomass, ?-, ?- and ?-tocopherol, total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde (MDAeq), H2O2, total phenolics, and

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Vahid Rouhi; Mahmood Khodambashi; Adriano Sofo

397

Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara with clinical signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseased wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara were collected from Seto Inland Sea, Ehime Prefecture, in August 2002. Fish showed erratic swimming behavior and inflation\\u000a of the swim bladder. The fish brains were positive for nodavirus in both RT-PCR and nested PCR. The sequence of the nested\\u000a PCR product (177 nt) was closely related to that of a known betanodavirus, redspotted grouper

Dennis K. Gomez; Satoru Matsuoka; Koh-ichiro Mori; Yasushi Okinaka; Se Chang Park; Toshihiro Nakai

2009-01-01

398

Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)  

PubMed Central

Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural embeddedness of local knowledge. The impact of socio-cultural developments on local knowledge may be anticipated from understanding the intracultural variation of knowledge.

2012-01-01

399

Stardust (Comet 81P\\/Wild2) Samples and Early Solar System Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust particles from comet 81P\\/Wild-2 were captured in silica aerogel (also as impact debris on Al-foil strips) at 6.1 km\\/s relative velocity by the Stardust spacecraft on 2-Jan-2004, and returned to Earth 15-Jan-2006 [1]. A pre-liminary examination team (PET) of 150 are preparing reports on a subset of samples [2, 3, e.g., 4]. PET investigations in a short time on

Denton S. Ebel; M. K. Weisberg; H. C. Connolly; M. Zolensky

2006-01-01

400

Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise av