Science.gov

Sample records for wilhelm konrad roentgen

  1. Konrad Bajer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    These Proceedings are dedicated to our co-editor Konrad Bajer, who carried the lion's share of the work involved until his sudden and untimely death from cancer on 29th August 2014. Konrad was one of the key Organisers of the program "Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences" held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from July to December 2012. During that time, he was on leave from the University of Warsaw, and held a Visiting Fellow Commonership at Trinity College, Cambridge. He had particular responsibility for the satellite workshop Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, held at ICMS, Edinburgh, in October 2012. Konrad graduated in Physics from the University of Warsaw in 1980, and took his PhD in Fluid Dynamics at DAMTP, Cambridge, 1984-89. He was active in EUROMECH, having been a principal organiser of the European Turbulence Conference (ETC13) in Warsaw 2011, and the meeting Turbulence: the Historical Perspective that followed it. He has been equally active in IUTAM; his distinction was recognised by his very recent election to the Congress Committee of IUTAM. Konrad's research interests were in magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics in classical and quantum systems; also in problems of gasifcation, in which he played a coordinating role at the University of Warsaw. He impressed all with his exceptionally warm and friendly personality, and will be greatly missed in the whole scientifc community.

  2. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Selvik, G

    1990-03-01

    Soon after Roentgen's discovery, the 'new' rays were used to produce stereoscopic images or used for spatial reconstruction of positions of foreign bodies. However, no systematic use of roentgen stereo measurements seems to have occurred until the 1970's, although many attempts have been made before. Since 1972, a system for roentgen stereophotogrammetry has been in use at the University Hospital in Lund. The system has been named RSA, roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. It is a complete system, including instrumentation for implanting tantalum landmarks, devices for calibration of the stereo roentgen set-up, and comprehensive software. Using different calibration set-ups, any part of the body can be investigated under different conditions using standard roentgen equipment. The computer programs make it possible to calculate spatial landmark coordinates from measured film coordinates, and further to calculate growth, and volume changes or kinematic variables in well-defined and generally used terms. After the basic principles have been established, a survey of applications grouped according to anatomic regions follows. Special emphasis is laid on total hip and knee replacement, which besides complex craniofacial and spinal disorders, are the most rewarding fields of study. PMID:2196921

  3. Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry In Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvik, Goran

    1983-07-01

    A system for roentgen stereophotogrammetry has been used in Lund, Sweden, since August 1972 and by August 1982 ten thousand stereo films have been evaluated using this method. Patient investigations started March 1973 and of the more than 500 patients investigated 300 have been referred by orthopedic surgeons. The skeletal parts investigated had been permanently marked with tantalum balls 0.5 or 0.8 mm in diameter. The causes for the investigation have been bone growth disorders in the Lower extremity (134 patients), spinal fusions (35 patients), high tibial osteotomies for gonarthrosis (21 patients) and endoprosthetic replacement of the knee (68 patients) or hip (42 patients) joint. By the roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), information on for instance the development of angular deformities and staple loosening in the leg, the healing process of the intended fusion in the spine or at the knee, and on the migration and stability of prosthetic components have been obtained. RSA is of value both for prognostic and followup purposes, and is versatile enough in proper setting to be used as a routine clinical investigation.

  4. Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  5. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Meschan, I. Farrer-Meschan, R.M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiology of the diaphragm, pleura, thoracic cage, and upper air passages; Radiology of the breasts; Radiology of nodular lesions of the lung parenchyma; Roentgen signs of abnormalities in the lung: and overview; and Special examination of the larynx.

  6. License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Hartje, B.

    2003-02-24

    Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben repository (1971-1998) in Germany as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the USA (1999 to present). Recently, the licensing procedure for the fourth such facility, the German Konrad repository, ended with a positive ''Planfeststellung'' (plan approval). With its plan approval decision, the licensing authority, the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Lower Saxony, approved the single license needed pursuant to German law to construct, operate, and later close down this facility.

  7. Johann Christoph Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German Title: Johann Christoph Sturm und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchovil, Stefan

    Johann Christian Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were two well-known scholars of their time, who showed mutual attention and esteem. The history of their relation is described, based on the mutual mentions in letters and publications.

  8. Historical Connections: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The Universal Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Wilbert; Reimer, Luetta

    1994-01-01

    Contains biographical facts, contributions, quotations, and anecdotes about mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Presents an activity in which students discover patterns in the sums of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers. Contains reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  9. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, V.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

  10. Wilhelm Weinberg's early contribution to segregation analysis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-09-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy-Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg's signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel's segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861-1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=1/4. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878-1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg's article. PMID:24018765

  11. Development of the Konrad Repository documentation system for radioactive wastes (DORA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, P.; Leicht, R.; Post, H.; Martens, B.R.; Giller, H.; Bruessermann, K.

    1995-12-31

    DORA (Dokumentationssystem fuer Radioaktive Abfaelle) is a relational database system developed for the management of L/ILW, waste package data in the planned Konrad Repository. It has been developed by NUKEM GmbH under contract from the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). The system--as described in the licensing application for the Konrad repository--must fulfill a wide range of requirements. This paper describes the system concept and development process, the hard and software basis of the system as well as details of all the main system functions.

  12. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  13. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main…

  14. Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.

    PubMed

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his

  15. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958. PMID:22372189

  16. Chronic anterolateral instability of the knee. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kärrholm, J; Elmqvist, L G; Selvik, G; Hansson, L I

    1989-01-01

    The rotatory stability of the knee was investigated in 20 patients with a previous tear of the ACL. The three-dimensional movements of the tibia during the testing procedure were registered using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Changes of the tibial movements between an intermediate, an anterior, or a posterior tibial position were registered using tibial tractions in combination with a simultaneous external or internal rotatory torque. At 20 degrees of flexion the internal rotatory laxity was increased on the injured side. The external rotatory laxity did not significantly differ between the two sides. With anterior traction, the internal rotatory laxity increased on both the injured and the normal sides and became almost equal. The external rotatory laxity manifested a decrease which was most pronounced on the injured side. With posterior traction, the rotatory laxities decreased and did not significantly differ between the two sides. Analysis of the simultaneously occurring translations of the tibial plateau disclosed abnormal displacements of both the medial and the lateral tibial condyles on the injured side. PMID:2782540

  17. Model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetry of orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Valstar, E R; de Jong, F W; Vrooman, H A; Rozing, P M; Reiber, J H

    2001-06-01

    Attaching tantalum markers to prostheses for Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) may be difficult and is sometimes even impossible. In this study, a model-based RSA method that avoids the attachment of markers to prostheses is presented and validated. This model-based RSA method uses a triangulated surface model of the implant. A projected contour of this model is calculated and this calculated model contour is matched onto the detected contour of the actual implant in the RSA radiograph. The difference between the two contours is minimized by variation of the position and orientation of the model. When a minimal difference between the contours is found, an optimal position and orientation of the model has been obtained. The method was validated by means of a phantom experiment. Three prosthesis components were used in this experiment: the femoral and tibial component of an Interax total knee prosthesis (Stryker Howmedica Osteonics Corp., Rutherfort, USA) and the femoral component of a Profix total knee prosthesis (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, USA). For the prosthesis components used in this study, the accuracy of the model-based method is lower than the accuracy of traditional RSA. For the Interax femoral and tibial components, significant dimensional tolerances were found that were probably caused by the casting process and manual polishing of the components surfaces. The largest standard deviation for any translation was 0.19mm and for any rotation it was 0.52 degrees. For the Profix femoral component that had no large dimensional tolerances, the largest standard deviation for any translation was 0.22mm and for any rotation it was 0.22 degrees. From this study we may conclude that the accuracy of the current model-based RSA method is sensitive to dimensional tolerances of the implant. Research is now being conducted to make model-based RSA less sensitive to dimensional tolerances and thereby improving its accuracy. PMID:11470108

  18. Influence of serotonin on fraction of lesions in DNA induced by ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E.V.; Fraikin, G.Ya.

    1986-02-20

    The influence of serotonin on the yield of thymine dimers and rupture of the N-glycoside bond (the yield of thymine in DNA irradiated with ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation) was studied by means of two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. It was found that serotonin bound to DNA decreases the formation of UV-induced thymine dimers, but has no effect on the number of breaks in the N-glycoside bond in thymidine residues induced by roentgen irradiation. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the question of the mechanisms of the protective effect of serotonin in the photoprotection of yeast cells against the lethal action of UV- and roentgen radiation.

  19. Wilhelm Ludwig and his contributions to population genetics.

    PubMed

    Antonovics, J

    1990-03-01

    This article reviews the life and work of the German biologist Wilhelm Ludwig (1901-1959), whose contributions to population genetics have been largely ignored. Ludwig's work was a rich tapestry of population biology, spanning investigations into population growth, biological asymmetries, sex ratio, and paternity analysis. He was ahead of his time in explicitly combining the theory of population ecology and population genetics. His classic paper on annidation showed the possibility of population differentiation in the face of gene flow, and his early studies demonstrated the importance of selection in evolutionary change. Much of his work spanned the period of the Second World War in Germany, and interesting questions remain about his life during this turbulent period. PMID:21232329

  20. Wilhelm Tempel and his 10.8-cm Steinheil Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Simone; Gasperini, Antonella; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco; Brenni, Paolo; Giatti, Anna

    2010-03-01

    The German astronomer Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel (1821-1889) owed most of his successes to a 10.8-cm Steinheil refractor, which he bought in 1858. A lithographer, without an academic foundation, but with a strong passion for astronomy, Tempel had sharp eyesight and a talent for drawing, and he discovered with his telescope many celestial objects, including asteroids, comets (most notably, 9 P/Tempel 1) and the Merope Nebula in the Pleiades. Tempel carried his telescope with him throughout his moves in France and Italy. The telescope is now conserved in Florence, at the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, where Tempel was astronomer from 1875 until the end of his life. Using unpublished material from the Arcetri Historical Archive, as well as documents from other archives and published material, we trace the history of the telescope and its use during and after Tempel's life, and describe its recent rediscovery and status.

  1. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and the Russian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichsanova, Vera N.

    In the first half of the 19th century the foundations of stellar astronomy were established thanks to the German astronomer, geodeticist and mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Internationally estimed and in close relationship with scientists in many countries, especially in Russia, Bessel (although not yet 30 years old) in 1814 became a foreign member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wilhelm Struve, director of the Dorpat observatory, was in close contact with him. Together they discussed problems of observational procedures and the use of instruments. In 1817 Struve bought the same Reichenbach meridian circle as Bessel used in Königsberg. Both ordered their refractors from the famous Fraunhofer workshop in Munich. %(9-inch for Dorpat). Bessel was also involved in the high precision Russian geodetic survey which started in 1816 and which succeeded in connecting the Russian and western European triangulation networks. Struve tried to measure parallaxes using the bright star Vega (α Lyrae); his results were published in 1837. Also in 1837 Bessel, using his Fraunhofer heliometer and the star 61 Cygni, found a result close to modern values, later acknowledged with the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. In 1834 Struve was named director of the new Russian observatory in Pulkovo, St. Petersburg. Struve discussed the plans with Bessel and both acquired a Repsold meridian circle. The next aim, begun in the 1840s -- after the first determination of stellar distances -- was the distribution of stars in space (in the Milky Way). For this, catalogues with not only accurate stellar positions but also brightnesses were necessary. Thanks to Bessel's thorough reformation of measuring and reduction methods, making possible high accuracy telescopic observations, Struve was able to produce important results in stellar astronomy.

  2. Dosimetric and QA aspects of Konrad inverse planning system for commissioning intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Shrikant; Sathiyanarayanan, V K; Bhangle, Janhavi; Swamy, Kumara; Basu, Sumit

    2007-04-01

    The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is performed using the Konrad inverse treatment planning system and the delivery of the treatment by using Siemens Oncor Impression Plus linear accelerator (step and shoot), which has been commissioned recently. The basic beam data required for commissioning the system were generate. The quality assurance of relative and absolute dose distribution was carried out before clinical implementation. The salient features of Konrad planning system, like dependence of grid size on dose volume histogram (DVH), number of intensity levels and step size in sequencer, are studied quantitatively and qualitatively.To verify whether the planned dose [from treatment planning system (TPS)] and delivered dose are the same, the absolute dose at a point is determined using CC01 ion chamber and the axial plane dose distribution is carried out using Kodak EDR2 in conjunction with OmniPro IMRT Phantom and OmniPro IMRT software from Scanditronix Wellhofer. To obtain the optimum combination in leaf sequencer module, parameters like number of intensity levels, step size are analyzed. The difference between pixel values of optimum fluence profile and the fluence profile obtained for various combinations of number of intensity levels and step size is compared and plotted. The calculations of the volume of any RT structure in the dose volume histogram are compared using grid sizes 3 mm and 4 mm. The measured and planned dose at a point showed good agreement (<3%) except for a few cases wherein the chamber was placed in a relatively high dose gradient region. The axial plane dose distribution using film dosimetry shows excellent agreement (correlation coefficient >0.97) in all the cases. In the leaf sequencer module, the combination of number of intensity level 7 with step size of 3 is the optimal solution for obtaining deliverable segments. The RT structure volume calculation is found to be more accurate with grid size of 3 mm for

  3. High Resolution Imager (HRI) for the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The design of the high resolution imager (HRI) on HEAO 2 was modified for use in the instrument complement of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT). Mechanical models of the front end assembly, central electronics assembly, and detector assembly were used to accurately represent the HRI envelope for both fit checks and focal plane configuration studies. The mechanical and electrical interfaces were defined and the requirements for electrical ground support equipment were established. A summary description of the ROSAT telescope and mission is included.

  4. Wilhelm Weinberg’s Early Contribution to Segregation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862–1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy–Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg’s signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel’s segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861–1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=14. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878–1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg’s article. PMID:24018765

  5. Wilhelm Troll (1897 - 1978): idealistic morphology, physics, and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Idealistic morphology as articulated by the botanist Wilhelm Troll, the main target of the critique voiced by the early phylogeneticists, was firmly embedded in its contemporary scientific, cultural, and political context. Troll appealed to theoretical developments in contemporary physics in support of his research program. He understood burgeoning quantum mechanics not only to threaten the unity of physics, but also the validity of the principle of causality. Troll used this insight in support of his claim of a dualism in biology, relegating the causal-analytical approach to physiology, while rejuvenating the Goethean paradigm in comparative morphology. This embedded idealistic morphology in the völkisch tradition that characterized German culture during the Weimar Republic and its aftermath. In contrast, the contemporary phylogeneticists anchored their research program in the rise of logical positivism and in Darwin's principle of natural selection. This, in turn, brought phylogenetic systematists of the late 1930s and early 1940s into the orbit of national-socialist racial theory and eugenics. In conclusion, the early debate between idealistic morphologists and phylogenetic systematists was not only ideologically tainted, but also implied a philosophical impasse that is best characterized as a conflict between the Goethean and Newtonian paradigm of natural science. PMID:22696827

  6. Container Approval for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste with Negligible Heat Generation in the German Konrad Repository - 12148

    SciTech Connect

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Ellouz, Manel; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver; Hoerning, Tony

    2012-07-01

    Since the license for the Konrad repository was finally confirmed by legal decision in 2007, the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (BfS) has been performing further planning and preparation work to prepare the repository for operation. Waste conditioning and packaging has been continued by different waste producers as the nuclear industry and federal research institutes on the basis of the official disposal requirements. The necessary prerequisites for this are approved containers as well as certified waste conditioning and packaging procedures. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is responsible for container design testing and evaluation of quality assurance measures on behalf of BfS under consideration of the Konrad disposal requirements. Besides assessing the container handling stability (stacking tests, handling loads), design testing procedures are performed that include fire tests (800 deg. C, 1 hour) and drop tests from different heights and drop orientations. This paper presents the current state of BAM design testing experiences about relevant container types (box shaped, cylindrical) made of steel sheets, ductile cast iron or concrete. It explains usual testing and evaluation methods which range from experimental testing to analytical and numerical calculations. Another focus has been laid on already existing containers and packages. The question arises as to how they can be evaluated properly especially with respect to lack of completeness of safety assessment and fabrication documentation. At present BAM works on numerous applications for container design testing for the Konrad repository. Some licensing procedures were successfully finished in the past and BfS certified several container types like steel sheet, concrete until cast iron containers which are now available for waste packaging for final disposal. However, large quantities of radioactive wastes had been placed into interim storage using containers which

  7. Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome: obstetric trauma or placental insult in a historical case mimicking Erb's palsy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Venu; Sebire, Neil J; Talbert, David G

    2005-01-01

    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859) developed a weak and noticeably short left arm during childhood, commonly attributed to nerve damage caused by the use of excessive force during his difficult breech delivery, Erb's palsy. However, Wilhelm's mother had a severe fall when about four months pregnant and the child was reported to be very thin at birth, suggesting intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Wilhelm blamed the British doctor for his deformity, and formed an enmity, which ultimately led to the 1914-1918 world war. We propose an alternative theory, considering the possibility of placental damage and consequential flow redistribution caused by the fall. In severe IUGR, the Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the brachial arteries differs, that of the right arm being lower than the left. We used a computer model of the fetoplacental unit and reduced its functional placental area until such resistance asymmetry was produced. This would occur in extreme hypoxia when flow in the aortic isthmus is reversed, bringing right ventricular blood of lower oxygen content to the left subclavian artery. The reduced PI in the right arm is a normal vasodilatory hypoxic response, but the apparently normal PI in the left arm results from decreased demand due to metabolic failure. We suggest that the nerve damage affecting the Kaiser's left arm was due to placental insufficiency during pregnancy, and not mechanical brachial plexus injury during delivery. We further suggest that such a mechanism be called Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome to distinguish it from Erb's palsy originating from obstetric trauma. PMID:15893138

  8. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  9. Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

  10. Automatic model-based roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) of total knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    Syu, Ci-Bin; Lai, Jiing-Yih; Chang, Ren-Yi; Shih, Kao-Shang; Chen, Kuo-Jen; Lin, Shang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography is insensitive for early and accurate estimation of the mal-alignment and wear of knee prostheses. The two-staged (rough and fine) registration of the model-based RSA technique has recently been developed to in vivo estimate the prosthetic pose (i.e, location and orientation). In the literature, rough registration often uses template match or manual adjustment of the roentgen images. Additionally, possible error induced by the nonorthogonality of taking two roentgen images neither examined nor calibrated prior to fine registration. This study developed two RSA methods for automate the estimation of the prosthetic pose and decrease the nonorthogonality-induced error. The predicted results were validated by both simulative and experimental tests and compared with reported findings in the literature. The outcome revealed that the feature-recognized method automates pose estimation and significantly increases the execution efficiency up to about 50 times in comparison with the literature counterparts. Although the nonorthogonal images resulted in undesirable errors, the outline-optimized method can effectively compensate for the induced errors prior to fine registration. The superiority in automation, efficiency, and accuracy demonstrated the clinical practicability of the two proposed methods especially for the numerous fluoroscopic images of dynamic motion. PMID:22093794

  11. Refracting Roentgen's rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Wilkins, S. W.; Myers, D. E.; Paganin, D. M.

    2009-05-15

    Absorption-contrast x-ray imaging serves to visualize the variation in x-ray attenuation within the volume of a given sample, whereas phase contrast allows one to visualize variations in x-ray refractive index. The former imaging mechanism has been well known and widely utilized since the time of Roentgen's Nobel prize winning work, whereas the latter mechanism--sought for, but not found, by Roentgen himself--has laid the foundation for a revolution in x-ray imaging which is the central topic of this review. We consider the physical imaging mechanisms underlying both absorption contrast and phase contrast, together with the associated inverse problem of how one may obtain quantitative two- or three-dimensional information regarding a sample, given one or more phase-contrast images of the same. Practical questions are considered, regarding optimized phase-contrast imaging geometries as a function of detector resolution, source size, x-ray spectrum, and dose. Experimental examples pertaining to biomedical applications are given, and prospects for the future outlined.

  12. [Single-image roentgen analysis for the measurement of hip endoprosthesis migration].

    PubMed

    Krismer, M; Tschupik, J P; Bauer, R; Mayrhofer, P; Stöckl, B; Fischer, M; Biedermann, R

    1997-03-01

    A method to determine migration of hip endoprostheses is described. Migration is measured by means of standard AP radiographs and therefore can also be evaluated in retrospective studies. Measurement is conducted in X-ray studies displayed on a computer screen. Enhancement of bony structures by application of filters is available. The developed software can be used with common commercially available computers and X-ray scanners, and does not require special hardware. Several methods to determine accuracy are described. The accuracy of the described method is about 1 mm (95% confidence limit), which compares favourably with other methods, but is less accurate than roentgen stereophotogrammetry. For other methods, accuracy was not determined adequately. Two years after implantation, revision within the first 10 years of follow-up can be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of more than 80%. PMID:9198796

  13. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

  14. A biplane roentgen videometry system for dynamic /60 per second/ studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, E.; Wood, E. H.; Heintzen, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    A roentgen-television digital-computer technique and a display system developed for dynamic circulatory structure studies are described. Details are given for a videoroentgenographic setup which is used for obtaining biplane roentgen silhouettes of a left ventricle. A 60 per sec measurement of the shape and volume of angiographically outlined cardiac chambers can be made by this technique along with simultaneous ECG, pressure, and flow measurements accessible for real-time digital computer processing and analysis.

  15. Image-based RSA: Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis based on 2D-3D image registration.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, P W; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Reiber, J H C; Rozing, P M; Valstar, E R

    2008-01-01

    Image-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (IBRSA) integrates 2D-3D image registration and conventional RSA. Instead of radiopaque RSA bone markers, IBRSA uses 3D CT data, from which digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated. Using 2D-3D image registration, the 3D pose of the CT is iteratively adjusted such that the generated DRRs resemble the 2D RSA images as closely as possible, according to an image matching metric. Effectively, by registering all 2D follow-up moments to the same 3D CT, the CT volume functions as common ground. In two experiments, using RSA and using a micromanipulator as gold standard, IBRSA has been validated on cadaveric and sawbone scapula radiographs, and good matching results have been achieved. The accuracy was: |mu |< 0.083 mm for translations and |mu| < 0.023 degrees for rotations. The precision sigma in x-, y-, and z-direction was 0.090, 0.077, and 0.220 mm for translations and 0.155 degrees , 0.243 degrees , and 0.074 degrees for rotations. Our results show that the accuracy and precision of in vitro IBRSA, performed under ideal laboratory conditions, are lower than in vitro standard RSA but higher than in vivo standard RSA. Because IBRSA does not require radiopaque markers, it adds functionality to the RSA method by opening new directions and possibilities for research, such as dynamic analyses using fluoroscopy on subjects without markers and computer navigation applications. PMID:17706656

  16. Tribute to an Astronomer: The Work of Max Ernst on Wilhelm Tempel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2016-05-01

    In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, and paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and artistic features, this series pays homage to the astronomer by recalling his life and discoveries. Moreover, the core of the project, the book Maximiliana or the Illegal Practice of Astronomy, actually depicts the way science works, making this work of art a most original tribute to a scientist.

  17. The Nazi symbiosis: politics and human genetics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.

    PubMed

    Berez, Thomas M; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2004-12-01

    The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA), from its inception in Weimar Republic Germany to its apogee under the rule of the Third Reich, is an example of how politics and human heredity can function as mutually beneficial resources. Whether it was a result of the Nazi bureaucrats' desire to legitimize their racial policy through science, or the KWIA personnel's desire to secure more funding for their research, the symbiotic relationship that developed between human genetics and Nazi politics could help explain why many scientists in the Third Reich undertook research projects that wholly transgressed the boundaries of morally acceptable science. PMID:15571767

  18. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1909: Wilhelm Ostwald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-02-01

    This, the third of a series of thirteen articles on Nobel Laureates in chemical dynamics, features the work of Wilhelm Ostwald, who won the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on catalysis, equilibria, and reaction rates. The first two articles in this series discussed two of Ostwald's students--Jacobus van't Hoff (Nobel 1901) and Svante Arrhenius (Nobel 1903). Ostwald's own studies of catalysis were guided by the work of those two former students. Ostwald's name remains associated with the catalytic process used to manufacture nitric acid from ammonia.

  19. The timing of Late Pleistocene glaciation at Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Barrows, Timothy; Hope, Geoff; Pillans, Brad; Fifield, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The highlands of New Guinea were the most extensively glaciated area in the Asian tropical region during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for glaciation is widespread on most of the mountain peaks above ~3500 m. Glacial landforms include both valley and ice cap forms, but the timing of glaciation remains constrained to only a few local areas. This paper focuses on Mount Wilhelm, which is situated in the central southern region of Papua New Guinea at 5.78°S and is the highest peak (4510 m a.s.l.) We focus on a south easterly valley (Pindaunde Valley) emanating from the peak, where large moraines indicate the maximum ice extent of a valley glacier ~5 km long. Within this extensive moraine complex, recessional moraines document the retreat of the glacier towards the summit region. In order to determine the timing of deglaciation, we collected samples for surface exposure dating using 36Cl and 10Be from diorite boulders positioned on moraine crests. The ages indicate that maximum ice extent was attained during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that ice remained near its maximum extent until after 15 ka but persisted at higher elevations almost until the Holocene. These results are similar to those described from Mt Giluwe to the northwest of Mount Wilhelm, where an ice cap reached its maximum extent at the LGM and remained there for around 3-4,000 years. This indicates that full glacial conditions were only brief in this region of the tropics.

  20. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Pavlinskiy, Mikhail N.; Tkachenko, Alexey V.; Lapshov, Igor Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the Astronomical Roengen Telescope- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission. ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module provides an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  1. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

  2. Experimental analysis of Model-Based Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (MBRSA) on four typical prosthesis components.

    PubMed

    Seehaus, Frank; Emmerich, Judith; Kaptein, Bart L; Windhagen, Henning; Hurschler, Christof

    2009-04-01

    Classical marker-based roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) is an accurate method of measuring in vivo implant migration. A disadvantage of the method is the necessity of placing tantalum markers on the implant, which constitutes additional manufacturing and certification effort. Model-based RSA (MBRSA) is a method by which pose-estimation of geometric surface-models of the implant is used to detect implant migration. The placement of prosthesis markers is thus no longer necessary. The accuracy of the pose-estimation algorithms used depends on the geometry of the prosthesis as well as the accuracy of the surface models used. The goal of this study was thus to evaluate the experimental accuracy and precision of the MBRSA method for four different, but typical prosthesis geometries, that are commonly implanted. Is there a relationship existing between the accuracy of MBRSA and prosthesis geometries? Four different prosthesis geometries were investigated: one femoral and one tibial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) component and two different femoral stem total hip arthroplasty (THA) components. An experimental phantom model was used to simulate two different implant migration protocols, whereby the implant was moved relative to the surrounding bone (relative prosthesis-bone motion (RM)), or, similar to the double-repeated measures performed to assess accuracy clinically, both the prosthesis and the surrounding bone model (zero relative prosthesis-bone motion (ZRM)) were moved. Motions were performed about three translational and three rotational axes, respectively. The maximum 95% confidence interval (CI) for MBRSA of all four prosthesis investigated was better than -0.034 to 0.107 mm for in-plane and -0.217 to 0.069 mm for out-of-plane translation, and from -0.038 deg to 0.162 deg for in-plane and from -1.316 deg to 0.071 deg for out-of-plane rotation, with no clear differences between the ZRM and RM protocols observed. Accuracy in translation was similar

  3. Accuracy and repeatability of Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for measuring knee laxity in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Peura, G D; Abate, J A; Beynnon, B D

    2001-10-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) can be used to assess temporal changes in anterior-posterior (A-P) knee laxity. However, the accuracy and precision of RSA is dependent on many factors and should be independently evaluated for a particular application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of RSA for measuring A-P knee laxity. The specific aims were to assess the variation or "noise" inherent to RSA, to determine the reproducibility of RSA for repeated A-P laxity testing, and to assess the accuracy of these measurements. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment utilized three rigid models of the tibiofemoral joint to assess the noise and to compare digitization errors of two independent examiners. No differences were found in the kinematic outputs of the RSA due to examiner, repeated trials, or the model used. In a second experiment, A-P laxity values between the A-P shear load limits of +/-60 N of five cadaver goat knees were measured to assess the error associated with repeated testing. The RSA laxity values were also compared to those obtained from a custom designed linkage system. The mean A-P laxity values with the knee 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion for the ACL-intact goat knee (+/-95% confidence interval) were 0.8 (+/-0.25), 0.9 (+/-0.29), and 0.4 (+/-0.22) mm, respectively. In the ACL-deficient knee, the A-P laxity values increased by an order of magnitude to 8.8 (+/-1.39), 7.6 (+/-1.32), and 3.1 (+/-1.20)mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between the A-P laxity values measured by RSA and the independent measurement technique. A highly significant linear relationship (r(2)=0.83) was also found between these techniques. This study suggests that the RSA method is an accurate and precise means to measure A-P knee laxity for repeated testing over time. PMID:11522316

  4. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C. |

    1999-01-05

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination.

  5. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The terms ‘genotype’, ‘phenotype’ and ‘gene’ originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  6. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy. PMID:20957826

  7. PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J

  8. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  9. Wilhelm von Hboldt and James Parkinson. An appraisal of observation and creativity.

    PubMed

    Lakke, J P

    1996-10-01

    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) was an educational reformer, a statesman serving Frederick William III, King of Prussia and a philologist, who influenced the contemporary linguist Chomsky. Moreover von Humbolt was a prolific writer, he kept up a substantial correspondence with family and a circle of acquaintances. His letters also contain references to his physical fitness. In the year of James Parkinson's death, 1824, von Humboldt mentioned difficulties with writing for the first time. From his correspondence during the last 11 years of his life we can reconstruct a classic development of the shaking palsy based on clever self-observations. Von Humboldt supplemented James Parkinson's description with micrographia, and dysdiadochokinesia. In addition, he observed, that turning over in bed was impeded, that after 9 years of misery his tremor subsided, and that writing was possible using Latin print lettering instead of his usual gothic handwriting, von Humboldt died on the 8th April 1835 of pneumonia, a complication of his illness; he kept his full intellectual and artistic capacities until the end. PMID:18591044

  10. Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, C

    1997-01-01

    Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640

  11. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

  12. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, the discoverer of oxygen, and a very productive chemist.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-12-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) has an important place in the history of the discovery of respiratory gases because he was undoubtedly the first person to prepare oxygen and describe some of its properties. Despite this, his contributions have often been overshadowed by those of Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, who also played critical roles in preparing the gas and understanding its nature. Sadly, Scheele was slow to publish his discovery and therefore Priestley is rightly recognized as the first person to report the preparation of oxygen. This being said, the thinking of both Scheele and Priestley was dominated by the phlogiston theory, and it was left to Lavoisier to elucidate the true nature of oxygen. In addition to his work on oxygen, Scheele was enormously productive in other areas of chemistry. Arguably he discovered seven new elements and many other compounds. However, he kept a low profile during his life as a pharmacist, and he did not have strong links with contemporary prestigious institutions such as the Royal Society in England or the French Académie des Sciences. He was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science but only attended one meeting. Partly as a result, he remains a somewhat nebulous figure despite the critical contribution he made to the history of respiratory gases and his extensive researches in other areas of chemistry. His death at the age of 43 may have been hastened by his habit of tasting the chemicals that he worked on. PMID:25281638

  13. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Ins1rument Aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-German X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned and complementary X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Russian-led Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV (with limited sensitivity above 12 keV).

  14. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  15. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  16. Neuroscience in its context. Neuroscience and psychology in the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    PubMed

    Ziche, P

    1999-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the first to establish an Institute devoted exclusively to psychological research in Germany, started his career as a (neuro)physiologist. He gradually turned into a psychologist in the 1860's and 1870's, at a time when neuroscience had to deal with the problem of giving an adequate physiological interpretation of the data accumulated by neuroanatomy. Neither the functional interpretation of brain morphology, nor the options provided by the reflex model seemed acceptable to Wundt. In his Physiological Psychology, first published in 1874, Wundt adds another aspect to this discussion by showing that psychology may help, and indeed is required, to clarify some of the most controversial problems in brain research. He thus became a key figure in neuroscience's struggle to locate itself within the various research traditions. The following theses will be argued for: 1. Wundt's turn to psychology resulted from his view that the methodological basis of physiological brain research of the time was unsatisfactory. 2. Psychology, in its attempt to solve these problems, implied a new conception of an interaction between experimental and theoretical brain research. 3. Wundt tried to demonstrate the necessity of psychological considerations for experimental brain research. These points are discussed with reference to Wundt's treatment of the localization of functions in the brain. According to Wundt, psychology can show, by analyzing the complex structure of intellect and will, that mental phenomena can be realized in the brain only in the form of complex interations of the elements of the brain. The results of the psychological considerations imply that a strict localizations cannot be correct; but they are also turned against the conception of a complete functional equivalence of the various parts of the cortext. For Wundt, a reconstruction of brain processes cannot start with neurones, but only with patterns of a functional organization of brain

  17. Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.

    Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome

  18. Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João

    2006-08-01

    In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

  19. "A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

  20. Wilhelm Reich's self-censorship after his arrest as an enemy alien: the chilling effect of an illegal imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    After discussing Wilhelm Reich's place in psychoanalysis, the article explores his arrest as an 'enemy alien' in December 1941. Reich's emotional responses to his imprisonment (which was illegal and which lasted nearly a month) are explored. A number of scholars have suggested that many European radical psychoanalysts refrained from sharing their former political ideas once they emigrated to the United States. Following a brief discussion of this pattern of 'silencing,' it is argued that Reich's withholding certain documents from publication was due to a self-imposed censorship, motivated in part by the fear of further governmental interference with his life and work. This fear, however, did not extend to his discussion of his newly developed theory of orgone energy. PMID:24628260

  1. Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Objectives of NASA's participation in the ROSAT mission are to: a) measure the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of discrete cosmic sources including normal stars, collapsed stellar objects, and active galactic nuclei; b) perform spectroscopic mapping of extended X-ray sources including supernova remnants, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies; and c) conduct the above observations of cosmic sources with unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution over the 0.1 - 2.0 keV energy band.

  2. The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-09-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  3. Biplane roentgen videometric system for dynamic, 60/sec, studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    An operator interactive video system for the measurement of roentgen angiographically outlined structures is described. Left ventricular volume and three-dimensional shapes are calculated from up to 200 pairs of diameters measured from ventriculograms at the rate of 60 pairs of biplane images per second. The accuracy and reproducibility of volumes calculated by the system were established by analysis of roentgenograms of inanimate objects of known volume and by comparison of left ventricular stroke volumes calculated by the system with the stroke volumes calculated by an indicator-dilution technique and an aortic root electromagnetic flowmeter. Computer-generated display of the large amounts of data obtained by the videometry system is described.

  4. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  5. A variation on forced migration: Wilhelm Peters (Prussia via Britain to Turkey) and Muzafer Sherif (Turkey to the United States).

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    In 1933 the Turkish Republic formally offered university positions to 30 German-speaking academics who were dismissed with the coming to power of the National Socialist Government. That initial number went up to 56 with the inclusion of the technical assistants. By 1948 the estimated total had increased to 199. Given renewable five-year contracts with salaries substantially higher than their Turkish counterparts, the foreign émigrés were to implement the westernization program of higher education. The ten year-old secular Turkish Republic's extensive social reforms had encompassed the adoption of the Latin alphabet, and equal rights for women, removing gender bias in hiring. Such a high concentration of émigré academics in one institution, "the highest anywhere in the world," provides a unique opportunity to study a subject which has been neglected. In this article two cases in psychology will be examined: Wilhelm Peters (1880-1963), who came, via Britain, to Istanbul in 1936 from the University of Jena in Germany, and Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988) who went to the United States from Ankara University in 1945. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to identify the features that are specific to the German experience, and those that are shared and underlie translocation in science within the multifaceted complexity of the process of forced migration. PMID:27388256

  6. Treating epiphora in adults with the Wilhelm plastic nasolacrimal stent: mid-term results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Juan J; Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; García-García, Lorenzo

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25–88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed. PMID:20390276

  7. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

  8. Treating Epiphora in Adults With the Wilhelm Plastic Nasolacrimal Stent: Mid-Term Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ciampi, Juan J. Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lorenzo

    2011-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25-88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed.

  9. The many lives of experiments: Wilhelm Johannsen, selection, hybridization, and the complex relations of genes and characters.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In addition to his experiments on selection in pure lines, Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927) performed less well-known hybridisation experiments with beans. This article describes these experiments and discusses Johannsen's motivations and interpretations, in the context of developments in early genetics. I will show that Johannsen first presented the hybridisation experiments as an additional control for his selection experiments. The latter were dedicated to investigating heredity with respect to debates concerning the significance of natural selection of continuous variation for evolution. In the course of the establishment of a Mendelian research program after 1900, the study of heredity gained increasing independence from questions of evolution, and focused more on the modes and mechanisms of heredity. Further to their role as control experiments, Johannsen also saw his hybridisation experiments as contributing to the Mendelian program, by extending the scope of the principles of Mendelian inheritance to quantitative characters. Towards the end of the first decade of genetics, Johannsen revisited his experiments to illustrate the many-many relationship between genes and characters, at a time when that relationship appeared increasingly complex, and the unit-character concept, accordingly, became inadequate. For the philosophy of science, the example shows that experiments can have multiple roles in a research programme, and can be interpreted in the light of questions other than those that motivated the experiments in the first place. PMID:26699626

  10. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977953

  11. Soft x-ray calibration of the Co/C multilayer mirrors for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Spectrum Roentgen-Gamma satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdali, Salim; Tarrio, Charles; Christensen, Finn E.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1996-07-01

    The objective crystal spectrometer (OXS) on the forthcoming Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite is designed to carry three kinds of crystals: LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001), placed in front of the SODART telescope. Thirty six super polished (RMS roughness < 0.1nm) Si(111) substrates were coated with 65-80 periods of Co/C multilayers using electron beam evaporation deposition combined with ion polishing for the metal layers. These crystals are to be used in the energy band immediately below the C-K absorption edge of 0.284 keV. Because the crystals are to be assembled as one crystal on the OXS, the reflectivity performance as a function of energy and angle of incidence of all crystals has been measured using line radiation from an x-ray tube which provides 1.487 keV and 0.277 keV and using synchrotron radiation from 0.16 keV to 0.28 keV at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation electron storage ring a t the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The results from these measurements are discussed.

  12. Measurement of migration of soft tissue by modified Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA): validation of a new technique to monitor rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Cashman, P M M; Baring, T; Reilly, P; Emery, R J H; Amis, A A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to use Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) to measure migration of soft-tissue structures after rotator cuff repair. RSA stereo films were obtained; images were analysed using a semi-automatic software program allowing 3D viewing of results. RSA imaging experiments were performed to validate the technique, using a glass phantom with implanted RSA beads and an animal model with steel sutures as RSA markers which were moved known distances. Repeated measurements allowed assessment of inter- and intra-observer variability at a maximum of 1.06 mm. RSA analysis of the phantom showed a variation up to 0.22 mm for static and 0.28 mm for dynamic studies. The ovine tissue specimen demonstrated that using steel sutures as RSA markers in soft tissue is feasible, although less accurate than when measuring bone motion. This novel application of RSA to measure soft tissue migration is practicable and can be extended to in vivo studies. PMID:20143960

  13. On the bifurcation of blood vessels--Wilhelm Roux's doctoral thesis (Jena 1878)--a seminal work for biophysical modelling in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Kurz, H; Sandau, K; Christ, B

    1997-02-01

    Wilhelm Roux's doctoral thesis described the relationship between the angle and diameter of bifurcating blood vessels. We have re-read this work in the light of biophysics and developmental biology and found two remarkable aspects hidden among a multitude of observations, rules and exceptions to these rules. First, the author identified the major determinants involved in vascular development; genetics, cybernetics, and mechanics; moreover, he knew that he could not deal with the genetic and regulatory aspects, and could hardly treat the mechanical part adequately. Second, he was deeply convinced that the laws of physics determine the design of organisms, and that a necessity for optimality was inherent in development. We combined the analysis of diameter relationships with the requirement for optimality in a stochastic biophysical model, and concluded that a constant wall-stress condition could define a minimum wall-tissue optimum during arterial development. Hence, almost 120 years after Wilhelm Roux's pioneering work, our model indicates one possible way in which physical laws have determined the evolution of regulatory and structural properties in vessel wall development. PMID:9059737

  14. Predicting 3D pose in partially overlapped X-ray images of knee prostheses using model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Pin; Lin, Shang-Chih; Shih, Kao-Shang; Huang, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chian-Her

    2014-12-01

    After total knee replacement, the model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) technique has been used to monitor the status of prosthetic wear, misalignment, and even failure. However, the overlap of the prosthetic outlines inevitably increases errors in the estimation of prosthetic poses due to the limited amount of available outlines. In the literature, quite a few studies have investigated the problems induced by the overlapped outlines, and manual adjustment is still the mainstream. This study proposes two methods to automate the image processing of overlapped outlines prior to the pose registration of prosthetic models. The outline-separated method defines the intersected points and segments the overlapped outlines. The feature-recognized method uses the point and line features of the remaining outlines to initiate registration. Overlap percentage is defined as the ratio of overlapped to non-overlapped outlines. The simulated images with five overlapping percentages are used to evaluate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed methods. Compared with non-overlapped images, overlapped images reduce the number of outlines available for model-based RSA calculation. The maximum and root mean square errors for a prosthetic outline are 0.35 and 0.04 mm, respectively. The mean translation and rotation errors are 0.11 mm and 0.18°, respectively. The errors of the model-based RSA results are increased when the overlap percentage is beyond about 9%. In conclusion, both outline-separated and feature-recognized methods can be seamlessly integrated to automate the calculation of rough registration. This can significantly increase the clinical practicability of the model-based RSA technique. PMID:25293422

  15. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism. PMID:12430055

  16. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia Gillian

    2005-02-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

  17. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

  18. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  19. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  20. Wien, Wilhelm (1864-1928)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Gaffken, East Prussia (now Poland), Nobel prizewinner (1911), became professor of physics at Munich and discovered Wien's law, for the distribution of light in the spectrum of a black-body. Discovered the proton in an early mass-spectrometer experiment (confirmed by Rutherford)....

  1. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945. PMID:16887759

  2. ["... that progress in anatomy is most likely to occur when its problems include the study of growth and function, as well as of structure". about the anatomy and physiology of Ernst Heinrich Weber (794-1878 and Wilhelm His (1831-1904) his successor in the department of anatomy at the University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    The Leipzig anatomist and physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber had introduced physiological thinking in anatomy and exact methods of mathematical physics to the study of the functioning of the body making him the founder of a physically orientated physiology. But he would not have been that excellent physiologist without being a nonetheless distinguished anatomist since he solved his physiological problems usually following function in close relation to structure. Together with his brother Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891), who later was to become a famous physicist, in their theory of waves he laid the basis for an exact analysis of the movements of fluids in elastic tubes und was the first to apply the basic laws of hydrodynamics to the circulation of the blood. In collaboration with his youngest brother Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1806-1871), who worked as a prosector at his institute and together with Wilhelm Weber had studied the mechanics of the walking apparatus, he demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the vagus nerve on the action of the heart. Ernst Heinrich Weber's approach to consider an organ as a whole not neglecting the study of its function set him apart from most of his contemporaries and has characterized the work of the Leipzig anatomists and physiologists since his time. Among those was Wilhelm His from Basle who succeeded him in the chair of anatomy in 1872. On the basis of a systematic analysis of human embryos by means of serial sections and plastic reconstruction His completely reformed the field of embryology and was the first to present a comprehensive treatise on human embryology. The making of modern human embryology was, above all, his achievement. He did not confine himself to mere description but wanted to gain deeper insight into the causal events by developmental-mechanical conceptions. With his detection of the neuroblasts and that they give rise to an axon and later to dendrites His provided the developmental foundations for the

  3. Investigation relative to the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.; Primini, Francis A.; Fabbiano, Guiseppina; Harris, Daniel E.; Jones-Foreman, Christine; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Golub, Leon; Bookbinder, Jay; Seward, Frederick D.; Zombeck, Martin V.

    1994-01-01

    Reports include: High Resolution Observations of the Central Region of M31; The X-ray Emission of Low-X-ray-Luminosity Early-Type Galaxies: Gas Versus Compact Sources; Interaction Between Cluster Gas and Radio Features of Cygnus A; Hot Gas and Dark Halos in Early-Type Galaxies; A Gravitational Lens in X-rays - 0957+461; How Massive are Early-Type Galaxies?; Three Crab-Like SNR in the Large Magellanic Cloud; and Soft X-ray Emission from Boundary Layers in Cataclysmic Variables. Papers submitted to the Astrophysical Journal are attached.

  4. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  5. Crystallography: To Infinity and Beyond…

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles

    2014-01-01

    William Henry Bragg moved from Cambridge in Britain to South Australia to take up a professorship at the University of Adelaide in 1885. He brought with him a broad interest in many areas of physics, but when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in the 1890s, Bragg's interest was stimulated. William's Australian-born son, Lawrence (WL…

  6. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  7. Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784-1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, geodesist, mathematician, born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany. At the age of 26, became director of Frederick William III of Prussia's new Konigsberg Observatory, where he remained for the rest of his life. Published (1838) the first recognizedly accurate stellar parallax (of 61 Cygni), the earliest accurate method for measuring stellar distances (10 light years for 61 Cygni) (but see...

  8. Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm (1758-1840)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Doctor, astronomer, born in Arbergen, Germany, enthusiast for astronomy. He discovered several comets. In 1800 he joined the team of 24 `celestial police', organized by FRANZ VON ZACH, who were to patrol a share of the zodiac looking for the planet missing (according to BODE's law) between Mars and Jupiter. On New Year's Day 1801 PIAZZI discovered Ceres, and, in March 1802, Olbers discovered Pall...

  9. Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1799-1875)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Memel, East Prussia. Director of the Bonn Observatory, where he organized a survey of the position of all 324 198 stars of the northern hemisphere above the ninth magnitude, published as the star charts and catalogs of the Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). His assistant, Eduard Schönfeld (1828-91), made the extension (BDE) into the southern sky. It is staggering to think about this ...

  10. Schickard [Schickhardt], Wilhelm (1592-1635)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Herrenberg, Württemberg, Germany, became professor of astronomy in Tübingen. He corresponded with KEPLER, was one of the first to teach Kepler's discoveries, and, on the basis of his experience in making maps and other devices, proposed to Kepler the development of an analog computer to calculate planetary positions. He invented the first calculating machine, a `hand planetarium' (like an...

  11. [The work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele].

    PubMed

    Cassebaum, H

    1986-12-01

    On the occasion of C. W. Scheele's 200th anniversary of death corrections and complements to some of his important investigations and theories including discussions of priorities, are given to elucidate his works and to avoid misunderstanding (element term; tartaric, oxalic and benzoic acid; pyrolusit; earths/spar/Bologneese luminous stone/barite; Scheele/Bergman/Lavoisier; fire theory/discovery of oxygen; graphite/Wolfram; Scheele/Wenzel). PMID:3554272

  12. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  13. [Roentgen identification of unknown cadavers and living persons].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T; Rittner, C

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of successful x-ray identification of unknown dead with progressed postmortem changes are reported. Some of the x-ray plates are 25 years old and have been taken during growth process. Skull and spine are especially qualified for identification because the skeleton shows individual, highly specific markers in these regions which do not change during live and after death. The exclusion of identity was possible with regard to a 50 years old patient. She presented a 19 years old urogram as her own to receive a pension after an occupational accident in 1970. Two other cases of x-ray identification (tibia operation and skull) have been already described by us (1988). PMID:2818480

  14. Atlas of normal developmental roentgen anatomy, 2/e

    SciTech Connect

    Keats, T.E.; Smith, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is the revision of the radiographic atlas that provides normal standards for relative size, proportion, density, and configuration of the developing anatomy at various ages and for both sexes. This second edition features a new introductory chapter on maturation standards and an introductory page of text for each age group, describing key radiographic and anatomic changes. The authors have also replaced some radiographs from the first edition with new, higher quality films.

  15. Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

    2006-11-01

    Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

  16. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - the astronomer as a poet; (German Title: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - der Astronom als Poet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Dietmar

    This contribution illuminates a hitherto unknown side of the famous astronomer Bessel: his delight in occasionally writing poetry. These poems were thought to be of private use only, in particular as rhymed answers to his intimate correspondent Heinrich Christian Schumacher.

  17. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  18. The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)

  19. [Stress fractures of the navicular bone. Roentgen diagnosis of a rare fracture].

    PubMed

    Kirschberger, R; Graff, K H; Henning, A

    1985-03-01

    Stress fracture of the tarsal navicular are rare and their diagnosis is often delayed. 1982 and 1983 we found stress fractures of the os naviculare pedis in 16 patients, 8 fractures were complete and 10 incomplete. Three types of radiographic findings are sclerosis, radiolucency and radiolucency with sclerotic borders. The fractures were localized in the middle third of the tarsal navicular. Laminography is necessary to evaluate the radiographic changes and their extension. PMID:3991908

  20. The capability of fluoroscopic systems to determine differential Roentgen-ray absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A clinical fluoroscopic unit used in conjunction with a TV image digitization system was investigated to determine its capability to evaluate differential absorption between two areas in the same field. Fractional contrasts and minimum detectability for air, several concentrations of Renografin-60, and aluminum were studied using phantoms of various thicknesses. Results showed that the videometric response, when treated as contrast, shows a linear response with absorber thickness up to considerable thicknesses.

  1. [Morphometric analysis of roentgen images of the spine for diagnosis of osteoporosis-induced fracture].

    PubMed

    Felsenberg, D; Wieland, E; Gowin, W; Armbrecht, G; Bolze, X; Khorassani, A; Weingarten, U

    1998-03-15

    The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is one of the largest studies to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis related vertebral fractures in a population based cross-sectional study. One of the main tasks was to create standards and logistics to obtain uniform and comparable radiographs in all 36 European centers. Furthermore the central reading of the X-rays and the morphometry of the vertebral bodies were 2 important challenges. This paper describes the standardized patient positioning and making of the radiographs as well as their morphometry, reading, and evaluation. PMID:9564154

  2. From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome. PMID:24663131

  3. An atlas of normal roentgen variants that may stimulate disease. Third ed

    SciTech Connect

    Keats, T.

    1984-01-01

    Over 2,900 detailed photographs lead through this reference on variants, cross referenced to facilitate recognition. The new third edition introduces over 600 newly-documented variants in both adult and children. A reference list and arrangement by anatomic area make this diagnostic reference a useful book. Encompassing both soft tissues and bone, the new edition features a large section on musculoskeletal variants.

  4. [Value of conventional roentgen diagnosis and angiography in evaluating bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K J; Kierse, R

    1991-01-01

    Plain film radiographs are the basic imaging method for bone neoplasms, as the tumor and its relation to the surrounding tissue are shown in good detail. A classification of the destruction patterns enables us to determine the aggressivity of the lesion. Other criteria for diagnosis are periosteal reactions and calcifications in the surrounding soft tissues. Typical radiographic findings enable use to determine the dignity or even to diagnose a specific tumor in combination with the clinical settings. In case of a suspect scintigraphic finding plain film helps in differentiating metastasis from benign lesions. Angiography provides additional information about the extent of vascularization, the feeding arteries and venous situation. The pattern of vascular changes allows to determine the dignity of the tumor. In addition, angiography displays necrotic and the different degrees of vital tumor tissue enabling to define an appropriate site for needle biopsy. Short term follow up can be performed by angiography as chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may lead to a decrease in vascularization. PMID:1797244

  5. The Progress of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Introduction; 1. Scope of lectures. State of physics in 1875. Science of energy. Theory of gases. Elastic solid theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electricity. Training of students. Maxwell's view. Accurate measurement and discovery of Argon. German methods. Kirchhoff's laboratory. Wilhelm Weber's laboratory. The two laboratories of Berlin. Laboratory instruction at Manchester. Position of physics in mathematical tripos at Cambridge. Todhunter's views. The Cavendish laboratory. Spectrum analysis. The radiometer. Theory of vortex atom; 2. Action at a distance. Elastic solid of theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electrical action. Electro-magnetic theory. Verification of electromagnetic theory by Hertz. Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. First suggestion of molecular structure of electricity. Early experiments in the electric discharge through gases. Kathode rays. Works of Goldstein and Crookes. Hittorf's investigations. Own work on the discharge through gases. Ionization of gases. Magnetic deflexion of kathode rays. J. J. Thomson's experiments. Measurement of atomic charge; 3. Roentgen's discovery. Theories of Roentgen rays. Ionizing power of Roentgen rays. Conduction of electricity through ionized gases. Discovery of radio-activity. Discovery of radium. Magnetic deflexion of rays emitted by radio-active bodies. Discovery of emanations. Theory of radio-active change. Decay of the atom. Connexion between helium and the a ray. Helium produced by radium. Strutt's researches on helium accumulated in rocks. Electric inertia. Constitution of atom. J. J. Thomson's theory of Roentgen radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Principle of relativity. The Zeeman effect. Other consequences of electron theory. Contrast between old and modern school of physics; 4. Observational sciences. Judgment affected by scale. Terrestrial magnetism. Existence of potential. Separation of internal and external causes. Diurnal variation. Magnetic storms. Their causes. Solar

  6. Radiation and health*

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects. PMID:3496982

  7. Travelogue of Konrad Keilhack (1858-1944), Geologist from Berlin, attending the International Geological Congress 1897 in St. Petersburg (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2015-09-01

    Keilhack reported his impressions from his participation at the International Geological Congress in Russia in 1897 in several consecutive articles. In the more than 100 years since that time, a lot has changed. Apart from the totally different style of scientific presentations, with almost no illustrations, except maps, being shown during a talk, field trips were also a very special event, involving huge amounts of logistics. More than 200 people were transported to very remote areas of the European part of Russia. As well as organizing transportation by coaches and horses, places to stay overnight had to be found in large numbers and special regulations had to be issued by the government to allow access to various outcrops. Keilhacks visit of the oil-producing sites around Baku are of special interest, since they belonged obviously to the most productive ones on the globe at that time.

  8. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  9. [Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the discovery of X-rays].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    1996-01-01

    W.C. Röntgen reported the discovery of X-rays in December 1895 after seven weeks of assiduous work during which he had studied the properties of this new type of radiation able to go through screens of notable thickness. He named them X-rays to underline the fact that their nature was unknown. The news of this discovery immediately aroused an immense interest in the public and also initiated intense research in several directions. Physicians and physicists began as early as January 1896 to use X-rays on patients to investigate the skeleton and subsequently the lung and other organs. This was the birth or radiology. Rapidly they observed skin erythema, which led to the idea of using X-rays against a variety of lesions. In June 1896 the first patient was treated by radiotherapy. J.J. Thomson (Cambridge, U.K.) showed that X-rays were able to ionize gaz and the study of this phenomenon led to the discovery of electrons in 1897. In order to understand the emission of X-rays, H. Becquerel (Paris) investigated the role of the phosphorescence of the glass of the tube and while doing so discovered radioactivity in March 1896. X-rays and radioactivity were at the origin of the scientific revolution at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Research on radioactive materials demonstrated the existence of atoms which had been till then only a convenient hypothesis for explaining chemical reactions, but whose reality was considered as dubious by most physicists. Moreover, interaction of particles emitted by radionuclides and atoms enabled first the study of the structure of the atom and subsequently its nucleus. Matter, elements which were thought to be immutable were found to be transmutable, and eventually to disintegrate. The origin of the energy transferred to the radiation which was emitted appeared as a mystery and in order to explain it the physicist had to accept that matter could convert energy. In 1903 Einstein established the equivalence between matter and energy. Matter, energy, electricity, light which were formerly considered as continuous quantities were found to be discrete: there are particles of matter (elementary particles), energy (quanta, Planck 1905), electricity (electron), light (photons). Radioactive decay, particle interactions imposed a probabilistic physics which progressively replaced classic deterministic physics. Radioactivity can be used as a clock to measure time in the universe. Datations were made for fossils, art masterpieces and also for the earth, the solar system and universe. X-rays diffraction proved to be a powerful tool for studying crystals and molecules, in particular protein, and in 1953 enabled to demonstrate the DNA double helix. Hence X-rays and radioactivity originated a revolution in physics and science and in the vision of nature. The imperceptible and yet so powerful rays demonstrated the deficiencies of our senses. Mathematical entities and instrumentation must complement our sensations. The huge increment in our knowledge is accompanied by a divorce between the scientist and the layman who now often has great difficulties understanding new concepts not only in physics but also in biology. PMID:8696882

  10. [The medical arrangements of the Westphalian Wilhelms-University in Münster (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, F W

    1977-12-01

    The buildings of the clinics and institutions of the medical faculty in Münster which were planned in 1914 and completed in 1925 were enlarged considerably with numerous new buildings in the 1950's because of increasing specialisation in medicine. The university eye clinic built in 1925 was enlarged in 1970 by the addition of a bed wing and in 1975 by the new construction of the out patients department. In 1969 the foundation stone for the new central clinic with the four bed towers was laid. The eye clinic will not move into the new central clinic, because the old part of the present eye clinic was also completely renovated, besides the construction of both the additions. This description is complemented by conclusive data on the number and bed-use of the single clinics and on the cost of the new wing and the number of students. PMID:342807

  11. A triboelectric closed loop band system for the generation of x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cleve, E.; Lucas, B.; Ganlieli, Z.; Wong, E. W.; Cortes, P.; Mehta, N.; Cuadra, D.; Fong, J.; Hansen, S.; Kotowski, A.; Camara, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    X-ray have been commercially produced using the same basic design since their discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, for which he was awarded the first Nobel prize in physics. This technology requires high voltage elements, ultra high vacuum tubes, and high voltage electronics. The vacuum and high voltage drive up the price of x-ray technology and in order to bring down the cost, a brand new way to produce x-rays is needed. In 2008 Carlos Camara, Juan Escobar, Jonathan R. Hird, and Seth Putterman1 discovered that by pealing scotch tape in a vacuum you could create enough x-rays to take an x-ray radiograph of a finger. This lead to the formation of Tribogenics and the development of the rod and band x-ray architecture.

  12. The Hopkins rod-lens system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2007-06-01

    Surgeons have always been ready to adapt advances in technology into their practice. The discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen of X-rays in 1885 was applied within weeks of its publication to the diagnosis of fractures and the location of foreign bodies. The development of the electric light bulb by Edison enabled Max Nitze, Professor of Urology in Berlin, to develop the electrically illuminated cystoscope, which he patented in 1877. By 1911, Hugh Young used a cystoscope with a punch device to perform transurethral prostatectomy. Rapidly other electrically lit 'scopes' were introduced--the gastroscope, bronchoscope, thoracoscope and so on. All had two problems: they were rigid instruments and lacked really brilliant illumination. PMID:17598677

  13. [Status of skeletal scintigraphy, lung roentgen image and liver sonography in the follow-up of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Schünemann, H

    1989-04-01

    555 female patients were examined at the Bad Trissl Clinic in a prospective study in 1987 as follow-up of mammary carcinoma. The initial criterion was a postoperative carcinoma of the breast, without proof to date of metastases in the skeletal structure. A detailed pain anamnesis was recorded by means of prepared questions and a thorough clinical examination was performed for locating any skeletal pain. This was followed by a total body skeletal scintigram, supplemental x-ray films, tumour markers CA-15-3 and CEA as well as additional examinations, whenever necessary. It was found, that clinical disease patterns and imaging methods agreed in 489 patients. Clinical findings pointing to the possibility of metastases, or doubtful findings, were disproved by scintigraphy and x-ray. Osseous metastases would have been overlooked without skeletal scintigraphy in 13 cases only (2.34%). 11 of the 13 patients were classified as high risks (receptor negative, axillary lymph node metastases). Hence, it is enough to employ skeletal scintigraphy in carcinoma of the breast aftercare only in risk-adapted form, provided it is preceded by detailed pain analysis and clinical examination. Metastasising in the skeletal structure can be overlooked in only 2 out of 555 patients (0.36%). On the other hand, early recognition of metastases of the lungs or of the liver by anamnesis and clinical examination only, is impossible, as a review of recent literature has shown. If there are clinical indications for a metastasizing process in the lungs or in the liver, these are usually late signs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661306

  14. Markerless Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis for in vivo implant migration measurement using three dimensional surface models to represent bone.

    PubMed

    Seehaus, Frank; Olender, Gavin D; Kaptein, Bart L; Ostermeier, Sven; Hurschler, Christof

    2012-05-11

    Recent studies have shown that model-based RSA using implant surface models to detect in vivo migration is as accurate as the classical marker-based RSA method. Use of bone surface models would be a further advancement of the model-based method by decreasing complications arising from marker insertion. The aim of this pilot investigation was to assess the feasibility of a "completely markerless" model-based RSA in detecting migration of an implant using bone surface models instead of bone markers. A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was performed on a human cadaver knee, which was subsequently investigated by repeated RSA measurements performed by one observer. The cadaver knee was CT scanned prior to implantation of the TKA. Tibia-fibular surface models were created using two different commercially available software packages to investigate the effect of segmentation software on the accuracy of repeated migration measures of zero displacement by one observer. Reverse engineered surface models of the TKA tibial component were created. The analysis of the RSA images was repeated 10 times by one individual observer. For the markerless method, the greatest apparent migration observed about the three anatomical axes investigated was between -2.08 and 1.35 mm (SD ≤ 0.88) for z-axis translation, and -4.57° to 7.86° (SD ≤ 3.17) for R(y)-axis rotation, which were well beyond out of the range of what is typically considered adequate for clinically relevant RSA measurements. Use of tibia-fibular surface models of the bone instead of markers could provide practical advantages in evaluating implant migration. However, we found the accuracy and precision of the markerless approach to be lower than that of marker-based RSA, to a degree which precludes the use of this method for measuring implant migration in its present form. PMID:22465625

  15. [Measuring device for rapid determination of tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of roentgen equipment].

    PubMed

    Bronder, T; Eickelkamp, U; Jakschik, J

    1982-11-01

    A prototype of a measuring device is described, which reads the tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of x-ray units by means of two radiation detectors with different energy dependences due to detector materials (Caesium Iodine and Silicon). With a storage oscilloscope the curves of the tube voltage and the relative absorbed dose rate of intensifying screens can be displayed. The measuring range of the tube peak voltage is 60 kV to 150 kV. It is possible to measure exposure times of radiography equipment above 2 ms wit sufficiently low uncertainty. The tube peak voltage has been read with a relative uncertainty below 5% for almost all dose rates, which arise in practical application of medical x-ray units, and its calibration is made by means of x-ray apparatus with tube voltage reading, which has been compared to a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The stability of tube voltage reading of the measuring device is only effected by radiation damage of the detectors after a long time of utilization. The small diameter of the probe permits the accommodation of other probes, ionization chambers, phantoms, etc. in the radiation field at the same time. PMID:6217132

  16. The thermal control system of the x-ray telescope eROSITA on Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter; Tiedemann, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The X-ray telescope eROSITA is the main instrument besides the Russian ART-XC on the Spektrum-Rontgen-Gamma mission. Starting from 2014, an all-sky survey will be performed in the range between 0.3-10keV, followed by pointed observations. The main objective of thismission is the detection of 100 0000 galaxy clusters in order to constrain cosmological parameters, amongst others the density distribution and evolution of dark energy. Due to the minimum lifetime of seven years the thermal control system has to be completely passive without any consumables. With the ideal operational temperature of the CCD cameras being between 173K and 183K, this requires a very effective heat rejection system, consisting of a complex heat pipe system and a good thermal insulation. Simultaneously, a very sensitive temperature control via variable conductance heat pipes is implemented. For special outgassing requirements at the betinning of the mission these heat pipes are not working after launch but can be switched on any time. On the other hand the mirror moduules have to be tempered at room temperature and more than 200W of the electronics have to be dissipated without affecting the surrounding components or the satellite structure. The thermal control system has to be able to keep up the required temperature range and has to guarantee the optimum working conditions for all parts of the instrument. Calculations and verification tests validated the thermal concept.

  17. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2013-01-01

    MSFC is developing eight x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission. The Engineering Unit tests are successful. MSFC is on schedule to deliver flight units in the November of 2013 and January 2014.

  18. Wilhelm August Gottlieb Manniske, MD (1769-1835): microscope use during removal of buried corneal body in 1792.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, J Fraser

    2013-02-01

    In 1792, a priest in Germany consulted a young doctor about a buried corneal foreign body hidden in a small, hard mass that partly covered the pupil. During removal of the foreign body, the doctor inspected the corneal incision with a microscope to confirm the suspected presence of the foreign body. This may be the first use of a microscope in eye surgery. PMID:23411892

  19. Deep mantle mineralogy and novel materials synthesis using multianvil high-pressure technology (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuo, Irifune

    2016-04-01

    Phase relations in mantle and slab materials have been studied using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (KMA) under pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle transition region and the uppermost lower mantle of the Earth. The associated density and sound velocity changes of these materials have also been determined using the KMA technology combined with synchrotron in situ X-ray and ultrasonic interferometry measurements. The results show that the mantle transition region is made of a pyrolitic composition, while the presence of a harzburgite-rich layer is suggested in the lower parts of this region. Use of sintered diamond anvils for KMA has allowed expansion of these measurements toward deeper region of the lower mantle. Our preliminary results of such measurements indicate that at least upper part of the lower mantle is made of the pyrolitic composition contrary to a recent study based on Brillouin scattering measurements in diamond anvil cell, which concluded a more Si-rich lower mantle. On the other hand, we have been applying KMA technology to synthesis of novel functional materials utilizing its capability of producing very high static pressures and homogeneous temperatures in relatively large sample volumes. These include ultrahard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) directly converted from graphite, which is now being used for applications to abrasive and cutting tools as well as for some scientific applications such as anvils for some high-pressure devices. Another example of such a novel material is hard and tough nano-polycrystalline stishovite (NPS), which is also potentially important for some industrial applications. Moreover, we recently succeeded in making highly transparent nano-polycrystalline garnet (NPG), which is ideal for the measurements of sound velocities by various methods, such as Brillouin scattering and GHz ultrasonic interferometry. Thus, the KMA technology opens the door to the synthesis of transparent nano-polycrystalline ceramics, in addition to its use for the studies in deep Earth mineralogy.

  20. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  1. Evolution of Medical Imaging and Computational Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    2000-11-01

    The first medical images produced using x-rays appeared less than a year after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. For over a century x-ray projection radiography has been and continues to be the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality. For over seventy years mathematics and computational methods were used in a general way for image processing and analysis. The really challenging mathematical and computational problems did not emerge until the 1970s with the beginning of computed tomography (CT) to produce images popularly known as CAT (computer-assisted tomography) scans. This was followed rapidly by positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged in the 1980s and is in many ways the most informative medical imaging methodology. Computer-based mathematical methods are fundamental to the success of these imaging modalities, and are increasingly important in several other novel imaging techniques. The technologies involved in each modality are competely different, have varying diagnostic value, and are described by different fundamental equations. The common underlying theme is that of the reconstruction of important characteristics of medical interest from indirect measurements. Several of these methodologies for visualizing internal body anatomy and function will be discussed and related to the evolution of computational capabilities. This brings out aspects of these biomedical imaging technologies where a deeper understanding is needed, and to frontiers where future advances are likely to come from continued research in physics jointly with the mathematical sciences.

  2. The State of the Art of Medical Imaging Technology: from Creation to Archive and Back

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations. PMID:21915232

  3. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  4. The state of the art of medical imaging technology: from creation to archive and back.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations. PMID:21915232

  5. Anniversary Paper: Image processing and manipulation through the pages of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Ginneken, Bram van

    2008-10-15

    The language of radiology has gradually evolved from ''the film'' (the foundation of radiology since Wilhelm Roentgen's 1895 discovery of x-rays) to ''the image,'' an electronic manifestation of a radiologic examination that exists within the bits and bytes of a computer. Rather than simply storing and displaying radiologic images in a static manner, the computational power of the computer may be used to enhance a radiologist's ability to visually extract information from the image through image processing and image manipulation algorithms. Image processing tools provide a broad spectrum of opportunities for image enhancement. Gray-level manipulations such as histogram equalization, spatial alterations such as geometric distortion correction, preprocessing operations such as edge enhancement, and enhanced radiography techniques such as temporal subtraction provide powerful methods to improve the diagnostic quality of an image or to enhance structures of interest within an image. Furthermore, these image processing algorithms provide the building blocks of more advanced computer vision methods. The prominent role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the advancement of medical image processing methods, and in the establishment of the ''image'' as the fundamental entity in radiology and radiation oncology, has been captured in 35 volumes of Medical Physics.

  6. Anniversary paper: image processing and manipulation through the pages of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Armato, Samuel G; van Ginneken, Bram

    2008-10-01

    The language of radiology has gradually evolved from "the film" (the foundation of radiology since Wilhelm Roentgen's 1895 discovery of x-rays) to "the image," an electronic manifestation of a radiologic examination that exists within the bits and bytes of a computer. Rather than simply storing and displaying radiologic images in a static manner, the computational power of the computer may be used to enhance a radiologist's ability to visually extract information from the image through image processing and image manipulation algorithms. Image processing tools provide a broad spectrum of opportunities for image enhancement. Gray-level manipulations such as histogram equalization, spatial alterations such as geometric distortion correction, preprocessing operations such as edge enhancement, and enhanced radiography techniques such as temporal subtraction provide powerful methods to improve the diagnostic quality of an image or to enhance structures of interest within an image. Furthermore, these image processing algorithms provide the building blocks of more advanced computer vision methods. The prominent role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the advancement of medical image processing methods, and in the establishment of the "image" as the fundamental entity in radiology and radiation oncology, has been captured in 35 volumes of Medical Physics. PMID:18975696

  7. [From anamnesis to the art of interpretation, or: What is a "genuine" psychoanalyst? Wolfgang Warda, Ludwig Binswanger, Wilhelm Strohmayer and the origins of psychoanalysis in Thuringia].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Warda and Strohmayer from Thuringia were among the first German physicians who developed an interest in Freuds theory and therapeutic method around 1900. Their contributions reflect the influence of Otto Binswanger, professor of psychiatry in Jena, a representative of the "psychological direction" in psychiatry which in the beginning was relatively receptive to Freud. The paper discusses their rapprochement to, and detachment from, the Freudian school, including also the work of a third young physician: Ludwig Binswanger, Otto's nephew, who was active in Jena at the same time. It points to certain factors contributing to the increasing rejection Freud met in academic circles which have been underrated to date: (1) the transformation of psychoanalysis into an art of interpretation; (2) the introduction of transference. Both factors which were elaborated by Freud as essentials of his theoretical and practical approach around 1900 and published in 1904/05, undermined the claim of academic medicine to objectivity. The paper describes how psychoanalysis officially abandoned the scientific standards of contemporary medicine at the Weimar congress in 1911, at the same time as Warda and Strohmayer left the Freudian group. PMID:27281983

  8. German-American Cultural Interaction in the Jacksonian Era: Six Unpublished Letters by Francis Lieber and John Pickering to Wilhelm von Humboldt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Letters by German-American writer and political scientist Francis Lieber and American lawyer and linguist John Pickering to Wilhem von Humboldt in Berlin, published here for the first time, give insight into the cultural interaction between Germany and the United States during the Jacksonian era, and may open new perspectives for German-American…

  9. [The question of radiation exposure of the cervical spine in analgesic roentgen irradiation of therapy-resistant humero-scapular periarthritis associated with local cervical syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hoenle, R

    1985-08-01

    An improvement is achieved by palliative X-ray irradiation in about 70% out of 47 patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis and local cervical syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome which was hitherto resistant to medicomechanical treatment. Higher rates of success (84%) can be achieved if the patients present an identical symptomatology, but less severe alterations of the vertebral column, even if the vertebral column is not irradiated. In case of severe alterations of the vertebral column, the success of palliative irradiation is diminished, even if the cervical vertebral column is additionally irradiated. PMID:2411026

  10. Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems

  11. Teaching Literacy for Love and Wisdom: Being the Book and Being the Change. Language and Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Novak, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This powerful book lays out an inspiring new vision for the teaching of English, building on themes central to Wilhelm's influential "You Gotta BE The Book." With this new work, Wilhelm and Novak challenge business as usual in the language arts. They call for nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the aims and methods of the English…

  12. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  13. Our Compulsory Goals: Effective Teaching and Meaningful Learning through Powerful Cultural Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm asks, "But are new literacies just fun?" Then he immediately answers, "Absolutely not--if we as teachers provide the right context and conditions of their use." Offering research-based advice on incorporating technology to increase motivation and deepen learning, Wilhelm boils it down to this bottom line: it's engaged, substantive,…

  14. Considering Hermeneutics and Education: Hermes, Teachers, and Intellectualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Deron Robert

    Teacher roles in contemporary American schools should be more closely aligned to hermeneutics as the study of meaning (interpretation/understanding). A marriage between Platonic notions of interpretation and the quest for meaning with the interpretive theories of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm Dilthey, and Hans-Georg…

  15. 76 FR 53705 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Seductive Luxury and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation... ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David Roentgen,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is imported...

  16. Calibration of the ART-XC/SRG X-ray Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Seven x-ray mirror modules are being fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument to be launched on board of the Spektrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. As they are completed, the modules are tested and calibrated at the MSFC's 104-m Stray Flight Facility. The results of these calibration measurements and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  17. Physicists and Physics in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan

    We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

  18. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  19. Ein Anti-Macht-Wort zur Didaktik der 'Progressive' Form. [An Anti-Macht Comment on Teaching the Progressive Form (of the English Verb)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydatiss, Wolfgang

    1979-01-01

    Rejects the semantic analysis of the English progressive form proposed by Konrad Macht in 1973. Citing performance data from tenth grade classes and reviewing the contents of school grammars in use at the intermediate level, a teaching grammar for the progressive form is developed. (IFS/WGA)

  20. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  1. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  2. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  3. Flight programs and X-ray optics development at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HEROES balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG). A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin-shell optics to the arcsecond-level.

  4. ART-XC/SRG: status of the x-ray optics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has ~65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  5. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approx. 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  6. Development and Calibration of the ART-XC Mirror Modules for the Spectrum Rontgen Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; Elsner, R.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Odell, S.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-lead X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module Xray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV.

  7. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  8. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  9. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    PubMed

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy. PMID:15817043

  10. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless otherwise specified, the quantities used in the records required by this part shall be clearly indicated in special units of curie, rad, roentgen,...

  11. Atlas of Computed Tomography Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, L.R.; Seeger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Atlas of Computed Tomography Variants is unique in that, while others of its kind may include plain film, roentgen variants, it concentrates solely on CT images of variants which may simulate disease. Organized into four regions, it presents dicussions covering CT variants of the skull, neck and spine; thorax; abdomen; and extremities-featuring a section on the head.

  12. [Digital radiography in tomography of the facial bones].

    PubMed

    Ibing, H P; Vogel, H; Biebesheimer, V

    1988-09-01

    In 14 patients the x-ray findings of dental, mandibular and maxillary roentgen diagnosis were compared with conventional tomography and tomography by digital radiography. All details important for diagnosis were shown by both techniques. Tomography by digital radiography offered a more convenient approach and pictures easier to be interpreted than pictures by conventional tomography. PMID:3175474

  13. Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

    1994-01-01

    The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

  14. 77 FR 51606 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Extravagant Inventions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Furniture of the Roentgens,'' Formerly Titled ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham... State pertaining to the exhibition ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David... States, are of cultural significance. The additional objects are imported pursuant to loan...

  15. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  16. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  17. In Memoriam Werner Callebaut.

    PubMed

    Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    The article contains some recollections on Werner Callebaut highlighting his personal character and his role in the community of historians, philosophers and sociologists of the life sciences. Werner Callebaut (1952-2014) was a real European philosopher. He was the Scientific Director of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI, Klosterneuburg, Austria) and the President of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology. PMID:26350077

  18. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the original Von Braun german rocket team participate in the Saturn V replica didication ceremony at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. Pictured are (L/R): Walter Jacobi, Konrad Dannenberg, Apollo 14's Edgar Mitchell, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Apollo 12's Dick Gordon, Gerhard Reisig, Werner Dahm, MSFC Director Art Stephenson, Director of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center Mike Wing, Walter Haeusserman, and Ernst Stuhlinger.

  19. Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the

  20. Next Steps in the Journey: Teaching with "Urgency:" A Call for Immediate Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    With a staggering number of students dropping out of school, widespread below-grade reading proficiency, and PISA results showing a demoralizing lag internationally in math, science, and general problem solving, teachers need to exercise all the control available to them to engage students in meaningful learning. Wilhelm suggests six steps…

  1. The International Relations of the Struves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    At least 10 astronomers in 5 generations belonged to the Struve dynasty, a family having its origin in Holstein and living in Germany, Russia, the USA and other countries. The best known astronomers among them were Wilhelm (1793-1864), Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), Hermann (1854-1920), Ludwig (1858-1920), Georg (1886-1933) and Otto Ludwig Struve (1897-1963). After a short account of the family's history, its international relations will be regarded, with emphasis on the following aspects: Nationality/citizenship, places of living and work, personal relations to other astronomers including correspondence and cooperation, travels, languages of publications. Although a comparison of the different members of the family is possible only to a certain degree due to their different role and importance in astronomy, some changes which developed over 150 years can be traced: E.g., Wilhelm Struve published in German, Latin, French, Russian and English, whereas his grandsons and great-grandsons wrote their papers mainly in one language -- German or English. Wilhelm had relatively close relations with French astronomers, whereas his great-grandson Georg was the author of verbal assaults on French scientists. Georg published also heavy criticism of the International Astronomical Union, whereas his cousin Otto Luwig later became IAU's President.

  2. Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

  3. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  4. Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

  5. The Academy and the Engineering Sciences: An Unwelcome Royal Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    On 19 March 1900, at the bicentenary celebrations of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Kaiser Wilhelm II established three new fellowships in engineering sciences. This was in many aspects an unwanted gift, and one which tested the Academy's relationship between pure and applied science. In the context of contemporary struggles between traditional…

  6. A Poetic Journey: The Transfer and Transformation of German Strategies for Moral Education in Late Eighteenth-Century Dutch Poetry for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlevliet, Sanne; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular Dutch educational enlightenment authors was Hieronymus van Alphen. His three volumes of "Little Poems for Children" published in 1778 and 1782 were extremely successful, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Inspired by the German poets Christian Felix Weisse and Gottlob Wilhelm Burmann, Van Alphen brought about an…

  7. Reading Motivation: Exploring the Elementary Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…

  8. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  9. Sisyphus at Work: The Leibniz Edition, The Kaiserreich and Divided Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Despite several attempts, the prolific writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz have not yet been brought together in a single edition. Efforts have been hampered by the sheer volume and diversity of the Leibniz estate, and also by changing political circumstances. This paper traces the history of the Leibniz edition as a long-term project of the…

  10. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  11. The Age for Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Role-plays and other dramatic activities fulfill tweens' urge to try out different life roles, to explore the world beyond their own reality, and to learn new areas of competence. Wilhelm's research into reading and motivation has shown that students value learning that they can see as immediately meaningful. He argues that drama strategies bring…

  12. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

  13. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  14. Photothermal Therapy: Cancer Cell Internalization of Gold Nanostars Impacts Their Photothermal Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo: Toward a Plasmonic Thermal Fingerprint in Tumoral Environment (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ana; Silva, Amanda K A; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Péchoux, Christine; Desboeufs, Karine; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Because the ultimate target for photothermal therapy is the cancer cell, heating performances must be evaluated intracellularly. On page 1040 C. Wilhelm and team provide the first in vitro and in vivo photothermal measurements in cancer cells with gold nanostars. They demonstrate that once nanostars are internalized within endosomes, heat generation can change significantly. PMID:27166618

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  16. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  17. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience. PMID:16639614

  18. Hard-luck Scheele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-11-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele had a hand in the discovery of at least six elements and contributed to the early development of chemistry in numerous other ways. Bruce Gibb looks into Scheele's story and considers why he doesn't get the credit that he deserves.

  19. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  20. Recent Progress on Certain Quartic Diophantine Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Ljunggren proved many results on quartic Diophantine equations of the form aX4-bY2 = c, with c∈{±1,-2,±4}. Noticeably absent from this set of values of c is c = 2. We describe some recent progress on this problem, and discuss some open problems which require further study.

  1. Proactivity vs Reactivity: Preparing Students for Success with CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm has studied the Common Core State Standards and come away with a generally positive opinion. His concern is that now that the Standards are written, we let professional teachers mold them into the best possible practices for teaching their students. With specific advice for working with students--developing background knowledge, making…

  2. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

  3. Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

  4. Using Irony in Teaching the History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, B. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines historical ironies and stories with surprise endings about Rene Descartes and Wilhelm Wundt that can enliven history of psychology lectures and make certain concepts more memorable. Explains that this approach does not trivialize psychology's history but adds humor to a subject that students sometimes find dull. (CMK)

  5. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  6. Integrating Fiction and Nonfiction Reading into the Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiene, Judy; Pedersen, Erin

    2013-01-01

    One goal of high school teachers is to help students appreciate that reading does not end when they leave the classroom. When students find reading meaningful, they are more likely to see themselves as readers and choose to read long after they leave the classroom setting (Hinchman, Alvermann, Boyd, Brozo, & Vacca, 2003-2004; Wilhelm, 2001).…

  7. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  8. Notes on Joseph Fraunhofer's honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen, 1822 (German Title: Bemerkungen zur Ehrenpromotion Joseph Fraunhofers 1822 in Erlangen )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzke, Karl

    In 1822, Joseph Fraunhofer received a honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen University. Presumably, this distinction was based on suggestions by Johann Wilhelm Pfaff. Since 1822, Pfaff gave lectures with the inclusion of instruments, which he obtained directly from Fraunhofer, and presumably also included problems of spectral investigation. This contribution analyzes informations which were collected in this regard.

  9. Attitude as Predictor of Success in Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereijo, Maria Victoria Perez

    2006-01-01

    This is the second article in a series of articles published with findings on student perceptions of asynchronous web-based courses (Perez Cereijo, Young, & Wilhelm, 2001). This portion of the study examines the independent relationships between various student characteristics and student's perceived advantages and disadvantages of the…

  10. In Memoriam, Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Charles E. Graham, 2003, Retired Life Member, Tectonophysics, 1953. Robert E. Veiga, 2003, Atmospheric Sciences, 1990. Donald E. White, 2003, AGU Fellow, Volcanology, Geochemistry, Petrology, 1944.Manfred R. Strecker is a prizewinner of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Program for 2004, Germany's most valuable research prize.

  11. How Principals Cultivate Shared Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Do teacher leaders in your school mainly fill the traditional roles of department chair or grade-level representative? Or do they lead their peers in collaborative teams whose primary focus is improving student learning? Terry Wilhelm, director of the School Leadership Center for Riverside County Office of Education in California, says that…

  12. The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of "judgement". This article traces the roots of "judgement" back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature…

  13. From University to Comprehensive Higher Education: On the Widening Gap between "Lehre und Leben."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Wilhelm von Humboldt concerning the role of the university is discussed, focusing on four imperatives regulating its activities--unity of research and teaching; the empirical sciences; science and socialization; and science and universal enlightenment. The current status of the university is assessed in relation to these ideals. (MSE)

  14. The Humboldt Legacy: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the European University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybom, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the uses and distortions that have been made over the years to the ideas about the university that Wilhelm von Humboldt advocated. Points out, however, that there remains much of value in the ideas articulated by Humboldt and his brother Alexander. (SLD)

  15. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  16. "Bildung" and Intercultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "Bildung", sometimes translated as self-cultivation, is located at the core of an influential tradition of educational thought. A key question concerns the relationship between "Bildung" and interculturality. Drawing on Wilhelm von Humboldt and Hans-Georg Gadamer, and on the so-called transformative learning…

  17. Bildung und bildungstheoretische Ueberlegungen zur Grundung der Republik (Education and the Republic--Educational Theorists Reflections on the Foundation of the Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellekamps, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Draws on Wilhelm von Humboldt's typology of the active human being to debate the questions whether and how individuals can produce their social and political world. Discusses, with reference to Marie Condorcet and Immanuel Kant, procedures of the public that are necessary prerequisites for actions aimed at forming the world. (DSK)

  18. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  19. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  20. "The Lengthened Shadow of One Man": The Public Intellectual and the Founding of Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, John

    1998-01-01

    Identifies five intellectuals who made distinctive contributions to the founding of new universities in England, Germany, and the United States. Institutional and individual biographies profile: Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia); Wilhelm von Humboldt (University of Berlin); Lord Brougham (University College, University of London); A.D.…

  1. Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on the…

  2. Bildung as a Powerful Tool in Modern University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Mogens Noergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how powerful "Bildung" is as a tool in modern university teaching. The concept of "Bildung" was originally introduced by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (Kant 1787, 1798, 1804) and the Prussian lawyer and politician Wilhelm von Humboldt (Humboldt 1792, Bohlin 2008). From 1810 "Bildung" was a key concept in…

  3. Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany: Scholarly Approaches and Professional Practice. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Wilhelm, Ed.

    This monograph offers insight into the development of the conceptual basis, scholarly inquiry, and professional practice of adult education in West Germany from the end of World War II to the German reunification. Introductory materials are an "Introduction" (Wilhelm Mader) and "Translator's Note and Acknowledgements" (Martin Haindorff). Three…

  4. What Teachers Need to Know about Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff; Smith, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    Motivation is key to engaging students in meaningful and productive work. Identifying individual students' interests would be ideal, but in the real world, we need to create and sustain "situational interest." Smith and Wilhelm reference their own research as well as other research that is contextually very different to show how the same…

  5. A Teacher is Forever: The Legacy of Harry Kirke Wolfe (1858-1918).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This article traces the career of Harry Kirke Wolfe, Nebraska educator and one of the earliest U.S. psychologists to earn a doctorate in psychology from Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. Emphasis is placed on Wolfe's blending of psychology and pedagogy, and his qualities as a teacher. (Author/JDH)

  6. Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

  7. The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

  8. Determiner Syntax in Middle Low German: Evidence from the "Luebecker Ratsurteile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Elliott E.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I take a look at Middle Low German nominal phrases as evidenced in the Lubecker Ratsurteile, a collection of court proceedings published by Wilhelm Ebel in 1955, which cover the years 1421-1550. By digitizing the corpus, I was able to perform a corpus analysis on noun phrases, where I concentrated on determiner use and form,…

  9. Portrayals of Wundt and Titchener in Introductory Psychology Texts: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the content of introductory psychology books by performing a content analysis on texts from the 1970s and 1990s to determine whether the books incorporated recent historical scholarship in discussions of Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Finds that some texts still misrepresent the relation between Wundt and Titchener. (CMK)

  10. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  11. Flight Programs and X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HERO balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of a series of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG.) The details and status of these various programs are presented. A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin shell optics to the arcsecond-level. The status of these x-ray optics technology developments is also presented.

  12. Radiographic Diagnosis of Intestinal Perforation in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jacob J.; Mikity, Victor G.

    1966-01-01

    Records of 25 patients with intestinal perforation in early infancy who were treated at the Los Angeles County General Hospital in a period of 15 years were reviewed. Sixteen had roentgen evidence of pneumoperitoneum, and nine did not. The mortality rate was 94 per cent in the group with pneumoperitoneum, 78 per cent in the other, and 88 per cent overall. Multiple sites in the gastrointestinal tract were involved, and the causes of the lesions were diverse and frequently obscure. Prematurity, obstetrical and iatrogenic complications, and congenital anomalies were factors often associated with intestinal perforation. Roentgen features appeared to offer the best hope for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:5909251

  13. Teleradiotherapy of joints in rheumatoid arthritis: lack of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Graninger, M; Handl-Zeller, L; Hohenberg, G; Staudenherz, A; Kainberger, F; Graninger, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the local application of x rays to inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects the signs and symptoms of inflammation. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, double blind study, roentgen irradiation was administered in a total dose of 20 Gy during 2 weeks to single joints in six patients with RA who were receiving constant and stable pharmacological treatment with DMARDs and NSAIDs. Single inflamed joints on the contralateral side of the body were used as controls and received sham irradiation. Swelling and tenderness was assessed by blinded investigators before and until 3 months after the irradiation; general disease activity and pain scales were included in the assessment. Results: No change in the scores for tenderness, swelling, pain, or disease activity was seen. The trial was stopped for ethical reasons. Conclusion: Local roentgen treatment of RA at a substantial dose of 20 Gy was ineffective in this pilot trial. PMID:15608312

  14. Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

  15. Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

  16. Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. By Irwin M. Freundlich, J. Thomas McMurray, J. Stauffer Lehman, 1967.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, I M; McMurray, J T; Lehman, J S

    1988-06-01

    In patients with a systolic ejection murmur and without a history of rheumatic fever, a probable diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) can be made from the roentgenologic findings. Left ventricular enlargement, associated at times with minimal left atrial enlargement, without intracardiac calcification and with a normal ascending aorta are the most frequent roentgen findings. For a positive diagnosis, a pressure gradient within the left ventricle and hypertrophic muscular obstruction should be demonstrated by angiocardiography. PMID:3285643

  17. Nils Gustav Dalén, the Unknown Nobel Prize Winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Hanging on the wall of my museum is a large "Map of Physics" published by the Central Scientific Company in 1938. On it is a list of the Nobel Prizes in physics, starting with Roentgen in 1901 and ending with Fermi in 1938. I can recognize every name except the one for 1912: Nils Gustav Dalén. Perhaps you have had the same experience when looking through the updated list.

  18. [The "recommendations of 1928" and its background].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Y

    1993-01-01

    In the "recommendations of the International X-ray Units Committee" published in 1928, the first international unit "Roentgen" was given without any specific definition of the physical quantity represented by the unit. This introduced confusion into the subsequent history of radiation units. The "recommendations" had another distinctive feature, i.e., more than half of the recommendations were concerned with the problems of X-ray measurement. Around 1925, almost all Roentgen societies and physics societies in the world regarded the ionization of air by X-ray as a basic phenomenon for the establishment of the unit. Many devices were proposed for counting the number of ions. O. Glasser and his joint research workers examined the accuracy of each apparatus to choose the best one. The results of their study were adopted in the "recommendations of 1928". In the meantime, owing to the Compton effect discovered in 1923, it had become difficult to relate the X-ray dose unconditionally with air ionization quantity. Consequently, the physical quantity represented by the unit "Roentgen" became difficult to specify, and much time was needed to resolve these problemss. Various sicknesses and lesions had been caused by the misuse of X-ray. To avoid the damage and to reproduce the conditions of treatment, physicians took it as a matter of urgency to standardize the international units. They thought that practical convenience should be given priority over the pursuit of physical precision in the standardization of units and measurements. These factors led to the vagueness of the physical quantity represented by "Roentgen" in the "recommendations of 1928". PMID:11639745

  19. Exposure Range For Cine Radiographic Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert J.

    1980-08-01

    Based on the author's experience, state-of-the-art cine radiographic equipment of the type used in modern cardiovascular laboratories for selective coronary arteriography must perform at well-defined levels to produce cine images with acceptable quantum mottle, contrast, and detail, as judged by consensus of across section of American cardiologists/radiologists experienced in viewing such images. Accordingly, a "standard" undertable state-of-the-art cine radiographic imaging system is postulated to answer the question of what patient exposure range is necessary to obtain cine images of acceptable quality. It is shown that such a standard system would be expected to produce a 'tabletop exposure of about 25 milliRoentgens per frame for the "standard" adult patient, plus-or-minus 33% for accept-able variation of system parameters. This means that for cine radiography at 60 frames per second (30 frames per second) the exposure rate range based on this model is 60 to 120 Roentgens per minute (30 to 60 Roentgens per minute). The author contends that studies at exposure levels below these will yield cine images of questionable diagnostic value; studies at exposure levels above these may yield cine images of excellent visual quality but having little additional diagnostic value, at the expense of added patient/personnel radiation exposure and added x-ray tube heat loading.

  20. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. PMID:22975293

  1. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  2. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther-Klaus, Ellen

    Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

  3. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  4. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS

  5. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  6. Helmholtz and the psychophysiology of time.

    PubMed

    Debru, C

    2001-09-01

    After having measured the velocity of the nervous impulse in the 1850s, Helmholtz began doing research on the temporal dimensions of visual perception. Experiments dealing with the velocity of propagation in nerves (as well as with aspects of perception) were carried out occasionally for some fifteen years until their final publication in 1871. Although the temporal dimension of perception seems to have interested Helmholtz less than problems of geometry and space, his experiments on the time of perception were technically rather subtle and seminal, especially compared with experiments performed by his contemporaries, such as Sigmund Exner, William James, Rudolf Hermann Lotze, Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Volkmann, and Wilhelm Wundt. Helmholtz's conception of the temporal aspects of perception reflects the continuity that holds between psychophysiological research and the Kantian philosophical background. PMID:12068897

  7. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  8. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  9. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  10. Hufeland's interest in plant movements.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, J

    1991-01-01

    Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836) was one of the eminent physicians at the time of Goethe. When only 21 years old, he followed his father as a medical practitioner in Weimar. In 1793 he became Professor of Medicine at the University of Jena, from where he moved, in 1801, to Berlin as the physician in ordinary to king Friedrich Wilhelm III, council of state, and Professor at the leading hospital, the Charité. Hufeland pioneered in what today would be called public hygiene. Many of his lectures and publications were addressed to the educated laymen. In his most read book, the 'Makrobiotik', he emphasizes the importance of the 24-h periodicity as a basic unit of biological chronometry. In view of this, Hufeland has become a kind of 'patron saint' to modern chronobiologists. PMID:1760962

  11. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  12. Wiener Geologen im Spiegel des Geologenarchivs. Kober - Kieslinger - Ampferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, I.; Seibold, E.

    2001-05-01

    The bulk of the correspondence in the Geologenarchiv comes in two major groups:a) letters relating mainly to professional matters and b) letters containing predominantly personal communication. This will be demonstrated by material relating to the three above mentioned Viennese Geologists: Leopold Kober's letter to Wilhelm Salomon-Calvi and the correspondence between Alois Kieslinger and Eugen Wegmann are mainly professional, whereas Otto Ampferer's letters to the Bavarian glaciologist Edith Ebers are a documentation of personal friendship.

  13. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmberlake, Todd

    2010-11-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.

  14. [THE HANOVERIAN SCHOLAR AND THE DOCTOR OF THE PEASANTS].

    PubMed

    Giampietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Bernardino Ramazzini met in Modena in autumn 1689, and made friends. Rereading their correspondence and finding other coeval documents, the author reconstructs a scientific relation forgotten by historians. They not only discussed on air pollution, artesian wells and barometric forecast, but - more generally - favored the foundation of social medicine on epidemiology. Hence the Leibnizian contribution to the European fortune of Third Hippocrates. PMID:26946810

  15. Study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureche, Vasile; Roman, Rodica

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents the history of the study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University, from 1945 until now. Some special epochs are analyzed and the contributions of professors of astronomy at the study of astrophysics is put in evidence. The continuity of this study and the collaboration of the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University with the ``Friedrich Wilhelms'' University of Germany, in the field of astrophysics is emphasized.

  16. Jewish gynecologists in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Udo; Ludwig, Hans

    2005-10-01

    The political changes in Germany of 1933 led to discrimination, expulsion and emigration of Jewish doctors. This article addresses the memory of gynecologists who were eminent physicians or made fundamental discoveries. Short biographies of Ludwig Fraenkel, Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek, Ludwig Adler, Robert Meyer and Paul Ferdinand Strassmann highlight their work and their links to the Gynecological Society in Berlin and to the German Society of Gynecology, the foundation of the latter being inspired by Wilhelm Alexander Freund from Strasbourg. PMID:16086229

  17. Olbers studies. With three unpublished manuscripts by Olbers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaki, S. L.

    The name of Wilhelm Olbers (1758 - 1840), a physician-astronomer from Bremen, suddenly moved into the focus of cosmological awareness in the late 1940s. The first to probe into the reason of this development was the author of these studies, by a series of essays on Olbers, most of which have so far appeared only in German, and which are presented in translation here. This volume also publishes for the first time in English three papers left by Olbers in manuscript.

  18. [Bruno Bloch and his students. 1. Bruno Block memorial lecture, 8 November 1991, Zurich].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U W

    1993-05-01

    To mark the occasion of the 75th anniversary of Bruno Bloch's appointment to the Chair of Dermatology in Zurich, a commemorative lecture was established. The speaker paid tribute to his professional achievements and to the careers of some of his followers (Wilhelm Lutz, Basel; Marion B. Sulzberger, New York; Edwin Ramel, Lausanne; Hubert Jäger, Lausanne; Werner Jadassohn, Geneva; Guido Miescher, Zurich). PMID:8320121

  19. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  20. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail. PMID:3548583

  1. A fighter for Liberty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alexei

    The paper contains a biography by Ion (Ivan) K. Inculetz (Inculet)(1884-1940), a graduated from the physical-mathematical department of the Sankt-Petersburg University (1911), a secretary of the board of "Nauchnoie Obozrenie" (ed. Wilhelm Bittner), A member of the Sovet in Petrograd in 1917, the first president of the Parliament "Sfatul Tarii" of the Democratic Republic of Moldova, a minister in few Romanian Governements, a member of the Romanian Academy.

  2. A neutron scattering study of the crystal and magnetic structure of Sr2CrOsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krockenberger, Y.; Reehuis, M.; Tovar, M.; Mogare, K.; Jansen, M.; Alff, L.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, the new osmium-based ferrimagnetic double perovskite Sr2CrOsO6 has been reported to have the highest Curie temperature (˜725 K) within this material class [Y. Krockenberger, K. Mogare, M. Reehuis, M. Tovar, M. Jansen, G. Vaitheeswaran, V. Kanchana, A. Delin, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, A. Winkler, L. Alff, preprint, 2006]. Here, we report details about the crystal and magnetic structure of Sr2CrOsO6 as obtained by neutron powder diffraction.

  3. Superconducting qubits on the way to a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Frank

    2007-03-01

    generalization of cavity quantum electrodynamics effects [8].[1] M.R. Geller, E.J. Pritchett, A.T. Sornborger, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0603224 [2] A.G. Fowler, W. Thompson, Z. Yan, A.H. Majedi, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[3] R. de Sousa, K.B. Whaley, F.K. Wilhelm, and J. von Delft, Phys. Rev. Lett 95, 247006 (2005)[5] A.K. Sporl, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, S.J. Glaser, V. Bergholm, M.J. Storcz, J. Ferber, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0504202[6] P. Rebentrost, I. Serban, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[7] M. Mariantoni, M.J. Storcz, F.K. Wilhelm, W.D. Oliver, A. Emmert, A. Marx, R. Gross, H. Christ, and E. Solano, cond-mat/0509737[8] I. Serban, E. Solano, F.K. Wilhelm, cond-mat/0606734.

  4. Radiation physics and applications in therapeutic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2001-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an example of the successful application of advanced physics to the treatment of human disease leading to improved quality of life and even cure for many patients. The German physicist William Roentgen (1845-1923), who discovered x-rays in 1895 and pioneered early x-ray applications, would likely be astonished if he could see the breadth and depth of their application in the modern hospital setting. This article gives an overview of some modern applications of high energy radiation beams in therapeutic medicine and the underlying physics which forms the basis of their curative effects.

  5. Medical physics: some recollections in diagnostic X-ray imaging and therapeutic radiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, J E; Orton, C G

    2000-12-01

    Medical physics has changed dramatically since 1895. There was a period of slow evolutionary change during the first 70 years after Roentgen's discovery of x rays. With the advent of the computer, however, both diagnostic and therapeutic radiology have undergone rapid growth and changes. Technologic advances such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostic imaging and three-dimensional treatment planning systems, stereotactic radiosurgery, and intensity modulated radiation therapy in radiation oncology have resulted in substantial changes in medical physics. These advances have improved diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy while expanding the need for better educated and experienced medical physics staff. PMID:11110920

  6. A simulation environment for estimation of the performance of RSA cages.

    PubMed

    Gammuto, M; Martelli, S; Trozzi, C; Bragonzoni, L; Russo, A

    2008-09-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) is an important technique for in vivo evaluation of joint kinematics and surgical outcome. However, its accuracy is highly affected by the experimental set-up. In this paper we present a new software environment for assessing the impact of calibration cage design on the accuracy of the reconstruction of 3D points, which can be easily used for preliminary evaluations also by non-expert users. The paper presents methods of the simulator and preliminary results in a clinical standard and custom environment. The software was realized using MATLAB and developed for the PC/Windows operating system. It is freeware under request to authors. PMID:18752797

  7. Accelerators for charged particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanz, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    History has shown that energetic particles can be useful for medical applications. From the time, in 1895 when Roentgen discovered X-rays, and in 1913 when Coolidge developed the vacuum X-ray tube, energetic particles have been an important tool for medicine. Development of the appropriate tool for effective and safe radiotherapy requires an in-depth understanding of the application and constraints. Various solutions are possible and choices must be analyzed on the basis of the suitability for meeting the requirements. Some of the requirements of charged particle therapy are summarized and various accelerator options are described and discussed.

  8. /sup 57/Co-bleomycin scintigraphy for the staging of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nieweg, O.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; Sluiter, H.J.; van der Wal, A.M.; Woldring, M.G.

    1989-03-15

    The value of Cobalt-57 bleomycin (/sup 57/Co-BLM) scintigraphy in the detection of lymph node metastases in the hilum and mediastinum was investigated in 132 patients with peripherally located lung cancer. In one half of the patients with metastases, these were visualized. Specificity was 98%. These results were better than those obtained with chest radiography and conventional roentgen tomography. /sup 57/Co-BLM scintigraphy is routinely used in the staging of patients with lung cancer, obviating the need for mediastinoscopy.

  9. Chisinau 1983-1986. Recollections about Chisinau Politechinc Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2010-10-01

    %B The recollections include a journal of the events and people from 1983 till 1986 at the Department of Physics of the Chisinau Technical University in the Republic of Moldova (former USSR). The main scientific areas were semiconductors,low temperature physics, cristalophysics and roentgen rays, but astrophysics and gravity were also represented at the Department. The teaching of physics at the University is overviewed briefly also. The recollections are written in a literary form without formula.Other scientific, cultural and political events during 1983-1988 are mentioned.

  10. What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.