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Sample records for wilhelm konrad roentgen

  1. Konrad Bajer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    These Proceedings are dedicated to our co-editor Konrad Bajer, who carried the lion's share of the work involved until his sudden and untimely death from cancer on 29th August 2014. Konrad was one of the key Organisers of the program "Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences" held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from July to December 2012. During that time, he was on leave from the University of Warsaw, and held a Visiting Fellow Commonership at Trinity College, Cambridge. He had particular responsibility for the satellite workshop Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, held at ICMS, Edinburgh, in October 2012. Konrad graduated in Physics from the University of Warsaw in 1980, and took his PhD in Fluid Dynamics at DAMTP, Cambridge, 1984-89. He was active in EUROMECH, having been a principal organiser of the European Turbulence Conference (ETC13) in Warsaw 2011, and the meeting Turbulence: the Historical Perspective that followed it. He has been equally active in IUTAM; his distinction was recognised by his very recent election to the Congress Committee of IUTAM. Konrad's research interests were in magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics in classical and quantum systems; also in problems of gasifcation, in which he played a coordinating role at the University of Warsaw. He impressed all with his exceptionally warm and friendly personality, and will be greatly missed in the whole scientifc community.

  2. Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry In Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvik, Goran

    1983-07-01

    A system for roentgen stereophotogrammetry has been used in Lund, Sweden, since August 1972 and by August 1982 ten thousand stereo films have been evaluated using this method. Patient investigations started March 1973 and of the more than 500 patients investigated 300 have been referred by orthopedic surgeons. The skeletal parts investigated had been permanently marked with tantalum balls 0.5 or 0.8 mm in diameter. The causes for the investigation have been bone growth disorders in the Lower extremity (134 patients), spinal fusions (35 patients), high tibial osteotomies for gonarthrosis (21 patients) and endoprosthetic replacement of the knee (68 patients) or hip (42 patients) joint. By the roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), information on for instance the development of angular deformities and staple loosening in the leg, the healing process of the intended fusion in the spine or at the knee, and on the migration and stability of prosthetic components have been obtained. RSA is of value both for prognostic and followup purposes, and is versatile enough in proper setting to be used as a routine clinical investigation.

  3. Spectrum Roentgen Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.; Pavlinsky, M.

    2014-07-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2016 into a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The mission lifetime is planned to be more than seven years. While the first four years of the mission are devoted to an all sky survey, the rest of the mssion will be used for pointed observations. The payload consists of two X-ray telescopes, eROSITA and ART-XC. The eROSITA sky survey will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT at energies between 0.5 and 2 keV, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters out to redshifts z>1 in order to study the large scale structure in the universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. ART-XC's role is to extend the energy range of eROSITA alone, thereby doubling the effective area in the critical 4-7 keV range. The harder response of ART-XC also facilitates the x-ray detection of obscured AGN. Both instruments are currently in the flight model and calibration phase.

  4. Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  5. ROENTGEN THERAPY OF RHEUMATOID SPONDYLITIS

    PubMed Central

    Spishakoff, Nathan M.; Low-Beer, B. V. A.

    1949-01-01

    Based on the pathological processes involved in rheumatoid spondylitis, comparison is made between the physical qualities of certain techniques of roentgen therapy. Graphic representation of the isodose curves and the homogeneous distribution of radiation pertaining to the method herein advocated is shown. Results obtained in the treatment of 125 cases illustrative of the evolution of technique experienced at the University of California Hospital are tabulated. The indications, contraindications, and complications of the method are discussed. Practically every patient with rheumatoid spondylitis, regardless of the stage of the disease, was benefited, with the best results having been obtained when the radiation was given in three courses, separated by rest periods, and homogeneously distributed along the spine. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:18123526

  6. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Meschan, I. Farrer-Meschan, R.M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiology of the diaphragm, pleura, thoracic cage, and upper air passages; Radiology of the breasts; Radiology of nodular lesions of the lung parenchyma; Roentgen signs of abnormalities in the lung: and overview; and Special examination of the larynx.

  7. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed. PMID:12400201

  8. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry for analysis of cranial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.

    1986-04-01

    A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease.

  9. KONRAD: Wide band digital HF receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oscarsson, F.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) and spread spectrum techniques, i.e. direct sequence (DS) or frequency hopping (FH), in the HF band require a high dynamic range as well as a large instantaneous bandwidth in the receiver. This report describes an experimental digital receiver utilizing digitally implemented quadrature splitting and baseband translation. It is shown that the use of digital quadrature splitting improves the image rejection and that oversampling and digital filtering improves the dynamic range. The receiver is built of standard components which give a beneficial cost/performance ratio. The focus is on the analog hardware of the experimental digital receiver named KONRAD. The report also serves as the manual for this receiver.

  10. Roentgen therapy for infections: an historical review.

    PubMed Central

    Berk, L. B.; Hodes, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation was used extensively for the treatment of all types of infections before the advent of antibiotics. Although this mode of therapy is now in disrepute, radiation therapists of that era were firm believers in the ability of radiation to cure infections. A review of the literature suggests, but certainly does not prove, that low-dose local radiation, in the range of 75 to 300 roentgens, is an effective treatment modality for a wide variety of infections. Two then-prevailing rationales held that the effect was due either to radiation damage to the immune cells, causing stimulation of the immune response, or to the increase in local inflammation with resultant increased blood flow. Modern research has been limited but provides support for both arguments. Although there are no present indications for using radiation as therapy for infectious disease, a reasonable argument can be made from the available data that radiation is effective for the treatment of localized infections. The mechanisms of low-dose radiation as a treatment for infections remain unclear. The known and probable long-term sequelae of low-dose local irradiation preclude its common use for this condition. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this review will stimulate investigations into this relatively unexplored area of radiobiology. PMID:1750226

  11. Wilhelm Weinberg's early contribution to segregation analysis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-09-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy-Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg's signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel's segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861-1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=1/4. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878-1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg's article. PMID:24018765

  12. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main…

  13. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship: The Paradox of a Liberating Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosevelt, Jinx

    1980-01-01

    In analyzing the educational sequences of Goethe's novel, "Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship," the author suggests ways that this literary genre, the bildungsroman, which portrays an individual's development through a series of educational encounters, can provide teacher education students with material for studying the riddlelike quality of the…

  14. Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.

    PubMed

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his death in 1927. The claim that there was a "substantial but cautious modification of Johannsen's phenotype-genotype distinction" (Churchill, 1974, p. 24) from a statistical to an individual ontological perspective derives from a misreading of the 1903 and 1909 texts. The immediate purpose of this paper is to correct this reading of the 1903 monograph by showing how its problems and results grow out of Johannsen's earlier work in heredity and plant breeding. Johannsen presented his famous selection experiment as the culmination of a line of criticism of orthodox Darwinism by William Bateson, Hugo de Vries, and others (Johannsen, 1903). They had argued that evolution is based on stepwise rather than continuous change in heredity. Johannsen's paradigmatic experiment showed how stepwise variation in heredity could be operationally distinguished from the observable, continuous morphological variation. To test Galton's law of partial regression, Johannsen deliberately chose pure lines of self-fertilizing plants, a pure line being the descendants in successive generations of one single individual. Such a population could be assumed to be highly homogeneous with respect to hereditary type, and Johannsen found that selection produced no change in this type. Galton, he explained, had experimented with populations composed of a number of stable hereditary types. The partial regression which Galton found was simply an effect of selection between types, increasing the proportion of some types at the expense of others. PMID:20027784

  15. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958. PMID:22372189

  16. Die Mondkarte von Wilhelm Beer und Johann Heinrich Mädler.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, A.

    Wilhelm Beer's and Johann Heinrich Mädler's research of the Moon's topography and above all their 1836 published map of the moon are even today of historical interest. In order to facilitate the access to relevant documents also for further research work, a systematic collection of bilbiographical sources and references to preserved or lost original drawings, as well as of information about the whereabouts of published moon map examples is compiled here.

  17. Visual illusions affecting perception of the roentgen image.

    PubMed

    Daffner, R H

    1983-01-01

    The common denominator of any roentgenographic study is the ability of the radiologist to interpret the image on the film. We are aware that the makeup of that image is a composite of the shadows of all the structures through which the roentgen beam passes. Less well appreciated, however, is a variety of illusory phenomena which results from overlapping shadows, differences in background illumination, and subjective contour formation. The result is a variety of false images which exists in the "mind's eye" only and may be misinterpreted as significant pathologic abnormalities. The three most common causes of illusory phenomena are Mach bands, background density effect, and subjective contours. These are all related and are derived from the process of lateral inhibition. It is important for radiologists to recognize these phenomena in order to avoid their pitfalls. This paper will describe these phenomena and will review previous work on perception. PMID:6362985

  18. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, V.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

  19. Utopianism in psychology: the case of Wilhelm Reich.

    PubMed

    Pietikainen, Petteri

    2002-01-01

    This article examines utopian elements in Wilhelm Reich's writings in his American phase (1939-1957) in order to illustrate utopian sources of dynamic psychology. Although there are scholars who have used the term "psychological utopia" and applied it to individual thinkers (Reich, Marcuse, Fromm) and to specific psychological disciplines (psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology), the term itself has remained elusive and vague. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to systematically examine utopian elements in twentieth-century psychology in general and the basic assumptions of psychological utopianism in particular. While pointing out that Reich's orgonomic theories have no scientific merit, this article argues for the relevancy of his ideas for understanding the nature of utopianism in dynamic psychology. PMID:11954039

  20. Knightmare in Armor: reflections on Wilhelm Reich's contributions to psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Grossman, W I

    1976-11-01

    One of the more curious by-products of the political and social unrest of the late 1960s, has been the emergence of and survival of interest in the writings of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957). In the last few years, new translations of his books have appeared and some of his early work has been translated for the first time. A biography, magazine articles, and various surveys of his work convey the impression that his ideas are timely, or at least that they are historically important. However, I believe that the current enthusiasm for Reich owes more to the problems that interested him than to the light he shed on them. His great appeal for radical youth is based on his advocacy of social and sexual reform, for which he provided ideological support through a Marxist-psychoanalytic synthesis. By the technique of anthropological, economic, and psychological analysis, Reich tried to provide a scientific justification for revolutionary hopes. PMID:792926

  1. Lumbar orthosis with unilateral hip immobilization. Effect on intervertebral mobility determined by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, P; Johnsson, R; Strömqvist, B

    1993-06-01

    To determine the additional stabilizing effect of unilateral hip fixation on external lumbar supports, nine patients with a posterolateral lumbosacral fusion without internal fixation were examined by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. The roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis was performed with the patients in supine and erect positions 1 month after surgery, that is, before fusion consolidation. Each patient was examined without lumbar support and with a molded, rigid thoracolumbosacral orthosis with extension to one thigh, thus immobilizing one hip. The additional hip immobilization had no consistent or significant stabilizing effect on the sagittal, vertical, or transverse intervertebral translations in the lower lumbar spine. This study using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis gave no support for including hip immobilization when using lumbar orthoses after spinal fusion in patients adequately cooperating to minimize gross body motions. PMID:8316887

  2. Influence of serotonin on fraction of lesions in DNA induced by ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E.V.; Fraikin, G.Ya.

    1986-02-20

    The influence of serotonin on the yield of thymine dimers and rupture of the N-glycoside bond (the yield of thymine in DNA irradiated with ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation) was studied by means of two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. It was found that serotonin bound to DNA decreases the formation of UV-induced thymine dimers, but has no effect on the number of breaks in the N-glycoside bond in thymidine residues induced by roentgen irradiation. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the question of the mechanisms of the protective effect of serotonin in the photoprotection of yeast cells against the lethal action of UV- and roentgen radiation.

  3. Wilhelm Troll (1897 - 1978): idealistic morphology, physics, and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Idealistic morphology as articulated by the botanist Wilhelm Troll, the main target of the critique voiced by the early phylogeneticists, was firmly embedded in its contemporary scientific, cultural, and political context. Troll appealed to theoretical developments in contemporary physics in support of his research program. He understood burgeoning quantum mechanics not only to threaten the unity of physics, but also the validity of the principle of causality. Troll used this insight in support of his claim of a dualism in biology, relegating the causal-analytical approach to physiology, while rejuvenating the Goethean paradigm in comparative morphology. This embedded idealistic morphology in the völkisch tradition that characterized German culture during the Weimar Republic and its aftermath. In contrast, the contemporary phylogeneticists anchored their research program in the rise of logical positivism and in Darwin's principle of natural selection. This, in turn, brought phylogenetic systematists of the late 1930s and early 1940s into the orbit of national-socialist racial theory and eugenics. In conclusion, the early debate between idealistic morphologists and phylogenetic systematists was not only ideologically tainted, but also implied a philosophical impasse that is best characterized as a conflict between the Goethean and Newtonian paradigm of natural science. PMID:22696827

  4. [The response to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Schüttmann, W

    1995-01-01

    In early January 1896 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen sent offprints to several colleagues of his to make them acquainted with his discovery of the X-rays. From January 5, 1896 newspapers started reporting on that discovery worldwide from Vienna. In several cities the news immediately set off corresponding scientific activities among specialists. This paper looks into such activities carried out in Berlin to show how promptly Röntgen's discovery was taken up, with a number of priorities having been set in the capital of the German Reich. The X-ray photographs which Röntgen had forwarded together with his offprints were displayed and discussed at a meeting of the Berlin Physical Society as early as on January 4, 1896, making his discovery known to the public for the first time. On January 6, 1896 the discovery and photographs were presented at a session of the Berlin Association of Internal Medicine and its diagnostic application was discussed in the medical community for the first time. A few days after that, the first photographs shot by other authors after Röntgen, and their diagnostic use, were demonstrated in Berlin. Finally, Röntgen's early visit to Emperor William II on January 12, 1896, which led to the speedy introduction of the X-day technique into German military medicine, is discussed in detail. PMID:7631379

  5. Wilhelm Weinberg’s Early Contribution to Segregation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862–1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy–Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg’s signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel’s segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861–1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=14. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878–1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg’s article. PMID:24018765

  6. Stranded in Vienna: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) (German Title: Gestrandet in Wien: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Anneliese

    2011-08-01

    Wilhelm Ebert, born 1871 in Leipzig, did study astronomy for a short time in Geneva and afterwards in Munich where he finished his PhD. He spent most of his scientific life in France, working on problems of latitude determination and celestial mechanics, mostly at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. He was member of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Probably he used some of the regular meetings of the AG to introduce his work to German astronomers - for a rather short time he worked at the observatories of Kiel, Straßburg and Greifswald. In Greifswald he qualified for giving university lectures and he started to collect astronomical instruments to establish an observatory. M. Loewy, at that time director of Paris observatory, asked him to come back to France, first he had a position at Nice Observatory and shortly afterwards in Paris again. In 1909 he decided to live in Vienna, once more he applied for the qualification of giving university lectures; this time the procedure was easy going. He announced quite a lot of courses but nobody knows if they really took place. From February 1915 until his death in November 1916 he stayed in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna suffering from a disease which was uncurable at that time. His wife tried to get some information about his death in 1937. Already at that time he was unknown to the members of Vienna Observatory.

  7. Assoziativspeicher und eine erste Skizze von Konrad Zuse aus dem Jahre 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldschmidt, Klaus

    In dem Beitrag wird eine Handskizze von Konrad Zuse aus dem Jahre 1943 eines assoziativen Speichers in Relaistechnik diskutiert. Die Diskussion ist eingebettet in die Grundlagen des assoziativen Speicherproblems. Zum Schluss des Beitrages werden einige Vorschläge zu MOSRealisierung der Zuse-Schaltung unterbreitet.

  8. The lunar map by Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler. (German Title: Die Mondkarte von Wilhelm Beer und Johann Heinrich Mädler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Andreas

    Wilhelm Beer's and Johann Heinrich Mädler's research of the topography of the moon and above all their 1836 published map of the moon are even today of historical interest. In order to facilitate the access to relevant documents also for further research work, a systematic collection of bibliographical sources and references to preserved or lost original drawings, as well as of information about the whereabouts of published moon map examples is compiled here.

  9. [Wilhelm Liepmann (1878-1939)--the fate of a gynecologist between the Kaiser Reich and Fascism].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives a bioergographical survey on the German obstetrician and gynaecologist Wilhelm Liepmann. He was Ass. Professor at the Berlin university. Later he became director of the German Women-Institute, which was founded by the Hauptverband der Krankenkassen. In 1933 Liepmann had to emigrate to Turkey, where he got the chair of gynaecology at the university of Istanbul. PMID:6388195

  10. Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

  11. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  12. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  13. [100 years roentgen rays--a discovery conquers the medical world].

    PubMed

    Freybott, A

    1995-11-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century the prerequisites for research on the discharge of electricity in gases and the related phenomena were fulfilled. The first gas discharge tubes are associated with names like GeiBler, Hittorf, Crookes, Goldstein, Lenard and Hertz. These researchers studied the electrons escaping from the cathode, magnetic and electrical influence, chemical results, loss of energy and heating up of the anode. Lenard and Jackson were the first to describe phenomena outside the tube, but related the effects to electrons. It was W.C. Roentgen who discovered the ¿unknown rays¿; he systematically measured their penetrating properties and described them a short time thereafter. The scientific world was ready for this discovery, and the new of Roentgen's findings spread across the world in a matter of days, followed by intensive development of this innovation. The first and most important 35 years of development of the different types of X-rays tubes are described. PMID:8657890

  14. Effect of lumbar orthosis on intervertebral mobility. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, P; Johnsson, R; Strömqvist, B

    1992-06-01

    To determine the stabilizing effect of external lumbar supports on the intervertebral mobility in the lower lumbar spine, seven patients with a posterolateral lumbosacral fusion without internal fixation were examined by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis in supine and erect positions 1 month after surgery, that is, after soft tissue healing but before fusion consolidation. Each patient was examined without lumbar support, with a molded, rigid orthosis and with a canvas corset with molded, plastic posterior support. Neither of the two types of lumbar support had any stabilizing effect on the sagittal, vertical, or transverse intervertebral translations. This study using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis confirms that lumbosacral orthosis has effect by restricting gross motions of the trunk rather than intervertebral mobility in the lumbar spine. PMID:1626301

  15. High Resolution Imager (HRI) for the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The design of the high resolution imager (HRI) on HEAO 2 was modified for use in the instrument complement of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT). Mechanical models of the front end assembly, central electronics assembly, and detector assembly were used to accurately represent the HRI envelope for both fit checks and focal plane configuration studies. The mechanical and electrical interfaces were defined and the requirements for electrical ground support equipment were established. A summary description of the ROSAT telescope and mission is included.

  16. [Dr. Gustav Wilhelm Münter (1804-1870)--the "unknown" assistant of the Meckel collection].

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Babette; Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    For 48 years of his life, Dr. Gustav Wilhelm Münter was a diligent, skillful, reliable and indispensable assistant of the Meckel Collections. He was a loyal worker under famous superiors as Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), Eduard d'Alton (1803-1854) and Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1801-1877). Münter's aim was to get scientific acknowledgement and the position of a "Prosector". But he reached none of it. However, A. W. Volkmann, who often criticized Münter's work, was obligated to say: "It is true, that a very large part of the Meckel Collections had been prepared and put up by him." Today the Anatomical Collections of Halle include a large number of very nice preparations produced by Münter. PMID:12489339

  17. [Thorotrast deposits in the RES of the liver and spleen--a rare but characteristic roentgen diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kegel, W

    1984-08-01

    Finely reticulated or granulated shadows of liver and spleen, as well as metal-dense shadows of abdominal lymph nodes are characteristic roentgen findings in thorotrastosis. Thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) was used as a contrast medium from 1930-1950. It yielded excellent contrast and was well tolerated, but due to its radioactivity and its long biological half-life it caused manifold late complications. The typical roentgen findings in thorotrastosis are illustrated by two cases; the importance of thorotrastosis is discussed on the basis of relevant literature. PMID:6484464

  18. Refracting Roentgen's rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Wilkins, S. W.; Myers, D. E.; Paganin, D. M.

    2009-05-15

    Absorption-contrast x-ray imaging serves to visualize the variation in x-ray attenuation within the volume of a given sample, whereas phase contrast allows one to visualize variations in x-ray refractive index. The former imaging mechanism has been well known and widely utilized since the time of Roentgen's Nobel prize winning work, whereas the latter mechanism--sought for, but not found, by Roentgen himself--has laid the foundation for a revolution in x-ray imaging which is the central topic of this review. We consider the physical imaging mechanisms underlying both absorption contrast and phase contrast, together with the associated inverse problem of how one may obtain quantitative two- or three-dimensional information regarding a sample, given one or more phase-contrast images of the same. Practical questions are considered, regarding optimized phase-contrast imaging geometries as a function of detector resolution, source size, x-ray spectrum, and dose. Experimental examples pertaining to biomedical applications are given, and prospects for the future outlined.

  19. Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836-1921): an anatomist who left his mark.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Wilhelm Waldeyer was anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist during the German Empire (the so-called Second Reich). His scientific career left many traces still noticeable today. Not only is he commemorated in "his" pharyngeal lymphoid ring and other eponyms, but he also coined an impressive range of successful medical terms, including "chromosome" and "neuron." Moreover, Waldeyer left truly physical traces by donating parts of his body to his own Institute of Anatomy in Berlin. His scientific production does, however, also include "pseudoscientific" works, notably his questionable research on African brains. PMID:17072873

  20. The Nazi symbiosis: politics and human genetics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.

    PubMed

    Berez, Thomas M; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2004-12-01

    The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA), from its inception in Weimar Republic Germany to its apogee under the rule of the Third Reich, is an example of how politics and human heredity can function as mutually beneficial resources. Whether it was a result of the Nazi bureaucrats' desire to legitimize their racial policy through science, or the KWIA personnel's desire to secure more funding for their research, the symbiotic relationship that developed between human genetics and Nazi politics could help explain why many scientists in the Third Reich undertook research projects that wholly transgressed the boundaries of morally acceptable science. PMID:15571767

  1. Les Observatoires astronomiques en Italie. An 1863 Report by Otto Wilhelm Struve.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Simone; Galli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 1863 Otto Wilhelm Struve, director of the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory in Russia, visited most of the observatories in Italy. The report that he wrote on this occasion provides an overview on the conditions of astronomical research in Italyjust after the unification of the country. Later Struve sent a French translation of his report to the Italian astronomer Giovan Battista Donati, who used it to promote the construction of the Arcetri Observatory in Florence, which was inaugurated in 1872. We present here a transcription of the French translation of Struve's report and the transcription of a letter written by him in support of Donati's project PMID:26495588

  2. [Psychoanalysis during the Nazi era. Contemporary consequences of a historical controversy: the Wilhelm Reich "case"].

    PubMed

    Nitzschke, B

    1999-01-01

    The paper sheds light on the extent of collaboration between the pre-World War II German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) and the Nazi regime. This is shown by the story of the expulsion of Wilhelm Reich from membership in the DPG, at Freud's own bid. A leading German psychoanalyst, Carl Müller-Braunschweig, published the paper "Psychoanalysis and Weltanschauung" in the fanatically "national" (so-called "völkisch") Nazi propaganda organ Reichswart in 1993 following consultations with officials of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) who endorsed these policies. This paper by Müller-Braunschweig was used both to prevent the possible outlawing of psychoanalysis by the Nazis and to deny official DPG support to Wilhelm Reich and the group of leftist-oriented IPA analysts who joined forces with him in opposing Nazi ideology. The paper concludes with examples from post-1945 historiography showing how the exclusion of Reich and the related DPG/IPA compromise and "appeasement" policy were either ignored or disclaimed. PMID:10373768

  3. Container Approval for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste with Negligible Heat Generation in the German Konrad Repository - 12148

    SciTech Connect

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Ellouz, Manel; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver; Hoerning, Tony

    2012-07-01

    Since the license for the Konrad repository was finally confirmed by legal decision in 2007, the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (BfS) has been performing further planning and preparation work to prepare the repository for operation. Waste conditioning and packaging has been continued by different waste producers as the nuclear industry and federal research institutes on the basis of the official disposal requirements. The necessary prerequisites for this are approved containers as well as certified waste conditioning and packaging procedures. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is responsible for container design testing and evaluation of quality assurance measures on behalf of BfS under consideration of the Konrad disposal requirements. Besides assessing the container handling stability (stacking tests, handling loads), design testing procedures are performed that include fire tests (800 deg. C, 1 hour) and drop tests from different heights and drop orientations. This paper presents the current state of BAM design testing experiences about relevant container types (box shaped, cylindrical) made of steel sheets, ductile cast iron or concrete. It explains usual testing and evaluation methods which range from experimental testing to analytical and numerical calculations. Another focus has been laid on already existing containers and packages. The question arises as to how they can be evaluated properly especially with respect to lack of completeness of safety assessment and fabrication documentation. At present BAM works on numerous applications for container design testing for the Konrad repository. Some licensing procedures were successfully finished in the past and BfS certified several container types like steel sheet, concrete until cast iron containers which are now available for waste packaging for final disposal. However, large quantities of radioactive wastes had been placed into interim storage using containers which are not already licensed for the Konrad repository. Safety assessment of these so-called 'old' containers is a big challenge for all parties because documentation sheets about container design testing and fabrication often contain gaps or have not yet been completed. Appropriate solution strategies are currently under development and discussion. Furthermore, BAM has successfully initiated and established an information forum, called 'ERFA QM Konrad Containers', which facilitates discussions on various issues of common interest with respect to Konrad container licensing procedures as well as the interpretation of disposal requirements under consideration of operational needs. Thus, it provides additional, valuable supports for container licensing procedures. (authors)

  4. A biplane roentgen videometry system for dynamic /60 per second/ studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, E.; Wood, E. H.; Heintzen, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    A roentgen-television digital-computer technique and a display system developed for dynamic circulatory structure studies are described. Details are given for a videoroentgenographic setup which is used for obtaining biplane roentgen silhouettes of a left ventricle. A 60 per sec measurement of the shape and volume of angiographically outlined cardiac chambers can be made by this technique along with simultaneous ECG, pressure, and flow measurements accessible for real-time digital computer processing and analysis.

  5. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

  6. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

  7. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The terms ‘genotype’, ‘phenotype’ and ‘gene’ originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  8. Integriertes Informationsmanagement an der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster - Das Projekt MIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Raimund; Gildhorn, Antje; Labitzke, Jörg; Wibberg, Michael

    An der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU) wurde bereits 1996 ein tragfähiges, kooperativ ausgerichtetes System der IT-Governance im Zusammenspiel zentraler und dezentraler IT-Leistungserbringer etabliert. Um den Anforderungen an ein integriertes Informationsmanagement im Überlappungsfeld von Information, Kommunikation und Medien (IKM) durch das Zusammenspiel der zentralen Einrichtungen Universitätsverwaltung (UniV), Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek (ULB) und Zentrum für Informationsverarbeitung (ZIV) gerecht zu werden, wurde 2003 der IKM-Service institutionalisiert. In diesem Rahmen wurde das Projekt Münster Information System for Research and Organization (MIRO) entwickelt, das als Leistungszentrum für Forschungsinformation von der DFG gefördert wird. Die bisherigen Projekterfahrungen, erreichten Ziele und verbleibenden Aufgaben werden dargestellt. Im Projektverlauf haben sich insbesondere die etablierten IT-Governance und Versorgungs-Strukturen sowie die Unterstützung der Hochschulleitung als essentielle Erfolgskriterien erwiesen.

  9. [The letters of Ernst Wilhelm Brücke to Rudolf Virchow 1850-1857].

    PubMed

    Andree, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Rudolf Virchow is one of the most prominent German physician of the nineteenth century. Virchow pioneered the modern concept of pathological processes by his application of the cell theory to explain the effects of disease in the organs and tissues of the body. He emphasized that diseases arose, not in organs or tissues in general, but primarily in their individual cells. Moreover, he campaigned vigorously for social reforms and contributed to the development of anthropology as a modern science. Ernst Wilhelm Brücke was an important researcher in most fields of physiology. His works were epoch-making and influential for our knowledge of the nature of cells and his optical works made the basis for the invention of the eye mirror which was later constructed by Helmholtz. He also is also known for his work on the physiology of language. For the first time the correspondence between these scientific celebrities is published. PMID:23868551

  10. The first ascent to the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador by Wilhelm Reiss (1838-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2014-06-01

    The volcano Cotopaxi in South America is 5,897 m high and is one of the highest active volcanoes of the world and the second highest volcano in the Andes after the Chimborazo (6,310 m). In Ecuador, there are more than 20 volcanoes contributing to the spectacular mountain range diving this country between the western and eastern lowlands. There have been more than 50 reports of volcanic activity at Cotopaxi since 1738, among which those from the years 1744, 1768, and 1877 are the largest. During the 1877 eruption, the whole summit glacier collapsed and a huge mudflow spread out for more than 100 km and flooded the city of Latacunga. Five years prior to this catastrophic event, the German geologist Wilhelm Reiss from the University of Heidelberg ascended Cotopaxi for the first time together with his supporter Angel M. Escobar from Columbia.

  11. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept.

    PubMed

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-06-01

    The terms 'genotype', 'phenotype' and 'gene' originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  12. Micromotion in knee arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of tibial component fixation.

    PubMed

    Ryd, L

    1986-01-01

    The modern era of endoprosthetic joint replacement started with the introduction of acrylic cement to improve component fixation. Long-term results have, however, indicated that prosthetic fixation remains critical; loosening at the bone-cement interface has become an important problem. Research in recent years has focused on attempts to achieve better fixation by improving cementing techniques, improving prosthetic design by, for example, adding metal support of polyethylene components and by exploring alternative ways to bond prosthetic components to bone without cement. The mechanical integrity of the bone-cement interface has been studied under laboratory conditions. Because of the in-vivo reaction of bone, with the interposition of a fibrous tissue layer at the interface, such studies are not totally valid. Studies on autopsy material, more closely resembling the in-vivo situation, are few and there has been only one previous study like the present one. In this study, roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was evaluated and found to have an accuracy ten times better than conventional radiography. This accuracy was judged adequate for studies of micromotion. In this work, two types of micromotion of the tibial component were studied; migration, i.e. gradual motion over time, and inducible displacement, i.e. instant motion in response to external forces. Ninety-six knee arthroplasties for gonarthrosis, representing four different types of fixation were studied by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Eighty-nine arthroplasties were clinically successful. The follow-up ranged from two to five years. Full post-operative weight-bearing was allowed for all patients, except those operated with a Freeman-Samuelson prosthesis, who were adviced to use crutches for six weeks and partial weight-bearing for another six weeks. Fifty-one conventionally cemented all-polyethylene prostheses, 27 total and 24 unicompartmental, represented a baseline series. Migration was found for all prostheses, with a mean maximum deflection of 1.2 and 0.9 mm, respectively, after four years. In both groups, the major part of the migration occurred during the first year, after which the majority of the components did not migrate further. Some prostheses, with larger migration during the first year, continued to migrate throughout the investigation. None of the total, but the majority of the unicompartmental prostheses showed signs of cold flow within the polyethylene. All prostheses showed reversible inducible displacement, the maximum deflection ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3461667

  13. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection. PMID:17180754

  14. Migration of the Charnley stem in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study.

    PubMed

    Onsten, I; Akesson, K; Besjakov, J; Obrant, K J

    1995-01-01

    Migration of 65 Charnley stems implanted with modern cementing techniques was studied by roentgen stereophotogrammetry. There were 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 40 with osteoarthritis (OA) followed up for two years. In 43 cases a bone sample for histomorphometric analysis was obtained from the femur during the operation. In 22 cases the mean subsidence of the prosthetic head was 0.40 mm and in 20 the mean posterior migration was 1.25 mm. There was no difference in migration between the two diagnostic groups (p = 0.8) after adjusting for variations in gender, age and weight. Male gender was associated with increased subsidence (p = 0.006). Histological examination showed that the RA series had more osteoid surface (p = 0.04), but neither this, nor any of the other histomorphometric variables, influenced migration. These results suggest that, unlike the acetabular socket, the cemented Charnley femoral component is equally secure in osteoarthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis, and that its initial fixation is not influenced by the quality of the local cancellous bone. Our results provide data with which the early performance of new prosthetic designs and fixation methods can be compared. PMID:7822389

  15. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy. PMID:20957826

  16. PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J Eiglsperger, H Cruz, P Raab, I Cirac, G Muga, J Larson, V Dodonov, W Becker Back row: A Eckardt, A Siddiki, K Vafayi, M Holthaus, E Räsänen, M Rodriguez, O Kullie, D Miloševi?, J Briggs, A Ribeiro, (not in the picture W Zwerger)

  17. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Pavlinskiy, Mikhail N.; Tkachenko, Alexey V.; Lapshov, Igor Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the Astronomical Roengen Telescope- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission. ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module provides an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  18. [Ileus of the small intestine as sequela of intraduodenal diverticulum. Contribution of roentgen diagnosis to pathophysiology of diverticulum formation].

    PubMed

    Einert, A; Billmann, P

    1995-03-01

    The case of a 31-year-old male is reported who had recurrent, unexplained abdominal complaints. After hospitalization, an ileus was localized by plain abdominal film in the ileocecal region. A contrast meal revealed a typical intraluminal (duodenal) diverticulum with an enlarged prestenotic duodenum that was undetected during endoscopy. At operation, the cause of the ileus was revealed to be a phytobezoar near the ileocolic valve. After removal and after transluminal resection of the diverticulum, the postoperative course was uneventful. The authors discuss the importance of early roentgen cinematography to clear up the pathogenesis of this very rare intraluminal lesion. PMID:7761597

  19. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  20. Selection within organisms in the nineteenth century: Wilhelm Roux's complex legacy.

    PubMed

    Heams, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Selectionism, or the extension of darwinian chance/selection dynamics beyond the individual level, has a long history in biological thought. It has generated important theories in immunology or neurology, and turns out to be a convincing framework to account for the intrinsic stochastic nature of core events in cellular biology. When looking back at the intellectual origins of selectionism, the essay by the German embryologist Wilhelm Roux, Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus (The Struggle of the Parts in the Organism - 1881) might be one, if not the earliest reference after the darwinian revolution. It describes the individual as a multilevel structure, where each level results from a 'darwinian' struggle of its parts (molecules, cells, tissues, organs). But Roux's theory, far from being a simple extension of natural selection, has complex and even conflictual relationships with darwinism. This essay is worth rediscovering as a subtle historical testimony of the evolutionary and developmental life sciences debates of its time. Moreover, some of its theses may also enrich some current debates among evolutionary biologists over levels of selection, and among cellular and molecular biologists over the status of determinism in biology today. PMID:22525790

  1. Bladder tumors and aromatic amines - historical milestones from Ludwig Rehn to Wilhelm Hueper.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Holger Georg; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We know today that environmental factors must be regarded as a significant cause of the urinary bladder carcinoma. In Germany, the urinary bladder carcinoma is the second most common urological tumor among men and the most common among women and more than 100 occupational bladder cases are recognized and compensated per year. Scientific studies of this problem reach back to the 18th century. However it was only in 1895 that the surgeon Ludwig Rehn firstly described 3 cases of occupational bladder tumors in at most 45 fuchsine workers in Frankfurt / M. This extremely significant discovery was followed by a description of a large number of cases of urinary bladder tumors among workers in the paint industry. Nevertheless, it was impossible to induce bladder cancer in animals by aromatic amines for many years. In the 1930s, the pathologist Wilhelm C. Hueper was the first to induce bladder cancer in animal experiments, applying beta-naphthylamine to dogs. Based on these experiments and corroborated by epidemiologic studies, beta-naphthylamine was banned in Germany and many countries from the 1950s on. This review will highlight work and life of these two pioneering medical researchers. PMID:22201870

  2. Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, C

    1997-01-01

    Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640

  3. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

  4. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, the discoverer of oxygen, and a very productive chemist.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-12-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) has an important place in the history of the discovery of respiratory gases because he was undoubtedly the first person to prepare oxygen and describe some of its properties. Despite this, his contributions have often been overshadowed by those of Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, who also played critical roles in preparing the gas and understanding its nature. Sadly, Scheele was slow to publish his discovery and therefore Priestley is rightly recognized as the first person to report the preparation of oxygen. This being said, the thinking of both Scheele and Priestley was dominated by the phlogiston theory, and it was left to Lavoisier to elucidate the true nature of oxygen. In addition to his work on oxygen, Scheele was enormously productive in other areas of chemistry. Arguably he discovered seven new elements and many other compounds. However, he kept a low profile during his life as a pharmacist, and he did not have strong links with contemporary prestigious institutions such as the Royal Society in England or the French Académie des Sciences. He was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science but only attended one meeting. Partly as a result, he remains a somewhat nebulous figure despite the critical contribution he made to the history of respiratory gases and his extensive researches in other areas of chemistry. His death at the age of 43 may have been hastened by his habit of tasting the chemicals that he worked on. PMID:25281638

  5. Physiological optics, cognition and emotion: a novel look at the early work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Claudia

    2009-04-01

    The German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, who later founded experimental psychology, arguably developed the first modern scientific conception of emotion. In the first edition of Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Thierseele (Lectures on human and animal psychology), which was published in 1863, Wundt tried to establish that emotions were essential parts of rational thought. In fact, he considered them unconscious steps of decision-making that were implied in all processes of conscious thought. His early work deserves attention not only because it is the attempt to conceptualize cognition and emotion strictly from a neural point of view but also because it represents the very foundation of the debate about the nature of emotion that revolved around William James' theory of emotion during the 1890s. However, this aspect of his work is little known because scholars who have analyzed Wundt's work focused on his late career. Furthermore, historical analysis interpreted Wundt's work within a philosophical framework, rather than placing it in the context of German medical and physiological research in which it belongs. In addition, Wundt's early works are hardly available to an English speaking audience because they were never translated. PMID:18948411

  6. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

    2008-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832 1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures, to better understand the role of introspection and the complexity of the metronome task for experimenters and observers. The results of the replication were mixed, but the replication helped provide insights into Wundt’s procedures and their relationship to his theories.

  7. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  8. Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.

    Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome and its equipment with a telescope and, thus, laid the base for the modern Urania Popular Observatory. Please note: The printed version contains an error: Unfortunately, Reinhard E. Schielicke was not indicated as co-author of this paper.

  9. Neuroscience in its context. Neuroscience and psychology in the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    PubMed

    Ziche, P

    1999-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the first to establish an Institute devoted exclusively to psychological research in Germany, started his career as a (neuro)physiologist. He gradually turned into a psychologist in the 1860's and 1870's, at a time when neuroscience had to deal with the problem of giving an adequate physiological interpretation of the data accumulated by neuroanatomy. Neither the functional interpretation of brain morphology, nor the options provided by the reflex model seemed acceptable to Wundt. In his Physiological Psychology, first published in 1874, Wundt adds another aspect to this discussion by showing that psychology may help, and indeed is required, to clarify some of the most controversial problems in brain research. He thus became a key figure in neuroscience's struggle to locate itself within the various research traditions. The following theses will be argued for: 1. Wundt's turn to psychology resulted from his view that the methodological basis of physiological brain research of the time was unsatisfactory. 2. Psychology, in its attempt to solve these problems, implied a new conception of an interaction between experimental and theoretical brain research. 3. Wundt tried to demonstrate the necessity of psychological considerations for experimental brain research. These points are discussed with reference to Wundt's treatment of the localization of functions in the brain. According to Wundt, psychology can show, by analyzing the complex structure of intellect and will, that mental phenomena can be realized in the brain only in the form of complex interations of the elements of the brain. The results of the psychological considerations imply that a strict localizations cannot be correct; but they are also turned against the conception of a complete functional equivalence of the various parts of the cortext. For Wundt, a reconstruction of brain processes cannot start with neurones, but only with patterns of a functional organization of brain activity. Wundt accordingly proposes a functional interpretation on the level of the physiology of nervous tissue as well as for the over-all organization of the brain. PMID:11640242

  10. A simple economical way to make Diazochrome slides ("blue slides") using a regular roentgen ray view box.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, E; Suzuki, M

    1977-01-01

    A simplified method of making the so-called blue slide (Diazochrome slide) is described. Our method consists of five steps: (1) copying the original material with Kodalith film, (2) developing the Kodalith film, (3) exposing the Diazochrome film, in contact, emulsion to emulsion, with the Kodalith negative on the regular chest roentgen ray view box, (4) developing the Diazochrome film in the ammonia jar, and (5) mounting the finished film. A suggested exposure time for the Kodalith negative is one second at f/8 to f/11. A suggested exposure time for Diazochrome film is one hour, and development time for Diazochrome film is five minutes. One should, however, establish his own best exposure time of these films for his own setup. Our method is relatively simple, fast, economical, and convenient. PMID:70103

  11. [Capabilities of roentgen-endovascular surgery in conditions of the central multi-field clinical hospital union].

    PubMed

    Beliakin, S A; Ivanov, V A; ShklovskiÄ­, B L; Ivanov, A V

    2013-05-01

    Spanning 45 years team of the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 has achieved high results and made the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 one of the best medical centers of Russia providing state-of-the art care for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays the Center of interventional radiology and treatment provides all methods of roentgen-endovascular interventions on coronary, peripheral, cerebral vasculature, veins and bile ducts. The center has modern diagnostic and treatment equipment: digital angiography system with 3-dimensional angiography, 3D-navigation and CT angiography. Annually, about 1500 diagnostic coronarography and about 500 percutaneous coronary interventions are performed in the hospital. More than a half of peripheral arterial intervention is endovascular. The examples of such operations as single-step iliac artery stenting, inferior vena cava thrombectomy, embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the posterior cranial fossa, percutaneous transhepatic paracentetic cholangiostomy are given. PMID:24000616

  12. "A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

  13. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Ins1rument Aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-German X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned and complementary X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Russian-led Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV (with limited sensitivity above 12 keV).

  14. Wilhelm Reich's self-censorship after his arrest as an enemy alien: the chilling effect of an illegal imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    After discussing Wilhelm Reich's place in psychoanalysis, the article explores his arrest as an 'enemy alien' in December 1941. Reich's emotional responses to his imprisonment (which was illegal and which lasted nearly a month) are explored. A number of scholars have suggested that many European radical psychoanalysts refrained from sharing their former political ideas once they emigrated to the United States. Following a brief discussion of this pattern of 'silencing,' it is argued that Reich's withholding certain documents from publication was due to a self-imposed censorship, motivated in part by the fear of further governmental interference with his life and work. This fear, however, did not extend to his discussion of his newly developed theory of orgone energy. PMID:24628260

  15. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  16. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection. PMID:16622706

  17. Development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

    2013-09-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  18. Three-dimensional kinematics of skeletal elements in avian prokinetic and rhynchokinetic skulls determined by Roentgen stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Gussekloo, S W; Vosselman, M G; Bout, R G

    2001-05-01

    Several different types of cranial kinesis are present within modern birds, enabling them to move (part of) the upper bill relative to the braincase. This movement of the upper bill results from movement of the quadrate and the pterygoid-palatine complex (PPC). The taxon Palaeognathae is characterised by a very distinct PPC and a special type of cranial kinesis (central kinesis) that is very different from that found in the Neognathae. This has led some authors to hypothesise that there is a functional relationship between the morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. This hypothesis is tested here by analysing the movement pattern of both the upper bill and the PPC in birds with three different types of cranial kinesis: prokinesis, distal rhynchokinesis and central rhynchokinesis. Movement patterns were determined using a Roentgen stereophotogrammetry method, which made it possible to detect very small displacements (0.5 mm) of bony elements in three dimensions, while the jaw muscles and ligaments remained intact. We found that in all types of kinesis investigated the movements of the quadrate, jugal bars and PPC are similar. Movement of the quadrate is transferred to the upper beak by the jugal bar and the PPC, which moves almost exclusively forwards and backwards, thereby elevating or depressing the upper bill. The differences between the types of kinesis lie only in the position of the point of rotation. These findings indicate that there is no correlation between the specific morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. Several other factors, including the external forces applied during food acquisition, may influence the morphology of the PPC. Differences in PPC morphology therefore appear to be the result of different functional demands acting on the system simultaneously but with different strengths, depending on the species. PMID:11316494

  19. In vivo kinematics of the cervical spine. Part I: Development of a roentgen stereophotogrammetric technique using metallic markers and assessment of its accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Harris, K G; Nassif, J; Goel, V K; Clark, C R

    1993-12-01

    A technique for simultaneous roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RS) was developed, and its accuracy was assessed. In vitro models fabricated from dried cadaveric C4 and C5 vertebrae were used to simulate the motion behavior of the cervical spine. Metallic markers made of Vitallium beads (diameter < 0.3 mm) were implanted into the posterior and anterior surfaces of each vertebra at surgically accessible locations to simulate the bead placement for both posterior and anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. A series of roentgen stereo pairs were obtained to systematically assess the accuracy (validity) of displacement measurements in anteroposterior (AP) translation, axial rotation, and flexion/extension. In addition, the effects of soft tissue density on the accuracy of the system were investigated by obtaining a series of roentgen stereo pairs with the experimental model immersed in a water bath. The coordinates of the metallic markers on the radiographs were then digitized by two raters who were not informed of the actual motion (i.e., blind study). The results indicated a high accuracy throughout the study. Overall root mean square errors were 0.07 mm for AP translation, 0.08 degrees for axial rotation, and 0.14 degrees for flexion/extension. The corresponding accuracy estimates (R2 values by linear regression analysis) were very high (0.992, 0.998, and 0.995) when the measurement results were compared with the actual displacements. The water bath did not affect measurement accuracy, indicating that soft tissue density should have little effect on the accuracy of the technique for in vivo applications. This system appears to be an accurate and reliable method for assessment of simulated in vivo cervical spine motion, regardless of the rater. The technique has been further used in in vivo assessment of cervical spine kinematics in one patient to confirm the efficacy of the developed technique. PMID:8130401

  20. Treating Epiphora in Adults With the Wilhelm Plastic Nasolacrimal Stent: Mid-Term Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ciampi, Juan J. Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lorenzo

    2011-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25-88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed.

  1. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

  2. ["The future must look to the past"* : Prof. Dr. Abraham Aaron Buschke (1868-1943) and Wilhelm Ludwig Löwenstein (1895-1959)].

    PubMed

    Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

    2015-11-01

    Like many other areas of medicine, dermatology with its comparatively high proportion of Jewish physicians was also not spared from the National Socialist appointment policy with dismissals, laws on "appreciation of the people", research influenced by National Socialist policies, and persecution of Jewish physicians. Prof. Abraham Aaron Buschke and Dr. Wilhelm Ludwig Lowenstein, who were the first to describe the Buschke-Lowenstein tumor, also suffered this destiny. In March 1933, Professor Buschke was dismissed from the position of directing physician at the Virchow Hospital in Berlin and in 1934 his teaching license was revoked. Despite affidavits of his "loyalty to the regime", Dr. Lowenstein fared the same treatment. PMID:26450094

  3. Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    As result of the Challenger accident, the alternative possibility for launch of the ROSAT mission with an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is being considered. An overview of the problems involved in having the ROSAT flight ready for either a Shuttle or Atlas/Centaur launch is presented.

  4. Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Objectives of NASA's participation in the ROSAT mission are to: a) measure the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of discrete cosmic sources including normal stars, collapsed stellar objects, and active galactic nuclei; b) perform spectroscopic mapping of extended X-ray sources including supernova remnants, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies; and c) conduct the above observations of cosmic sources with unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution over the 0.1 - 2.0 keV energy band.

  5. Biplane roentgen videometric system for dynamic, 60/sec, studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    An operator interactive video system for the measurement of roentgen angiographically outlined structures is described. Left ventricular volume and three-dimensional shapes are calculated from up to 200 pairs of diameters measured from ventriculograms at the rate of 60 pairs of biplane images per second. The accuracy and reproducibility of volumes calculated by the system were established by analysis of roentgenograms of inanimate objects of known volume and by comparison of left ventricular stroke volumes calculated by the system with the stroke volumes calculated by an indicator-dilution technique and an aortic root electromagnetic flowmeter. Computer-generated display of the large amounts of data obtained by the videometry system is described.

  6. The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-09-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  7. The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

  8. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism. PMID:12430055

  9. Soft x-ray calibration of the Co/C multilayer mirrors for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Spectrum Roentgen-Gamma satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdali, Salim; Tarrio, Charles; Christensen, Finn E.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1996-07-01

    The objective crystal spectrometer (OXS) on the forthcoming Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite is designed to carry three kinds of crystals: LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001), placed in front of the SODART telescope. Thirty six super polished (RMS roughness < 0.1nm) Si(111) substrates were coated with 65-80 periods of Co/C multilayers using electron beam evaporation deposition combined with ion polishing for the metal layers. These crystals are to be used in the energy band immediately below the C-K absorption edge of 0.284 keV. Because the crystals are to be assembled as one crystal on the OXS, the reflectivity performance as a function of energy and angle of incidence of all crystals has been measured using line radiation from an x-ray tube which provides 1.487 keV and 0.277 keV and using synchrotron radiation from 0.16 keV to 0.28 keV at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation electron storage ring a t the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The results from these measurements are discussed.

  10. A new technique using roentgen stereophotogrammetry to measure changes in the spatial conformation of bovine hind claws in response to external loads.

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; Gussekloo, S W S; Spoor, C W; van Leeuwen, J L

    2016-02-01

    Claw and locomotion problems are widespread in ungulates. Although it is presumed that mechanical overload is an important contributor to claw tissue damage and impaired locomotion, deformation and claw injury as a result of mechanical loading has been poorly quantified and, as a result, practical solutions to reduce such lesions have been established mostly through trial and error. In this study, an experimental technique was developed that allowed the measurement under controlled loading regimes of minute deformations in the lower limbs of dissected specimens from large ungulates. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was applied to obtain 3D marker coordinates with an accuracy of up to 0.1 mm with optimal contrast and to determine changes in the spatial conformation. A force plate was used to record the applied forces in three dimensions. The results obtained for a test sample (cattle hind leg) under three loading conditions showed that small load-induced deformations and translations as well as small changes in centres of force application could be measured. Accuracy of the order of 0.2-0.3 mm was feasible under practical circumstances with suboptimal contrast. These quantifications of claw deformation during loading improve understanding of the spatial strain distribution as a result of external loading and the risks of tissue overload. The method promises to be useful in determining load-deformation relationships for a wide variety of specimens and circumstances. PMID:26654846

  11. ["A decision meaning a new foundation...": from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics to the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics].

    PubMed

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on. PMID:21863699

  12. Human genetics and politics as mutually beneficial resources: The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do we explain why the vast majority of German human geneticists and eugenicists were willing to work for the National Socialist state and, at the very least, legitimized its exterminationist racial policy; and (2) what accounts for at least some of Germany's most renowned medically trained professionals' involvement in forms of morally compromised science that wholly transcend the bounds of normal scientific practice? Although a complete answer to this question must await an examination of other German biological research centers, the present study suggests that during the Nazi period the symbiotic relationship between human genetics and politics served to radicalize both. The dynamic between the science of human heredity and Nazi politics changed the research practice of some of the biomedical sciences housed at the KWIA. It also simultaneously made it easier for the Nazi state to carry out its barbaric racial program leading, finally, to the extermination of millions of so-called racial undesirables. PMID:17212034

  13. [Experiences with the "short arc motion" protocol for rehabilitation of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F according to Wilhelm].

    PubMed

    Kalb, K; Prommersberger, K-J

    2008-06-01

    Rehabilitation of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F (according to Wilhelm) is difficult because of the broad bone-tendon interface favouring adhesions. Therefore RB Evans developed the so called "short arc motion" protocol to improve the results of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F. This protocol consists of immobilisation of the PIP and DIP joints of the injured finger interrupted by regularly performed limited active motion exercises according to the principle of "minimal active tension". Evans demonstrated superior results using this protocol compared to pure immobilisation. In this study we retrospectively evaluated our results using the "short arc motion" regime in isolated extensor tendon injuries since 2000. 10 patients could be examined with a mean follow-up of 2 years and 5 months after operative treatment of fresh extensor tendon injuries as well as one patient with an old extensor tendon lesion. According to the Strickland-Glogovac formula our patients with fresh extensor tendon lesions had 70.3 % on average which is a good result. Using the Geldmacher score these patients had a mean result of 20.7 points indicating a good result too. With regard to the PIP joint, the mean extension deficit was 8.5 degrees. So our results are good, but not as good as those from Evans. Being aware of the limitations of a retrospective study lacking a control group of patients with traditional aftercare, we will continue to use the SAM protocol in our hospital. PMID:18543159

  14. 'On mind-blindness (optic agnosia)', a classical clinico-pathological report, and its author Wilhelm von Stauffenberg (1879-1918).

    PubMed

    Danek, A

    1996-08-01

    Two photographs from the beginning of our century still instructively illustrate the phenomenon of visual agnosia: the perplexed face of an old lady confronted with objects clears after touching them. This patient with bilateral posterior cerebral infarction was followed for seven years at the Munich Medicine Department of Friedrich von Müller (1858-1941) who had a strong interest in neurology. His assistant Wilhelm von Stauffenberg (1879-1918) reported the case in great detail, including anatomical analysis performed under Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930). Promoted to "Privatdozent" in 1913 on the basis of this report, Stauffenberg's work included several additional, similarly extensive clinico-anatomical case studies but was not limited to problems of cerebral localisation. Under the influence of the Burghölzli group in Zürich he started to practice psychotherapy. Stauffenberg, deeply interested also in the arts and in literature, was the physician of the poet Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926) from 1914. He succumbed to pneumonia in 1918. PMID:11619040

  15. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study, Executive Summary: Bittium, Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-12-22

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. The study addresses the Bittium Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands and their several sub units and pools. A total of twenty-eight (28) separate reservoir units have been identified and analyzed. Areally, these reservoirs are located in 31 separate sections of land including and lying northwest of sections 5G, 8G, and 32S, all in the Elk Hills Oil Fileds, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County California. Vertically, the reservoirs occur as shallow as 2600 feet and as deep as 4400 feet. Underlying a composite productive area of about 8300 acres, the reservoirs originally contained an estimated 138,022,000 stock tank barrels of oil, and 85,000 MMCF of gas, 6300 MMCF of which occurred as free gas in the Bittium and W-1B Sands. Since original discovery in April 1919, a total of over 500 wells have been drilled into or through the zones, 120 of which were completed as Western Shallow Oil Zone producers. Currently, these wells are producing about 2452 barrels of oil per day, 1135 barrels of water per day and 5119 MCF of gas per day from the collective reservoirs. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent vertification. This study has successfully identified the size and location of all commercially productive pools in the Western Shallow Oil Zone. It has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoirs. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  17. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand, following Reichenbach's theory of the "od", rejected Beneke's philosophy because he himself joined another philisophy on the basis of the christian religion. However, when Reichenbach's latest book on these problems appeared in 1854, Beneke and Mayrhofer had died shortly before and no further discussion was possible. But Reichenbach's theory, based on the ideas of Mesmerism, and the controversial discussion about new explanations of the phenomenona seen by sensitive persons are characteristic for this time and also for our time as such perceptions are not entirely denied but thought over in a new way. PMID:6156792

  18. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

  19. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia Gillian

    2005-02-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

  20. Beer, Wilhelm (1797-1850)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Berlin banker and amateur astronomer, collaborated with JOHANN MÄDLER in a map of the Moon, in its organization following closely the plan laid out by the less well known selenographer W G LOHRMANN. Suggested with Mädler in 1837 the advantages of an observatory on the Moon (continuous observation over a 14 day lunar night, for example: they did not know that there is no lunar atmosphere so that s...

  1. ["... that progress in anatomy is most likely to occur when its problems include the study of growth and function, as well as of structure". about the anatomy and physiology of Ernst Heinrich Weber (794-1878 and Wilhelm His (1831-1904) his successor in the department of anatomy at the University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    The Leipzig anatomist and physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber had introduced physiological thinking in anatomy and exact methods of mathematical physics to the study of the functioning of the body making him the founder of a physically orientated physiology. But he would not have been that excellent physiologist without being a nonetheless distinguished anatomist since he solved his physiological problems usually following function in close relation to structure. Together with his brother Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891), who later was to become a famous physicist, in their theory of waves he laid the basis for an exact analysis of the movements of fluids in elastic tubes und was the first to apply the basic laws of hydrodynamics to the circulation of the blood. In collaboration with his youngest brother Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1806-1871), who worked as a prosector at his institute and together with Wilhelm Weber had studied the mechanics of the walking apparatus, he demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the vagus nerve on the action of the heart. Ernst Heinrich Weber's approach to consider an organ as a whole not neglecting the study of its function set him apart from most of his contemporaries and has characterized the work of the Leipzig anatomists and physiologists since his time. Among those was Wilhelm His from Basle who succeeded him in the chair of anatomy in 1872. On the basis of a systematic analysis of human embryos by means of serial sections and plastic reconstruction His completely reformed the field of embryology and was the first to present a comprehensive treatise on human embryology. The making of modern human embryology was, above all, his achievement. He did not confine himself to mere description but wanted to gain deeper insight into the causal events by developmental-mechanical conceptions. With his detection of the neuroblasts and that they give rise to an axon and later to dendrites His provided the developmental foundations for the neuron-theory. PMID:16320825

  2. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  3. Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute (USSR).

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark B; Allen, Garland E; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that much has been written in recent years about the science of heredity under the Third Reich, there is as yet no satisfying analysis of two central questions: What, if anything, was peculiarly "Nazi" about human genetics under National Socialism? How, under whatever set of causes, did at least some of Germany's most well-known and leading biomedical practioners become engaged in entgrenzte Wissenschaft (science without moral boundaries)? This paper attempts to provide some answers to these two questions comparing three institutes that studied eugenics and human heredity in the 1920s and 1930s: the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, directed by Charles B. Davenport; the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, in Berlin, directed by Eugen Fischer; and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute in Moscow, directed by Solomon G. Levit. The institutes are compared on the basis of the kind and quality of their research in eugenics and medical genetics, organizational structure, leadership, patronage (private or state), and the economic-social-political context in which they functioned. PMID:20503765

  4. Roentgen Findings in Occipital Pole Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, Larry; Hanafee, William

    1967-01-01

    The arteriographic findings of occipital pole tumors consist of the following: 1. Anterior displacement and elevation of the middle cerebral group. 2. “Accordioning” of the anterior choroidal artery. 3. Anterior displacement of the lateral branch of the posterior choroidal artery. 4. Local stretching of vessels about the tumor. 5. “Onion skinning” of the pial vessels. 6. Anterior displacement of the vein of the occipital horn. 7. Greater displacement of the internal cerebral vein than of the anterior cerebral artery. Air studies require precise radiographic technique lest the subtle displacements of the occipital horn and trigone area be missed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:6044288

  5. Investigation relative to the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.; Primini, Francis A.; Fabbiano, Guiseppina; Harris, Daniel E.; Jones-Foreman, Christine; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Golub, Leon; Bookbinder, Jay; Seward, Frederick D.; Zombeck, Martin V.

    1994-01-01

    Reports include: High Resolution Observations of the Central Region of M31; The X-ray Emission of Low-X-ray-Luminosity Early-Type Galaxies: Gas Versus Compact Sources; Interaction Between Cluster Gas and Radio Features of Cygnus A; Hot Gas and Dark Halos in Early-Type Galaxies; A Gravitational Lens in X-rays - 0957+461; How Massive are Early-Type Galaxies?; Three Crab-Like SNR in the Large Magellanic Cloud; and Soft X-ray Emission from Boundary Layers in Cataclysmic Variables. Papers submitted to the Astrophysical Journal are attached.

  6. Crystallography: To Infinity and Beyond…

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles

    2014-01-01

    William Henry Bragg moved from Cambridge in Britain to South Australia to take up a professorship at the University of Adelaide in 1885. He brought with him a broad interest in many areas of physics, but when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in the 1890s, Bragg's interest was stimulated. William's Australian-born son, Lawrence (WL…

  7. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  8. Crystallography: To Infinity and Beyond…

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles

    2014-01-01

    William Henry Bragg moved from Cambridge in Britain to South Australia to take up a professorship at the University of Adelaide in 1885. He brought with him a broad interest in many areas of physics, but when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in the 1890s, Bragg's interest was stimulated. William's Australian-born son, Lawrence (WL…

  9. Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm (1758-1840)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Doctor, astronomer, born in Arbergen, Germany, enthusiast for astronomy. He discovered several comets. In 1800 he joined the team of 24 `celestial police', organized by FRANZ VON ZACH, who were to patrol a share of the zodiac looking for the planet missing (according to BODE's law) between Mars and Jupiter. On New Year's Day 1801 PIAZZI discovered Ceres, and, in March 1802, Olbers discovered Pall...

  10. [The work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele].

    PubMed

    Cassebaum, H

    1986-12-01

    On the occasion of C. W. Scheele's 200th anniversary of death corrections and complements to some of his important investigations and theories including discussions of priorities, are given to elucidate his works and to avoid misunderstanding (element term; tartaric, oxalic and benzoic acid; pyrolusit; earths/spar/Bologneese luminous stone/barite; Scheele/Bergman/Lavoisier; fire theory/discovery of oxygen; graphite/Wolfram; Scheele/Wenzel). PMID:3554272

  11. [Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the discovery of X-rays].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    1996-01-01

    W.C. Röntgen reported the discovery of X-rays in December 1895 after seven weeks of assiduous work during which he had studied the properties of this new type of radiation able to go through screens of notable thickness. He named them X-rays to underline the fact that their nature was unknown. The news of this discovery immediately aroused an immense interest in the public and also initiated intense research in several directions. Physicians and physicists began as early as January 1896 to use X-rays on patients to investigate the skeleton and subsequently the lung and other organs. This was the birth or radiology. Rapidly they observed skin erythema, which led to the idea of using X-rays against a variety of lesions. In June 1896 the first patient was treated by radiotherapy. J.J. Thomson (Cambridge, U.K.) showed that X-rays were able to ionize gaz and the study of this phenomenon led to the discovery of electrons in 1897. In order to understand the emission of X-rays, H. Becquerel (Paris) investigated the role of the phosphorescence of the glass of the tube and while doing so discovered radioactivity in March 1896. X-rays and radioactivity were at the origin of the scientific revolution at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Research on radioactive materials demonstrated the existence of atoms which had been till then only a convenient hypothesis for explaining chemical reactions, but whose reality was considered as dubious by most physicists. Moreover, interaction of particles emitted by radionuclides and atoms enabled first the study of the structure of the atom and subsequently its nucleus. Matter, elements which were thought to be immutable were found to be transmutable, and eventually to disintegrate. The origin of the energy transferred to the radiation which was emitted appeared as a mystery and in order to explain it the physicist had to accept that matter could convert energy. In 1903 Einstein established the equivalence between matter and energy. Matter, energy, electricity, light which were formerly considered as continuous quantities were found to be discrete: there are particles of matter (elementary particles), energy (quanta, Planck 1905), electricity (electron), light (photons). Radioactive decay, particle interactions imposed a probabilistic physics which progressively replaced classic deterministic physics. Radioactivity can be used as a clock to measure time in the universe. Datations were made for fossils, art masterpieces and also for the earth, the solar system and universe. X-rays diffraction proved to be a powerful tool for studying crystals and molecules, in particular protein, and in 1953 enabled to demonstrate the DNA double helix. Hence X-rays and radioactivity originated a revolution in physics and science and in the vision of nature. The imperceptible and yet so powerful rays demonstrated the deficiencies of our senses. Mathematical entities and instrumentation must complement our sensations. The huge increment in our knowledge is accompanied by a divorce between the scientist and the layman who now often has great difficulties understanding new concepts not only in physics but also in biology. PMID:8696882

  12. Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

    2006-11-01

    Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

  13. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - the astronomer as a poet; (German Title: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - der Astronom als Poet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Dietmar

    This contribution illuminates a hitherto unknown side of the famous astronomer Bessel: his delight in occasionally writing poetry. These poems were thought to be of private use only, in particular as rhymed answers to his intimate correspondent Heinrich Christian Schumacher.

  14. Antoine Béclère (1856-1939): founder of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2002-01-01

    Who was Dr Antoine Béclère? "One of the founders of virology and immunology" declare the microbiologists. "Founder of French Radiology" proclaims the special postage stamp bearing his portrait, issued in 1957 in France. "Founder" he truly was in both these fields, when we consider the important contribution of his "oeuvre princeps" to the development of the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and of Wilhelm Roentgen. With regard to medical radiology -both diagnostic and therapeutic- which he created in its entirety, almost every advance in this prodigiously fertile new science bears his imprint. PMID:17577285

  15. SMPTE Test Pattern For Certification Of Medical Diagnostic Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisk, Kenneth G.

    1984-08-01

    Since the invention of x-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, rapid advances have been made in the radiological detection of body abnormalities. This was very evident in the 1960's and 70's when the marriage of computers to radiology gave birth to a new generation of imaging modalities such as computerized tomography, ultrasound, digital radiographic imaging, nuclear medicine, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Many of these devices employ digital computer techniques for signal manipulation, and the resultant analog diagnostic images are displayed on television monitors for viewing and on imaging cathode-ray tubes for a photographic hard copy.

  16. [Use of roentgen-television film for the analysis of physical exercises].

    PubMed

    Kotel'nikova, E G; Istomin, I V

    1975-03-01

    Biochemical investigation of movements of man is based on precise registration of movements of body links in space and time. The popular method of filming is almost unsuitable for studying exact movements in small joints, rotation movements and movements performed simultaneously in several joints. The use of rentgen-television filming of movement in the joints broadens the possibilities of biomechanical investigations of movements of man. PMID:1156177

  17. The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)

  18. The capability of fluoroscopic systems to determine differential Roentgen-ray absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A clinical fluoroscopic unit used in conjunction with a TV image digitization system was investigated to determine its capability to evaluate differential absorption between two areas in the same field. Fractional contrasts and minimum detectability for air, several concentrations of Renografin-60, and aluminum were studied using phantoms of various thicknesses. Results showed that the videometric response, when treated as contrast, shows a linear response with absorber thickness up to considerable thicknesses.

  19. [Water balance and pharmacokinetics of ketamine during anesthesia in roentgen-endovascular procedures in children].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, V V; Mikhel'son, V A; Burakov, A A; Izotov, B N; Savchuk, S A

    2004-01-01

    Forty-seven children, aged 2 to 12, with different pathologies, who underwent the abdominal aortography with the bolus introduction of 60% verografin, i.e. a radiopaque contrast agent (RCA), 2-3 ml/kg for 2-3 sec. The osmolar index of blood went up sharply, diuresis increased 7-fold and the aldosterone content topped 2-fold the original level. Simultaneously, the plasma concentration of ketamine was reducing by 2 times faster than in children who were not administered RCA. An additional introduction of an anesthetic made on minute 3 after RCA injection was suggested to modify the anesthesia management scheme. PMID:15206305

  20. [Facial kaposi's sarcoma. Palliative treatment with cryotherapy, intralesional chemotherapy, low-dose roentgen therapy and camouflage].

    PubMed

    Schöfer, H; Ochsendorf, F R; Hochscheid, I; Milbradt, R

    1991-08-01

    Facial Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe psychological problem for HIV-infected patients if systemic chemotherapy or interferon therapy is not possible. To help these patients, it is important to offer a palliative treatment that is suitable for outpatients and is not complicated by severe side-effects but still yield satisfactory cosmetic results. A total of 65 patients with 216 facial Kaposi's sarcomas were treated with cryosurgery (92 tumours, 29 patients), intralesional chemotherapy with vincristine (28 tumours, 12 patients), radiotherapy (87 tumours, 15 patients) and camouflage (multiple tumours, 9 patients). Cryosurgery is the treatment of choice for small (less than 1 cm) macular or slightly nodular Kaposi's sarcoma. Larger nodular tumours are better treated by intralesional chemotherapy (single doses of 0.01-0.1 mg vincristine per tumour) or low-dose radiotherapy (3-4 x 4 Gy). These palliative treatment methods are not indicated in cases of rapid tumour progression and dissemination; in such cases, camouflage (covering the tumours with water-resistant make-up) is helpful as a local palliative measure. PMID:1717402

  1. STUDIES ON THE CHANGES PRODUCED BY ROENTGEN RAYS IN INFLAMED CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Maximow, A A

    1923-02-28

    The action of x-rays upon inflamed tissue manifests itself in the first place by a considerable depression of the usual reaction on the part of the fibroblasts. Under normal circumstances these elements begin to divide mitotically during the first 24 hours and soon form a layer of new connective tissue, surrounding the foreign body. After treatment with x-rays they remain idle, do not multiply at all, or start very late and often the division is abnormal. They undergo a high degree of pathological hypertrophy of protoplasm and nucleus. Instead of mitosis often amitotic constrictions appear in the nucleus. The capacity for collagen formation seems also to be lost. Simultaneously with these changes of the fibroblasts an intensive edema of the connective tissue surrounding the foreign body is to be noted and in the immediate neighborhood of the latter a thick layer of net-like clotted fibrinous exudate is formed. No distinctive qualitative changes could be found in the leucocytes and polyblasts. Degeneration was present here only to the same extent as in common aseptic inflammation. But first the rate and the duration of the emigration of all the cells coming from the blood were increased, and secondly there was always a distinct delay in the process of the common transformations usually undergone by the polyblasts on the field of inflammation. The transformation of the polyblasts into fixed resting forms seems above all to be delayed. Therefore, even in late stages, the tissue is overcrowded with granular special leucocytes and with mostly young, lymphocyte-like polyblasts, whereas in the early stages the local resting wandering cells only slowly undergo mobilization. Furthermore, in the blood vessels swelling of the endothelial cells with fragmentation of the nuclei and, in the striated muscles, degeneration of the fibers can be detected. In the latter there occur partly typical coagulation necrosis, partly atrophy, accompanied by loss of striation, separation of fibrillae from one another, relative increase of sarcoplasm, and amitotic division of nuclei. What the ultimate result of all these changes would be, is as yet not clear. In the case of longest duration, in which 60 days had elapsed since the last exposure, no distinct difference could be found between the exposed and control preparations. Thus one might believe that the cell injuries caused by the x-rays, and above all the inability of the fibroblasts to multiply and to elaborate collagen, are again repaired in due time. However, my material is decidedly inadequate in this respect and several cases of long duration should be examined. It is surprising that the results obtained seem not to agree with the predominating views on the action of x-rays on cells. Apart from the endothelium of the blood vessels, of all the cells present in the field of inflammation the fibroblasts undoubtedly are to be considered as the elements most highly differentiated in a specific sense. I have shown that, as a rule, they do not round up in inflammation and do not produce ameboid cells, but remain unchanged in morphology and, through mitotic division, give rise to the new connective tissue. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the lymphocytes and the polyblasts are to be looked upon as relatively indifferent cells, endowed with great prospective potencies of development. Thus it might be expected that just the lymphocytes of the inflamed area would be affected in the first place by the rays, as they are in the blood-forming organs, and that the fibroblasts, on the contrary, would be refractory. But the facts have proved that the most conspicuous and constant changes concern the fibroblasts. They are paralyzed for a long time and made unable to build up new tissue. The fibrinous exudate and the edema might perhaps also depend partly on a direct injury of the colloidal intercellular substance, partly on changes of the endothelium of the blood vessels, cells which are again to be considered as highly differentiated. Noteworthy signs of degeneration could not be found in the l

  2. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  3. The Progress of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Introduction; 1. Scope of lectures. State of physics in 1875. Science of energy. Theory of gases. Elastic solid theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electricity. Training of students. Maxwell's view. Accurate measurement and discovery of Argon. German methods. Kirchhoff's laboratory. Wilhelm Weber's laboratory. The two laboratories of Berlin. Laboratory instruction at Manchester. Position of physics in mathematical tripos at Cambridge. Todhunter's views. The Cavendish laboratory. Spectrum analysis. The radiometer. Theory of vortex atom; 2. Action at a distance. Elastic solid of theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electrical action. Electro-magnetic theory. Verification of electromagnetic theory by Hertz. Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. First suggestion of molecular structure of electricity. Early experiments in the electric discharge through gases. Kathode rays. Works of Goldstein and Crookes. Hittorf's investigations. Own work on the discharge through gases. Ionization of gases. Magnetic deflexion of kathode rays. J. J. Thomson's experiments. Measurement of atomic charge; 3. Roentgen's discovery. Theories of Roentgen rays. Ionizing power of Roentgen rays. Conduction of electricity through ionized gases. Discovery of radio-activity. Discovery of radium. Magnetic deflexion of rays emitted by radio-active bodies. Discovery of emanations. Theory of radio-active change. Decay of the atom. Connexion between helium and the a ray. Helium produced by radium. Strutt's researches on helium accumulated in rocks. Electric inertia. Constitution of atom. J. J. Thomson's theory of Roentgen radiation. The Michelson–Morley experiment. Principle of relativity. The Zeeman effect. Other consequences of electron theory. Contrast between old and modern school of physics; 4. Observational sciences. Judgment affected by scale. Terrestrial magnetism. Existence of potential. Separation of internal and external causes. Diurnal variation. Magnetic storms. Their causes. Solar influence. Theories of secular variation. Atmospheric electricity. Negative charge of Earth. Ionization of air. Origin of atmospheric electricity. Electric charge of rain. Ebert's theory. Cause of thunderstorms. The age of the Earth. Rigidity of Earth. Displacement of axis. Gravitation. Identity of molecules of the same kind; Index.

  4. [Wilhelm Reich--Arthur Janov--a comparison of their work].

    PubMed

    Sprengler, M

    1984-01-01

    Although he does not always mention it, A. Janov agrees with many of W. Reich's opinions on theoretical-philosophical foundations and the theory of neurosis and other illnesses; from their criticism of society both of them develop the demand for prophylaxis of neurosis as a prerequisit for their common utopia of a selfregulated society. Primal therapy and Orgon therapy are two different forms of the "New Body Therapies" group. The authors disagree with their views of the physiological nature of Pain (A. Janov) and blokked orgon, the "function of the orgasm" and "orgastic potency", concepts that were considered by Reich to be his most important. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are given. PMID:6523964

  5. How Wilhelm Dilthey Influenced Popular Science Writing: Kurd Laßwitz's "Homchen. Ein Tiermärchen aus der oberen Kreide"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouni, Safia

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, popularization of science appeared to be a necessity of the time. Scientists and politicians discussed the pros and cons of making scientific knowledge accessible to the public. The question of how and by whom popularization should be done was a common topic in newspapers and magazines of the time. Even though museums as well as zoological and botanical gardens played an important role in disseminating knowledge, it can be said that the popularization of science basically was (and probably still is) a "language-based event".1

  6. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  7. Radiation and health*

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects. PMID:3496982

  8. Early victims of X-rays: a tribute and current perception

    PubMed Central

    Sansare, K; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-01-01

    X-rays were discovered in 1895 and since then much has been written about Wilhelm Roentgen and the events surrounding the discovery. However, there have been only scattered references in the literature about the early workers who dedicated their life, and death, to X-rays. Radiology has come of age since then. Large exposure times have been reduced to milliseconds and there has been a change from analogue to digital. The advent of new and rapidly developing modalities and the ubiquitous presence of cone beam CT (CBCT) highlight the need to remember the early victims of X-rays, especially with the lack of universal guidelines for taking a CBCT scan. The aim of this article is to alert the oral radiologist to exposing patients irrespective of need, and to pay respect to the victims on the 116th anniversary of the discovery of X-rays. PMID:21239576

  9. A triboelectric closed loop band system for the generation of x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cleve, E.; Lucas, B.; Ganlieli, Z.; Wong, E. W.; Cortes, P.; Mehta, N.; Cuadra, D.; Fong, J.; Hansen, S.; Kotowski, A.; Camara, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    X-ray have been commercially produced using the same basic design since their discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, for which he was awarded the first Nobel prize in physics. This technology requires high voltage elements, ultra high vacuum tubes, and high voltage electronics. The vacuum and high voltage drive up the price of x-ray technology and in order to bring down the cost, a brand new way to produce x-rays is needed. In 2008 Carlos Camara, Juan Escobar, Jonathan R. Hird, and Seth Putterman1 discovered that by pealing scotch tape in a vacuum you could create enough x-rays to take an x-ray radiograph of a finger. This lead to the formation of Tribogenics and the development of the rod and band x-ray architecture.

  10. Radiography of the eye and orbit: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Taveras, J L; Haik, B G

    1988-01-01

    The history of radiography and orbital imaging begins in 1895 with Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of x-rays. Over the next three quarters of a century, radiographic pioneers like Dr. William Sweet, who developed the Sweet method, and Dr. George E. Pfahler, who made the first successful pictures of a brain tumor, helped to bring radiography into the 20th century. With each new radiologic innovation producing a forward surge followed by a period of refinement, new methods were invented and utilized to their diagnostic limits. But perhaps none of the radiologic innovations of this century--the Coolidge tube, the Potter-Bucky diaphragm, tomography and angiography-will have more impact than computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:3043742

  11. The Hopkins rod-lens system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2007-06-01

    Surgeons have always been ready to adapt advances in technology into their practice. The discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen of X-rays in 1885 was applied within weeks of its publication to the diagnosis of fractures and the location of foreign bodies. The development of the electric light bulb by Edison enabled Max Nitze, Professor of Urology in Berlin, to develop the electrically illuminated cystoscope, which he patented in 1877. By 1911, Hugh Young used a cystoscope with a punch device to perform transurethral prostatectomy. Rapidly other electrically lit 'scopes' were introduced--the gastroscope, bronchoscope, thoracoscope and so on. All had two problems: they were rigid instruments and lacked really brilliant illumination. PMID:17598677

  12. [2 roentgen projections for the subacromial space before and following acromioplasty. Results of a study series of 40 patients].

    PubMed

    Liotard, J P; Cochard, P; Walch, G

    1991-10-01

    It is suggested that two radiological projections of the scapula, an AP view and a lateral (tunnel) view, be obtained in order to estimate the form and size of the acromion before and after acromioplasty. In order to evaluate the standardized films precisely, a film must have been taken for comparison before the surgery. As the method described is easily reproducible, it can be used to evaluate the effect of an acromioplasty irrespective of whether the procedure was an open or an arthroscopic one. The radiological results can be correlated with the functional results at the beginning of rehabilitation and at the end of this period. More sophisticated studies might require a more elaborate X-ray technique than the one proposed in this article. PMID:1745541

  13. Thorium induced hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Roentgen-angiographic findings in two additional cases with clinical "inform and consent" problems.

    PubMed

    Curry, J L; Johnson, W G; Feinberg, D H; Updegrove, J H

    1975-11-01

    1. Two additional cases of presumed, thorium-induced hemangioendothelioma of the liver are reported. 2. The angiographic pattern of large venous lakes conforms closely to the pathologic descriitions of this malignancy. 3. To our knowledge, angiography of the thorotrast (and vinyl chloride) liver, before the clinical evolution of malignancy, has not been recorded and may provide information of prognostic and therapeutic value. 4. Incidental identification of thorium deposits in the tissues of clinically healthy patients creates perplexing "inform and consent" problems. Presumably, these must be solved on an individual basis. 5. Because the use of thorotrast has been discontinued since the early 1950s, all physicians reviewing chest and abdominal roentgenograms should be aware of the characteristic appearance of human thorotrast deposits, especially in the liver, spleen and celiac lymph nodes. 6. The number of living thorotrast "carriers" and previous deaths from thorotrast related malignancy seems highly uncertain at this time. PMID:1202981

  14. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2013-01-01

    MSFC is developing eight x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission. The Engineering Unit tests are successful. MSFC is on schedule to deliver flight units in the November of 2013 and January 2014.

  15. The thermal control system of the x-ray telescope eROSITA on Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter; Tiedemann, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The X-ray telescope eROSITA is the main instrument besides the Russian ART-XC on the Spektrum-Rontgen-Gamma mission. Starting from 2014, an all-sky survey will be performed in the range between 0.3-10keV, followed by pointed observations. The main objective of thismission is the detection of 100 0000 galaxy clusters in order to constrain cosmological parameters, amongst others the density distribution and evolution of dark energy. Due to the minimum lifetime of seven years the thermal control system has to be completely passive without any consumables. With the ideal operational temperature of the CCD cameras being between 173K and 183K, this requires a very effective heat rejection system, consisting of a complex heat pipe system and a good thermal insulation. Simultaneously, a very sensitive temperature control via variable conductance heat pipes is implemented. For special outgassing requirements at the betinning of the mission these heat pipes are not working after launch but can be switched on any time. On the other hand the mirror moduules have to be tempered at room temperature and more than 200W of the electronics have to be dissipated without affecting the surrounding components or the satellite structure. The thermal control system has to be able to keep up the required temperature range and has to guarantee the optimum working conditions for all parts of the instrument. Calculations and verification tests validated the thermal concept.

  16. Travelogue of Konrad Keilhack (1858-1944), Geologist from Berlin, attending the International Geological Congress 1897 in St. Petersburg (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2015-09-01

    Keilhack reported his impressions from his participation at the International Geological Congress in Russia in 1897 in several consecutive articles. In the more than 100 years since that time, a lot has changed. Apart from the totally different style of scientific presentations, with almost no illustrations, except maps, being shown during a talk, field trips were also a very special event, involving huge amounts of logistics. More than 200 people were transported to very remote areas of the European part of Russia. As well as organizing transportation by coaches and horses, places to stay overnight had to be found in large numbers and special regulations had to be issued by the government to allow access to various outcrops. Keilhacks visit of the oil-producing sites around Baku are of special interest, since they belonged obviously to the most productive ones on the globe at that time.

  17. Iron matters: Its influence on what we think we know about the deep Earth's interior (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Iron is not only the most abundant element in the Earth, but it is also the only major element with multiple electronic configurations (oxidation and spin state). The loss of a single electron or a change in the distribution of electrons between orbital states may appear minor at the atomic scale, but at the macroscopic level the effects can be profound. The oxidation state of iron varies through the mantle, from predominantly Fe2+ in the upper mantle and transition zone to roughly 50% Fe3+ in the lower mantle due to the strong affinity of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 perovskite for Fe3+, and spin crossover transitions have been discovered to occur in both of the dominant lower mantle phases. This presentation will examine the effect of both oxidation state and spin state of iron on the physical and chemical properties of the mantle, as well as on dynamic processes that occur within our planet.

  18. [Considerations concerning the award of the first Nobel Prize in Physics to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen].

    PubMed

    Luberti, R F; Bagur, D B; Ponticelli, R; Brezina, A J

    1998-11-01

    By the end of the 19th century, the quantity of scientists of great value was so big that selecting one for the top prize was not easy at all. Opinions were divided, giving rise to the personal controversy depicted in this article. PMID:11639041

  19. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  20. [Video-roentgen cinematographic evaluation of pharyngeal phase disorders during swallowing in patients after partial laryngectomy due to localized supraglottic cancer].

    PubMed

    Strek, P; Urbanik, A; Rero?, E; Modrzejewski, M; Sk?adzie?, J; Belowska, J; Kitli?ski, Z; Groty?ska, M; Chrzan, R

    2001-01-01

    Videorentgenocinematographic examinations of swallowing were conducted on 81 patients after partial laryngectomy and on 35 subjects being a control group. Resection of piriform recess, a part of base of the tongue, the hyoid bone or its part is the factor that causes intensified difficulty during swallowing and increase in the frequency of the occurrence of aspiration. The results of videorentgenocinematographic examinations indicate that the shape and mobility of the tongue and the mobility of remaining after the surgery parts of the larynx have the greatest influence on the efficient swallowing in patients who have undergone partial laryngectomy due to cancer initially located in the supraglottic area. The larynx mobility is closely related to the remaining of the hyoid bone. The importance of remaining the possibly non-deformed structure and mobility of the tongue during partial laryngectomy involves the issue of reconstruction of defects occurred during the surgery. Videorentgenocinematographic examinations confirm the effectiveness of the method involving reconstruction of defects in a part of the base of the tongue with a vascular pedicle flap of the submandibular gland. PMID:11355477

  1. History of head and neck radiology: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Weber, A L

    2001-01-01

    Head and neck radiology has evolved during the century since the discovery of the x ray in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. In the first few decades, conventional radiography was the diagnostic modality for evaluation of head and neck diseases. Special radiographic projections were designed to demonstrate abnormal processes in the paranasal sinuses, temporal bones, base of the skull, and neck. Barium examination with fluoroscopy was used for assessment of the pharynx and esophagus. Linear tomography, introduced in 1932, allowed the acquisition of sections that depicted abnormalities that were not clearly defined at conventional radiography. Linear tomography was further enhanced with the introduction of thin-section polytomography, especially of the temporal bone, in 1954. Computed tomography in 1972 and magnetic resonance imaging in 1982 improved our diagnostic capabilities by enabling location and characterization of tumors, cysts, and inflammatory processes in the head and neck and aiding in earlier diagnosis and treatment. Teaching of residents and fellows by an expanding staff of head and neck radiologists developed. The formation of the American Society of Head and Neck Radiology in 1977 provided a forum for postgraduate education and scientific exchange. PMID:11152774

  2. The State of the Art of Medical Imaging Technology: from Creation to Archive and Back

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations. PMID:21915232

  3. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  4. [Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine--Charles Theodore Dotter and colleagues: short historical review].

    PubMed

    Kosti?, Jelena; Beleslin, Branko; Nedeljkovi?, Milan; Ostoji?, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done.They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine. PMID:24684046

  5. The state of the art of medical imaging technology: from creation to archive and back.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations. PMID:21915232

  6. Evolution of Medical Imaging and Computational Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    2000-11-01

    The first medical images produced using x-rays appeared less than a year after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. For over a century x-ray projection radiography has been and continues to be the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality. For over seventy years mathematics and computational methods were used in a general way for image processing and analysis. The really challenging mathematical and computational problems did not emerge until the 1970s with the beginning of computed tomography (CT) to produce images popularly known as CAT (computer-assisted tomography) scans. This was followed rapidly by positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged in the 1980s and is in many ways the most informative medical imaging methodology. Computer-based mathematical methods are fundamental to the success of these imaging modalities, and are increasingly important in several other novel imaging techniques. The technologies involved in each modality are competely different, have varying diagnostic value, and are described by different fundamental equations. The common underlying theme is that of the reconstruction of important characteristics of medical interest from indirect measurements. Several of these methodologies for visualizing internal body anatomy and function will be discussed and related to the evolution of computational capabilities. This brings out aspects of these biomedical imaging technologies where a deeper understanding is needed, and to frontiers where future advances are likely to come from continued research in physics jointly with the mathematical sciences.

  7. Fremdsprachenunterricht in der Sekundarstufe 2 (Foreign Language Teaching in Secondary Grade 2. On the Critique of Konrad Schroeder for the Education Commission of the German Education Council)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapp, Franz Josef

    1976-01-01

    Refers to a critique of FL teaching at Secondary Grade 2; discusses questions of teaching objectives, organization and content of curricula, sequence of foreign languages taught, and effects of the upper level reforms on Secondary Grade 1. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. German-American Cultural Interaction in the Jacksonian Era: Six Unpublished Letters by Francis Lieber and John Pickering to Wilhelm von Humboldt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Letters by German-American writer and political scientist Francis Lieber and American lawyer and linguist John Pickering to Wilhem von Humboldt in Berlin, published here for the first time, give insight into the cultural interaction between Germany and the United States during the Jacksonian era, and may open new perspectives for German-American…

  9. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    PubMed

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz. PMID:23559048

  10. Comment on 'Observations of Low-Latitude Electron Precipitation' by R. Lieu, J. Watermann, K. Wilhelm, J. J. Quenby, and W. I. Axford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rassoul, H. K.; Hanson, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Observations made by an electron spectrometer aboard Spacelab 1 and presented by Lieu et al. (1988) are examined critically. The precipitation of electrons in the energy range of 0.1-12.5 keV was measured on December 6 and 7, 1983. Data for 16 passes near 240 km altitude, between + and - 30 deg geographic latitude, outside the South Atlantic Anomaly were included. It is argued that there is no geophysical confirmation of the large electron fluxes reported by Lieu et al. In their response, Lieu et al. discuss the sampling bias in the Spacelab 1 data and the magnetic shielding deficiencies of the calibration facility below about 500 eV.

  11. Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems (hundreds of degrees below zero Celsius) produce low energy radio and microwave photons, whereas cool bodies like our own (about 30 degrees Celsius) produce infrared radiation. Very high temperatures (millions of degrees Celsius) are one way of producing X-rays.

  12. 77 FR 51606 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Extravagant Inventions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Furniture of the Roentgens,'' Formerly Titled ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham... State pertaining to the exhibition ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David... Inventions: The Princely Furniture of the Roentgens'' and to include additional objects as part of...

  13. Considering Hermeneutics and Education: Hermes, Teachers, and Intellectualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Deron Robert

    Teacher roles in contemporary American schools should be more closely aligned to hermeneutics as the study of meaning (interpretation/understanding). A marriage between Platonic notions of interpretation and the quest for meaning with the interpretive theories of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm Dilthey, and Hans-Georg…

  14. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  15. Our Compulsory Goals: Effective Teaching and Meaningful Learning through Powerful Cultural Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm asks, "But are new literacies just fun?" Then he immediately answers, "Absolutely not--if we as teachers provide the right context and conditions of their use." Offering research-based advice on incorporating technology to increase motivation and deepen learning, Wilhelm boils it down to this bottom line: it's engaged, substantive,…

  16. Calibration of the ART-XC/SRG X-ray Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Seven x-ray mirror modules are being fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument to be launched on board of the Spektrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. As they are completed, the modules are tested and calibrated at the MSFC's 104-m Stray Flight Facility. The results of these calibration measurements and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  17. Planetary Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    2007-02-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction R. Greeley and R. M. Batson; 2. History of planetary cartography R. M. Batson, E. A. Whitaker and D. E. Wilhelms; 3. Cartography R. M. Batson; 4. Planetary nomenclature M. E. Strobell and H. Masursky; 5. Geodetic control M. E. Davies; 6. Topographic mapping S. S. C. Wu and F. J. Doyle; 7. Geologic mapping D. E. Wilhelms; Appendices R. M. Batson and J. L. Inge; Index.

  18. Physicists and Physics in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan

    We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

  19. Flight programs and X-ray optics development at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HEROES balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG). A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin-shell optics to the arcsecond-level.

  20. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approx. 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  1. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  2. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  3. Development and Calibration of the ART-XC Mirror Modules for the Spectrum Rontgen Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; Elsner, R.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Odell, S.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-lead X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module Xray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV.

  4. ART-XC/SRG: status of the x-ray optics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has ~65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  5. Theories of wear and loosening in hip prostheses. Wear-induced loosening vs loosening-induced wear--a review.

    PubMed

    Mjöberg, B

    1994-06-01

    The observation of perioprosthetic granulomas containing wear debris around apparently well-fixed as well as around loose-fitting prosthetic components has led to the development of the hypothesis of wear-induced loosening. However, the hypothesis of wear-induced loosening can neither explain the rapid early prosthetic migration detected by roentgen stereophotogrammetry nor the epidemiology of clinical failure without supplementary ad hoc-assumptions. By contrast, apart from explaining the rapid early prosthetic migration detected by roentgen stereophotogrammetry, the theory of early loosening can explain the development of wear granulomas as well as to a great extent the epidemiology of clinical failure. PMID:8042497

  6. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    PubMed

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy. PMID:15817043

  7. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  8. Up-to-Date and with a Past: The "Duden" and Its History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the origins and history of Konrad Duden's "Vollstandiges Orthographisches Worterbuch," the standard reference work on correct German spelling since the 1880s, which since the early 20th century has been referred to simply as "Duden." Also emphasized are the historical and cultural impact of "Duden" spelling guides in the 20th century. (24…

  9. Issues in Forming School District Consortia To Deliver Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    A consortium is the most advanced form of collaboration, in which two or more institutions create a new mechanism to undertake "programs and projects of mutual interest" (Konrad and Small 1989, p. 200). This paper describes three distance-education consortia that were developed among Alberta, Canada, school districts. It describes the project's…

  10. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  11. Schulfach Englisch (The English Course)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loebner, Horst-Dieter

    1973-01-01

    Critical discussion of course objectives of English taught as a second language with reference to Konrad Schroder's Englisch als Schulfach'' (English as an Academic Subject), Neusprachliche Mitteilungen, v24 p144-152, and Helmut Schwartz's Noch einmal: Englisch als Schulfach'' (Once Again: English as an Academic Course), Neusprachliche…

  12. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  13. Ein Anti-Macht-Wort zur Didaktik der 'Progressive' Form. [An Anti-Macht Comment on Teaching the Progressive Form (of the English Verb)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydatiss, Wolfgang

    1979-01-01

    Rejects the semantic analysis of the English progressive form proposed by Konrad Macht in 1973. Citing performance data from tenth grade classes and reviewing the contents of school grammars in use at the intermediate level, a teaching grammar for the progressive form is developed. (IFS/WGA)

  14. Factorization law for two lower bounds of concurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirafzali, Sayyed Yahya; Sargolzahi, Iman; Ahanj, Ali; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2010-09-01

    We study the dynamics of two lower bounds of concurrence in bipartite quantum systems when one party goes through an arbitrary channel. We show that these lower bounds obey the factorization law similar to that of [Konrad , Nat. Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys885 4, 99 (2008)]. We also discuss the application of this property in an example.

  15. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  16. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  17. Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

    1994-01-01

    The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

  18. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  19. Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

    1994-01-01

    The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

  20. 21 CFR 900.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... components that radiographically model aspects of breast disease and cancer. (kk) Phantom image means a... dose is delivered by 114 roentgens (R) of exposure. (e) Breast implant means a prosthetic device implanted in the breast. (f) Calendar quarter means any one of the following time periods during a...

  1. 21 CFR 900.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... components that radiographically model aspects of breast disease and cancer. (kk) Phantom image means a... dose is delivered by 114 roentgens (R) of exposure. (e) Breast implant means a prosthetic device implanted in the breast. (f) Calendar quarter means any one of the following time periods during a...

  2. 21 CFR 900.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... components that radiographically model aspects of breast disease and cancer. (kk) Phantom image means a... dose is delivered by 114 roentgens (R) of exposure. (e) Breast implant means a prosthetic device implanted in the breast. (f) Calendar quarter means any one of the following time periods during a...

  3. Proactivity vs Reactivity: Preparing Students for Success with CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm has studied the Common Core State Standards and come away with a generally positive opinion. His concern is that now that the Standards are written, we let professional teachers mold them into the best possible practices for teaching their students. With specific advice for working with students--developing background knowledge, making…

  4. How Principals Cultivate Shared Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Do teacher leaders in your school mainly fill the traditional roles of department chair or grade-level representative? Or do they lead their peers in collaborative teams whose primary focus is improving student learning? Terry Wilhelm, director of the School Leadership Center for Riverside County Office of Education in California, says that…

  5. Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

  6. Hard-luck Scheele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-11-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele had a hand in the discovery of at least six elements and contributed to the early development of chemistry in numerous other ways. Bruce Gibb looks into Scheele's story and considers why he doesn't get the credit that he deserves.

  7. The International Relations of the Struves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    At least 10 astronomers in 5 generations belonged to the Struve dynasty, a family having its origin in Holstein and living in Germany, Russia, the USA and other countries. The best known astronomers among them were Wilhelm (1793-1864), Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), Hermann (1854-1920), Ludwig (1858-1920), Georg (1886-1933) and Otto Ludwig Struve (1897-1963). After a short account of the family's history, its international relations will be regarded, with emphasis on the following aspects: Nationality/citizenship, places of living and work, personal relations to other astronomers including correspondence and cooperation, travels, languages of publications. Although a comparison of the different members of the family is possible only to a certain degree due to their different role and importance in astronomy, some changes which developed over 150 years can be traced: E.g., Wilhelm Struve published in German, Latin, French, Russian and English, whereas his grandsons and great-grandsons wrote their papers mainly in one language -- German or English. Wilhelm had relatively close relations with French astronomers, whereas his great-grandson Georg was the author of verbal assaults on French scientists. Georg published also heavy criticism of the International Astronomical Union, whereas his cousin Otto Luwig later became IAU's President.

  8. Learning to Play the Literacy and Learning Games--A Question of Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding that learning must be relevant and purposeful to be effective and engaging, Wilhelm emphasizes the value of teaching students "how to participate in meaningful activity in ways that make them increasingly expert in creating culture and . . . cultural meanings." He offers bullet points that suggest starting with students' experiences,…

  9. "The Lengthened Shadow of One Man": The Public Intellectual and the Founding of Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, John

    1998-01-01

    Identifies five intellectuals who made distinctive contributions to the founding of new universities in England, Germany, and the United States. Institutional and individual biographies profile: Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia); Wilhelm von Humboldt (University of Berlin); Lord Brougham (University College, University of London); A.D.…

  10. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  11. Bildung und bildungstheoretische Ueberlegungen zur Grundung der Republik (Education and the Republic--Educational Theorists Reflections on the Foundation of the Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellekamps, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Draws on Wilhelm von Humboldt's typology of the active human being to debate the questions whether and how individuals can produce their social and political world. Discusses, with reference to Marie Condorcet and Immanuel Kant, procedures of the public that are necessary prerequisites for actions aimed at forming the world. (DSK)

  12. From University to Comprehensive Higher Education: On the Widening Gap between "Lehre und Leben."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Wilhelm von Humboldt concerning the role of the university is discussed, focusing on four imperatives regulating its activities--unity of research and teaching; the empirical sciences; science and socialization; and science and universal enlightenment. The current status of the university is assessed in relation to these ideals. (MSE)

  13. The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of "judgement". This article traces the roots of "judgement" back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature…

  14. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  15. From University to Comprehensive Higher Education: On the Widening Gap between "Lehre and Leben."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertilsson, Margareta; Nybom, Thorsten, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the transformation of the university ideal, as envisioned by Wilhelm von Humbolt, from cooperation between science and practical application (Lehre und Leben) and the belief in education and upbringing to a belief in material progress. The paper explores Humboldt's idea of a university, and to what extent it is or is not being…

  16. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  17. "Bildung" and Intercultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "Bildung", sometimes translated as self-cultivation, is located at the core of an influential tradition of educational thought. A key question concerns the relationship between "Bildung" and interculturality. Drawing on Wilhelm von Humboldt and Hans-Georg Gadamer, and on the so-called transformative learning…

  18. Determiner Syntax in Middle Low German: Evidence from the "Luebecker Ratsurteile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Elliott E.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I take a look at Middle Low German nominal phrases as evidenced in the Lubecker Ratsurteile, a collection of court proceedings published by Wilhelm Ebel in 1955, which cover the years 1421-1550. By digitizing the corpus, I was able to perform a corpus analysis on noun phrases, where I concentrated on determiner use and form,…

  19. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  20. Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... GAD. One common and effective talk therapy is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT can help you understand the relationship ... BO, Reese HE, Otto MW, Rosenfield E, Wilhelm S. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, and cognitive therapy. In: Stern TA, ...

  1. Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

  2. A Poetic Journey: The Transfer and Transformation of German Strategies for Moral Education in Late Eighteenth-Century Dutch Poetry for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlevliet, Sanne; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular Dutch educational enlightenment authors was Hieronymus van Alphen. His three volumes of "Little Poems for Children" published in 1778 and 1782 were extremely successful, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Inspired by the German poets Christian Felix Weisse and Gottlob Wilhelm Burmann, Van Alphen brought about an…

  3. Notes on Joseph Fraunhofer's honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen, 1822 (German Title: Bemerkungen zur Ehrenpromotion Joseph Fraunhofers 1822 in Erlangen )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzke, Karl

    In 1822, Joseph Fraunhofer received a honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen University. Presumably, this distinction was based on suggestions by Johann Wilhelm Pfaff. Since 1822, Pfaff gave lectures with the inclusion of instruments, which he obtained directly from Fraunhofer, and presumably also included problems of spectral investigation. This contribution analyzes informations which were collected in this regard.

  4. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  6. Literary Origins of the Term "School Psychologist" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research on the literary origins of the term "school psychologist" is revisited, and conclusions are revised in light of new evidence. It appears that the origin of the term in the American literature occurred as early as 1898 in an article by Hugo Munsterberg, predating the usage by Wilhelm Stern in 1911. The early references to the…

  7. Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on the…

  8. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

  9. The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Blaine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

  10. Profile Measurements During Cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walchner, O.

    1944-01-01

    One of the problems of modern cavitation research is the experimental determination of the wing loads on airfoils during cavitation. Such experiments were made on various airfoils with the support of the naval ministry at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research at Goettingen.

  11. Looking for One's Shadow at Noon: Vol. II. Finding the Self in School and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary M.

    This volume contains a collection of essays, reflections, and other writings (many of which originally appeared in several journals) on the relations among self and school and community. The first selection is an obituary of Fritz Perls, a leader of Gestalt therapy. The second essay, "A Social and Political Reassessment of the Work of Wilhelm…

  12. EDITORIAL RESPONSE SOME THOUGHTS ON PERENNIAL GRAINS AND POLYCULTURES TO THE NECESSITY AND POSSIBILITY OF PERENNIAL GRAIN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS BY JERRY GLOVER RENEWABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Editorial response by Wallace Wilhelm: Some thoughts on perennial grains and polycultures The paper by DeHaan et al. in this issue highlights advantages of perennial grain systems from the standpoint of environmental integrity and soil, water and air quality. They discuss some of the complexity of ...

  13. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  14. The Academy and the Engineering Sciences: An Unwelcome Royal Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    On 19 March 1900, at the bicentenary celebrations of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Kaiser Wilhelm II established three new fellowships in engineering sciences. This was in many aspects an unwanted gift, and one which tested the Academy's relationship between pure and applied science. In the context of contemporary struggles between traditional…

  15. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  16. Sisyphus at Work: The Leibniz Edition, The Kaiserreich and Divided Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Despite several attempts, the prolific writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz have not yet been brought together in a single edition. Efforts have been hampered by the sheer volume and diversity of the Leibniz estate, and also by changing political circumstances. This paper traces the history of the Leibniz edition as a long-term project of the…

  17. Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany: Scholarly Approaches and Professional Practice. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Wilhelm, Ed.

    This monograph offers insight into the development of the conceptual basis, scholarly inquiry, and professional practice of adult education in West Germany from the end of World War II to the German reunification. Introductory materials are an "Introduction" (Wilhelm Mader) and "Translator's Note and Acknowledgements" (Martin Haindorff). Three…

  18. Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

  19. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  20. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  1. Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

  2. The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

  3. Reading Motivation: Exploring the Elementary Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…

  4. [A note on the technical debate between Reich/Fenichel and Theodor Reik (1932-1936)].

    PubMed

    Schröter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Wilhelm Reich's technical emphasis on the "systematic analysis of defenses" was controversial even before 1933. His main opponent in this field was Reik who expressed his criticism several times from 1932 to 1935. For Reik, the analytical process was essentially open, dependent on surprise. Fenichel, Reich's ally, defended a "scientific" approach, as opposed to "intuition", but later adopted a mediatory position. PMID:17152763

  5. [Denaturalized psychoanalysts].

    PubMed

    Peglau, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents hitherto unknown material from the German Foreign Office referring to the denaturalization of Therese Benedek, Bruno Bettelheim, Adolf Storfer and Wilhelm Reich by Nazi Germany. It corroborates the finding that nobody was persecuted by the Nazis solely on the basis of psychoanalytic activities or membership in a psychoanalytic organization. PMID:21598596

  6. ["... why is it that I see everything so differently ..?" A letter to Theodor Reik about psychoanalytic technique (Berlin, February 7th, 1933)].

    PubMed

    Heimann, Paula

    2005-01-01

    A letter by Paula Heimann to her training analyst Th. Reik, written shortly before her emigration to London, sheds light on some controversies, centering in particular around Wilhelm Reich, which shaped continental psychoanalytic clinical discourse in the early 1930's as well as on Heimann's own future development as a clinician. PMID:17152762

  7. Reading Motivation: Exploring the Elementary Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…

  8. Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

  9. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

  10. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  11. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  12. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  13. Development and Self-Identity: Hegel's Concept of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, A. W.; George, Michael

    1982-01-01

    This essay draws together various ideas on education that appear in the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and demonstrates how these ideas relate to Hegel's total philosophy. Education, by retracing the path of the mind's self-realization, raises the individual's subjective consciousness to recognition of the rationality underlying social…

  14. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience. PMID:16639614

  15. Using Irony in Teaching the History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, B. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines historical ironies and stories with surprise endings about Rene Descartes and Wilhelm Wundt that can enliven history of psychology lectures and make certain concepts more memorable. Explains that this approach does not trivialize psychology's history but adds humor to a subject that students sometimes find dull. (CMK)

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  17. [Bruno Bloch and his students. 1. Bruno Block memorial lecture, 8 November 1991, Zurich].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U W

    1993-05-01

    To mark the occasion of the 75th anniversary of Bruno Bloch's appointment to the Chair of Dermatology in Zurich, a commemorative lecture was established. The speaker paid tribute to his professional achievements and to the careers of some of his followers (Wilhelm Lutz, Basel; Marion B. Sulzberger, New York; Edwin Ramel, Lausanne; Hubert Jäger, Lausanne; Werner Jadassohn, Geneva; Guido Miescher, Zurich). PMID:8320121

  18. The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

  19. Martin Bartels als Lehrer von Carl Friedrich Gauß.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    The role of the young Martin Bartels (1769 - 1836), later professor of mathematics at Kazan and Dorpat, as a teacher of C. F. Gauß is discussed on the basis of his autobiographic notes and of reminiscences by the astronomer Otto Struve, the son of Bartel's son-in-law Wilhelm Struve.

  20. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  1. The Humboldt Legacy: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the European University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybom, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the uses and distortions that have been made over the years to the ideas about the university that Wilhelm von Humboldt advocated. Points out, however, that there remains much of value in the ideas articulated by Humboldt and his brother Alexander. (SLD)

  2. Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

  3. Bildung as a Powerful Tool in Modern University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Mogens Noergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how powerful "Bildung" is as a tool in modern university teaching. The concept of "Bildung" was originally introduced by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (Kant 1787, 1798, 1804) and the Prussian lawyer and politician Wilhelm von Humboldt (Humboldt 1792, Bohlin 2008). From 1810 "Bildung" was a key concept in…

  4. Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

  5. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

  6. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther-Klaus, Ellen

    Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

  7. In Memoriam Werner Callebaut.

    PubMed

    Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    The article contains some recollections on Werner Callebaut highlighting his personal character and his role in the community of historians, philosophers and sociologists of the life sciences. Werner Callebaut (1952-2014) was a real European philosopher. He was the Scientific Director of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI, Klosterneuburg, Austria) and the President of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology. PMID:26350077

  8. Entanglement Evolution of Two-Qubit States in the Presence of Local Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Li, Da-Chuang; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2011-03-01

    Using the factorization Law for entanglement decay derived by Konrad, T., et al.: Nature Phys. 4, 99 (2008), we investigate the one-side and two-side local decoherence effect on the dynamics of the two-qubit entangled states. Under the depolarizing channel and GAD channel with the nonzero temperature, we have found that any two-qubit states will experience ESD. Furthermore, we also investigate the entanglement dynamics under the non-Markovian case.

  9. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broy, Manfred

    Seit der Erfindung programmierbarer Rechner durch Konrad Zuse vor kaum 70 Jahren haben programmierbare Informationsverarbeitungssysteme einen atemberaubenden Aufschwung genommen. Das Mooresche Gesetz mit seiner exponentiellen Steigerung der Leistungsfähigkeit der Hardware in Hinblick auf Rechen-, Speicher- und übertragungsleistung liefert dafür die technische Grundlage. Die Flexibilität programmierbarer Software ergänzt sich dazu ideal - schafft sie doch die Möglichkeiten und die Voraussetzungen dafür, dass sich diese Systeme in praktisch allen Anwendungsfeldern einsetzen lassen.

  10. Comment on ``The First Accurate Description of an Aurora''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    2007-11-01

    Schröder [2006] discusses Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature), written by Konrad von Megenberg between 1348 and 1350. The Buch was the first encyclopedia of natural phenomena written in German. (For a contemporary German translation, see Schulz [1897] for definitions of Megenberg's astronomical terminology, see Deschler [1977]). Megenberg translated the Liber de Natura Rerum, written by Thomas of Cantimpré between 1225 and 1240.

  11. Evolution of entanglement for quantum mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-Shui; Yi, X. X.; Song, He-Shan

    2008-12-01

    A simple relation is introduced for concurrence to describe how much the entanglement of a bipartite system is at least left if either (or both) subsystem undergoes an arbitrary physical process. This provides a lower bound for concurrence of mixed states (pure states are included) in contrast to the upper bound given by Konrad [Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. Our results are also suitable for general high-dimensional bipartite quantum systems.

  12. Regulatory misconception muddies the ethical waters: challenges to a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kimberly M; Ford, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    In "Potential Subjects' Responses to an Ethics Questionnaire in a Phase I Study of Deep-Brain Stimulation in Early Parkinson's Disease," Finder, Bliton, Gill, Davis, Konrad, and Charles undertake informed consent research on what they describe as a Phase I trial of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease. We argue that the authors should have more carefully characterized the nature of the DBS study at the start of their clinical study. PMID:23256401

  13. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the original Von Braun german rocket team participate in the Saturn V replica didication ceremony at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. Pictured are (L/R): Walter Jacobi, Konrad Dannenberg, Apollo 14's Edgar Mitchell, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Apollo 12's Dick Gordon, Gerhard Reisig, Werner Dahm, MSFC Director Art Stephenson, Director of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center Mike Wing, Walter Haeusserman, and Ernst Stuhlinger.

  14. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  15. Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

  16. Flight Programs and X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HERO balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of a series of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG.) The details and status of these various programs are presented. A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin shell optics to the arcsecond-level. The status of these x-ray optics technology developments is also presented.

  17. The calibration of flight mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-07-01

    MSFC is fabricating x-ray optics for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope - X-Ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART for short) instrument under agreements with the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). ART-XC is one of two instruments that will be launched on the Russian-German Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Mission to be launched in 20161. Delivery of the flight optics for ART-XC (7 mirror modules) is currently scheduled for summer/fall of 20142. MSFC has to date completed assembly of four modules and has performed extensive calibration on two of these. These calibrations show that the modules meet effective area requirements and greatly exceed the angular resolution requirements. Details of the calibration procedure and an overview of the results obtained to date are presented here.

  18. Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

  19. Back to the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.S.; Verter, F. )

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Back to the Galaxy conference held in Maryland. The papers summarize the current state of our knowledge of the large-scale properties of the Milky Way. The new data from space-borne observatories like the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the Roentgen Satellite (Rosat), and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) is presented. One-hundred and thirteen papers were presented at the conference and three have been abstracted for the database. (AIP)

  20. Photographic subtraction. II. Technical aspects and method.

    PubMed

    Hårdstedt, C; Rundelius, B; Welander, U

    1976-01-01

    Technical aspects of photographic subtraction of original films in black and white and blue and white (Medichrome) under standard development conditions available in any roentgen unit are described. The adjustment necessary to control the gamma-value of the masking film takes advantage of the capacity of some graphic films to respond with different gamma-values on variation of the color of the exposure light. PMID:773109

  1. Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging for Hyperacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Vo, K D; Yoo, A J; Gupta, A; Qiao, Y; Vagal, A S; Hirsch, J A; Yousem, D M; Lum, C

    2015-12-01

    In April 2015, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the American Society of Neuroradiology cosponsored a unique program designed to evaluate the state of the art in the imaging work-up of acute stroke. This topic has grown in importance because of the recent randomized controlled trials demonstrating the clear efficacy of endovascular stroke treatment. The authors, who were participants in that symposium, will highlight the points of emphasis in this article. PMID:26427831

  2. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and PA beam loss monitor (BLM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mei-Hang; Tian, Jian-Min; Chen, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Bo; Xu, Tao-Guang; Lu, Shuang-Tong

    2009-02-01

    Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and Proton Accelerator (PA) beam loss monitor (BLM) system is reported. The low leakage current (<0.1 pA), good plateau (approx800 V) and linearity range up to 200 Roentgen/h are obtained in the first prototype. All of these give us good experience for further improving the ionization chamber construction.

  3. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  4. A note on the history of the Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society from 1933 to 1945.

    PubMed

    Anthi, Per; Haugsgjerd, Svein

    2013-08-01

    The Norwegian analysts, who were trained in Berlin before 1933, were drawn into a struggle against fascism, informed by politically leftist analysts who worked at the Berlin Institute. The Norwegian group, including the analysts Wilhelm Reich and Otto Fenichel, were committed to Marxist or social democratic ideologies in order to fight down fascism and Nazism. They were a source of inspiration but also of conflict. After the war the leadership of the IPA was sceptical about the Norwegian group because of its former connections with Die Linke, as well as its relations with Wilhelm Reich. This paper in part considers the courageous efforts of Nic Waal, whom Ernest Jones used as a delegate and courier to solve problems for the IPA and who was unjustly treated after the war. PMID:23924331

  5. Helmholtz and the psychophysiology of time.

    PubMed

    Debru, C

    2001-09-01

    After having measured the velocity of the nervous impulse in the 1850s, Helmholtz began doing research on the temporal dimensions of visual perception. Experiments dealing with the velocity of propagation in nerves (as well as with aspects of perception) were carried out occasionally for some fifteen years until their final publication in 1871. Although the temporal dimension of perception seems to have interested Helmholtz less than problems of geometry and space, his experiments on the time of perception were technically rather subtle and seminal, especially compared with experiments performed by his contemporaries, such as Sigmund Exner, William James, Rudolf Hermann Lotze, Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Volkmann, and Wilhelm Wundt. Helmholtz's conception of the temporal aspects of perception reflects the continuity that holds between psychophysiological research and the Kantian philosophical background. PMID:12068897

  6. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  7. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  8. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  9. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  10. Wiener Geologen im Spiegel des Geologenarchivs. Kober - Kieslinger - Ampferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, I.; Seibold, E.

    2001-05-01

    The bulk of the correspondence in the Geologenarchiv comes in two major groups:a) letters relating mainly to professional matters and b) letters containing predominantly personal communication. This will be demonstrated by material relating to the three above mentioned Viennese Geologists: Leopold Kober's letter to Wilhelm Salomon-Calvi and the correspondence between Alois Kieslinger and Eugen Wegmann are mainly professional, whereas Otto Ampferer's letters to the Bavarian glaciologist Edith Ebers are a documentation of personal friendship.

  11. [The Vesalius of human embryology].

    PubMed

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F

    1988-01-01

    Human embryology was founded 100 years ago by WILHELM HIS, who may rightly be called the "Vesalius of human embryology". 3 landmarks were published in Germany within a quarter of a century: The Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen of HIS, KEIBEL'S Normentafeln, and KEIBEL and MALL'S Handbuch der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. The staging of the human embryo, now associated with the names of STREETER and O'RAHILLY, was first proposed by MALL in Anatomischer Anzeiger. PMID:3056108

  12. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmberlake, Todd

    2010-11-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.

  13. Comments on ``Measurements of minority-carrier diffusion length in n-CuInSe2 by electron-beam-induced current method'' [J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5412 (1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Keung L.

    1990-10-01

    The recent findings of Scheer, Wilhelm, and Lewerenz[J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5412 (1989)] regarding the application of the electron-beam-induced current technique in both the vertical and planar configurations to determine the minority-carrier diffusion length in low-diffusion-length material are compared to the results of an earlier analysis [J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1978 (1985)] of the same subject. The differences are briefly discussed.

  14. History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

  15. An unprecedented sensation-public reaction to the discovery of X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedel, A.

    1995-11-01

    Since discoveries in physics are usually spread via technical journals, they are rarely the focus of public interest. It was different with Wilhelm Rontgen`s preliminary communication, On a new kind of rays. On 5 January 1896 a report in the Vienna Presse succeeded in bringing the Wurzburg X-rays to the attention of popular newspapers, magazines and finally to the experts as well.

  16. Rebuttal to the comment by Malhotra and Strom on "Constraints on the source of lunar cataclysm impactors"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uk, Matija; Gladman, Brett J.; Stewart, Sarah T.

    2011-11-01

    ?uk et al. (?uk, M. Gladman, B.J., Stewart, S.T. [2010]. Icarus 207 590-594) concluded that the the lunar cataclysm (late heavy bombardment) was recorded in lunar Imbrian era craters, and that their size distribution is different from that of main belt asteroids (which may have been the dominant pre-Imbrian impactors). This result would likely preclude the asteroid belt as the direct source of lunar cataclysm impactors. Malhotra and Strom (Malhotra, R., Strom, R.G. [2011]. Icarus) maintain that the lunar impactor population in the Imbrian era was the same as in Nectarian and pre-Nectarian periods, and this population had a size distribution identical to that of main belt asteroids. In support of this claim, they present an Imbrian size distribution made from two data sets published by Wilhelms et al. (Wilhelms, D.E., Oberbeck, V.R., Aggarwal, H.R. [1978]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 9, 3735-3762). However, these two data sets cannot be simply combined as they represent areas of different ages and therefore crater densities. Malhotra and Strom (Malhotra, R., Strom, R.G. [2011]. Icarus) differ with the main conclusion of Wilhelms et al. (Wilhelms, D.E., Oberbeck, V.R., Aggarwal, H.R. [1978]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 9, 3735-3762) that the Nectarian and Imbrian crater size distributions were different. We conclude that the available data indicate that the lunar Imbrian-era impactors had a different size distribution from the older ones, with the Imbrian impactor distribution being significantly richer in small impactors than that of older lunar impactors or current main-belt asteroids.

  17. [A Polish physician's impressions from the Viennese Clinic of Winternitz].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1999-01-01

    The achievements of Vincenz Priestnitz, Sebastian Kneipp and Wilhelm Winternitz for the development of hydrotherapy are presented at the beginning. The professional and scientific activities of Winternitz are strongly pointed out. Eugeniusz Piasecki (1872-1947), the Polish physician and theorist of physical education impressions from Vieneese Clinic of Winternitz are depicted widely. The role of Winternitz in formation of modern hydrotherapy in Polish territories is presented finally. PMID:10695389

  18. On the potential energy in a gravitationally bound two-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2015-01-01

    The potential energy problem in a gravitationally bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of gravity (Wilhelm et al., 2013). The concept of a closed system has been modified, before the physical processes resulting in the liberation of the potential energy can be described. The energy is extracted from the background flux of hypothetical interaction entities.

  19. Josef jadassohn--an appreciation on the occasion of his 150th birthday.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Josef Jadassohn was a pioneering dermatologist who influenced the development of his specialty in many ways. He introduced the patch test for detection of hypersensitivity reactions, gave original descriptions of several entities, such as nevus sebaceous, granulosis rubra nasi, and pachyonychia congenita, and edited the Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, the most comprehensive textbook of dermatology ever published. Moreover, Jadassohn left a phalanx of distinguished students, including Felix Lewandowsky, Wilhelm Lutz, Max Jessner, Hans Biberstein, Hermann Pinkus, and Marion B. Sulzberger. PMID:23928455

  20. Hind, John R (1823-1895)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English astronomer, discovered in 1852 a small nebula in Taurus which, in 1861, was found by HEINRICH D'ARREST to have disappeared. By the end of the year, D'Arrest and OTTO WILHELM STRUVE had recovered it. Hind's variable nebula, as it came to be called, demonstrated that at least some nebulae were small, as nothing larger than a light year in dimension can disappear in a year. The nebula is a ...

  1. Otto Struve über Carl Friedrich Gauß.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    The Struve files stored in the Kharkov University in Ukraine contain an unpublished manuscript with reminiscences written by the German-Russian astronomer Otto Struve (1819 - 1905). The chapter devoted to Gauss, whom Struve met in 1834 and 1838 when travelling with his father Wilhelm Struve, is published and commented here. It gives some new information on Gauss' biography, especially about the role of Martin Bartel and about Gauss' knowledge of Russian.

  2. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  3. Using the Mass Storage System at ZIB within I3HP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüben, H.; Wollny, S.

    2006-03-01

    In the framework of I3HP there are two Transnational Access Activities related to Computational Hadron Physics. One of these activities is access to the mass storage system at Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Information-stechnik Berlin (ZIB). European lattice physics collaborations can apply for mass storage capacity in order to store and share their configurations or other data (see http://www.zib.de/i3hp/). In this paper formal and technical aspects of usage as well as the conformance to the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG) are explained.

  4. Inviscid dynamics of two-dimensional shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Kuei-Yuan; Ferguson, Ralph E.; Kuhl, Allen L.; Glaz, Harland M.; Colella, Philip

    1991-06-01

    The dynamics of unconfined, spatially developing shear layers is studied by numerical solutions of the time-dependent Euler equations using a second-order Godunov scheme. Effects of density and velocity variations between the two streams of the shear layer are studied and color graphics is used to show more clearly the entrainment process of the surrounding streams. The calculations demonstrated that the evolution of the mean flow was dominated by two-dimensional, inviscid effects. The rms fluctuating velocity and density profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measurements of Oster and Wygnanski and of Konrad, except for the peak value of the v-prime profile.

  5. Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Hugh J.

    1995-10-01

    The preacher-alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel made an oil by the destructive distillation of bones about 1700. He proclaimed it to be a universal remedy. Much later Ferdinand Runge detected the presence of pyrrole, but not in bone oil. He observed the red color of the pine splint wet with hydrochloric acid in the vapor of coal tar distillate, and called the responsible substance pyrrole. He suggested that it might also occur in bone oil. In the mid-1880's, Thomas Anderson finally isolated pyrrole by repeated distillation of about 250 gallons of ivory oil. About the middle of this century Du Pont began to make it synthetically.

  6. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  7. Announcing single photons from imperfect sources by means of ``interaction-free" measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, T.; Scherer, A.; Nock, M.; Audretsch, J.

    2008-06-01

    Interaction-free measurements can indicate the presence of photo-sensitive objects and even image the objects without damaging them. Can they also be used to indicate the presence of a single photon without absorbing it? We address this question in the context of improving the efficiency of single-photon sources. In particular, we interpret a recently proposed method to announce single photons based on two-photon absorption [Konrad et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 032327 (2006)] in terms of "interaction-free" measurements.

  8. OmegaCAM: The VST Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellarao, E.

    2005-06-01

    OmegaCAM is the large-format CCD pixels imaging camera that has been designed to exploit the square degree field of view of the VST while sampling the excellent seeing of Paranal (Kuijken et al. 2002, The Messenger 110, 15). The instrument is built by a consortium which comprises institutes in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy, and is headed by PI Konrad Kuijken (Groningen and Leiden University) with co-PI's Ralf Bender (Munich USM/MPE) and Enrico Cappellaro (INAF Naples), and project management by Bernhard Muschielok and Reinhold Häfner (USM). The Optical Detector Team at ESO has designed and built the detector system.

  9. Evolution equation of entanglement for bipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Z. D.; Liu, W. M.

    2009-02-01

    We explore how entanglement of a bipartite system evolves when one subsystem undergoes the action of an arbitrary noisy channel. It is found that the dynamics of entanglement of such system is determined by the channel’s action on the maximally entangled state, which includes as a special case the results for two-qubit systems [Konrad , Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. In particular, for multiqubit or qubit-qudit systems, we get a general factorization law for the evolution equation of entanglement, with one qubit being subject to a noisy channel.

  10. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS, Edinburgh. Konrad fell seriously ill in June 2014, having completed much of the editorial work for these Proceedings. Following an operation at the end of July, he remained optimistic of a complete recovery, but sadly this was not to be, and he died from a particularly malignant form of cancer on 29th August. The funeral was held in Warsaw on 5th September. Konrad's warmth of personality and generosity of spirit will be remembered by all who participated in these workshops and in the wider Newton Institute program. The Isaac Newton Institute provided an ideal environment for informal interactions before and after both these workshops. We wish to express our thanks to the Director and staff of the Institute for their tireless efforts to ensure the success of the whole program; also to the staff of ICMS, Edinburgh, for their expert hosting of the satellite workshop.

  11. [An automated evaluation of the functional status of the lungs in patients with central bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Fomin, J A; Michailov, V A; Lovjagin, E V

    1990-01-01

    In 34 patients with central bronchial carcinoma and in 28 patients with non-tumourous diseases of the bronchopulmonary system we investigated lung ventilation and perfusion with a self-made roentgen-functional method (x-ray cinepulmodensitometry) and an automated evaluation system. It appeared, that the automated evaluation of lung function with its high sensitivity facilitated the detection of small tumour-specific functional changes. Their early detection can improve the differentiation of lung carcinoma from non-tumourous lesions. PMID:2367629

  12. Effect of varying ventricular function by extrasystolic potentiation on closure of the mitral valve.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, R. A.; Williams, J. C. P.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood , E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Mitral regurgitant indexes were measured by roentgen videodensitometry in anesthetized dogs without thoracotomy before, during and after extrasystolic potentiation of ventricular contraction while the atria and ventricles were driven in normal temporal sequence simultaneously or in such a way as to induce atrial fibrillation. Small amounts of mitral reflux were observed with simultaneous atrial and ventricular driving and with atrial fibrillation in the control measurements before initiation of extrasystolic potentiation. Reflux became negligible during extrasystolic potentiation and increased beyond control levels after termination of extrasystolic potentiation.

  13. Design and performance of the 1. 5 MV injector for FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Ravenscroft, D.S.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1981-03-04

    The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at LLNL is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelerator, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 1.5 MV, cold cathode injector makes use of six accelerator modules as voltage sources. High voltage testing of the accelerator modules and their associated pulse forming lines and Marx banks has been completed, and beam tests of the complete injector assembly are in progress. Design information and preliminary test results are presented.

  14. What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.

  15. A soft X-ray image of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Snowden, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

  16. High energy x-ray film response and the intensifying action of metal screens

    SciTech Connect

    Barnea, G.; Ginzburg, A.

    1987-12-01

    Accurate measurements and electron/photon transport calculations provide evidence that the film's optical density is a single-valued function of the absorbed dose in the emulsion of industrial x-ray films. As a result, the film sensitivity is proportional to the absorbed dose in the emulsion per roentgen. Spectral sensitivity is calculated for energies between 20 keV and 10 MeV and for various film-screen combinations. The intensifying action of metal screens on film sensitivity is calculated as a function of screen's thickness for various photon energies and film-screen combinations. The results of the calculations are supported by the experimental data.

  17. Forty years of Galilean Electromagnetism (1973-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, Germain

    2013-08-01

    We review Galilean Electromagnetism since the 1973 seminal paper of Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond and Michel Le Bellac and we explain for the first time all the historical experiments of Rowland, Vasilescu Karpen, Roentgen, Eichenwald, Wilson, Wilson and Wilson, which were previously interpreted in a Special Relativistic framework by showing the uselessness of the latter for setups involving slow motions of a part of the apparatus. Galilean Electromagnetism is not an alternative to Special Relavity but is precisely its low-velocity limit in Classical Electromagnetism.

  18. Chisinau 1983-1986. Recollections about Chisinau Politechinc Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2010-10-01

    %B The recollections include a journal of the events and people from 1983 till 1986 at the Department of Physics of the Chisinau Technical University in the Republic of Moldova (former USSR). The main scientific areas were semiconductors,low temperature physics, cristalophysics and roentgen rays, but astrophysics and gravity were also represented at the Department. The teaching of physics at the University is overviewed briefly also. The recollections are written in a literary form without formula.Other scientific, cultural and political events during 1983-1988 are mentioned.

  19. eROSITA - Nearby Young Stars in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray surveys are well suited to detect, identify and study young stars based on their high levels of magnetic activity and thus X-ray brightness. The eROSITA instrument onboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) satellite will perform an X-ray all-sky survey that surpasses existing data by a sensitivity increase of more than an order of magnitude. The 4 yr survey is expected to detect more than half a million stars and stellar systems in X-rays.

  20. eROSITA - Nearby Young Stars in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray surveys are well suited to detect, identify and study young stars based on their high levels of magnetic activity and thus X-ray brightness. The eROSITA instrument onboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) satellite will perform an X-ray all-sky survey that surpasses existing data by a sensitivity increase of more than an order of magnitude. The 4 yr survey is expected to detect more than half a million stars and stellar systems in X-rays.

  1. NOTE: Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J.; Nill, Simeon; Ludwig, Thomas; Oelfke, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods.

  2. Fast multifield optimization of the biological effect in ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, Jan J.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique for simultaneous multifield optimization of the biological effect (i.e. relative biological effectiveness times dose) for intensity modulated radiotherapy with ion beams. It offers complete inverse treatment planning by taking into account planning constraints for the target volume as well as for organs at risk. The approach is based on the mixed irradiation formalism of the linear-quadratic model from radiobiology. We employ a novel objective function to directly optimize the biological effect rather than the physical dose. The required biological input data are reduced to a minimum and are completely independent from the optimization itself. They can be derived from any radiobiological model or even from directly measured data. The new optimization method was fully integrated into our inverse treatment planning tool KonRad. Comparisons with the TRiP98 treatment planning code were done for simple spread-out Bragg peaks as well as for three-dimensional treatment plans, where all fields were optimized separately. While the agreement between both planning systems was very good, the calculation time was substantially reduced in KonRad. By enabling the multifield optimization, the quality of the treatment plans and the sparing of healthy tissues can be clearly improved.

  3. eROSITA on SRG

    SciTech Connect

    Predehl, Peter; Boehringer, Hans; Brunner, Hermann; Brusa, Marcella; Burwitz, Vadim; Cappelluti, Nico; Dennerl, Konrad; Freyberg, Michael; Friedrich, Peter; Meidinger, Norbert; Muehlegger, Martin; Strueder, Lothar; Churazov, Evgeniy; Sunyaev, Rashid; Hasinger, Guenther; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Schmid, Christian; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2010-07-15

    eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is scheduled for launch in late 2012. eROSITA is fully approved and funded by the German Space Agency DLR and the Max-Planck-Society.The design driving science is the detection of 50-100 thousands Clusters of Galaxies up to redshift z{approx}1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models, especially Dark Energy. This will be accomplished by an all-sky survey lasting for four years plus a phase of pointed observations. eROSITA consists of seven Wolter-I telescope modules, each equipped with 54 Wolter-I shells having an outer diameter of 360 mm. This would provide and effective area at 1.5 keV of {approx}1500 cm{sup 2} and an on axis PSF HEW of 15'' which would provide an effective angular resolution of 25''-30''. In the focus of each mirror module, a fast frame-store pn-CCD will provide a field of view of 1 deg. in diameter for an active FOV of {approx}0.83 deg{sup 2}. At the time of writing the instrument development is currently in phase C/D.

  4. The eROSITA All-Sky Survey and its spectroscopic follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, Mara

    2015-08-01

    eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian/German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is current scheduled for launch in 2016. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), the deep All-sky survey will be 30 times more sensitive than the previous ROSAT All-sky survey, while the first ever true all-sky survey will be mapped in the hard band (2-8 keV).The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters to redshifts z > 1, in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of around 3 million active galactic nuclei, which is bound to revolutionize our view of the evolution of supermassive black holes and their impact on the process of structure formation in the Universe.I will review the main characteristics of eROSITA All-sky survey, with an eye also on the planned spectroscopic follow-up of the sources with SDSS-IV/SPIDERS and ESO/4MOST.

  5. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  6. Tolerance data of Gd-DTPA: a review.

    PubMed

    Niendorf, H P; Dinger, J C; Haustein, J; Cornelius, I; Alhassan, A; Clauss, W

    1991-01-01

    Gd-DTPA is the first paramagnetic contrast agent approved for clinical use in cranial and spinal MRI in the F.R.G., U.S.A., Japan and several other countries. After submission 13,439 patients were enrolled in standardized protocolled clinical trials. The observed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA were comparable to those after administration of iodinated non-ionic roentgen contrast media (CM). However, the overall incidence of ADRs after intravenous injection of 0.1 or 0.2 mmol/kg body weight Gd-DTPA was found to be even lower. Adverse events were observed in only 1.46% of the patients - or 1.14% if localized warmth is excluded. None of them was critical. There was no correlation between patient age and the incidence of ADRs. In patients with a known history of allergy the incidence of ADRs was increased by a factor 3-4, which is still lower than the incidence reported after intravenous administration of iodinated non-ionic roentgen CM to patients without known allergy. Good renal tolerance was seen in all patients, irrespective of pre-existing renal impairment. Fast bolus injections of Gd-DTPA were tolerated without added risk. The favorable safety profile is also reflected in the post marketing surveillance reports since Gd-DTPA became available as a commercial drug. PMID:1889423

  7. eROSITA - Mapping the X-ray universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.

    eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian/German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is currently scheduled for launch late 2015/early 2016. eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters to redshifts {z > 1} in order to study the large scale structure in the universe and test cosmological models including dark energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of a few million active galactic nuclei, including obscured objects, revolutionizing our view of the evolution of supermassive black holes. The survey will also provide new insights into a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including X-ray binaries, active stars, and diffuse emission within the Galaxy. eROSITA is currently (Jan 2014) in its flight model and calibration phase. All seven flight mirror modules (plus one spare) have been delivered and measured in X-rays. The first camera including the complete electronics has been extensively tested. So far, all subsystems and components are well within the expected performance.

  8. Intravenous Angiocardiography Using Digital Image Processing: Experience With Axial Projections In Normal Pigs And In Pigs With Experimentally Generated Left-To-Right Shunts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogren, Hugo G.; Bursch, Joachim H.; Brennecke, Rudiger; Heintzen, Paul H.

    1981-11-01

    Computerized digitization and processing of roentgen video images recorded at a rate of 50 per second was tested in intravenous angiocardiography in normal pigs weighing 15 to 20 kg. Roentgen video images were recorded in the 4-chamber view obtained by 30-35 degrees caudocranial angulation of the x-ray tube and 50-60 degrees LAO obliquity in the pig. Significant contrast enhancement was obtained through ECG-gated background subtraction and rescaling after integration of multiple background as well as contrast images. Occasionally, histogram equalization was used to further enhance contrast. To study temporal changes in cardiac motion, time parameter extraction or functional imaging was applied as well. The left and right heart were well visualized after intravenous injection of 1/3-1 cc. 76% Urografin per kg. bodyweight. Special purpose processing like subtraction of the end systolic phase from the end diastolic in the left and right ventricles as well as subtraction of the right ventricular phase from the left ventricular phase was also performed. If the left ventricular end systolic phase was subtracted from the end diastolic, most of the left atrium was also subtracted whereby the left ventricle was seen without continuity or superimposition of the left atrium. Experimentally generated ventricular and atrial septal defects as well as patent ductus arteriosus could be detected using the described technique. The results of the animal experiments became the basis for subsequent applications in children with congenital heart disease.

  9. Wundt, Vygotsky and Bandura: a cultural-historical science of consciousness in three acts.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michel; Robinson, David K; Yasnitsky, Anton

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at three historical efforts to coordinate the scientific study of biological and cultural aspects of human consciousness into a single comprehensive theory of human development that includes the evolution of the human body, cultural evolution and personal development: specifically, the research programs of Wilhelm Wundt, Lev Vygotsky and Albert Bandura. The lack of historical relations between these similar efforts is striking, and suggests that the effort to promote cultural and personal sources of consciousness arises as a natural foil to an overemphasis on the biological basis of consciousness, sometimes associated with biological determinism. PMID:21033206

  10. [Rudolf Lemke's contribution to the development of child neuropsychiatry in Jena, Germany].

    PubMed

    Gerhard, U J; Gerhard, C; Blanz, B

    2007-06-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry has a long tradition in Jena, Germany, and goes back to the psychiatrists Theodor Ziehen and Wilhelm Strohmayer. It seems that Rudolf Lemke (1906-1957) eminently promoted the development of child and adolescent psychiatry after World War II. A versatile scientist, Lemke had many publications in psychiatric and neurologic fields. His significance to the development of the specialty of child and adolescent psychiatry is reflected not only by his publications but also by his work as a clinician and liaison psychiatrist in the Johannes Trueper School in Jena. He founded an independent psychiatric unit for the treatment of children which allowed treatment separated from adults. PMID:17323060

  11. LSWAVE 2000: Lasers and short-wavelength applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, W.

    2001-07-01

    LSWAVE 2000 was organized as a Satellite Workshop to the Seventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI 2000. It was held on Saturday, August 26, 2000, at the Technische Universität Berlin, and was jointly organized by the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Technical University Berlin (TUB). The organizing committee consisted of Wilhelm Raith (chairman), Wolfgang Sandner, Ingolf Hertel, Manfred Wick, Bernd Winter, Tatjana Gießel, Holger Stiel, Ingo Will, Ursula Bayr (secretary) and Silvia Szlapka (secretary). Continuing information on the Workshop and its proceedings may be found under http://www.mbi-berlin.de/lswave2000/.

  12. Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.

    1973-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A. PMID:4795527

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Granada, Miguel A; Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st 1584, and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors. PMID:25942771

  14. On first looking into auriculo-ventricular asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2010-05-01

    Walter Gaskell's demonstration in 1882 that it was possible to block the passage of contraction from auricle to ventricle in the frog heart by means of a clamp spurred Joseph Erlanger (1906) to prevent, by similar means, impulse conduction through the bundle of (Wilhelm) His jun. (1893) in the mammalian heart. With a miniaturized polygraph to record the jugular and arterial pulsation, James Mackenzie (1902) displayed various grades of heart block in the human heart. His results were confirmed by Thomas Lewis using Willem Einthoven's (1903) ECG in 1911. But without instrumental help, Robert Spittal (1804-1852) recounted a case of reversible auriculo-ventricular block in 1830. PMID:20180919

  15. [The Malady of Emperor Frederick III. and Virchow's diagnostic role].

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Crownprince Frederick Wilhelm of Prussia was once the hope of the liberal movement in Germany. He embodied and lived a humanistic ideal based on the spirit of the enlightenment. Starting in January 1887 the passionate pipe smoker suffered on an unusual long hoarseness. A polyp of the vocal cord was diagnosed. Although this diagnosis seemed harmless, an odyssee was launched that made history. Rudolf Virchow-the foremost pathologist of that time-was involved in the following histological diagnosis. His role and that of the sprouting histopathology will be presented in this essay. PMID:25925224

  16. Exploring the brain, looking for thoughts: on Asimov's second Fantastic Voyage.

    PubMed

    Cassou-Noguès, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate various concerns which appear in Isaac Asimov's Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain. I will disregard his first voyage inside a human body in Fantastic Voyage I, which the author disavows as not being his own work. In contrast, the second voyage is intricate, suggesting problems drawn from a variety of sources. In a nutshell, Asimov's explorers enter the body of a comatose man in order to read his thoughts. The story can be related both to philosophical thought-experiments, such as those of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and of Herbert Feigl, as well as to personal anxieties peculiar to Asimov. PMID:21936209

  17. Max Bielschowsky (1869-1940).

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, F W

    2015-03-01

    Berlin neurologist and neurohistologist Max Bielschowsky counts among the most innovative microanatomical researchers at the beginning of the twentieth century. Although being quite underrated in the history of neurology today, Bielschowsky contributed substantially to the understanding of neurohereditary pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, and Huntington's chorea, as well as the assessment of structural changes in several movement disorders. Working with other leading research neurologists, such as Oskar and Cecile Vogt or Korbinian Brodmann at the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin-Buch, he also pioneered neurohistological work on de- and regeneration processes in the Central Nervous System along with new morphological definitions of "nervous trauma." PMID:25346063

  18. [Caesar Boeck and Boeck's sarcoid].

    PubMed

    Fyrand, O

    2001-09-10

    Caesar Boeck (1845-1917) and his uncle Carl Wilhelm Boeck (1808-1875) established dermatovenerology in the 19th century in Norway. Caesar Boeck began his academic career in the skin department at Rikshospitalet in Oslo in 1875 where the was appointed chief in 1889 and professor in 1895. He retired in 1915. Caesar Boeck was a great clinical capacity, a gifted teacher and a prolific writer. His most important scientific work is the identification of the disease named after him as Sarcoidosis Boeck. PMID:11875931

  19. Vienna University Observatory and Bruno Thüring (German Title: Die Wiener Universitätssternwarte und Bruno Thüring )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, Franz; Posch, Thomas; Lackner, Karin

    We investigate Bruno Thüring's political attitude during the time of National Socialism, based on material from the Vienna Observatory archive, and on statements by his contemporaries. The contribution focuses on the filling of astronomy positions in Vienna, and also on the expulsion of Kasimir Graff. A central role is played by Wilhelm Führer, Obersturmführer der Waffen-SS (Senior Storm Leader of the Armed Protection Squad) and chief civil servant in the Reich science ministry. The transcription of an original letter of 1939 by Führer, addressed to Thüring, is given.

  20. [The I.G. Farben laboratory at the Günzburg mental hospital. Epilepsy research during the NS-regime and the postwar period].

    PubMed

    Söhner, Felicitas; Winckelmann, Hans-Joachim; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities of the I.G. Farben laboratory at the former "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" Günzburg. This laboratory was established to test the newly developed epilepsy drug "Citrullamon" and its derivatives. Specifically, the type and manner of the various experiments were examined to determine whether the suspicions of unethical human experimentation could be identified. The commercial and medical activities between I.G. Farben and the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt, including the specific roles of the senior physician Wilhelm Leinisch and the I.G. Farben chemist Arno Grosse, are reviewed. PMID:26536788

  1. [Habitus, capital and fields: the search for an acting head of the Hamburg Asylum Friedrichsberg in 1897].

    PubMed

    Sammet, Kai

    2005-01-01

    In 1897 Hamburg was in search of an Oberarzt for the asylum Friedrichsberg who should function as the acting head of the head Wilhelm Reye (1833-1912). This search was part of the intended reformation of the outmoded psychiatric care in Hamburg. During this application procedure the Hamburg Physikus John Wahncau examined all possible candidates and applicants. The article explores the election process by using some sociological categories developed by Pierre Bourdieu (habitus, capital, field). The author argues that not only meritocratic attributes led to the choice of one candidate, but also his functional "fitting" into the field in Hamburg. PMID:16201321

  2. The onset of labour: an alternative theory.

    PubMed

    Jones, P

    1996-02-01

    This article, based mainly on the theories and discoveries of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), puts forward the bio-energetic theory of the onset of labour, which assumes it to be one of many examples of bio-energetic pulsation in the organism. It suggests that chronic muscular tension ('armouring') interferes with this spontaneous pulsation and may account for many of the difficulties experienced by women in labour. A form of psychotherapy ('orgone-therapy') based on these theories may prove helpful in childbirth education, in the non-intrusive induction of labour, and in labour itself. A research project to test this hypothesis is suggested. PMID:9439268

  3. Geologic Map of Part of the Western Hellas Planitia, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Wilhelms, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Rock units were deposited on Mars by meteorite impact, volcanism, wind, flowing water, standing water, and ice, acting separately or in concert. Hellas Planitia, the deepest tract on Mars, is a broad depression lying within the high-rimmed, approximately 2,300-km-wide Hellas impact basin. The basin and the planitia are centered about 250 km east of the southeast corner of the map area. Like other stratigraphy-based planetary mapping (Wilhelms, 1990), we suggest the most likely origins for age relations and morphologies visible in the map area.

  4. Astro-Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkora, Leila

    2001-05-01

    Four generations of Struves directed eight observatories over two centuries. The first, Wilhelm Struve moved to Estonia from northern Germany to escape Napoleon's military conscription. He pursued university studies and ended up running an observatory for 20 years. Raising his family at the observatory in isolated conditions encouraged his offspring to follow his career path. The last, Otto Struve, was the first director of McDonald Observatory. The Struves were winners of several Gold Medals from Britain's Royal Astronomical Society for their research.

  5. Three new species of Kerevata (Braconidae: Rogadinae: Clinocentrini) from mainland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Buntika Areekul; Quicke, Donald L J

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the distinctive, cyclostome, braconid wasp genus Kerevata (viz. Kerevata jamesmayi sp. nov., K. clarksoni sp. nov. and K. hammondi sp. nov.) from Mt Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea are described and illustrated, and a key provided to enable their identification and separation from the only other species described to date, K. pacifica, from New Britain in the Bismark Archipelago off the S. E. coast of New Guinea. Characters used to differentiate Kerevata from the related Confusocentrus are modified. PMID:24943171

  6. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    PubMed

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n. PMID:8804226

  7. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him. PMID:26104166

  8. NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Hans W.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)

  9. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    For the meeting of the AAS/SPD in Albuquerque, NM, I organized a Topical Session of the AAS on Structure and Dynamics of Chromospheres. The grant support was used to bring to the US two of the speakers from abroad. I had invited them for presentations at the Session: Dr. Klaus Wilhelm, the former PI of the SUMER instrument on SOHO, from the Max-Planck Institut in Lindau, Germany, and Dr. Sirajul Hasan, from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore, India. Both speakers preceded their trip to the AAS meeting with a stay at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, where they interacted with members of the Solar and Stellar Physics division. The highlights of the visits were the talks at the AAS/SPD meeting, in which six invited speakers told the audience of astronomers about current problems in solar physics and their relation to stellar problems. An important result of the visits is a paper by Dr. Wilhelm and me on 'Observations of the upper solar chromosphere with SUMER on SOHO', which has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics for publication.

  10. The place of the 17th century in Jung's encounter with China.

    PubMed

    Cambray, Joe

    2005-04-01

    After recounting several dreams and related alchemical interests of Jung's tied to the 17(th) century, a contextualizing look at select scientific and philosophical developments of that century is presented. Several precursors of the contemporary debates on the mind/body relation are noted, with special reference to the work of Antonio Damasio. This in turn leads to a reconsideration of the work of the 17(th) century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Jung read as a major precursor to his formulation of synchronicity (via Leibniz's concept of 'pre-established harmony'). Leibniz was the first philosopher to articulate the mind/body relationship in terms of supervenience, sharing an accord with those contemporary philosophers and scientists who see the mind as being an emergent property of the body-brain. Similarly, these ideas are also consistent with a reformulation of synchronicity in terms of emergence. Tracing Leibniz's interest in China reveals another set of links to Jung and to emergentism. Jung's use of Taoist concepts in developing the synchronicity principle is well known. According to scholars, Leibniz was the first major Western intellect to study the I-Ching, through the assistance of a Jesuit missionary in Beijing, Fr. Joachim Bouvet. Some details of the Leibniz-Bouvet correspondence are discussed here. Despite Helmut Wilhelm's presenting aspects of this correspondence at an Eranos conference, Jung does not appear to have integrated it into his writing on synchronicity--a possible reason for this omission is suggested. PMID:15817042

  11. Understanding and Explanation in France: From Maine de Biran's Méthode Psychologique to Durkheim's Les Formes Élémentaires de la vie Religieuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaus, Warren

    My task here is to compare the ways in which the relations between the human and the natural sciences were conceived in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France and Germany. Historical generalization may be a mug's game. But if I had to generalize, I would say that the French distinguished the human or cultural sciences from the natural sciences only in terms of their subject matters, while the Germans were more likely to try to distinguish them in terms of their goals, methods, foundations, and normative content as well. Although we may be able to find many philosophical positions among the French that resemble certain aspects of the thought of Wilhelm Dilthey, Wilhelm Windelband, or Heinrich Rickert, no one in France held exactly the same combination of philosophical views concerning the human sciences as that held by any of these German thinkers. In particular, no one in France tried to distinguish the human from the natural sciences in terms of understanding versus explanation in the way that Dilthey did. Thus, although there were other disputes in France in regard to the human sciences, such as that between Émile Durkheim and Gabriel Tarde over the role of psychology in sociological explanation, or that between sociologists and philosophers over the methods of ethics, there was no controversy analogous to the conflict among Dilthey, Windelband, and Rickert over the best way to distinguish the human from the natural sciences.

  12. Public and political issues in radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Neis, A.

    1993-12-31

    The Federal Government`s radioactive waste management concept and regulations governing formal public participation in licensing procedures for radioactive waste management facilities are presented. The paper focuses on public and political issues arising from widely diverging views in different social groups on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management. The resulting conflict between Federal and Laender (Federal constituent states) authorities and the actual course of public participation in a licensing procedure are illustrated with the example of planned final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. Major national efforts to overcome the unsatisfying present situation are presented and the role of international consensus is briefly touched. Concluding remarks will particularly justify admissibility and emphasize the need to discuss and eventually decide on radioactive waste management issues regardless of diverging views on nuclear energy.

  13. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  14. Members of House Committee on Science and Astronautics Visited MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The members of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics visited the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on March 9, 1962 to gather firsthand information of the nation's space exploration program. The congressional group was composed of members of the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight. They were briefed on MSFC's manned space efforts earlier in the day and then inspected mockups of the Saturn I Workshop and the Apollo Telescope Mount, two projects developed by MSFC for the post-Apollo program. Pictured left-to-right are Dieter Grau, MSFC; Konrad Dannenberg, MSFC; James G. Fulton, Republican representative for Pennsylvania; Joe Waggoner, Democratic representative for Louisiana; and Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of MSFC.

  15. Alois Alzheimer: A Hundred Years after the Discovery of the Eponymous Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    The familiar term “Alzheimer’s disease” was coined by Emil Kraepelin to honour his pupil, Alois Alzheimer. However, little is known about the life of the man after whom this important and well-known disease was termed. On the centennial of the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease, it is appropriate to report some aspects of the life and scientific work of Alois Alzheimer. The authors contacted all the libraries of the Universities where Alzheimer studied and/or worked to receive any original material regarding Alois Alzheimer. This review is based for a most part on an original biography written by Konrad and Urlike Maurer after the interviews to Alzheimer’s nieces, Hildegard Koeppen, Ilse Lieblein, Bärbel Lippert, Karin Wei?, and his nephew, Rupert Finsterwalder. The authors obtained this biography from the Central Library of Medicine in Koeln. PMID:23674983

  16. Heritage Gallery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) building 4200 hosts a new spaceflight history museum referred to as the Heritage Gallery, allowing employees and visitors alike to have the opportunity to experience history first hand. On display are many models of launch vehicles and spacecraft that have made the center famous. It features a full-scale mockup of the lunar roving vehicle, three built-in multimedia displays, a large theater screen, and two glass cases that house memorabilia such as personal items belonging to Wernher von Braun, MSFC's first Center Director. The new Heritage Gallery features the accomplishments of several past and present members of the Marshall team. Attending the ribbon cutting ceremony are: (left to right) Gerhard Reisig; Cort Durocher, executive director of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Ernst Stuhlinger; Konrad Darnenburg; Werner Dahm; Walter Jacobi; and host of event, Center Director Art Stephenson.

  17. Evolution and Symmetry of Multipartite Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad

    2010-11-01

    We discover a simple factorization law describing how multipartite entanglement of a composite quantum system evolves when one of the subsystems undergoes an arbitrary physical process. This multipartite entanglement decay is determined uniquely by a single factor we call the entanglement resilience factor. Since the entanglement resilience factor is a function of the quantum channel alone, we find that multipartite entanglement evolves in exactly the same way as bipartite (two qudits) entanglement. For the two qubits case, our factorization law reduces to the main result of [T. Konrad, Nature Phys. 4, 99 (2008)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys885]. In addition, for a permutation P, we provide an operational definition of P asymmetry of entanglement, and find the conditions when a permuted version of a state can be achieved by local means.

  18. Testing Evolution Equation for Entanglement of Two-Qubit Systems in Noisy Channels on Ensemble Quantum Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Luo, Jun; Ren, Ting-Ting; Sun, Xian-Ping

    2010-09-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of decoherence dynamics of entanglement for the four Bell states in two-qubit nuclear-spin systems on ensemble quantum computers. Using artificial error operators to simulate noisy channels, we experimentally investigate the effect of noises on the four Bell states, and furthermore observe the time evolution of entanglement for the four Bell states in different noisy channels by calculating concurrences. Our experimental results show that the concurrences of the different Bell states under the same artificial error operations have the same values within the experimental error, and are independent of the different Bell states. These experimental results verify the theoretical evolution equation developed by Konrad et al.[Nature Phys. 4 (2008) 99] for two-qubit entanglement.

  19. Average shear-wave velocity structure of the Kamchatka peninsula from the dispersion of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N. M.; Gorbatov, A. V.; Gordeev, E.; Dominguez, J.

    2000-09-01

    An average shear-wave velocity structure has been estimated for the path between the Kamchatka Isthmus and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski. It is obtained from the Monte Carlo inversion of the Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves measured using broad-band seismograms of events in Northern Kamchatka recorded by the IRIS station PET in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski. The Moho interface was found at a depth of 35±5 km and the Konrad one at 18±4 km. An important feature of the found structure is a low velocity in the upper mantle. This result is coherent with the recent and present-% day volcanic activity in Kamchatka. Synthetic long period seismograms computed for the obtained structure are in good agreement with observed ones.

  20. Assessing the Quality of Water Vapor Radiometer Data from Onsala during the CONT11 Geodetic VLBI Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgered, G.; Haas, R.; Wahlbom, J.; Ning, T.

    2012-12-01

    Two water vapor radiometers (WVRs), called Astrid and Konrad, were operated during the CONT11 campaign at the Onsala Space Observatory. A well known feature of WVRs is that their algorithm breaks down when there are large drops of water, affecting the observations. Without any independent information one has to rely on the WVR data themselves to detect rain and remove the corresponding low quality results. In order to assess this technique we operated different types of rain sensors during CONT11: a zenith looking Doppler rain radar, three optical sensors, and three capacitive sensors. The first 8.25 days had frequent rain events whereas the last 7.75 days were significantly drier. We summarized the data set acquired by the WVRs and the rain detectors. The inferred time series of the equivalent zenith wet delay (ZWD) and linear horizontal gradients are compared to the corresponding estimates from GPS data (acquired at the IGS station ONSA) and the VLBI data themselves.

  1. Dynamics of the bounds of squared concurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics of the quantum entanglement is a fundamental characteristic for various quantum systems. Since the computable entanglement measure for higher dimensional quantum states itself is absent, the dynamics of the entanglement expressed in an operational method will be of interest. We study the dynamics of ? , an analytical lower bound of squared concurrence, of a bipartite d?d quantum state when one party goes through an arbitrary noisy channel. For a pure input state, the range of ? is obtained explicitly. For a mixed input state, an upper bound of ? is found. Interestingly, the tangle ?' , as an upper bound of squared concurrence, also has a similar dynamical property. Our results are similar to that of Konrad and can help the estimation of high-dimension bipartite entanglement in experiments.

  2. Freud, his illness, and ourselves.

    PubMed

    Haynal, André

    2008-06-01

    The history of Freud's illness shows that he tried to avoid confrontation with it, and to treat it as unimportant. In his personal letters, the ill body remains outside-as another person, "Konrad," not he himself-and it is not taken into account. Particularly in Freud's correspondence with Ferenczi, we realize to what extent certain phenomena, especially depressive ones, he considered somatic, with a tendency to dismiss them, and this despite important occasional insights, such as about the role played by hate in psychosomatic illnesses. In the post-Freudian development, these topics have been more and more integrated in the dialogue, in the discourse between the analyst and the analysand. PMID:18509365

  3. Darwin as a student of behavior.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    In The Expression of the Emotions, Charles Darwin documents evolutionary continuity between animals and humans, emphasizing the universality of expressions in man. Most of the book addresses human behavior, and its influence on the study of animal behavior has been weak. The issue of natural selection is remarkably absent from this book, which relies on the inheritance of acquired characters rather than on a genuine Darwinian logic. Yet Konrad Lorenz considered Darwin to be a forerunner of behavioral biology. The reason was to be found in The Descent of Man and chapter VIII of The Origin of Species, where Darwin provides an explanation of behavior through selection, stating that the same mechanisms explaining morphological changes also account for gradual improvements in instincts. He assessed the accuracy of his evolutionary theory by directly studying animal behavior, hence laying the foundations of behavioral research for the next century. PMID:20338536

  4. The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love.

    PubMed

    Vicedo, Marga

    2010-06-01

    Harlow deserves a place in the early history of evolutionary psychiatry but not, as he is commonly presented, because of his belief in the instinctual nature of the mother-infant dyad. Harlow's work on the significance of peer relationships led him to appreciate the evolutionary significance of separate affectional systems. Over time, Harlow distanced himself from the ideas of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from Konrad Lorenz's views about imprinting and instincts. Harlow's work did not lend support to Bowlby's belief in an innate need for mother love and his thesis that the mother was the child's psychic organizer. Nor did Harlow agree with Lorenz's view of instincts as biological, unmodifiable innate needs, unaffected by learning. PMID:21877372

  5. Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Griffin, Mark D; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C

    2009-06-01

    Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema ("Kindchenschema") as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship. PMID:19451625

  6. Research and technology, 1990: Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Goddard celebrates 1990 as a banner year in space based astronomy. From above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere, four major orbiting observatories examined the heavens at wavelengths that spanned the electromagnetic spectrum. In the infrared and microwave, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), measured the spectrum and angular distribution of the cosmic background radiation to extraordinary precision. In the optical and UV, the Hubble Space Telescope has returned spectacular high resolution images and spectra of a wealth of astronomical objects. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph has resolved dozens of UV spectral lines which are as yet unidentified because they have never before been seen in any astronomical spectrum. In x rays, the Roentgen Satellite has begun returning equally spectacular images of high energy objects within our own and other galaxies.

  7. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  8. Synthesis of europium- or terbium-activated calcium tungstate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgaciu, Flavia; Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Ungur, Laura; Vadan, Maria; Vasilescu, Marilena; Nazarov, Mihail

    2001-06-01

    Utilization of luminescent substances in various optoelectronic devices depends on their luminescent properties and sensitivity to various excitation radiation as well as on particle size distribution and crystalline structure of luminous powders. Calcium tungstate phosphors are well excited with roentgen radiation, so that they are largely used for manufacture of x-ray intensifying screens. Being sensitive to short UV-radiation as well, they could be utilized in Plasma Display Panels or in advertising signs fluorescent tubes. In order to diversify the utilization possibilities of this tungstate class, luminescent powders based on CaWO4:Eu3+ and CaWO4:Tb3+ were synthesized and characterized. As compared with the starting self-activated phosphor, larger excitation wavelength domain and emission colors from blue-to-green-to- yellow-to-red were obtained. The good UV excitability and variable luminescence color recommend these phosphors for optoelectronic device manufacture.

  9. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) in the inguinal region.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Miwa, H; Orita, K; Hiraki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Hashimoto, K; Yumoto, T

    1982-01-01

    A female patient who died of apparent postirradiation sarcoma at the age of 39 was reported. Following a traffic accident, she developed squamous cell carcinoma at the injured right heel 20 years later, and also metastasis to both inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes. During the period from September 1966 to May 1968, she had received Co60 irradiation to the right inguinal and para-aortic areas, 9,600 and 6,600 Roentgen, respectively. Ten years later, she manifested a huge tumor in the inguinal region which extended further to the retroperitoneum; light and electron microscopic examinations proved to be a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. She died of massive pulmonary metastasis two years later. Histological differentiation of the tumor and relationship between irradiation and sarcoma induction were briefly discussed, and the necessity of reevalution of soft part sarcomas was emphasized. PMID:6280439

  10. Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.; Kihara, R.; Kuenning, R.; McFarlane, B.; North, G.; North, K.; Parkinson, S.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1981-02-01

    For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design, it is useful to have flash X-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. Such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator called FXR was designed. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 Ka electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

  11. Recent performance improvements on FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

    1983-01-01

    The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

  12. Recent performance improvements on FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

    1983-08-01

    The FXR machine is a nominal 4 kA, 20 MeV, linear induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. The authors have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. They regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3-5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4 kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

  13. What can be Learned from X-Ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in the Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    Solar wind charge exchange produces diffuse X-ray emission with a variable surface brightness comparable to that of the cosmic background. While the temporal variation of the charge exchange emission allows some separation of the components, there remains a great deal of uncertainty as to the zero level of both. Because the production mechanisms of the two components are considerably different, their spectra would provide critical diagnostics to the understanding of both. However, current X-ray observatories are very limited in both spectral resolution and sensitivity in the critical soft X-ray (less than 1.0 keV) energy range. Non-dispersive high-resolution spectrometers, such as the calorimeter proposed for the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, will be extremely useful in distinguishing the cascade emission of charge exchange from the spectra of thermal bremsstrahlung cosmic plasmas.

  14. Large pleural effusion necessitates chest tube drainage in a patient with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Taner; Nisli, Kemal; Yilmaz, Ceren; Dindar, Aygun

    2007-03-01

    An 11-month-old Turkish boy was hospitalised with clinical and roentgen graphic evidence of large pleural effusion on the third day of fever and misdiagnosed as parapneumonic effusion. Due to worsening respiratory distress chest tube drainage was performed. Four days later the classic signs of Kawasaki disease appeared. His clinical condition improved gradually and fever subsided after intravenous gammaglobulin and aspirin treatment. A mild transient dilatation of the right coronary artery was seen and returned to the normal diameter within a few weeks. To our knowledge, large pleural effusion in a case of Kawasaki disease, in which chest tube drainage was needed, has not been reported. We describe here a patient with complete Kawasaki disease whose initial presentation mimicked a parapneumonic effusion. PMID:17316197

  15. Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART -XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module provides an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

  16. ROSI—an object-oriented and parallel-computing Monte Carlo simulation for X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giersch, Jürgen; Weidemann, Andreas; Anton, Gisela

    2003-08-01

    In the field of X-ray imaging, Monte Carlo simulation is an important tool. It gives the possibility of understanding experimental results and it allows the construction of virtual imaging setups with predictions of their quality. For these reasons, we developed the Roentgen Simulation (ROSI) which is based on the object-oriented C++ class library GISMO. The interaction algorithms are based on the established EGS4-code and its current LSCAT-extension. ROSI introduces random variables for modelling physical parameters by a given random distribution, e.g. the source position or the direction and energy of the photons to be emitted. It is possible to run ROSI in parallel on a local computer network (Beowulf cluster) to obtain simulation data in shorter time. Finally, it has an easy-to-use interface. We will present the concept of ROSI and demonstrate its flexibility by an example.

  17. The influence of energy weighting on X-ray imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giersch, Jürgen; Niederlöhner, Daniel; Anton, Gisela

    2004-09-01

    Recent developments in radiation imaging detectors offer a perspective towards energy sensitive X-ray pixel detectors. Such spectroscopic pixel detectors would provide energy information in addition to the spatial information. One way to use this additional energy information is to weight each photon by an energy dependent factor. Under stringent assumptions we can show how this energy weighting has to be performed to achieve maximum image quality. In order to visualise the impact of the weighting technique on the image quality we have simulated three radiologic cases with the EGS4-based Monte Carlo Roentgen Simulation ROSI (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 509 (2003) 151; www.pi4.physik.uni-erlangen.de/Giersch/ROSI).

  18. Laboratory x-ray spectroscopy experiments in support of NASA`s x-ray satellite missions

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. M., Columbia University

    1998-05-22

    With support from NASA, we are performing a series of laboratory astrophysics investigations designed to address fundamental uncertainties in basic atomic physics processes relevant to the interpretation of discrete X-ray spectra of cosmic plasmas. Moderate resolution spectra acquired by the ASCA Observatory already demonstrate the inadequacy of currently available spectral modelling codes for this wavelength band. With the upcoming launches of AXAF, XMM, ASTRO E, and Spektrum Roentgen-Gamma, the demand for significant advances in this field will increase dramatically. Our program is based on the exploitation of the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a unique set of spectrometers and experimental techiques specifically developed for this purpose. Recent experiments have been devoted to definitive measurements of line emissivities for iron L-shell ions in optically thin, collisional plasmas.

  19. Spinal X-ray screening of high performance fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H T; Wagstaff, A S; Sverdrup, H U

    1991-12-01

    Neck pain and neck injury are common complaints among military aviators flying high performance (HPF) aircraft. Since all candidates for military flying training with the Royal Norwegian Air Force have to meet HPF medical standards, medical selection procedures include a radiological examination of the spine. Nine films of the vertebral column are made with emphasis put on cervical structures. Among 232 applicants, 527 deviations from normal conditions were described--anomalies, degenerative changes and deviations of posture--which average 2.27 diagnoses per spine X-rayed. Of the candidates, 80 were considered entirely within normal limits; 20 were rejected due to the roentgen findings; and five candidates were excluded on final evaluation, their radiological diagnoses contributing to the decision. Although most changes are slight, many significant conditions are demonstrated among young healthy individuals. Since the population is highly selected, the figures we present may be minimum numbers in a western industralized society. PMID:1755799

  20. New horizons for study of the cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems. [image reconstruction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of computer-controlled three-dimensional reconstruction techniques designed to determine the dynamic changes in the true shape and dimensions of the epi- and endocardial surfaces of the heart, along with variable time base (stop-action to real-time) displays of the transmural distribution of the coronary microcirculation and the three-dimensional anatomy of the macrovasculature in all regions of the body throughout individual cardiac and/or respiratory cycles. A technique for reconstructing a cross section of the heart from multiplanar videoroentgenograms is outlined. The capability of high spatial and high temporal resolution scanning videodensitometry makes possible measurement of the appearance, mean transit and clearance of roentgen opaque substances in three-dimensional space through the myocardium with a degree of simultaneous anatomic and temporal resolution not obtainable by current isotope techniques. The distribution of a variety of selected chemical elements or biologic materials within a body portion can also be determined.

  1. [DENSITY OF THE BONES FORMING HIP AND KNEE JOINTS IN PATIENTS AGED OVER 60 YEARS WITH COXARTHROSIS AND GONARTHROSIS ACCORDING TO MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY].

    PubMed

    D'iachkova, G V; Sazonova, N V; Larionova, T A; D'iachkov, K A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to review quantitative and qualitative radiological manifestations of coxarthrosis and gonarthritis in patients aged over 60 years. Radiography, computed tomography and multislice computed tomography were performed for 48 patients aged 60-70 years with deforming arthritis of the hip and knee joints. Idiopathic and dysplastic cases prevailed. The results of the study showed that roentgen anatomical changes in the hip and knee joints were accompanied by changes in the density of femoral head, typical restructuring of the femoral and tibial condyles, patella that could earlier be detected with computed tomography. A decrease in the total density of the femoral and tibial condyles and a relative increase in subchondral density with varus of the knee in particular were shown to be a specific feature of quantitative changes in the density of bone tissue in patients with deforming arthritis. PMID:26390616

  2. Research of nanocomposite structure of boron nitride at proton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Y. V.; Ermolaev, D. S.; Pak, V.; Zhang, K.

    2016-02-01

    Using roentgen diffraction and electron microscopy, the influence of nanosecond irradiation by ion beams of high energy on forming of self-organized nanoblocks in near surface's layers of boron nitride (BN) has been studied. It was shown that low temperature transitions from hexagonal to wrutz boron nitrides is associated with changes of shape and sizes of self-organized particles consisting the nanoblocks. We have calculated the parameters of nanoblocks using the meanings of interplane distances and properties of subreflexes orders. The collective shifting deformations of layers in nanoblocks provides phase transition under the screen and forming the set of nanotubes with escaping of five order axes of symmetry. It has been realized that pentagons and stars arranged in points of entrance of five order axis of symmetry are associated with peculiarity of self-organization of the spiral-cyclic structures.

  3. Casimir-Polder forces on moving atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Scheel, Stefan; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2009-10-15

    Polarizable atoms and molecules experience the Casimir-Polder force near magnetoelectric bodies, a force that is induced by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the matter. Atoms and molecules in relative motion to a magnetoelectric surface experience an additional velocity-dependent force. We present a full quantum-mechanical treatment of this force and identify a generalized Doppler effect, the time delay between photon emission and reabsorption, and the Roentgen interaction as its three sources. For ground-state atoms, the force is very small and always decelerating, hence commonly known as quantum friction. For atoms and molecules in electronically excited states, on the contrary, both decelerating and accelerating forces can occur depending on the magnitude of the atomic transition frequency relative to the surface-plasmon frequency.

  4. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

  5. The evolution of the quasar continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1992-01-01

    We now have in hand a large data base of Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), optical, and IR complementary data. We are in the process of obtaining a large amount of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data for the same quasar sample. For our complementary sample at high redshifts, where the UV was redshifted into the optical, we have just had approved large amounts of observing time to cover the quasar continuum in the near-IR using the new Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) array spectrographs. Ten micron, optical, and VLA radio, data also have approved time. An ISO US key program was approved to extend this work into the far-IR, and the launch of ASTRO-D (early in 1993) promises to extend it to higher energy X-rays.

  6. Suspect Odontogenic Infection Etiology for Canine Lymphoplasmacytic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stepaniuk, Kevin S; Gingerich, Wade

    2015-01-01

    The role of odontogenic infection as an etiology for lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs was evaluated. An association between odontogenic infection and inflammatory rhinitis was identified in 55% of cases evaluated. Odontogenic infection was unlikely or undetermined in 10% and 35% of the cases, respectively. Cases of lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis had roentgen signs associated with endodontic disease, periodontal disease, or retained tooth roots in 60%, 45%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. A collaborative team based approach assessing inflammatory nasal disease is recommended. Based on the history and signalment of the individual patient, diagnostic modalities should be chosen wisely. In some cases, oral examination and intraoral radiographs may be a more direct and cost effective approach for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory rhinitis. PMID:26197687

  7. The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popmintchev, Tenio; Chen, Ming-Chang; Arpin, Paul; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2010-12-01

    The frequency doubling of laser light was one of the first new phenomena observed following the invention of the laser over 50 years ago. Since then, the quest to extend nonlinear optical upconversion to ever-shorter wavelengths has been a grand challenge in laser science. Two decades of research into high-order harmonic generation has recently uncovered several feasible routes for generating bright coherent X-ray beams using small-scale femtosecond lasers. The physics of this technique combines the microscopic attosecond science of atoms driven by intense laser fields with the macroscopic extreme nonlinear optics of phase matching, thus essentially realizing a coherent, tabletop version of the Roentgen X-ray tube.

  8. Food Irradiation Is Done in Grays, not Rads

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2002-07-01

    One federal agency has chosen to use exclusively modern SI units of radiation dose in its regulations: the FDA. While not exactly hot news, this bold move by a U.S. government agency on November 26, 1997, should be noted by those who wish to encourage the switch from curies, working level months, rads, rems, and roentgens to becquerels, joule hours per cubic meter, grays, sieverts, and coulombs per kilogram. The regulation is 21 CFR 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food. Specifically, 21 CFR 179.26 (b) 8. permits meat irradiation up to 4.5 kGy for refrigerated meat and 7.0 kGy for frozen meat. Prior to the 1997 addition, radiation doses had been quoted in grays (kGy) with rad (Mrad) values in parentheses. In the 1997 addition, the Mrads disappeared.

  9. Initial performance parameters on FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Innes, T.G.; Kihara, R.; Scarpetti, R.D.

    1982-06-11

    Construction of the new flash x-ray induction LINAC (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been completed. Initial tuning of the machine has produced stable current pulses in excess of 2 kA at the design energy of 20 MeV, with an 80 ns FWHM pulse width, producing single-pulse radiation doses near 500 Roentgen at one meter from the target. The electronic spot size on the bremsstrahlung target is estimated at 3 to 5 mm. In this paper we will discuss the basic FXR design; running-in and tuning of the machine; emittance measurements; beam stability; switch gap synchronization; and measurements of the radiation dose and angular distribution.

  10. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node {sup 67}Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland {sup 67}Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures.

  11. DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL—Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. Maurice

    1954-01-01

    Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required. PMID:13209360

  12. The Nature of the Unidentified EUV Sources: Accreting Isolated Neutron Stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this project were: (1) to investigate the nature of the EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite) 'NOID' sources, objects detected in the EUV bandpass but with no previous identification at optical or other energies; (2) to study the possible association of NOID sources with nearby, isolated neutron stars among the 1e9 predicted to exist in the Galaxy. These dead radio pulsars have not been detected so far in large numbers, but accretion from the interstellar medium can make them bright at EUV wavelengths; and (3) to use the EUVE data to set constraints on neutron star evolution, accretion physics and population properties. The original objectives of our program remain relevant. Indeed, the level of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted as a result of new data from the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite).

  13. The axis of rotation of the ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A; Svensson, O K; Németh, G; Selvik, G

    1989-01-01

    The axis of the talo-crural joint was analysed by roentgen stereophotogrammetry in eight healthy volunteers. Examinations were performed at 10 degrees increments of flexion and pronation/supination of the foot as well as medial and lateral rotation of the leg. Results indicate that the talo-crural joint axis changes continuously throughout the range of movement. In dorsiflexion it tended to be oblique downward and laterally. In rotation of the leg, the axis took varying inclinations between horizontal and vertical. All axes in each subject lay close to the midpoint of a line between the tips of the malleoli. Our study indicates that the talo-crural joint axis may alter considerably during the arc of motion and differ significantly between individuals. This prompts caution in the use of hinge axes in orthoses and prostheses for the ankle. PMID:2915016

  14. X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Three 2D Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Wyatt, Christopher Lee; Wang, Ge

    2008-01-01

    X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade X-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or microfocused source. In this paper, we report an extension using 2D gratings that reduces the imaging time and increases the accuracy and robustness of phase retrieval compared to current grating-based phase-contrast techniques. Feasibility is demonstrated via numerical simulation. PMID:18401460

  15. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  17. Biomedical technology transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ongoing projects described address: (1) intracranial pressure monitoring; (2) versatile portable speech prosthesis; (3) cardiovascular magnetic measurements; (4) improved EMG biotelemetry for pediatrics; (5) ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration; (6) pediatric roentgen densitometry; (7) X-ray spatial frequency multiplexing; (8) mechanical impedance determination of bone strength; (9) visual-to-tactile mobility aid for the blind; (10) Purkinje image eyetracker and stabilized photocoalqulator; (11) neurological applications of NASA-SRI eyetracker; (12) ICU synthesized speech alarm; (13) NANOPHOR: microelectrophoresis instrument; (14) WRISTCOM: tactile communication system for the deaf-blind; (15) medical applications of NASA liquid-circulating garments; and (16) hip prosthesis with biotelemetry. Potential transfer projects include a person-portable versatile speech prosthesis, a critical care transport sytem, a clinical information system for cardiology, a programmable biofeedback orthosis for scoliosis a pediatric long-bone reconstruction, and spinal immobilization apparatus.

  18. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

  19. Imaging the renal mass: a historical review.

    PubMed

    McClennan, Bruce L

    2014-11-01

    A matter of months after Roentgen's landmark discovery in 1895, Roentgen's rays were focused on diseases and disorders of the urinary tract, specifically the kidney. At the dawn of the 20th century, urologists in the United States and around the world quickly recognized that by using a variety of metal stylets and radiopaque contrast agents, such as silver salts, the upper urinary tract, namely the ureter, pelvis, and calyces, could be depicted with radiography. Renal cysts and tumors were diagnosed on the basis of deformities in the kidney. Retrograde pyelography dominated the imaging evaluation of the kidney until the discovery of a safe intravenous method for urinary tract imaging (ie, intravenous pyelography). Pioneers and pathfinders in the field of contrast media development and radiologic procedures helped give radiologists the lead role in the work-up of renal masses, an area where urologists once held forth. The subspecialty of uroradiology was born in the middle of the 20th century. Intravenous urography, nephrotomography, and diagnostic angiography with pharmacologic manipulation followed by cyst or mass puncture and biopsy yielded unrivaled specificity for the diagnosis and staging of benign and malignant renal masses. The advent of cross-sectional and multiplanar imaging and the profound effects they had and continue to have on the discovery and characterization of renal masses has been detailed in the pages of Radiology since the 1920s. Ultrasonography, nuclear imaging, computed tomographic scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography each have made a claim to a part of the imaging algorithm of modern uroradiologic practice. PMID:25340433

  20. The evolution of and challenges for industrial radiation processing—2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berejka, A. J.; Cleland, M. R.; Walo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from Roentgen's discovery of X-radiation in 1895 by following the development of high current, electron beam accelerators (EB) throughout the twentieth century. Although Becquerel soon followed Roentgen with his discovery of what became to be known as radioactivity, electrical sources for ionizing radiation dominate industrial processing with there being more than ten times as many industrial installations using high current EB equipment than the facilities relying upon large concentrations of radioactive isotopes. In the 1950s, the discovery that ionizing radiation would enhance the value of what has become the world's largest volume commodity plastic, polyethylene (PE), opened the way for full scale commercial use of high current EB equipment. While the crosslinking of the PE insulation on wire became one of the first major industrial applications, other uses of EB processing soon followed. In the 1970s, low-energy, self-shielded EB equipment made the surface curing of inks, coatings and adhesives more industrially viable. In the early part of the twenty-first century, new market applications involving the low-energy EB surface decontamination of packaging materials emerged. This new area poses challenges for the metrology needed to control industrial processes, in that there is limited EB penetration into what have been used as dosimeters by industry. Major industrial use of radiation process is now over 50 years old. Because of the diversity of end-uses and the fact that the use of ionizing radiation in industry is a process technique, it is hard to quantify the value-added to numerous commercial products that benefit from this energy efficient process. It may be in excess of a trillion Euros in value-added to articles of commerce. In this milieu, there are some broad-based opportunities for research which are noted.

  1. Latitude and Longitude Patterns of Soft X-Rays Emitted from the Earth's Upper Atmosphere as Observed with the Coronas-F Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Spjeldvik, Walther; Martin, Inacio

    Long-term monitoring during 2001 through 2005 of the low energy 3-8 keV X-ray emission was carried out with CdTe solid state detector on Low Earth Orbit CORONAS-F spacecraft. Care was taken to exclude the sections of the spacecraft orbit where direct or scattered solar X-ray fluxes would reach the detector. We have found definite patterns as well as irregularities in these soft X-rays emanating from the upper Earth atmosphere. In the northern hemisphere we have found latitudinal distributions extending over +/- 10 degrees latitude centered on the middle latitudes and extending over half of the Earth latitude range. We report that the X-ray intensity is up to 10 kW in this soft X-ray band. Luminosity of the whole the Earth’s globe at altitude of 500 km amounts to several tens kW. The radiation possesses the seasonal variations; it intensity significantly depends on solar activity level. We reason that these X-ray fluxes can not be scattering solar roentgen ones as these photons are observed on night side of the Earth, and we note that solar roentgen emission has a little lower energy, typically less than about 2 keV. We surmise that the observed emission is mostly the result from Bremsstrahlung radiation due to magnetospheric electrons precipitating from the Earth’s radiation belts being influenced by electromagnetic disturbances of different origin (e.g., persistent ELF and VLF plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, possible ducted lightning electromagnetic emissions, electromagnetic pulses in earthquakes, enhancement of plasma waves geomagnetic storms and/or substorms, etc.).

  2. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen`s discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F{sub 1} mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  3. [The "diagnosis" in the light of Charles S. Peirce, Sherlock Holmes, Sigmund Freud and modern neurobiology].

    PubMed

    Adler, R H

    2006-05-10

    A diagnostic hypothesis is a causa ficta. It is an assumption, suitable to explain phenomena, which are not yet proven to be the only and valid explanation of the observed. One of Wilhelm Hauff's faitales illustrates how a hypothesis is generated. It is based on the interpretation of signs. Signs are of an ikonic, an indexical or a symbolic nature. According to S. Peirce, a hypothesis is created by abduction, to Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes by immersion into thoughts, and to S. Freud by free floating attention. The three procedures are alike. Neurobiological structures and functions, which correspond to these processes, are described; especially the emotional-implicite memory. The technique of hypothesis-generation is meaningful to clinical medicine. PMID:16722205

  4. How Einstein made asymmetry disappear: symmetry and relativity in 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Giora; Goldstein, Bernard R.

    2005-07-01

    Contents: I. Introduction II. Einstein's usages of the term symmetry in 1905 1. The dissertation (April 1905) Case 1: isotropy Case 2: analogy Case 3: geometrical usage 2. "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (June 1905) Case 1: indifference Case 2: two algebraic usages Case 3: physical usage Case 4: algebraic usage Case 5: rejecting asymmetry 3. The central claim: making asymmetry disappear by appealing to a physical argument 4. Conclusion III. Background. The term symmetry and its "relatives": duality, parallelism, and reciprocity 1. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) 2. Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) 3. August Föppl (1854-1924) 4. Emil Wiechert (1861-1928) 5. Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) 6. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) 7. Summary

  5. Summary and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart

    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) recognized the necessity of the coherence of research and education about 200 years ago. Today we see a third component coming in simultaneously: innovation. Not that this third aspect gained key importance only recently, but the demands for handling the increasing complexity of innovation have grown dramatically. Innovations need vertically structured processes, i.e., from simultaneous consideration of the product definition, the market, and recognition of relevant technologies all the way to the related fundamental research. The deeper the consideration, the greater the sustainability of the innovation. By definition, an innovation is first of all something new. There is still no scale to measure innovation, but it seems reasonable to define an innovation as any new process, technology, or product that leads to a quantitative economical benefit.

  6. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

  7. [Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].

    PubMed

    Bormuth, M

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools. PMID:20676601

  8. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  9. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 8 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions span a time interval of more than 450 years. There are biographical investigations on Georg Joachim Rheticus, C.W.A. von Wahl and K.F. Heym, investigation on a reprint of a chapter of the principal work of Nicolaus Copernicus, on Christoph Scheiner and the "camera obscura", and, with respect to the history of timekeeping, on the "big Nuremberg clock". 19th century topics are: a contribution on the honorary doctorate of Joseph Fraunhofer, and on the construction of a lunar globe by Wilhelmine Witte, while the report on Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and the cholera pandemia in Königsberg in the year 1831 gives a view into everyday life of scientists. 20th century topics are: the contributions on Bruno Thüring in Vienna and his relations with national socialism, as well as on Arthur Beer, Albert Einstein and the Warburg library. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  10. Carbon nanotube - molecular resonant tunneling diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Rajeev R.; Bruque, Nicolas; Alam, Khairul; Lake, Roger K.

    2006-02-01

    In the Rapid Research Letter [1] carbon nanotube (CNT) molecular resonant tunnel diodes (RTD) are proposed to complement bio-assembled CNT field effect transistors. The cover figure is a schematic representation of a model CNT-pseudopeptide-CNT device in its relaxed structure with hydrogen passivation at the CNT ends. The device has been shown to exhibit the typical current-voltage response of an RTD.The first author, Rajeev Pandey, works as a post-doctoral researcher in the Laboratory for Terascale and Terahertz Electronics, headed by Roger Lake, at Riverside.The current issue of physica status solidi (a) also contains the Feature Article On the growth mechanisms of nanocrystalline diamond films by Wilhelm Kulisch and Cyril Popov [2].

  11. A history of erotic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth. PMID:19308838

  12. Images and Meaning-Making in a World of Resemblance: The Bavarian-Saxon Kidney Stone Affair of 1580

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article de-constructs and re-constructs the dynamic of a sixteenth-century political dispute between the Catholic Bavarian Duke Wilhelm V and the Protestant Saxon Elector August I. By focusing on the visual imagery which ignited the dispute, the paper explores sixteenth-century ‘ways of seeing’ and the epistemic role realistic images played in the production of knowledge about the natural world. While the peculiar dynamic of the affair is based on a specific understanding of the evidential role of images, the paper also argues that the wider socio-cultural context, in particular certain strategies of truth-telling, provide further clues as to the dynamic and closure of the affair. PMID:26290618

  13. August Rauber (1841-1917): from the primitive streak to Cellularmechanik.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Brauckmann S

    2006-01-01

    In the early 19th century Karl Ernst von Baer initiated a new research program searching for the mechanisms by which an egg transforms itself into an embryo. August Rauber (1841-1917) took up this challenge. He considered the phylogenetic principle as the right tool to explain the similitude of embryogenetic processes. In extending Baer's approach, he combined comparative embryology and histology in his studies of avian and mammalian embryos. His earlier work demonstrated that the two-layered chick embryo is a modified gastrula and not a "disc" as Wilhelm His had claimed. From the 1880s onwards, he concentrated on the issue of how the development of germ layers is related to tissue differentiation. To address this, he studied the blastopore, epiblast, primitive streak, teratology and the relative importance of nucleus and cytoplasm in heredity. This paper reconstructs some of Rauber's work and concludes that his observations and reflections constituted a new approach combining embryology and histology with "phylogenetic" reasoning.

  14. The first demonstration of lactic acid in human blood in shock by Johann Joseph Scherer (1814–1869) in January 1843

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, T. C.; van der Hoven, B.; Bakker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid was first found and described in sour milk by Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786) in 1780. The German physician–chemist Johann Joseph Scherer (1841–1869) demonstrated the occurrence of lactic acid in human blood under pathological conditions in 1843 and 1851. In this article we honour the forgotten observations by Scherer and describe the influence of Scherer's finding on further research on lactic acid at the end of the 19th century. We conclude that Scherer's 1843 case reports should be cited as the first description of lactic acid in human blood after death and also as the first demonstration of lactic acid as a pathological finding in septic and haemorrhagic shock. Carl Folwarczny was, in 1858, the first to demonstrate lactic acid in blood in a living patient. PMID:17661014

  15. Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz, Florian

    2006-09-01

    As a side-product of industrial research, new chemical nerve agents (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) superior to those available to the Allied Forces were discovered in Nazi Germany. These agents were never used by Germany, even though they were produced at a large scale. This article explores the toxicological and physiological research into the mechanisms of action of these novel nerve agents, and the emergence of military research objectives in neurophysiological and neurotoxicological research. Recently declassified Allied military intelligence files document secret nerve agent research, leading to intensified research on anticholinesterase agents in the peripheral and the central nervous system. The article discusses the involvement of IG Farben scientists, educational, medical and military institutions, and of Nobel Prize laureate Richard Kuhn, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. PMID:16887760

  16. [Textbook of surgery by W. Schultze, used at the Tokyo Medical Academy in the early Meiji era].

    PubMed

    Koseki, T

    1993-06-01

    Wilhelm Schultze, Professor of Surgery of the Tokyo Medical Academy, wrote "Vortraege der Allgemeine Chirurgie" for the benefit of his students in about 1880. The author examined this book and concluded that it was based upon "Lehrbuch der Chirurgie und Operationslehre" by Prof. Adolf Bardeleben, his teacher at the Charité in Berlin. Schultze's textbook was translated into Japanese and published by G. Yamazaki and U. Ishiguro, his students at the Tokyo Medical Academy, in 1884. This version was widely used as a textbook in many medical schools at that time, as well as S. Sato's translation of "Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie" written by Prof. Theodor Billroth. The author found and introduced two different Japanese versions of Schultze's textbook printed without permission. PMID:11639760

  17. Barrow, Leibniz and the geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus.

    PubMed

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In 1693, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorum a geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus. It is shown that this proof closely resembles Isaac Barrow's proof in Proposition 11, Lecture 10, of his Lectiones Geometricae, published in 1670. This comparison provides evidence that Leibniz gained substantial help from Barrow's book in formulating and presenting his geometrical formulation of this theorem. The analysis herein also supports the work of J. M. Child, who in 1920 studied the early manuscripts of Leibniz and concluded that he had frequently copied his diagrams from Barrow's book, but without acknowledgement. It is also shown that the diagram of Leibniz associated with his 1693 proof has often been reproduced with errors that make some aspects of his text difficult to comprehend. PMID:24908795

  18. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  19. ["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper. PMID:23155759

  20. Discovery of the sinus node by Keith and Flack: on the centennial of their 1907 publication

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Mark E; Hollman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    In 1839, Jan Evangelista Purkinje discovered a net of gelatinous fibres in the subendocardium of the heart. Walter Gaskell in the 1880s observed that the impulse of the heart began in the sinus venosus, and that this region had the most rhythmic ability. A conducting bundle between the atrium and the ventricle was found by Wilhelm His, Jr in 1893. In 1906, Sunao Tawara found a “complex knoten” of tissue at the proximal end of the His bundle. He concluded that this was the inception of an electrical conducting system which continued from the AV node through the bundle of His, divided into the bundle branches, and terminated as the Purkinje fibres. The collaboration of Arthur Keith and Martin Flack led to discovery of the sinus node, finalising the discovery of the electrical system of the heart and providing an anatomical answer to the baffling mystery: “Why does the heart beat?” PMID:17890694

  1. Discovery of the sinus node by Keith and Flack: on the centennial of their 1907 publication.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Mark E; Hollman, Arthur

    2007-10-01

    In 1839, Jan Evangelista Purkinje discovered a net of gelatinous fibres in the subendocardium of the heart. Walter Gaskell in the 1880s observed that the impulse of the heart began in the sinus venosus, and that this region had the most rhythmic ability. A conducting bundle between the atrium and the ventricle was found by Wilhelm His, Jr in 1893. In 1906, Sunao Tawara found a "complex knoten" of tissue at the proximal end of the His bundle. He concluded that this was the inception of an electrical conducting system which continued from the AV node through the bundle of His, divided into the bundle branches, and terminated as the Purkinje fibres. The collaboration of Arthur Keith and Martin Flack led to discovery of the sinus node, finalising the discovery of the electrical system of the heart and providing an anatomical answer to the baffling mystery: "Why does the heart beat?" PMID:17890694

  2. Does Cometary Panspermia Falsify Dark Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-10-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize for physics has been awarded to Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, and Adam G. Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae", judged to be the "most important discovery or invention within the field of physics" (Excerpt from the will of Alfred Nobel). Are we forced by this claimed discovery to believe the universe is dominated by anti- gravitational dark energy? Can the discovery be falsified? Because life as we observe it on Earth is virtually impossible by the standard ΛCDMHC model, extraterrestrial life and cometary panspermia may provide the first definitive falsification of a Nobel Prize in Physics since its first award in 1901 to Wilhelm Röntgen for his discovery of X-rays.

  3. Hermann von Helmholtz and his students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    During the years 1871-1888, when Hermann von Helmholtz was professor of physics at the University of Berlin, physicists from all over the world flocked to Berlin to study and do research with him. Among these were the German physicists Max Planck, Heinrich Kayser, Eugen Goldstein, Wilhelm Wien, and Heinrich Hertz, and Americans Henry Rowland, A. A. Michelson, and Michael Pupin. Examples of Helmholtz's scientific and personal interactions with these students and research associates show why he is justly considered the outstanding physics mentor of the 19th century. Both his ideas and his students played a major role in the development of physics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  4. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  5. [Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reich, H; Hollwich, F

    1984-06-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition that comprises, apart from angiomas of the retina, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the cerebrum, also cystic and blastomatous dysplasias resulting from maldevelopment, namely cystic kidney and pancreas, hypernephroma, and pheochromocytoma. Early observers of the syndrome were the English neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1872) and the German ophthalmologist Hugo Magnus (1874). The typical association of angiomas of the retina with the cerebellum was first described in 1905 by the Prague ophthalmologist Wilhelm Czermak, long before Lindau (1926). The fact that hypernephromas and pheochromocytomas may form parts of it characterizes the syndrome as a polyneoplastic hereditary disease and the sufferers as members of families at risk. Since the ophthalmologist is often the first to recognize this disease by direct inspection of the fundi, he is responsible for ensuring proper medical care for the affected person and his or her entire family. PMID:6384634

  6. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich. PMID:12712776

  7. The "Jews" of the antifascist left: homosexuality and socialist resistance to Nazism.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, H

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1930s, German Social Democrats and Communists seized upon the homosexual orientation of some Nazi leaders, especially Ernst Röhm, with the aim of discrediting the entire National Socialist movement. In Western Europe as well as the Soviet Union, there was a general tendency among socialists in the 1930s to identify homosexuality with Nazism. Antifascist leftists created the impression that homosexuality was widespread in Nazi organizations. Such socialist theorists as Wilhelm Reich tended to view homosexuality sociologically and psychologically as a typical rightist, nationalist, and above all fascist aberration. Leftist aversion to homosexuality was not only an expression of political opportunism. Prejudices against homosexuality were part and parcel of socialist thinking and became even more deep-rooted among leftists as a consequence of the ideological and moral confrontation with National Socialism. Against the presumed immortality and perversion of the Nazis, the antifascists stressed their own rationality and purity. PMID:8666756

  8. Aerodynamics and mathematics in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy: a comparison of research institutes.

    PubMed

    Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R

    2005-01-01

    The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research. PMID:20503761

  9. Redescription of Jenkina articulata Brøndsted from the deep Eckström Shelf, E-Weddell Sea, Antarctica and a comment on the possible mass occurrence of this species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tore Rapp, Hans

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on an unexpected large catch of the rare calcareous sponge species Jenkina articulataBrøndsted, 1931, taken in the Antarctic Weddell Sea during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. This species is only known from the original description from two specimens collected from the type locality off Wilhelm II-Land. During the SYSTCO expedition more than 60 specimens were collected using an Agassiz trawl at 600 m depth on the Eckström Shelf, Eastern Weddell Sea. Based on this collection, we give a redescription of the incompletely known species, place the locality of catch in a major context, and discuss possible explanations for the rich occurrence of this species in the sponge-ground fauna.

  10. [Priest Sebastian Kneipp and his hydrotherapeutic method. Point of view after over one hundred years].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Vincenz Priestnitz (1799-1851) and Wilhelm Winternitz (1835-1905) were creators of world hydrotherapy. Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1893), the priest at Worishofen, the owner of the hydro-therapeutic infirmary where are found precursors of many hydro-therapeutic methods. He was the author of several popular books based on his experience. The book "My water treatment" is best known. He was also a builder of the curative houses, such as: Sebastianeum, Kneip pianeum, Kinder-Asyl. About 25 thousand people from far-away lands yearly were Kneipp's patients. Pourning, wrapings, compresses, rinsing off, total-baths and partial-baths were used often. The aim of this paper is to present Kneipp's silhouette and his sometimes uncritical hydro-therapeutic methods. PMID:16786804

  11. The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hill, B

    1999-01-01

    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem was the centre of scientific racism in Nazi Germany. Its bad history culminated in a research project to analyse the molecular basis of racial differences in the susceptibility to various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Josef Mengele, a former postdoc of the director of the institute, Otmar von Verschuer, collected blood samples and other material in Auschwitz from families and twins of Jews and Gypsies. The blood samples were analysed by Günther Hillmann in the Berlin laboratory of Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt. Butenandt had just moved to Tübingen. The project was paid for by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Butenandt, Hillmann and von Verschuer made scientific careers in the Federal Republic. To the present day this past has not been acknowledged by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as part of its history. PMID:11197188

  12. [From the history of Roger commentators].

    PubMed

    Karpp, Gerhard; Riha, Ortrun

    2015-01-01

    The biblical manuscript A 12, preserved in Duesseldorf's Federal and University Library (Universitaets- und Landesbibliothek Duesseldorf), dates from the mid-13th century. In the course of its scholarly analysis, a piece of parchment was found in the interior board, where a fragment of a surgical text is written on. Judging from the writing, the original manuscript came from southern France (Montpellier) and dates from the late 13th century. Several pas- sages quote "M[agister] W[ilhelmus] de Congenis", but the text bears only a vague resem- blance to Pagel's (1891) and Sudhoff s (1918) editions. Upon the other hand, the author was guided by Roger Frugardi's 'Chirurgia', which presumably gave the structure for Wilhelm's lectures. The edition of the fragmentary text presents a yet unknown example of student notes referring to William of Congenis and illustrates the complex history of Roger commentaries. PMID:26427163

  13. Hilpoltstein at Johann Christoph Sturm's times (German Title: Hilpoltstein zu Zeiten Johann Christoph Sturms)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Kai Thomas

    After an overview on the foundations of research, the conditions inside the town of Hilpoltstein in the first half of the 17th century are described. Since Hilpoltstein was situated at the road from Nuremberg to Munich, and thus at one of the most important north-south trading routes of medieval times, the town florished in economic terms at the beginning of the 17th century. Afterwards, however, the inhabitants had to suffer religious troubles, since the count palatine Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to catholicism. We collect the traces of the Sturm family in Hilpoltstein that still exist today, and complete the picture by giving an overview of the architectural, commercial and social conditions of those times.

  14. [On the road to a new humanity: the reception of psychoanalysis in the early Kinderladen movement].

    PubMed

    Kauders, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1960s a group of students in West Germany founded the so-called Kinderläden (day care centers) in order to experiment with new forms of early childhood education. Members of the early Kinderladen movement in particular pursued a radically utopian approach that, they hoped, would engender new human beings. With the aid of psychoanalytic writings, especially those of Wilhelm Reich, they sought to create subjects that would overcome repressive bourgeois norms and live out their sexuality freely. This reliance on Reich entailed a new interpretation of the "base", as psychoanalytic drive theory supplanted Marxist theory. As such, the early Kinderladen ac- tivists regarded the "basis" of society in biological, psychological, and pedagogic rather than economic terms. PMID:25872313

  15. Jung's quest for the Aurora consurgens.

    PubMed

    Haaning, Aksel

    2014-02-01

    The paper focuses on the year 1929 when Jung published 'A European commentary' to Richard Wilhelm's German translation of the Taoist text The Secret of the Golden Flower. This shows that Jung had already started on the track of European alchemy by following up Conrad Waldkirch's preface in Artis Auriferae (1593); and it raises the question of whether this could be the possible missing link to Jung's subsequent research in Alchemy and Hermetic Philosophy in the years to come. It is argued that here was the beginning of Jung's quest for the Aurora consurgens, the publication of which concludes the Mysterium Conuinctionis more than twenty years later. It is further maintained that this choice of the Aurora is a profound expression of Jung's ambition to revitalize the past from within the individual, and helps explain Jung's deep concern with the welfare and future of modern society. PMID:24467350

  16. Withstanding trauma: the significance of Emma Eckstein's circumcision to Freud's Irma dream.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Carlo

    2013-07-01

    The author considers the medical rationale for Wilhelm Fliess's operation on Emma Eckstein's nose in February 1895 and interprets the possible role that this played in Freud's dream of Irma's injection five months later. The author's main argument is that Emma likely endured female castration as a child and that she therefore experienced the surgery to her nose in 1895 as a retraumatization of her childhood trauma. The author further argues that Freud's unconscious identification with Emma, which broke through in his dream of Irma's injection with resistances and apotropaic defenses, served to accentuate his own "masculine protest". The understanding brought to light by the present interpretation of Freud's Irma dream, when coupled with our previous knowledge of Freud, allows us to better grasp the unconscious logic and origins of psychoanalysis itself.(1.) PMID:23824652

  17. The tragic and the metaphysical in philosophy and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D; Atwood, George E

    2013-06-01

    This article elaborates a claim, first introduced by Wilhelm Dilthey, that metaphysics represents an illusory flight from the tragedy of human finitude. Metaphysics, of which psychoanalytic metapsychologies are a form, transforms the unbearable fragility and transience of all things human into an enduring, permanent, changeless reality, an illusory world of eternal truths. Three "clinical cases" illustrate this thesis in the work and lives of a philosopher and two psychoanalytic theorists: Friedrich Nietzsche and his metaphysical doctrine of the eternal return of the same, Sigmund Freud and his dual instinct theory, and Heinz Kohut and his theoretical language of the self. It is contended that the best safeguard against the pitfalls of metaphysical illusion lies in a shared commitment to reflection on the constitutive contexts of all our theoretical ideas. PMID:23638662

  18. Gradiva: freud, fetishism, and Pompeian Fantasy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John

    2013-10-01

    This paper is a critical reconsideration of Freud's analysis (1907) of Wilhelm Jensen's novella Gradiva: A Pompeian Fantasy (1903). Freud's interest was aroused by the parallels between Jensen's presentation of dreams and Freud's model of dream formation just published in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). Freud also acclaims Jensen's presentation of the formation and "cure" of his protagonist's delusion about a marble bas-relief of a woman walking. This paper argues for the centrality of the phenomenon of fetishism, briefly considered but excluded from Freud's analysis. The fantasy of Gradiva as "the necessary conditions for loving" (Freud 1910, pp. 165-166) is also a key thesis of the essay, which makes use of the newly translated Freud-Jensen correspondence contained in this article's Appendix. PMID:24194488

  19. Kant and the development of the human and cultural sciences.

    PubMed

    Makkreel, Rudolf A

    2008-12-01

    Starting with Kant's doubts about psychology as a natural science capable of explaining human behavior, several alternative attempts to conceive of human life, culture and history are examined. Kant proposes an anthropology that will be a commonly useful human science rather than a universally valid natural science. This anthropology relates to philosophy as a mode of world-cognition. Special attention is given to how Kant's theory of right can help define our appropriate place in a communal world. The different ways in which Wilhelm Dilthey and Hermann Cohen respond to Kant's idea of legitimate appropriation are also considered. The various tasks that descriptive elucidation, explanation, reflective understanding, characterization and interpretation can perform for the human and cultural sciences are examined throughout the essay. PMID:19391373

  20. Stepping through science's door: C. W. Scheele, from pharmacist's apprentice to man of science.

    PubMed

    Fors, Hjalmar

    2008-03-01

    This reinterpretation of Carl Wilhelm Scheele's (1742-86) early life and career analyses the social interplay between Scheele and other chemists who were active in eighteenth-century Sweden. It is argued that Scheele, a rather lowly journeyman working in peripheral pharmacies, had to work hard and traverse several geographical and social boundaries to gain a foothold in the scientific community. Eventually, Scheele's skilful analysis of the mineral magnesia nigra would establish him as one of the pivotal Swedish chemists. However, this happened only after Scheele had managed to prove himself as a knowledgeable chemist who did not threaten the authority of certain socially superior colleagues. When Scheele had gained a place in the scientific community, the exchange logic of the eighteenth-century republic of letters permitted him to trade experimental results for other kinds of resources. Hence, he gained in both social status, economic prosperity and scientific prominence in a relatively short time. PMID:18831153

  1. Translator's preface.

    PubMed

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977951

  2. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  3. The Pulkovo Observatory on the Centuries' Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, Viktor K.

    The present paper deals with the development of astrophysical research at the Pulkovo Observatory (now: the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at adjacent time periods separated by the threshold between the 19th and the 20th centuries. The Pulkovo Observatory had been inaugurated in 1839. Its traditional field of research work was astrometry. The confirmation of light absorption phenomenon in interstellar space by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve marked the turn of the Observatory's research programs toward astrophysics. New tendencies in the development of contemporaneous astronomy in Russia were pointed out by Otto Struve in his paper “About the Place of Astrophysics in Astronomy” presented in 1866 to the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wide-scale astrophysical studies were performed at Pulkovo Observatory around 1900 during the directorships of Theodore Bredikhin, Oscar Backlund and Aristarchos Belopolsky.

  4. ["W. Bölsche's precious book". Freud and German evolutionism in the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2004-01-01

    Wilhelm Bölsche (1861-1939) is the author of a poetic history of the evolution of love entitled Das Liebesleben in der Natur (1898-1903). This work, inspired by the writings of biologist Ernst Haeckel, was greatly successful in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Freud kept a copy of the three volumes in his London library and cites the text in his lectures on an Introduction to psychoanalysis. Bölsche develops an Entwicklungsgeschichte (history of evolution) of the distinguishing sexuality of several types of love (oral, anal and urinary). In addition, he describes the "zoological reactionary" homosexual and ties this sexual behaviour to the history of the development of anal sexuality. This paper will address an excerpt on this topic from Bölsche's text that has been translated for the occasion. The task at hand is to prepare the ground for a study of German evolutionism, both popular and scientific, and its ties to psychoanalysis. PMID:15368944

  5. [Schelling and experiential science].

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Schelling's philosophy of nature is shown to be part of the scientific discussions of his day, not set apart from it. His terminology describing the potentialities and polarities of nature was formed during Schelling's collaboration with the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter. This scientist adopted the schema Schelling had developed for the categorization of natural phenomena to describe the peculiar facts that interested him in his area of research. Thus Ritter was able to develop a classification of the various phenomena of animal galvanism. Thus it can be shown that the idealistic "Naturphilosophie" was part of the scientific culture of about 1800. It is to be interpreted as philosophy of science and has to be evaluated not only in a philosophically systematic way but in particular in its influence on the way scientific categories were ordered at the time. Thereby it can be shown that the idealistic vocabulary had close correspondence to French morphology and English Natural Theology. PMID:15730143

  6. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen W.; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  7. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Le Cesne, Maxime; Wilson, Stephen W; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  8. Conception and development of the Second Life® Embryo Physics Course.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The study of embryos with the tools and mindset of physics, started by Wilhelm His in the 1880s, has resumed after a hiatus of a century. The Embryo Physics Course convenes online allowing interested researchers and students, who are scattered around the world, to gather weekly in one place, the virtual world of Second Life®. It attracts people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life: applied mathematics, artificial life, bioengineering, biophysics, cancer biology, cellular automata, civil engineering, computer science, embryology, electrical engineering, evolution, finite element methods, history of biology, human genetics, mathematics, molecular developmental biology, molecular biology, nanotechnology, philosophy of biology, phycology, physics, self-reproducing systems, stem cells, tensegrity structures, theoretical biology, and tissue engineering. Now in its fifth year, the Embryo Physics Course provides a focus for research on the central question of how an embryo builds itself. PMID:23586840

  9. The discovery of chemical neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Valenstein, Elliot S

    2002-06-01

    Neurotransmitters have become such an intrinsic part of our theories about brain function that many today are unaware of how difficult it was to prove their existence or the protracted dispute over the nature of synaptic transmission. The story is important not only because it is fascinating science history, but also because it exemplifies much of what is best in science and deserving to be emulated. The friendships formed among such major figures in this history as Henry Dale, Otto Loewi, Wilhelm Feldberg, Walter Cannon, and others extended over two world wars, enriching their lives and facilitating their research. Even the dispute-the "war of the sparks and the soups"--between neurophysiologists and pharmacologists over whether synaptic transmission is electrical or chemical played a positive role in stimulating the research needed to provide convincing proof. PMID:12027394

  10. [Circumstances surrounding the discovery of Röntgen rays].

    PubMed

    Johansen, J G

    1995-12-10

    The 8th of November marks the centennial of the discovery of Röntgen rays. This discovery occurred serendipitously during an experiment with cathode rays by the physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in Würzburg, Germany. Not many other discoveries in basic natural science have had such an enormous impact and immediate application in medicine. Röntgen had a Dutch connection, since he spent 17 years of his childhood and youth in the Netherlands. In his final school report, the only subject in which the later Nobel prize winner in physics received poor marks was physics! Notes released 70 years after Röntgen received his prize revealed that the Nobel Committee for Physics actually had recommended that the prize be divided equally between Röntgen and Philipp Lenard, another eminent German physicist. PMID:8539744

  11. [The Rosenthal experiment or: about the site of productive research - on move of the physiological experimental laboratory of Isidor Rosenthal (1836-1915) from the city to the country].

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary development of the new science of experimental physiology is often associated with the conditions of cultural development and increasingly technical working contexts of the Industrial Age. Following this perspective, the germ cells of 19th century institutes of experimental physiology were particularly found in the metropolises of Paris, Leipzig or Berlin. Only the major cities sat the revolutionary trends and within this general process, the scientific trends were no exceptions - the provincial research universities simply followed the central ones in their normal science endeavours. Due to this interpretation, the development of the scientific community was pre-formatted as the interplay of innovation (the city) and reception (the periphery). Isidor Rosenthal (1836-1915) was born in Labischin (District of Bromberg/Posen) in 1836 and got his medical training in Berlin. Like not many other experimental physiologists, he can be used as a historiographical testing probe, to follow the conditions of knowledge transfer from center to periphery: After his studies at the Friedrich Wilhelms University and the completion of his dissertation in 1859, Rosenthal entered the newly founded Physiological Institute in Berlin as the first Research Associate of Emil DuBois-Reymond (1818-1896). Rosenthal worked here particularly on the problem of "direct and indirect muscle irritation" in frogs. These neurophysiological investigations led to his growing scientific renown. In 1872, Rosenthal became offered a first professorship in physiology at the Friedrich Alexander University in Bavaria, as one of only few Jewish scientists (and even before Wilhelm Wundt, 1832-1920). But his life and work proved not only exceptional because of his scientific achievements, but also due to his deep rootedness in cultural life--both during his time in Berlin and in Erlangen. By applying a comparative and microhistorical approach in this article, the working conditions of this scientific migrant from Berlin are scrutinized as to the changes that took place between the city and regional university. PMID:21298928

  12. The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shirley S Y

    2005-04-01

    Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically. PMID:15817045

  13. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  14. Jung, Evans-Wentz and various other gurus.

    PubMed

    McGuire, William

    2003-09-01

    How did Jung become deeply concerned with Asian religions and particularly with the Tibetan Buddhism of a Welshman from Trenton, New Jersey? Could that man be considered one of Jung's gurus? This essay begins six years after Jung, at twenty, was admitted to the medical school of Basel University and became a member of the Zofingiaverein, a student society. The next year he gave the first of a series of lectures on the interpretation of Christ as the model of the 'god-man', like the Apostle Paul, Confucius, Zoroaster and the Buddha, who was 'drummed into the Hindu boy'. (Jung's Zofingia Lectures were discovered only after his death, in 1961, and were published in English in 1983). The present essay discusses Jung's early Buddhist interest as displayed in The Psychology of the Unconscious (finally, in a revision, entitled Symbols of Transformation), in Psychological Types and later in his foreword of the Wilhelm translation of the I Ching. Jung was influenced by the gurus Richard Wilhelm and his son Hellmut, the scholar J. W. Hauer (with whom he later broke off relations because of Hauer's Nazi politics), the indologist Heinrich Zimmer, and the Zen master D. T. Suzuki. Walter Yeeling Wentz was born in Trenton in 1878 and brought up in his family's theosophist faith. The Wentzes moved to San Diego in 1900, and Walter added his mother's Celtic surname, Evans, to the German Wentz. He was educated at Stanford University and travelled in Europe, studying Celtic folklore, and widely in the Near East, Tibet, India, and Oxford--studying religions everywhere and editing Tibetan books. He lived his last decades in San Diego and conducted a correspondence with Jung, while living in a cheap hotel, or in an ashram. PMID:14513477

  15. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology and inorganic additives produce volume reduced glasses. Organic polymers evaluated are polysiloxane compounds with additives like barium sulfate, lead dioxide or others, depending on the specific requirements. As a counterpart to organic polymers, mineral polymers are based on silica and alumina, exhibiting better mechanical and thermal properties, as well as higher durability, compared with concrete. Thus QSA Global uses mineral polymers for packing radioactive waste containers, if high safety requirements have to be fulfilled like the waste acceptance criteria for the KONRAD repository. (Plasma products so far generated in experiments resemble natural obsidian, a highly inert and stable volcanic glass). (authors)

  16. Experimentally Derived Mechanical and Flow Properties of Fine-grained Soil Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Peets, C. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Day-Stirrat, R. J.; Germaine, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    As silt content in mudrocks increases, compressibility linearly decreases and permeability exponentially increases. We prepared mixtures of natural Boston Blue Clay (BBC) and synthetic silt in the ratios of 100:0, 86:14, 68:32, and 50:50, respectively. To recreate natural conditions yet remove variability and soil disturbance, we resedimented all mixtures to a total stress of 100 kPa. We then loaded them to approximately 2.3 MPa in a CRS (constant-rate-of-strain) uniaxial consolidation device. The analyses show that the higher the silt content in the mixture, the stiffer the material is. Compression index as well as liquid and plastic limits linearly decrease with increasing silt content. Vertical permeability increases exponentially with porosity as well as with silt content. Fabric alignment determined through High Resolution X-ray Texture Goniometry (HRXTG) expressed as maximum pole density (m.r.d.) decreases with silt content at a given stress. However, this relationship is not linear instead there are two clusters: the mixtures with higher clay contents (100:0, 84:16) have m.r.d. around 3.9 and mixtures with higher silt contents (68:32, 50:50) have m.r.d. around 2.5. Specific surface area (SSA) measurements show a positive correlation to the total clay content. The amount of silt added to the clay reduces specific surface area, grain orientation, and fabric alignment; thus, it affects compression and fluid flow behavior on a micro- and macroscale. Our results are comparable with previous studies such as kaolinite / silt mixtures (Konrad & Samson [2000], Wagg & Konrad [1990]). We are studying this behavior to understand how fine-grained rocks consolidate. This problem is important to practical and fundamental programs. For example, these sediments can potentially act as either a tight gas reservoir or a seal for hydrocarbons or geologic storage of CO2. This study also provides a systematic approach for developing models of permeability and compressibility behavior needed as inputs for basin modeling.

  17. Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air humidity was probably rather high, up to 77%. The combined results of the three selected plant taxa indicate values for atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration between 700 and 1100 ppm (probably about 900 ppm). Reference: Konrad, W., Roth-Nebelsick, A., Grein, M. (2008). Modelling of stomatal density response to atmospheric CO2. Journal of Theoretical Biology 253(4): 638-658.

  18. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100 centimeters squared (cm2) beta/gamma. Removable beta/gamma contamination levels seldom exceeded 1,000 dpm/100 cm2, but, in railroad trenches on the reactor pad containing soil on the concrete pad in front of the shield wall, the beta dose rates ranged up to 120 milli-roentgens per hour from radioactivity entrained in the soil. General area dose rates were less than 100 micro-roentgens per hour. Prior to demolition of the reactor shield wall, removable and fixed contaminated surfaces were decontaminated to the best extent possible, using traditional decontamination methods. Fifth, large sections of the remaining structures were demolished by mechanical and open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). Mechanical demolition methods included the use of conventional demolition equipment for removal of three main buildings, an exhaust stack, and a mobile shed. The 5-foot (ft), 5-inch (in.) thick, neutron-activated reinforced concrete shield was demolished by CED, which had never been performed at the NTS.

  19. Status of the CCD camera for the eROSITA space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Elbs, Johannes; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Herrmann, Sven; Miessner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmaler, Gabriele; Strüder, Lothar; Tiedemann, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The approved German X-ray telescope eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission. After satellite launch to Lagrangian point L2 in near future, eROSITA will perform a survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5 keV - 2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2 keV - 8 keV) it will provide the first complete imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of 100,000 clusters of galaxies up to redshift z ~ 1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. Detection of single X-ray photons with information about their energy, arrival angle and time is accomplished by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 ?m thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. It is a further development of the sensor type which is in operation aboard the XMM-Newton satellite since 1999. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed in the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, the MPI Halbleiterlabor. By means of a unique so-called 'cold-chuck probe station', we have characterized the performance of each PNCCD sensor on chip-level. Various tests were carried out for a detailed characterization of the CCD and its custom-made analog readout ASIC. This includes in particular the evaluation of the optimum detector operating conditions in terms of operating sequence, supply voltages and operating temperature in order to achieve optimum performance. In the course of the eROSITA camera development, an engineering model of the eROSITA flight detector was assembled and is used for tests since 2010. Based on these results and on the extensive tests with lab model detectors, the design of the front-end electronics has meanwhile been finalized for the flight cameras. Furthermore, the specifications for the other supply and control electronics were precisely concluded on the basis of the experimental tests.

  20. The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. [Infant characteristics and anger reduction].

    PubMed

    Mischkulnig, M

    1989-01-01

    Konrad Lorenz first suggested in 1943 that certain physical and behavioral characteristics common to infants (babyishness) serve as cues to attract adult attention and care as well as to decrease the likelihood of aggression. The present study was designed to determine whether the visual stimuli of a baby's face alone are sufficient to reduce anger. The subjects were 60 female students between 18 and 30 years of age. Anger was evoked by setting unsolvable tasks and by noise and maintained by adequate instructions and by continuing noise. Three procedures of measurement (heart rate, retrospective self-report, and interpretation of facial affect by two observers) were designed to show the reactions of the subjects viewing photos of babies and adults. We found a slight increase in heart rate to be an expression of happiness and a massive acceleration to be an expression of anger. The self-report measures and interpretation of facial affect supported the hypothesis that there is a more positive response to infants than to adults, and to cute babies also a more positive one than to less attractive infants. We found weak evidence that babyishness reduces anger. As a consequence of the length of the experiment, subjects who should not be aroused became angry. Thus, it was possible to register a reduction of anger as reaction to cute infants. PMID:2629360

  2. Geospatial assessment of ecological functions and flood-related risks on floodplains along major rivers in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological functions and flood-related risks were assessed for floodplains along the 17 major rivers flowing into Puget Sound Basin, Washington. The assessment addresses five ecological functions, five components of flood-related risks at two spatial resolutions—fine and coarse. The fine-resolution assessment compiled spatial attributes of floodplains from existing, publically available sources and integrated the attributes into 10-meter rasters for each function, hazard, or exposure. The raster values generally represent different types of floodplains with regard to each function, hazard, or exposure rather than the degree of function, hazard, or exposure. The coarse-resolution assessment tabulates attributes from the fine-resolution assessment for larger floodplain units, which are floodplains associated with 0.1 to 21-kilometer long segments of major rivers. The coarse-resolution assessment also derives indices that can be used to compare function or risk among different floodplain units and to develop normative (based on observed distributions) standards. The products of the assessment are available online as geospatial datasets (Konrad, 2015; http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7DR2SJC).

  3. “Advice to the medical students in my service”: the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Jean Hamburger (1909–1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz. Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a “golden” book, “Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service” (“Advice to the Medical Students in my Service”), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice. PMID:23497662

  4. "Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Piccoli Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    Jean Hamburger (1909-1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz.Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a "golden" book, "Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service" ("Advice to the Medical Students in my Service"), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice. PMID:23497662

  5. From lanosterol to cholesterol: structural evolution and differential effects on lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ling; Nielsen, Morten; Thewalt, Jenifer; Ipsen, John H; Bloom, Myer; Zuckermann, Martin J; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2002-03-01

    Cholesterol is an important molecular component of the plasma membranes of mammalian cells. Its precursor in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, lanosterol, has been argued by Konrad Bloch (Bloch, K. 1965. Science. 150:19-28; 1983. CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 14:47-92; 1994. Blonds in Venetian Paintings, the Nine-Banded Armadillo, and Other Essays in Biochemistry. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.) to also be a precursor in the molecular evolution of cholesterol. We present a comparative study of the effects of cholesterol and lanosterol on molecular conformational order and phase equilibria of lipid-bilayer membranes. By using deuterium NMR spectroscopy on multilamellar lipid-sterol systems in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of microscopic models of lipid-sterol interactions, we demonstrate that the evolution in the molecular chemistry from lanosterol to cholesterol is manifested in the model lipid-sterol membranes by an increase in the ability of the sterols to promote and stabilize a particular membrane phase, the liquid-ordered phase, and to induce collective order in the acyl-chain conformations of lipid molecules. We also discuss the biological relevance of our results, in particular in the context of membrane domains and rafts. PMID:11867458

  6. [Sheehan's syndrome--a forgotten disease with 100 years' history].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Although named after Harold Sheehan, postpartum ischemic pituitary necrosis was reported for the first time 100 years ago in Przeglad Lekarski by Leon Konrad Gliński. In the majority of cases, the syndrome is a consequence of severe postpartum bleeding episode resulting in severe hypotension or hemorrhagic shock. The frequency of Sheehan's syndrome has decreased in developed countries as a result of improved obstetrical care, but this clinical entity remains a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of anterior pituitary dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of multiple pituitary hormones. The order of frequency of hormone loss has generally been found to be growth hormone and prolactin, gonadotropins, ACTH and thyrotropin. Women with Sheehan's syndrome exhibit a variety of signs and symptoms including failure to lactate or resume menses, loss of genital and axillary hair, and often occurring long after delivery clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis is based on laboratory studies, including hormone levels and hormone stimulation tests. Treatment of Sheehan's syndrome involves hormone replacement therapy. The aim of this study is to review current knowledge on clinically relevant aspects of this clinical entity and to provide the reader with recommendations concerning its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26817341

  7. Baby Schema in Infant Faces Induces Cuteness Perception and Motivation for Caretaking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Gur, Ruben C; Sachser, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that baby schema ('Kindchenschema') is a set of infantile physical features such as the large head, round face and big eyes that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in other individuals, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. Previous work on this fundamental concept was restricted to schematic baby representations or correlative approaches. Here, we experimentally tested the effects of baby schema on the perception of cuteness and the motivation for caretaking using photographs of infant faces. Employing quantitative techniques, we parametrically manipulated the baby schema content to produce infant faces with high (e.g. round face and high forehead), and low (e. g. narrow face and low forehead) baby schema features that retained all the characteristics of a photographic portrait. Undergraduate students (n = 122) rated these infants' cuteness and their motivation to take care of them. The high baby schema infants were rated as more cute and elicited stronger motivation for caretaking than the unmanipulated and the low baby schema infants. This is the first experimental proof of the baby schema effects in actual infant faces. Our findings indicate that the baby schema response is a critical function of human social cognition that may be the basis of caregiving and have implications for infant-caretaker interactions. PMID:22267884

  8. Is attentional prioritisation of infant faces unique in humans?: Comparative demonstrations by modified dot-probe task in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Sato, Anna; Kato, Akemi

    2013-09-01

    Humans innately perceive infantile features as cute. The ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that the infantile features of mammals and birds, known as the baby schema (kindchenschema), motivate caretaking behaviour. As biologically relevant stimuli, newborns are likely to be processed specially in terms of visual attention, perception, and cognition. Recent demonstrations on human participants have shown visual attentional prioritisation to newborn faces (i.e., newborn faces capture visual attention). Although characteristics equivalent to those found in the faces of human infants are found in nonhuman primates, attentional capture by newborn faces has not been tested in nonhuman primates. We examined whether conspecific newborn faces captured the visual attention of two Japanese monkeys using a target-detection task based on dot-probe tasks commonly used in human visual attention studies. Although visual cues enhanced target detection in subject monkeys, our results, unlike those for humans, showed no evidence of an attentional prioritisation for newborn faces by monkeys. Our demonstrations showed the validity of dot-probe task for visual attention studies in monkeys and propose a novel approach to bridge the gap between human and nonhuman primate social cognition research. This suggests that attentional capture by newborn faces is not common to macaques, but it is unclear if nursing experiences influence their perception and recognition of infantile appraisal stimuli. We need additional comparative studies to reveal the evolutionary origins of baby-schema perception and recognition. PMID:23644178

  9. Recent international developments in low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1986-11-01

    Recent international developments in low-level waste (LLW) disposal have included a move away from ocean dumping and a trend towards engineered and deeper dispoosal. Siting efforts have accelerated as interim storage facilities and existing sites reach capacity. The suspension of ocean dumping by the London Dumping Conventions of 1983 and 1985 has affected the LLW disposal practices of several countries, including the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Japan. Their plans now include disposal in trenches, shallow concrete pits, deep mines, sub-seabed caverns, horizontal mountain tunnels, and long-term storage facilities. Other recent developments include selection of the semi-desert Vaalputs site in South Africa, licensing activities for the Konrad mine site in the Federal Republic of Germany, design of at-reactor sites in Finland, and construction of a Baltic Sea site in Sweden. Also, the French have recently selected the Aube site for engineered disposal in monoliths and tumuli, now used at the La Manche site.

  10. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600?m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  11. Reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities of various beech plants (Fagaceae): testing and application of a mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Konrad, W.

    2006-12-01

    A mechanistic model (Konrad &Roth-Nebelsick a, in prep.) was applied for the reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities and photosynthesis parameters of extant and fossil Fagaceae. The model is based on an approach which couples diffusion and the biochemical process of photosynthesis. Atmospheric CO2 is calculated on the basis of stomatal diffusion and photosynthesis parameters of the considered taxa. The considered species include the castanoid Castanea sativa, two quercoids Quercus petraea and Quercus rhenana and an intermediate species Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis. In the case of Quercus petraea literature data were used. Stomatal data of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis, Quercus rhenana and Castanea sativa were determined by the authors. Data of the extant Castanea sativa were collected by applying a peeling method and by counting of stomatal densities on the digitalized images of the peels. Additionally, isotope data of leaf samples of Castanea sativa were determined to estimate the ratio of intercellular to ambient carbon dioxide. The CO2 values calculated by the model (on the basis of stomatal data and measured or estimated biochemical parameters) are in good agreement with literature data, with the exception of the Late Eocene. The results thus demonstrate that the applied approach is principally suitable for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric CO2.

  12. Imaging shocked sapphire in the 20--40 GPa range: The effect of crystal orientation on optical emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, David E.; Holmes, N. C.

    1999-06-01

    We have taken short exposure gated images (<= 50ns) of 20--40 GPa shock loaded, single crystal sapphire windows of the c-cut (0001), r-cut (1,-1,0,2), and a-cut (1,1,-2,0) orientations. We find that the c-cut and a-cut windows show evidence of intense emission in randomly distributed localized regions, whereas the r-cut windows were remarkably free of this effect and showed sparse emission. We interpret this effect in terms of slip band heating as previously demonstrated for ?-quartz (Shock-induced luminescence from x-cut quartz and z-cut lithium niobate, P.J. Brannon, R.W. Morris, C.H. Konrad and J.R. Asay, Shock waves in condensed matter - 1983), Asay, Graham, Straub eds., Elsevier Science Publishers 1984 and discuss the potential impact of these results on the usage of sapphire as a window for optical experiments on shock-loaded materials in which the Al_2O3 windows are shocked above the Hugoniot elastic limit.

  13. The Texas High-Precision Radial-Velocity Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, W. D.; Hatzes, A. P.

    The University of Texas program for the measurement of high precision stellar radial velocity variations has expanded considerably during the past few years, and now comprises four separate efforts: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planet Search (MOPS) program, using the coude spectrograph of the 2.7m Harlan Smith Telescope, now has eleven years of data. In addition to the companion to 16 Cygni B, several of the program stars are showing interesting variations, and may eventually be shown to have substellar companions. 2) The ESO Planet Search (ESOPS), using an I2 collaboration with Martin Kurster, Konrad Dennerl and Stefan Dobereiner, was the first high precision Southern Hemisphere radial velocity survey. This program now has accumulated five years of data on 37 target stars. Results on interesting objects, such as Proxima Centauri, will be shown. 3) In 1996 we started a search for substellar companions to Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck 1 HIRES spectrograph and I2 cell. The Hyades provide a homogeneous sample of stars formed at the same time with the same composition. The goal of this program is to determine the dependence of planet formation on the one remaining independent variable in the sample, the stellar mass. 4) The Hobby Eberly Telescope is now in the middle of its scientific commissioning. Its high resolution spectrograph will be installed in the fall of 1998. This queue scheduled telescope is an ideal facility to use for a detailed survey of a broad sample of stars in the solar neighborhood.

  14. Worst case optimization: a method to account for uncertainties in the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflugfelder, D.; Wilkens, J. J.; Oelfke, U.

    2008-03-01

    The sharp dose gradients which are possible in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) not only offer the possibility of generating excellent target coverage while sparing neighbouring organs at risk, but can also lead to treatment plans which are very sensitive to uncertainties in treatment variables such as the range of individual Bragg peaks. We developed a method to account for uncertainties of treatment variables in the optimization based on a worst case dose distribution. The worst case dose distribution is calculated using several possible realizations of the uncertainties. This information is used by the objective function of the inverse treatment planning system to generate treatment plans which are acceptable under all considered realizations of the uncertainties. The worst case optimization method was implemented in our in-house treatment planning software KonRad in order to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for clinical cases. In this paper, we investigated range uncertainties, setup uncertainties and a combination of both uncertainties. Using our method the sensitivity of the resulting treatment plans to these uncertainties is considerably reduced.

  15. Multipartite entanglement evolution under separable operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Gour, Gilad

    2012-11-01

    We study how multipartite entanglement evolves under the paradigm of separable operations, which include the local operations and classical communication as a special case. We prove that the average “decay” of entanglement induced by a separable operation is measure independent (among SL-invariant ones) and state independent: The ratio between the average output entanglement and the initial entanglement is solely a function of the separable operation, regardless of the input state and of the SL-invariant entanglement measure being used. We discuss the “disentangling power” of a quantum channel and show that it exhibits a similar state invariance as the average entanglement decay ratio. Our Rapid Communication significantly extends the bipartite results of Horodecki and Horodecki, Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 901 (2010), Konrad , Nat. Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys885 4, 99 (2008), and Tiersch , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.170502 101, 170502 (2008) as well as the multipartite one of Gour, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.190504 105, 190504 (2010), all of the previous work being restricted to one-sided or particular noise models.

  16. Intensity modulated irradiation of a thorax phantom: comparisons between measurements, Monte Carlo calculations and pencil beam calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laub, Wolfram U.; Bakai, Annemarie; Nüsslin, Fridtjof

    2001-06-01

    The present study investigates the application of compensators for the intensity modulated irradiation of a thorax phantom. Measurements are compared with Monte Carlo and standard pencil beam algorithm dose calculations. Compensators were manufactured to produce the intensity profiles that were generated from the scientific version of the KonRad IMRT treatment-planning system for a given treatment plan. The comparison of dose distributions calculated with a pencil beam algorithm, with the Monte Carlo code EGS4 and with measurements is presented. By measurements in a water phantom it is demonstrated that the method used to manufacture the compensators reproduces the intensity profiles in a suitable manner. Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom show that the accelerator head model used for simulations is sufficient. No significant overestimations of dose values inside the target volume by the pencil beam algorithm are found in the thorax phantom. An overestimation of dose values in lung by the pencil beam algorithm is also not found. Expected dose calculation errors of the pencil beam algorithm are suppressed, because the dose to the low density region lung is reduced by the use of a non-coplanar beam arrangement and by intensity modulation.

  17. Mitochondrial diaphorases as NAD+ donors to segments of the citric acid cycle that support substrate-level phosphorylation yielding ATP during respiratory inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Pour-Ghaz, Issa; Mansour, Josef J.; Németh, Beáta; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Substrate-level phosphorylation mediated by succinyl-CoA ligase in the mitochondrial matrix produces high-energy phosphates in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, when the electron transport chain is dysfunctional, provision of succinyl-CoA by the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is crucial for maintaining the function of succinyl-CoA ligase yielding ATP, preventing the adenine nucleotide translocase from reversing. We addressed the source of the NAD+ supply for KGDHC under anoxic conditions and inhibition of complex I. Using pharmacologic tools and specific substrates and by examining tissues from pigeon liver exhibiting no diaphorase activity, we showed that mitochondrial diaphorases in the mouse liver contribute up to 81% to the NAD+ pool during respiratory inhibition. Under these conditions, KGDHC's function, essential for the provision of succinyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA ligase, is supported by NAD+ derived from diaphorases. Through this process, diaphorases contribute to the maintenance of substrate-level phosphorylation during respiratory inhibition, which is manifested in the forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase. Finally, we show that reoxidation of the reducible substrates for the diaphorases is mediated by complex III of the respiratory chain.—Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Pour-Ghaz, I., Mansour, J. J., Németh, B., Starkov, A. A., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. Mitochondrial diaphorases as NAD+ donors to segments of the citric acid cycle that support substrate-level phosphorylation yielding ATP during respiratory inhibition. PMID:24391134

  18. [An image of Saint Ottilia with reading stones].

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F; Broucek, A

    1995-01-01

    Reading stones to facilitate reading in cases of presbyopia are mentioned in the literature, for example in the works of the Middle High German poet Albrecht and of Konrad of Würzburg. Most representations of the abbess, Saint Ottilia, show her holding a book with a pair of eyes in her hands. A gothic altarpiece (1485-1490), kept in the museum of the Premonstratensian Canons of Wilten in Innsbruck, Tyrol, shows a triune representation of St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, with Mary and Jesus and St. Ursula with her companions. St. Ottilia is depicted on the edge of the painting. Two lenses, one on either side of the open book in her hand, magnify the letters underneath. As the two lenses are not held together by bows or similar devices, they are probably a rare representation of reading stones. The alter showing scenes of the life of St. Mary and St. Ursula was done by Ludwig Konraiter. A panel on the same alter, depicting the death of the Virgin, shows an apostle with rivet spectacles. PMID:8851062

  19. [A psychosocial view of a number of Jewish mourning rituals during normal and pathological grief].

    PubMed

    Maoz, Benyamin; Lauden, Ari; Ben-Zion, Itzhak

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the three stages of normal and pathological mourning, emphasizing the constellation embodied in Judaism for this process. These stages are: shock, acute mourning, working through and reconciliation. We present the important question: "How to define pathological mourning?" It is certainly not only a matter of extending beyond the accepted time limits of the mourning process, but also a question of the intensity of mourning in ones daily life, the degree of being preoccupied with it, and the degree of priority that this mourning process has in an individual's life. A number of forms of pathological mourning, during the three mentioned stages, are described, with special attention to Jewish mourning rituals, especially: The "rending of the garments" (Kriyah), the Kaddish, the Shiva, and the termination of mourning after a fixed period of time. One of the possible interpretations of these rituals is that they prevent and neutralize manifestations of aggression and violence. This is an analogue to the function of biological (genetic) rituals which according to the theory of Konrad Lorenz, also minimize the dangerous aggression between the species in nature. The religious ritual converts an aggressive behavior to a minimal and symbolic action, often re-directed, so that an originally dangerous behavior becomes a ritual with an important communicative function. PMID:15116587

  20. Organisms in their milieu: Alfred Giard, his pupils, and early ethology, 1870-1930.

    PubMed

    De Bont, Raf

    2010-03-01

    This essay tells the story of early French ethology--"the science dealing with the habits of living beings and their relations, both with each other and with the cosmic environment." The driving force behind this "ethological movement" was the biologist Alfred Giard (1846-1908). The essay discusses how the ethological viewpoint of Giard and his pupils developed in a period in which the current disciplines of field biology were not yet crystallized. It also shows how concepts and research interests could travel within Giard's network from one working context to another, even from one discipline to another. By studying this traveling process, the essay reveals that, unlike the modern ethology of Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, Giard's ethology was not a discipline at all but, rather, a scientific attitude. This scientific attitude triggered a reappraisal of fieldwork, but at the same time Giard's ethology was never limited to the field alone. It also found its way to the laboratory, the museum, and the zoo. PMID:20575488

  1. Holocene geological records of flood regime in French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Wilhelm, Bruno; Giguet-Covex, Charline; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Debret, Maxime; Révillon, Sidonie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Revel, Marie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a review of a ca. 10-years research effort (1-9) aiming at reconstructing floods dynamics in in French Alps through the Holocene, based on lake sediment records. We will particularly discuss how such geological records can be considered as representative of past climate. This implies a wise interpretation of data in order to really understand "what does the core really says". Namely, we showed that different lake systems record different types of flood events. Low altitude lakes, fed by large-scale catchment areas are more sensitive to regional heavy rainfall events (2-5), whereas high altitude small lakes record local extreme rainfall events (6). Moreover, human societies' development must be taken into account as it is susceptible to modulate the climate-geological record relationship (7). Altogether our data permit the establishment of a Holocene-long perspective upon both regional heavy rainfall and torrential activities in high elevation sites. We hence show that both types of events frequency co-evolve in Northern as well as Southern French Alps where Holocene colder spells generally present higher flood frequencies (6-9). On the other hand, intensities of torrential events present a North-South opposite pattern: during warm spells (e.g. the Medieval Warm Period or nowadays), northern Alps are subject to rare but extremely intense heavy rainfall events, whereas in the southern Alps torrential floods are both rare and weak. During cold spells (e.g. the Little Ice Age), the inverse pattern is observed: torrential floods are more frequent everywhere and above-average intensity in Southern Alps. This point is particularly important for risk management in mountain areas in a context of global warming. Our results point out how complex can be the response of regional system to global climate changes. We are hence far from completely understanding this complexity which is moreover imperfectly simulated by climate models. As geological records represent the only way to reconstruct long-term trends in flood regimes, more efforts must still be pursued to get a more complete image of this complexity and further improve climate models. 1. Chapron et al. The Holocene 12, 177-185 (2002) 2. Arnaud et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 51, 81-92 (2012) 3. Debret et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2185-2200 (2010) 4. Arnaud et al. The Holocene 15, 420-428 (2005) 5. Revel-Rolland et al. Chem. Geol. 224, 183-200 (2005) 6. Wilhelm et al. Clim. Change 113, 563-581 (2012) 7. Giguet-Covex et al. Quat. Res. 77, 12-22 (2012) 8. Wilhelm et al. Quat. Res. 78, 1-12 (2012) 9. Wilhelm et al. J. Quat. Sci. 28, 189-199 (2013)

  2. 100-DR-1 radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-28

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted over the surface of the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 100-DR-1 radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the operable unit-specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the operable unit surface area. The survey methodology was based on utilization of USRADS for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near 6 in. and at 3 ft from the surface soil. The purpose of the survey is to identify the location of unidentified subsurface radioactive material areas and any surface contamination associated with these areas. The radiological surveys were conducted using both a digital count rate meter with a NaI detector reporting in counts per minute (CPM) and a dose rate meter reporting micro-Roentgen per hour (uR) connected to a CHEMRAD Tennessee Corp. Series 2000 USRADS. The count rate meter was set for gross counting, i.e., Window ``out``. The window setting allows detection of low, intermediate, and high energy photons. The USRADS equipment is used to record the detector readings verses the location of the readings, generate a map of the survey area, and save the data on computer storage media.

  3. [The modifying effect of a hypoxic gas mixture on the development of radiation-induced sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Dubrovskaja, V F; Gubareva, A V; Stepanov, R P

    1990-01-01

    Female mice (CBA X C57 Bl) F1 were exposed a single total-body gamma-irradiation with a dose efficiency of 6.5 Gy/min with doses of 2.5-7.5 Gy in air or inhaling a gas mixture of 6-6.5% oxygen and 94-93% nitrogen. All naturally died animals were examined pathoanatomically. By means of the rate of cardio- and nephroscleroses a protective effect of hypoxia was found with a dose modification factor of 1.5. Dynamics and degree of intensity of a radiogenic pneumosclerosis were studied by means of a stereologic analysis 3, 6, and 12 months after a single roentgen irradiation of the right thorax half of rats with a dose efficiency of 2.2 Gy/min with doses of 10, 14.3, 20 Gy in air and 14.3 and 20 Gy inhaling a gas mixture with 10% oxygen and 90% nitrogen. Applying the criterion of accumulation of connective tissue within the irradiated lung the protecting effect of hypoxia was estimated according to the dose modification coefficient, that varied in a range of 1.0-1.64. PMID:2188283

  4. Image-assisted non-invasive and dynamic biomechanical analysis of human joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhit, Abdullah A.; Pickering, Mark R.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Ward, Tom; Smith, Paul N.

    2013-07-01

    Kinematic analysis provides a strong link between musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint conditions, treatment planning/monitoring and prosthesis design/outcome. However, fast and accurate 3D kinematic analysis still remains a challenge in order to translate this procedure into clinical scenarios. 3D computed tomography (CT) to 2D single-plane fluoroscopy registration is a promising non-invasive technology for biomechanical examination of human joints. Although this technique has proven to be very precise in terms of in-plane translation and rotation measurements, out-of-plane motion estimations have been a difficulty so far. Therefore, to enable this technology into clinical translation, precise and fast estimation of both in-plane and out-of-plane movements is crucial, which is the aim of this paper. Here, a fast and accurate 3D/2D registration technique is proposed to evaluate biomechanical/kinematic analysis. The proposed algorithm utilizes a new multi-modal similarity measure called ‘sum of conditional variances’, a coarse-to-fine Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach for robust gradient-descent optimization and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients for out-of-plane rotations. Computer simulations and in vitro experiments showed that the new approach was robust in terms of the capture range, required significantly less iterations to converge and achieved good registration and kinematic accuracy when compared to existing techniques and to the ‘gold-standard’ Roentgen stereo analysis.

  5. WHIPLASH INJURIES—Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, O. Leonard

    1958-01-01

    Whiplash injury may extend far beyond the neck, and may involve even the soft tissues of the pelvis. For permanent recovery, all the injuries must be evaluated and treated together. When impact from the rear snaps the head back and then forward, posterior subluxations in the cervical spine cause anterior-posterior narrowing of the intervertebral foramina, which may result in injury to the cervical nerve roots. Impact at the front, causing hyperflexion followed by hyperextension, has a similar effect although usually not as severe. Resulting symptoms may not appear until two or three weeks later, when irritative lesions have developed because of hemorrhage or swelling. Mild or progressive degenerative changes may cause no symptoms but may predispose the affected area to injury following some slight trauma. Capsular ligaments of the lateral intervertebral joints are especially liable to whiplash injury which may give rise to scars and adhesions that compress spinal nerves. Sympathetic system involvement may cause reflex and referred pain. Detailed neurologic, roentgen and electromyographic studies may be necessary for proper evaluation of injuries. Seemingly psychosomatic pain or disability is likely to have some physical basis in whiplash injuries. In 33 patients with whiplash injury, some recently injured and some chronically disabled with persistent symptoms, good results were observed following hydromassage, hot packs, joint mobilization exercises and, in a few, cervical or pelvic traction. PMID:13585155

  6. The X-ray emission of 3C 273 observed with ASCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; Ricker, George; Woo, Jonathan; Weaver, Kim; Kii, Tsuneo; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kotani, Taro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    We report preliminary results of an Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation of 3C 273. There is no spectral variability within the ASCA observation, in contrast to the longer term behavior found with European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga which established significant changes in the spectral index of the power-law continuum on timescales of a week or more, uncorrelated with luminosity. Comparison of the ASCA data with a simultaneous Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Ginga observation in 1990 December shows that while the shape of the spectrum above approximately 1 keV is essentially the same, the flux in the soft component, below approximately 1 keV, considerably weaker relative to the hard component in the ASCA observation. The 2-10 keV luminosity is at least a factor of approximately 1.5 greater in the ASCA observation than in the ROSAT/Ginga observation while the ratio of 2-10 keV luminosity to 0.4-1.0 keV luminosity increases by a factor of approximately 1.2. Thus the spectral shape of the hard component appears to be independent of the relative magnitude of the soft component and is an important constraint on emission and reprocessing models. We find no significant Fe K line-emission in this observation. The data also highlight very well some of the outstanding problems in the instrumental responses.

  7. BeppoSAX Observations of MKN 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mkn 110 is a bright, nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, which underwent a long optical monitoring campaign, during the past 12 years. Optical observations show that Mkn 110 vary, both in flux and spectral shape. The intensity and width of its Broad Emission Lines (BELs) also vary, from typical Seyfert 1, to typical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSyl) values, so suggesting that this could be the first supermassive black holes where accretion state related transitions, as frequently observed in stellar-size black holes, have finally been observed. To verify these suggestions we asked to monitor Mkn 110 with BeppoSAX with three 50 ksec observations six months apart. The goal of the proposal was to observe spectral variations in X-ray, already suggested by previous, existing ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) observations of the same source. The first of these three SAX (Satellite per Astronomia X) observations was taken on May 2000, and lacks the Low-Energy instrument (0.1-2 keV is the band in which NLSy1 and Sy1 X-ray spectra differ most).

  8. Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Zabanov, S.A.; Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. |

    1995-06-01

    In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Global Studies of Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy, The Magellanic Clouds, and M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this grant we used various spacecraft surveys of the Galaxy and M31 in conjunction with our extensive CO spectral line surveys to address central problems in galactic structure and the astrophysics of molecular clouds. These problems included the nature of the molecular ring and its relation to the spiral arms and central bar, the cosmic ray distribution, the origin of the diffuse X-ray background, the distribution and properties of x-ray sources and supernova remnants, and the Galactic stellar mass distribution. For many of these problems, the nearby spiral M31 provided an important complementary perspective. Our CO surveys of GMCs (Galactic Molecular Clouds) were crucial for interpreting Galactic continuum surveys from satellites such as GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite) because they provided the missing dimension of velocity or kinematic distance. GMCs are a well-defined and widespread population of objects whose velocities we could readily measure throughout the Galaxy. Through various emission and absorption mechanisms involving their gas, dust, or associated Population I objects, GMCs modulate the galactic emission in virtually every major wavelength band. Furthermore, the visibility. of GMCs at so many wavelengths provided various methods of resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity for these objects in the inner Galaxy. Summaries of our accomplishments in each of the major wavelength bands discussed in our original proposal are given

  10. Pediatric surgery between 1860 and 1900.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, R J

    1995-07-01

    The twentieth century begins the modern era of pediatric surgery, a time of innovation and vastly improved operative survival. Until then, many correctable congenital anomalies had been described in case reports only as medical curiosities, seemingly having no chance for surgical cure, but the challenge was available to those wishing to accept. The first texts devoted to surgical diseases of infancy and childhood were descriptive, emphasizing visible and palpable lesions, tuberculosis, musculoskeletal deformity, and major trauma, but also recognized that "surgical diseases of children by their number, their variety, and their character must, we think, be studied in a special manner and demand a special chapter in surgical books." The construction of Children's Hospitals during the nineteenth century identified the need to provide special facilities for children. Surgical antisepsis was practiced and general anesthesia used. Physicians such as Hirschsprung recognized a wide spectrum of treatable surgical conditions that would soon become the domain of pediatric surgeons. Indeed, at that moment in time at the very beginning of the twentieth century, Roentgen discovered the x-ray, Ladd received his MD degree at Harvard, the first pediatric appendectomies for appendicitis were successfully performed, and Fredet and Ramstedt recognized that pyloroplasty was not the preferred treatment for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Modern pediatric surgery had passed from embryo to fetus to newborn. PMID:7472944

  11. A preoperative x-ray scoring system for risk assessment of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, R J; Markowitz, R I

    1984-06-01

    The survival rate for newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is about 50%. The preoperative x-rays of 34 babies with CDH, presenting during the first 12 hours of life were reviewed to determine whether or not the 16 survivors (47%) might be identified. A scoring system using five roentgen findings having a significant correlation with survival (side of diaphragmatic hernia, location of stomach, presence of pneumothorax, relative volume of aerated ipsilateral and contralateral lung) were summed to obtain a total x-ray score. Cumulative scores ranged from 2 to 9 with 4 of 16 survivors (25%) and 16 of 18 (89%) non-survivors scoring above 6. Twelve of 16 (75%) survivors and 2 of 18 non-survivors (11%) (P less than 0.005), scored 6 or less. Individual x-ray findings were less specific in predicting outcome than the total score. Careful examination of the preoperative chest x-ray may give the surgeon an additional method for predicting outcome following repair of CDH during the first 12 hours of life. PMID:6747785

  12. The composition and structure of white dwarf atmospheres revealed by extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Martin A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Holberg, Jay B.; Sion, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    The ROentgen SATellite (ROSAT) and Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky surveys have resulted in an important change in our understanding of the general composition of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarf atmospheres, with the photospheric opacity dominated by heavy elements rather than helium in the hottest stars (T > 40, 000 K). Most stars cooler than 40,000 K have more or less pure H atmospheres. However, one question, which has not been resolved, concerned the specific nature of the heavy elements and the role of helium in the hottest white dwarfs. One view of white dwarf evolution requires that H-rich DA stars form by gravitational settling of He from either DAO or He-rich central stars of planetary nebulae. In this case, the youngest (hottest) DA white dwarfs may still contain visible traces of He. Spectroscopic observations now available with EUVE provide a crucial test of these ideas. Analysis of data from the EUVE Guest Observer programme and EUVE public archive allows quantitative consideration of the sources of EUV opacity and places limits on the abundance of He which may be present.

  13. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-07-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer.

  14. High-current beam transport in the FXR injector

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.

    1982-12-01

    The FXR injector is designed to generate a nominal 4-kA, 1.5-MeV electron beam which represents the central portion of a 15 to 20 kA beam emitted from the cold cathode. Because of difficulties in reaching the 4-kA level repeatably and with good beam quality during the early running-in experiments, it was decided at that time to develop an accelerator tune based on a 2.5-kA injected beam that was better behaved. This beam adequately satisfied the overall design requirements for FXR, with 500 Roentgen of bremsstrahlung produced at 1 meter from the target, and with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. More recently, we have begun to develop a 4-kA tune. During preliminary tests carried out in September and October, 1982, we found that in order to extract a 3.8-kA, 1.65-MeV injector beam, the earlier, axial-magnetic-field profile had to be modified and strengthened considerably, and the observed quality (pulse shape) of the emerging beam was not as good as before. This note will describe the modeling effort that was carried out to explain these results.

  15. Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

  16. Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.

    1981-02-10

    For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

  17. Evolution of urological imaging.

    PubMed

    Bueschen, Anton J; Lockhart, Mark E

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of urological imaging has had a major impact on the diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases since the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen in 1895. Early developments included plain films of the abdomen, retrograde urographic techniques, development of contrast media, excretory urography, renal mass puncture, renal angiography, cystography and nuclear medicine procedures. These procedures led to the maturation of the specialties of diagnostic radiology and urology, and the development of the subspecialties of pediatric urology and urological radiology during the first seven decades of the 20th century. Subsequently, many imaging advances have occurred leading to changes in diagnosis and management of urological patients. Ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging technologies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are increasingly applied in urological evaluation, treatment and surveillance. Current developments include dual energy computed tomography, positron emission tomography computed tomography, renal donor and renal transplant imaging, prostate magnetic resonance imaging, and microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound. Imaging advances will continue. It is the responsibility of all physicians to assess the advantages of new developments while weighing those advantages against the additional radiation exposure and the costs associated with new procedures. PMID:21114686

  18. X-ray-emitting gas surrounding the spiral galaxy NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Pidis, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    We observed the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) to search for how extraplanar gas expected in the galactic fountain model. Diffuse X-ray emission surrounds the disk with a Half Width at Half Maximum (HWHM) for the surface brightness perpendicular to the disk of 50 sec (2.4 kpc) and a radial extent of approximately 6.5 kpc, both of which are similar in extent to the extended H(alpha) and radio halo component; the implied density scale height for the hot gas is 7 kpc. The spectrum is best fitted with a hard stellar component and a soft diffuse gas component of temperature 3.6 x 10(exp 6) K. The density of this gas is 2 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm, the luminosity is 4.4 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, the mass is 1 x 10(exp 8) solar mass, and the pressure (P/k) is 1.4 10(exp 4) K/cu cm. These data are consistent with this gas participating in a galactic fountain, where the material approaches hydrostatic equilibrium before cooling at a rate of 0.12 solar mass/yr. The cooled material may be responsible for some of the H(alpha) emission.

  19. Two new supernova remnants in OB associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Chu, You-Hua; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Oey, M. S.; Klein, Uli

    1994-01-01

    We discovered two extended x-ray sources in a Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observation pointed at the H II region N9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These two sources are in the H II regions N4D and N9. The x-ray characteristics suggest that both might be supernova remnants (SNRs). Follow-up charge coupled device (CCD) images taken with interference filters show high (S II)/H-alpha ratios in the optical nebulae of these x-ray sources, confirming the presence of high velocity shocks commonly seen in SNRs. These two sources are also detected in the radio continuum at 8.55 and 4.75 GHz; both appear nonthermal compared to nearby H II regions. The confirmation of these two SNRs demonstrates that many SNRs in or near H II regions have been overlooked in previous surveys, and that the ROSAT x-ray survey combined with an optical CCD imaging survey of the Magellanic Clouds would provide the most effective way to uncover SNRs.

  20. The carbon-based structures synthesized through nuclear reactions in helium at 1.1?kbar pressure under irradiation with braking ?-rays of 10?MeV threshold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R.; Wilczynska-Kitowska, T.

    2015-01-01

    A helium high-pressure chamber (HeHPC), made from beryllium bronze, filled with gaseous helium at an initial pressure of about 1.1 kbar was irradiated by braking ?-rays of 10 MeV threshold energy during 1.0×105 \\text{s} at an electron beam current 22\\text-24 ? \\text{A} . Before opening of the chamber, the residual pressure inside was equal to 430 bar. Synthesized foils of black colour and other multiple objects were found inside the HeHPC at the inner surfaces of the reaction chamber made of high-purity copper, at the entrance window for ?-rays of beryllium bronze, and at the copper collector of nuclear and chemical reaction products. The element analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe roentgen analysis (MPRA) allowed us to establish that the foils were predominantly made of carbon and smaller quantities of other elements from carbon to iron. The developed approach agrees well with a series of studies carried out by the authors where dense hydrogen and deuterium gases are acted on by ?-rays in the presence or absence of metals in the reaction chamber.

  1. Solar gamma-ray spectrometer GRIS onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Trofimov, Yu. A.; Lupar, E. E.; Glyanenko, A. S.; Faradzhaev, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    GRIS (Gamma and Roentgen Irradiation of the Sun) is a scientific instrument for detection of hard X-rays and gamma-rays of solar flares with the energies from 50 keV to 200 MeV and for registration of solar neutrons with energies above 30 MeV. The experiment will be performed since 2019 onboard the International Space Station. The instrument includes two spectrometers: the low energy spectrometer based on a fast scintillator with high energy resolution 3.5-4.5% at 662 keV (LaBr3(Ce) or CeBr3) and dimensions ø7.62 × 7.62 cm, and the high energy spectrometer based on CsI(Tl) scintillator ø12 × 15 cm (which is also intended for neutron registration). The apparatus will be mounted on the oriented platform outside the Zvezda service module in 2019. Simulated response of the detectors to background radiation and to solar flares of different magnitudes and compositions obtained with GEANT4 toolkit confirms the instrument's possibility to measure different components of the solar flares spectra: narrow gamma lines, pion decay component, etc. with a sufficient confidence due to the usage of two types of detectors.

  2. Status of ART-XC/SRG Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Grebenev, S.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Drozdova, T.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Babyshkin, V.; Lomakin, I.; Menderov, A.; Moskvinov, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; ODell, S. L.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in March 2016 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is fabricating the flight mirror modules for the ART-XC/SRG. Each mirror module will be aligned with a focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detectors which will operate over the energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of less than 1', a field of view of approximately 34' and an expected energy resolution of about 10 percent at 14 keV.

  3. The ART-XC Instrument on Board the SRG Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlinksy, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovish, A.; Sunyaeve, R.; Churazov, E.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes . a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6- 30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1 ', a field of view of 30 ' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

  4. Microcontrolled pyro-electric instrument for measuring X-ray intensity in mammography.

    PubMed

    de Paula, M H; de Carvalho, A A; Brassalotti, A L; Alter, A J; Sakamoto, W K; Malmonge, J A; de Almeida, A

    2005-11-01

    A novel instrument for measurement of X-ray intensity from mammography consists of a sensitive pyro-electric detector, a high-sensitivity, low-noise current-to-voltage converter, a microcontroller and a digital display. The heart of this device, and what makes it unique is the pyro-electric detector, which measures radiation by converting heat from absorbed incident X-rays into an electric current. This current is then converted to a voltage and digitised. The detector consists of a ferro-electric crystal; two types were tested: lithium tantalate and lithium niobate. X-ray measurement in mammography is challenging because of its relatively low photon energy range, from 11 keV to 15 keV equivalent mean energy, corresponding to a peak tube potential from 22 to 36 kV. Consequently, energy fluence rate or intensity is low compared with that of common diagnostic X-ray. The instrument is capable of measuring intensities as low as 0.25 mW m(-2) with precision greater than 99%. Not only was the instrument capable of performing in the clinical environment, with high background electromagnetic interference and vibration, but its performance was not degraded after being subjected to 140 roentgen (3.6 x 10(-2) C kg(-2) air) as measured by piezo-electric (d33) or pyro-electric coefficients. PMID:16594302

  5. The Evolution of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) from a Technological Perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detorie, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895 ionizing radiations have been used as a treatment for cancer. Such treatments have been based on either implantation of radioactive materials at the site of disease or by aiming external radiation beams at the diseased site. This later method is referred to as teletherapy because the beams originate from a location outside of the body distant from the disease site itself. A brief review of the basic radiation biology will be given to illustrate the rationale for therapeutic use of ionizing radiations and the effects of beam energy and beam type- particulate or photon. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the technological teletherapy developments supported by the required physical properties of the beams and their associated characteristics that make them suitable for patient treatments. Chronological highlights will include the following sources or devices: superficial x-rays, orthovaltage x-rays, megavoltage x-rays and Cobalt 60 photons, electron beams, neutron beams, negative pi mesons, protons, and heavy ions. The presentation will illustrate how the physical beam properties have been incorporated into modern radiation treatment devices, many of which are equipped with radiation imaging capability. Such devices include: linacs equipped with multileaf collimators for beam shaping and intensity modulation, the Gamma Knife for precise and accurate irradiation of brain tumors or arterial-venous malformations (AVM), the robotic arm based Cyber Knife, and the Helical Tomotherapy unit.

  6. ROSAT detection of an X-ray shadow in the 1/4-keV diffuse background in the Draco nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Mebold, U.; Hirth, W.; Herbstmeier, U.; Schmitt, J. H. M.

    1991-01-01

    The detection by the Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) X-ray telescope of a shadow in the 1/4-keV (C-band, 0.1 to 0.284 keV) cosmic diffuse background is reported. The location and morphology of the local minimum in X-rays are in clear agreement with a discrete H I cloud. The shadow is very deep with a minimum level at 50 percent of the surrounding emission; therefore, a minimum of 50 percent of the observed off-cloud flux must originate on the far side of the cloud. The analysis of H I velocity components links the cloud with the Draco nebula (distance of about 600 parsecs); it then follows that there is significant 1/4-keV X-ray emission at large distance (more than 400 parsecs) from the galactic plane along this line of sight. The extent of the distant emission region is uncertain, and if it indicates the existence of a hot galactic corona, it must be patchy in nature.

  7. Observations of x ray pulsars from the Kvant module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Churazov, E.; Loznikov, V.; Efremov, V. V.; Kaniovskiy, A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Yamburenko, N.; Melioranskiy, A.; Skinner, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    The Roentgen international x ray observatory on the Kvant module of the Mir space station has been successfully operating since the beginning of June 1987. Many x ray sources were observed and among them were several x ray pulsars. Four telescopes mounted on board the Kvant module cover a wide energy range with good timing resolution. Timing analysis of the Kvant module data suffers from the presence of only short continuous intervals of source observations, separated by 90 min gaps (90 min is the orbital period of the Mir space station around the Earth). The presence of 90 min gaps leads to the appearance of beat frequencies v=v sub 0 + or - n/90 min (n = 1, 2, 3). Special analysis was applied to avoid this difficulty. Results are presented of the pulsation period measurements of the x ray pulsars Her X-1, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, Vela X-1, A0535 + 26 by the instruments on board the Kvant module in 1987 to 1989. The values of the periods are reduced to the solar system barycenter and to the binary system barycenter (excluding A0535 + 26).

  8. Clinical management of a fused upper premolar with supernumerary tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Min; Jang, Ji-Hyun; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-11-01

    In dentistry, the term 'fusion' is used to describe a developmental disorder of dental hard tissues. In the permanent dentition, fusion of a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth usually involves the incisors or canines. However, a few cases of fusion involving premolars have also been reported to date. We present a rare case in which fusion of the maxillary left second premolar and a supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old girl was diagnosed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Alphard-3030, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd.). The tooth was bicuspidized after routine nonsurgical root canal treatment, and the separated teeth underwent appropriate restoration procedures. The second premolar and supernumerary tooth remained asymptomatic without any signs of inflammation after a follow-up period of 9 years. Identification of anatomical anomalies is important for treatment in cases involving fusion with supernumerary tooth, and therefore the microscopic examinations and CBCT are essential for the diagnosis. Fused teeth can be effectively managed by the comprehensive treatment which includes both endodontic and periodontal procedures. PMID:25383352

  9. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE STRICTURE OF ANAL CHANNELL].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, I M; Sadoviy, I Ya; Novytskiy, O V

    2015-09-01

    The results of treatment of 50 patients, suffering postoperative stricture of anal channell (SACH), who were treated in Proctology Department of Ivano-Frankivskiy Rural Clinical Hospital in 2006-2014 yrs, were analyzed. After conduction of hemorrhoidectomy in accordance to Milligan-Morgan method for chronic hemorrhoids grades III-IV a SACH have occurred in 46 (92%) patients, excision of a chronic anal fissura was performed in 3 (6%) and excision of perianal pointed condylomas--in 1 patient. In 2006-2007 yrs 11 (22%) patients were operated in accordance to approaches, which were conventional at that time (comparison group). In 2008 - 2014 yrs 39 (78%) patients were admitted to hospital (main group), in whom new approaches for diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment were applied, 30 (76.9%) of them were operated. The proposed method on isolated roentgen contrast investigation of anal channell have permitted to determine objectively a form, diameter and grade of the anal channel stricture, and it may be applied as a screening procedure, as additional objective criterion while choosing a surgical tactic. Application of the improved operative technique for SACH have permitted to lower its occurrence rate from 45.4 to 6.7%. PMID:26817078

  10. Simulation of internal backscatter effects on MTF and SNR of pixelated photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Alexander; Giersch, Juergen; Hoheisel, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Properties and performance of digital X-ray detectors for medical imaging can be studied by Monte Carlo simulations. Most simulations of such detectors simplify the setup by only taking the conversion layer into account neglecting everything behind. For hybrid detectors with Si as the conversion layer, such as the Medipix2 chip less photons are absorbed at higher photon energies in the conversion layer and thus may reach the detector ASIC including its bump bonds. For photon energies above the K-edges of the backscatter materials, fluorescence may occur. The fluorescence photons can have relatively long ranges and thus have a great impact on the MTF of the detector decreasing its spatial resolution. They also add noise to the detector decreasing the overall signal-difference-to-noise-ratio (SDNR). In our study we simulated the line spread functions (LSF) for photon-counting pixel detectors by Monte Carlo simulations, implementing the detectors in detail. We used the program ROSI (ROentgen SImulation) which is based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. The appropriate MTFs were calculated by FFT. We show that internal backscattering, especially from Sn bump bonds, contributes to the so-called low-frequency drop of the MTF. For a 300 ?m Si absorber on the Medipix2 chip, backscattering contributes up to 10% to the detected signal. This strongly decreases contrast by adding additional noise. Therefore, we also investigated the amount of noise added by internal backscattering.

  11. Intrinsic spatial resolution of semiconductor X-ray detectors: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoheisel, M.; Giersch, J.; Bernhardt, P.

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated the intrinsic limitation of the spatial resolution of a directly absorbing semiconductor detector. The primary interaction of an incident X-ray quantum is followed by a series of processes that generate Compton or fluorescence photons and subsequent electrons. Their ranges determine the spatial resolution of the detector, expressed in terms of the modulation transfer function. The effects of carrier transport have been neglected in this work.Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out in the 10-100keV energy range with the program, ROSI (Roentgen Simulation), which is based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. On a fine grid, the lateral distribution of deposited energy has been calculated in typical materials such as Se, CdTe, HgI2 and PbI2. The results can be used to either determine the point spread function of an energy-integrating detector, or to study multiple registration in adjacent pixels of photon-counting detectors.The results show that the complex absorption process determines the spatial resolution of the detector considerably. If a very high spatial resolution is required, a well-adapted semiconductor should be applied. Dependent on the energy range used, lists of favorable materials are given. At energies above 50keV, Compton scattering reduces spatial resolution in the high frequency range.

  12. [Salter-harris fractures in dogs and cats considering problems in radiological reports--a retrospective analysis of 245 cases between 1997 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Kneiss, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    To identify typical trauma patterns or frequent radiological pitfalls that could help a radiologists in their daily routine, a retrospective study of Salter-Harris fractures in dogs and cats was performed. Radiographs obtained in the period 1991-2012 of 288 fractures in 245 patients with suspected injuries affecting growth plates in the appendicular skeleton were retrieved from the imaging archive. The femur was the bone most frequently affected (46.5%), followed by the humerus (19.8%), tibia (13.5%) and radius (11.8%). The distal growth plate was in all bones more often involved than the proximal growth plate (79.5% vs. 20.5%). The frequency of Salter-Harris fractures was 39.9% type I, 37.8% type II, 3.1% type III and 19.1% type IV. In dogs the most common physeal fracture was a type IV fracture of the of the distal femur. Radiographically, physeal fractures were recognized by at least two Roentgen signs, including change in opacity, displacement of the epiphysis or the Thurston-Holland sign. On the basis of the review, the original radiographic reports of 44/288 fractures were considered erroneous regarding the incorrect Salter Harris grouping. In 5/44 instances, the radiological examination had technical deficiencies that may have contributed to the errors, including 3 with oblique projections. Minimal variations in the projection was evident in the majority of reviewed cases. Measures to help optimize radiographic reports will be discussed. PMID:24490347

  13. Flash x-ray radiography of argon jets in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiswiller, J.; Robert, E.; Huré, L.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Viladrosa, R.; Pouvesle, J. M.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a soft x-ray flash radiography technique. A very compact soft x-ray flash source has been specially designed for these studies. The table-top x-ray source developed in this work emits strong doses, up to one roentgen at the output window, of x-ray photons, with most of them in the characteristic lines of the anode material (photon energy in the energy range 5-10 keV), in pulse of 20 ns FWHM with an x-ray emission zone smaller than 0957-0233/9/9/024/img1. All these characteristics make this source attractive for the x-ray radiography of high-speed phenomena, down to ten nanoseconds duration and/or for the media presenting weak absorption for the harder x-ray photons emitted by more conventional flash x-ray systems. Argon streams in ambient air were chosen as a typical case to enlighten the potentialities of this method. Single-shot radiographs of such an argon jet through rectangular nozzles were obtained. No attempt of quantitative measurement of local density in the argon stream has yet been performed, only the qualitative structure of the jet has been investigated. Nevertheless, these preliminary results enable us to state that the diagnostics of gaseous or plasma media, even at rather low pressures, can proceed using soft x-ray flash radiography.

  14. Comparisons of surface vs. volumetric model-based registration methods using single-plane vs. bi-plane fluoroscopy in measuring spinal kinematics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Wang, Ting-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Shih, Ting-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Several 2D-to-3D image registration methods are available for measuring 3D vertebral motion but their performance has not been evaluated under the same experimental protocol. In this study, four major types of fluoroscopy-to-CT registration methods, with different use of surface vs. volumetric models, and single-plane vs. bi-plane fluoroscopy, were evaluated: STS (surface, single-plane), VTS (volumetric, single-plane), STB (surface, bi-plane) and VTB (volumetric, bi-plane). Two similarity measures were used: 'Contour Difference' for STS and STB and 'Weighted Edge-Matching Score' for VTS and VTB. Two cadaveric porcine cervical spines positioned in a box filled with paraffin and embedded with four radiopaque markers were CT scanned to obtain vertebral models and marker coordinates, and imaged at ten static positions using bi-plane fluoroscopy for subsequent registrations using different methods. The registered vertebral poses were compared to the gold standard poses defined by the marker positions determined using CT and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry analysis. The VTB was found to have the highest precision (translation: 0.4mm; rotation: 0.3°), comparable with the VTS in rotations (0.3°), and the STB in translations (0.6mm). The STS had the lowest precision (translation: 4.1mm; rotation: 2.1°). PMID:24011956

  15. Commentary on Fukushima and Beneficial Effects of Low Radiation1

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Jerry M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 160,000 people evacuated the area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP shortly after it was damage by the earthquake and tsunami. The evacuation order applied to 70,000 of them, while the other 90,000 left voluntarily and returned soon afterward. After more than two years, most of the 70,000 are still not allowed to return to their homes. The 1100 disaster-related deaths caused by the evacuation order show that this pre-cautionary action, taken to minimize cancer risks, was not “conservative.” In this paper, recent studies are reviewed on the consequences of the radioactive releases and on the benefits of many medical treatments with low doses of radiation that were carried out until the 1950s, before the radiation scare was created. Recent research has shed light on the high rate of spontaneous double-strand breaks in DNA and the adaptive protections in cells, tissues and humans that are up-regulated by low radiation. These defences prevent, repair, remove and replace damage, from all causes including external agents. Cancer mortality is reduced. The ICRP’s concept of radiation risk is wrong. It should revert to its 1934 concept, which was a tolerance dose of 0.2 roentgen (r) per day based on more than 35 years of medical experience. PMID:24298222

  16. Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berelavichus, Stanislav V; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Shirokov, Vadim S; Kubyshkin, Valeriy A; Kriger, Andrey G; Kondratyev, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Olga P

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery. METHODS: Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient’s anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net. RESULTS: There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars. CONCLUSION: This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs. PMID:22816028

  17. Scintillation Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Zane W.

    Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

  18. The particle background of the Rosat PSPC. [Position Sensitive Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Briel, U.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.

    1992-01-01

    In order to permit quantitative studies of the diffuse cosmic X-ray background and of extended X-ray sources, the particle induced background of the Roentgen Satellite, Rosat, Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) is parameterized. Data collected during 210,000 s of PSPC operation have been analyzed and the temporal, spectral, and spatial distributions investigated. About 77 percent of the residual events originate within the detector while the remainder enter through the counter window. During typical conditions, the count rate of the residual events is well correlated with the Master Veto (MV) count rate. The spectrum of these events is well described by a flat component plus a soft power law and an Al K-alpha line at 1.5 keV. Also during typical conditions, the ratio between the power law and flat components remains constant to +/- 4 while the relative Al K-alpha contribution increases with increasing MV count rate. The distribution of the counts over the field of view is uniform except for a slight radial dependence and shadowing caused by blockage of the externally produced component by the window support structure.

  19. [Irreversible image compression in radiology. Current status].

    PubMed

    Pinto dos Santos, D; Jungmann, F; Friese, C; Düber, C; Mildenberger, P

    2013-03-01

    Due to increasing amounts of data in radiology methods for image compression appear both economically and technically interesting. Irreversible image compression allows markedly higher reduction of data volume in comparison with reversible compression algorithms but is, however, accompanied by a certain amount of mathematical and visual loss of information. Various national and international radiological societies have published recommendations for the use of irreversible image compression. The degree of acceptable compression varies across modalities and regions of interest.The DICOM standard supports JPEG, which achieves compression through tiling, DCT/DWT and quantization. Although mathematical loss due to rounding up errors and reduction of high frequency information occurs this results in relatively low visual degradation.It is still unclear where to implement irreversible compression in the radiological workflow as only few studies analyzed the impact of irreversible compression on specialized image postprocessing. As long as this is within the limits recommended by the German Radiological Society irreversible image compression could be implemented directly at the imaging modality as it would comply with § 28 of the roentgen act (RöV). PMID:23456043

  20. CCTV for radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Shaufl, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) within radiation environments requires the system designer to have a thorough knowledge of the application environment and the electronic and optical components expected to survive within the environment. Of all the many ambient conditions to which CCTV components are exposed, from an air-conditioned office complex to 1,000 feet under the ocean, none is as demanding as the radiation encountered in the nuclear industrial field. Unhardened CCTV equipment can fail or degrade to the point of being useless when exposed to ionizing radiation doses of as little as 10/sup 3/ rads (Si) or to a neutron fluence of as little as 10/sup 11/ neutrons per square centimeter. (Rads (Si) stands for roentgens absorbed dose in silicon, while a fluence is defined as the time integral of neutron flux.) The applications for CCTV systems may require that each component within the system withstand a total ionizing radiation dose of 10/sup 8/ rads or greater.