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1

Konrad Repository Facing its Construction  

SciTech Connect

According to the German Atomic Energy Act the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. This duty was assigned to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). In 1982, the Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB) as the precursor of BfS applied for a license for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in the Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter at the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony. After 25 years of plan approval procedure and subsequent lawsuits the license is now valid and Konrad is waiting for construction. Facing this challenge BfS has established a project team to supervise the in-house and external activities to be done. It is intended to construct the Konrad repository within a preparation period of two years and a subsequent erection phase of four years. Thus, Konrad is planned to come into operation in 2013. In this paper the development of the plan approval procedure, the technical design of the planned repository, especially with regard to safety-related aspects, and the planning for the construction will be discussed. (authors)

Kunze, V. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

2008-07-01

2

KONRAD: Wide band digital HF receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic support measures (ESM) and spread spectrum techniques, i.e. direct sequence (DS) or frequency hopping (FH), in the HF band require a high dynamic range as well as a large instantaneous bandwidth in the receiver. This report describes an experimental digital receiver utilizing digitally implemented quadrature splitting and baseband translation. It is shown that the use of digital quadrature splitting improves the image rejection and that oversampling and digital filtering improves the dynamic range. The receiver is built of standard components which give a beneficial cost/performance ratio. The focus is on the analog hardware of the experimental digital receiver named KONRAD. The report also serves as the manual for this receiver.

Oscarsson, F.

1994-01-01

3

Roentgen's Discovery of the x-ray  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The text in this site describes how Roentgen's discovered x-rays, how he created the first x-ray image, and how he investigated x-ray properties. Early medical applications are explained. Also, the site contains a link to a small gallery of historical x-ray images.

2013-06-26

4

Roentgen stereophotogrammetry for analysis of cranial growth  

SciTech Connect

A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease.

Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.

1986-04-01

5

Historical Connections: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The Universal Genius.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains biographical facts, contributions, quotations, and anecdotes about mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Presents an activity in which students discover patterns in the sums of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers. Contains reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

Reimer, Wilbert; Reimer, Luetta

1994-01-01

6

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Disparities Research Programs CRCHD Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research

7

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Health Disparities Research CRCHD Research Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research

8

The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034  

SciTech Connect

Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

Kunze, V. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Postfach 10 01 49, 38201 Salzgitter (Germany)] [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Postfach 10 01 49, 38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2013-07-01

9

[Roentgen examinations of joints in patients with gouty arthritis].  

PubMed

The radiological examination of the joints affected is necessary for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and the assessment of the course of the chronic gout. The roentgen-morphological individual symptoms develop depending on the quantity-time-quotient of the precipitation of urates. Frequently apart from degenerative, destructive or osteoplastic symptoms only the signs of a chronic arthritis are an expression of the clinically existing chronic gout. The interpretation of the individual symptoms must be done taking into consideration the total clinical findings. In the primary attack of gout roentgen-morphological alterations at the joints are not to be expected. PMID:7136083

Römhild, N; Treutler, H

1982-07-01

10

Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.  

PubMed

This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his death in 1927. The claim that there was a "substantial but cautious modification of Johannsen's phenotype-genotype distinction" (Churchill, 1974, p. 24) from a statistical to an individual ontological perspective derives from a misreading of the 1903 and 1909 texts. The immediate purpose of this paper is to correct this reading of the 1903 monograph by showing how its problems and results grow out of Johannsen's earlier work in heredity and plant breeding. Johannsen presented his famous selection experiment as the culmination of a line of criticism of orthodox Darwinism by William Bateson, Hugo de Vries, and others (Johannsen, 1903). They had argued that evolution is based on stepwise rather than continuous change in heredity. Johannsen's paradigmatic experiment showed how stepwise variation in heredity could be operationally distinguished from the observable, continuous morphological variation. To test Galton's law of partial regression, Johannsen deliberately chose pure lines of self-fertilizing plants, a pure line being the descendants in successive generations of one single individual. Such a population could be assumed to be highly homogeneous with respect to hereditary type, and Johannsen found that selection produced no change in this type. Galton, he explained, had experimented with populations composed of a number of stable hereditary types. The partial regression which Galton found was simply an effect of selection between types, increasing the proportion of some types at the expense of others. PMID:20027784

Roll-Hansen, Nils

2009-01-01

11

Roentgen examination of laryngeal cancer: a critical evaluation.  

PubMed

In the management of laryngeal cancer, roentgen examination is imperative in the evaluation of every lesion. The currently most commonly used roentgen techniques are lateral soft tissue roentgenography of the neck, frontal tomography of the larnyx, and contrast laryngography. Clinical application of these techniques depends upon the character and site of the lesion. Lateral soft tissue roentgenography of the neck can reveal tumor mass located mainly in the sagittal plane of the larynx. In addition, it is often relied upon for the detection of destruction of the thyroid cartilage. Frontal tomography is a static study of the larynx and usually demonstrates tumor mass in profile. Contrast laryngography allows a dynamic study of the larynx and is the most reliable roentgen technique for a precise delineation of the anatomical abnormalities and a clear evaluation of the functional alteration of the involved structures of the larynx. When used in combination, particularly lateral soft tissue roentgenography of the neck and contrast laryngography, these techniques yield invaluable information in the diagnosis of the laryngeal cancer. PMID:1131728

Jing, B S

1975-01-01

12

Instinct in the '50s: the British reception of Konrad Lorenz's theory of instinctive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1950 most students of animal behavior in Britain saw the instinct concept developed by Konrad Lorenz in the 1930s as the central theoretical construct of the new ethology. In the early 1950s J.B.S Haldane made substantial efforts to undermine Lorenz's status, challenging his priority on key ethological concepts. Haldane was also critical of Lorenz's sharp distinction between instinctive and

PAUL E. GRIFFITHS

2004-01-01

13

Instinct in the '50s: the British reception of Konrad Lorenz's theory of instinctive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the 1950s most students of animal behavior in Britain saw the instinct concept developed by Konrad Lorenz in the 1930s as the central theoretical construct of the new ethology. In the mid 1950s J.B.S. Haldane made substantial efforts to undermine Lorenz's status as the founder of the new discipline, challenging his priority on key ethological concepts.

Paul E. Griffiths

2004-01-01

14

CRITERIA FOR MITRAL VALVOTOMY--Roentgen Evidence in Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Although catheterization is the most accurate and sometimes the only adequate method of measuring pulmonary hypertension as an indication for mitral valvotomy in rheumatic heart disease, it is so costly and complex that simpler methods are desirable. Clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension is least accurate; electrocardiography is confirmatory in half of all cases. Roentgenologic findings are more helpful; moderate or severe enlargement in the pulmonary arteries has been associated in 92 per cent of cases with resting systolic pressure of 50 to 90 mm. of mercury in the pulmonary artery. In cases in which there is little or no enlargement, hypertension may still be present and demonstrable only by catheterization. Other roentgen signs noted as helpful are abrupt narrowing of the large branches of the pulmonary artery in the middle and lower lobes, and the septal lines of Kerley. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Cosby, Richard S.; Jacobson, George

1959-01-01

15

Genetically Significant Dose to the Population of Turkey from Roentgen Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years attentions has been focussed on the genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation. Studies in various countries indicated that at present medical uses of roentgen rays, and especially diagnostic radiology, are responsible for the major...

G. Yulek

1980-01-01

16

Wilhelm Troll (1897 - 1978): idealistic morphology, physics, and phylogenetics.  

PubMed

Idealistic morphology as articulated by the botanist Wilhelm Troll, the main target of the critique voiced by the early phylogeneticists, was firmly embedded in its contemporary scientific, cultural, and political context. Troll appealed to theoretical developments in contemporary physics in support of his research program. He understood burgeoning quantum mechanics not only to threaten the unity of physics, but also the validity of the principle of causality. Troll used this insight in support of his claim of a dualism in biology, relegating the causal-analytical approach to physiology, while rejuvenating the Goethean paradigm in comparative morphology. This embedded idealistic morphology in the völkisch tradition that characterized German culture during the Weimar Republic and its aftermath. In contrast, the contemporary phylogeneticists anchored their research program in the rise of logical positivism and in Darwin's principle of natural selection. This, in turn, brought phylogenetic systematists of the late 1930s and early 1940s into the orbit of national-socialist racial theory and eugenics. In conclusion, the early debate between idealistic morphologists and phylogenetic systematists was not only ideologically tainted, but also implied a philosophical impasse that is best characterized as a conflict between the Goethean and Newtonian paradigm of natural science. PMID:22696827

Rieppel, Olivier

2011-01-01

17

Stranded in Vienna: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) (German Title: Gestrandet in Wien: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Ebert, born 1871 in Leipzig, did study astronomy for a short time in Geneva and afterwards in Munich where he finished his PhD. He spent most of his scientific life in France, working on problems of latitude determination and celestial mechanics, mostly at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. He was member of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Probably he used some of the regular meetings of the AG to introduce his work to German astronomers - for a rather short time he worked at the observatories of Kiel, Straßburg and Greifswald. In Greifswald he qualified for giving university lectures and he started to collect astronomical instruments to establish an observatory. M. Loewy, at that time director of Paris observatory, asked him to come back to France, first he had a position at Nice Observatory and shortly afterwards in Paris again. In 1909 he decided to live in Vienna, once more he applied for the qualification of giving university lectures; this time the procedure was easy going. He announced quite a lot of courses but nobody knows if they really took place. From February 1915 until his death in November 1916 he stayed in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna suffering from a disease which was uncurable at that time. His wife tried to get some information about his death in 1937. Already at that time he was unknown to the members of Vienna Observatory.

Schnell, Anneliese

2011-08-01

18

Use of the Roentgen Ray by the Medical Department of the United States Army in the War with Spain (1898).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soon after the discovery by Professor Roentgen of the new form of radiation and the placing on the market of apparatus for its production, the Surgeon-General of the Army supplied Roentgen-ray apparatus to several of the larger post hospitals. On the outb...

W. C. Borden

2000-01-01

19

Experimental Investigations of Radionuclide Migration in the Vicinity of the Projected Final Storage Site for Radioactive Waste in Konrad Mine. Investigation Program II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transport of radionuclides from the planned final storage site at Konrad mine into the biosphere was investigated in laboratory experiments. Crushed rock samples from the K 101 experimental borehole were analyzed in flow column batch, and diffusion ex...

D. Klotz H. Lang H. Moser

1986-01-01

20

Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

Wulf, Christoph

2003-01-01

21

APS News Online: This Month in Physics History â November 8, 1895: Roentgen's Discovery of X-rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the American Physical Societyâs APS News Online provides an explanation of the discovery of X-rays and the revolutionary impact it has had on physics and astronomy. Roentgen's scientific career is described along with the announcement of his discovery and the applications of X-rays for diagnosis and therapy that followed. Also included is the famous first X-ray photograph from Roentgen's experiments of his wife's hand.

2007-02-15

22

Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.  

PubMed

This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

Triarhou, Lazaros C

2012-01-01

23

Eine historische Schwarzpulver-Probe von der Belagerung Stralsunds durch Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 1678  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  An iron mortar bomb, which was excavated in a suburb of Stralsund (Northern Germany) and dates from the siege of this town\\u000a in 1678 by the elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm, has been investigated. The residual blasting powder was contaminated\\u000a with rock minerals and large amounts of iron oxide [?-FeO(OH)]. Analytical data and the results of explosivity tests are presented.

Rolf Gelius; Burkhart Günther

1993-01-01

24

Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>prologueThe equilibrium model of G.N. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg showed that sterilization of affected individuals themselves would never appreciably reduce the incidence of mental disorders, which were thought to be inherited in a recessive manner. Only a hideously massive program ÃÂ sterilizing or segregating the vast reservoir of heterozygous carriers predicted by the model ÃÂ would have any hope of reducing the incidence of mental illness.

2008-10-06

25

Accuracy and repeatability of Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for measuring knee laxity in longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) can be used to assess temporal changes in anterior–posterior (A–P) knee laxity. However, the accuracy and precision of RSA is dependent on many factors and should be independently evaluated for a particular application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of RSA for measuring A–P knee laxity. The specific aims were to assess

Braden C Fleming; Glenn D Peura; Joseph A Abate; Bruce D Beynnon

2001-01-01

26

The observatory of the Emperor Wilhelm University: the people behind the documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an overview of the personnel of Strasbourg Observatory between 1872 and 1919, by making use of official documents, recollections of Wilhelm Foerster and Hermann Kobold, reports and bibliographies. The careers of almost all scientific workers are briefly described, and supplemented by illustrations. In addition, the major projects carried out at the observatory are outlined, including those which were continued after the first world war, and the experiments which led to the development of a seismological station in Strasbourg. An Appendix includes the bibliography of PhD theses and of annual reports.

Duerbeck, H. W.

27

Wilhelm von Humboldt and the ‘Orient’: On Edward W. Said’s remarks on Humboldt’s Orientalist studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt’s studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed. Penguin Books, London, 1995] considers Humboldt to be part of the “official

Markus Meßling

2008-01-01

28

Comparing precision of distortion-compensated and stereophotogrammetric Roentgen analysis when monitoring fusion in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods to measure sagittal plane segmental motion in the cervical spine are compared. Translational and rotational motion was measured in nine cervical motion segments of nine patients by distortion-compensated (DCRA) as well as by stereophotogrammetric Roentgen analysis (RSA). To compare measurement precision of the new DCRA protocol with the established RSA technique under realistic clinical conditions and to discuss

Gunnar Leivseth; Frode Kolstad; Øystein P. Nygaard; Björn Zoega; W. Frobin; P. Brinckmann

2006-01-01

29

The first ascent to the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador by Wilhelm Reiss (1838-1908)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcano Cotopaxi in South America is 5,897 m high and is one of the highest active volcanoes of the world and the second highest volcano in the Andes after the Chimborazo (6,310 m). In Ecuador, there are more than 20 volcanoes contributing to the spectacular mountain range diving this country between the western and eastern lowlands. There have been more than 50 reports of volcanic activity at Cotopaxi since 1738, among which those from the years 1744, 1768, and 1877 are the largest. During the 1877 eruption, the whole summit glacier collapsed and a huge mudflow spread out for more than 100 km and flooded the city of Latacunga. Five years prior to this catastrophic event, the German geologist Wilhelm Reiss from the University of Heidelberg ascended Cotopaxi for the first time together with his supporter Angel M. Escobar from Columbia.

Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

2014-04-01

30

The first ascent to the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador by Wilhelm Reiss (1838-1908)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcano Cotopaxi in South America is 5,897 m high and is one of the highest active volcanoes of the world and the second highest volcano in the Andes after the Chimborazo (6,310 m). In Ecuador, there are more than 20 volcanoes contributing to the spectacular mountain range diving this country between the western and eastern lowlands. There have been more than 50 reports of volcanic activity at Cotopaxi since 1738, among which those from the years 1744, 1768, and 1877 are the largest. During the 1877 eruption, the whole summit glacier collapsed and a huge mudflow spread out for more than 100 km and flooded the city of Latacunga. Five years prior to this catastrophic event, the German geologist Wilhelm Reiss from the University of Heidelberg ascended Cotopaxi for the first time together with his supporter Angel M. Escobar from Columbia.

Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

2014-06-01

31

A biplane roentgen videometry system for dynamic /60 per second/ studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A roentgen-television digital-computer technique and a display system developed for dynamic circulatory structure studies are described. Details are given for a videoroentgenographic setup which is used for obtaining biplane roentgen silhouettes of a left ventricle. A 60 per sec measurement of the shape and volume of angiographically outlined cardiac chambers can be made by this technique along with simultaneous ECG, pressure, and flow measurements accessible for real-time digital computer processing and analysis.

Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, E.; Wood, E. H.; Heintzen, P. H.

1971-01-01

32

Wilhelm Fabry's 1614 report on a giant condyloma of the penis.  

PubMed

For many years it has been the work of Buschke and Löwenstein that has justified calling the exophytic, locally destructive tumour of the anogenital mucosal surface 'giant condyloma of Buschke and Löwenstein' or GCBL. In order to investigate the early history of this rare disease we examined the writings of the barber-surgeon Wilhelm Fabry (1560-1634) who had a serious interest in dermatological disorders and their treatment. We analysed Fabry's 600 Latin case reports and identified the case of a 'monstrous penile tumour'. We then translated this text into English and compared it point by point with later publications. This was followed by a cursory review of surgical treatises from the 16th to the 18th centuries. In 1614 Fabry described and depicted a tumour of the penis; the clinical characteristics (gradual formation of a warty lesion, considerable size, invasive growth, absence of metastases) indicated it was a giant condyloma. His mention of the urethral fistulization enables discrimination from 'common' condylomata acuminata, and the survival period of 10?years after amputation allows exclusion of a 'true' carcinoma. This report is singular among 17th-century case histories. The neoplasias described 300?years later are most probably biologically identical. Thus, Fabry's is the first clinical report; the histological classification, however, belongs to Buschke and Löwenstein. From now on the disease should be designated with the eponym giant condyloma of Fabry-Buschke-Löwenstein or GCFBL. PMID:21967192

Marx, F J; Karenberg, A

2012-02-01

33

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.  

PubMed

In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

Müller, Falk

2011-06-01

34

Wilhelm von Hboldt and James Parkinson. An appraisal of observation and creativity.  

PubMed

Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) was an educational reformer, a statesman serving Frederick William III, King of Prussia and a philologist, who influenced the contemporary linguist Chomsky. Moreover von Humbolt was a prolific writer, he kept up a substantial correspondence with family and a circle of acquaintances. His letters also contain references to his physical fitness. In the year of James Parkinson's death, 1824, von Humboldt mentioned difficulties with writing for the first time. From his correspondence during the last 11 years of his life we can reconstruct a classic development of the shaking palsy based on clever self-observations. Von Humboldt supplemented James Parkinson's description with micrographia, and dysdiadochokinesia. In addition, he observed, that turning over in bed was impeded, that after 9 years of misery his tremor subsided, and that writing was possible using Latin print lettering instead of his usual gothic handwriting, von Humboldt died on the 8th April 1835 of pneumonia, a complication of his illness; he kept his full intellectual and artistic capacities until the end. PMID:18591044

Lakke, J P

1996-10-01

35

From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

2000-10-01

36

Sex determination of the human skull based upon line drawing from roentgen cephalograms.  

PubMed

The shape of the human skulls was studied with the aid of a personal computer to establish sex differences in quantitative anatomical terms. On the roentgen cephalograms from 50 adult males and 50 adult females, the lateral profile was transcribed onto an acetate sheet, on which the contour from the nasal apex to the forehead was digitized on a tablet digitizer into a series of dots which were input into the computer system. After this chain of dots was simulated by a spline function, the places most typically reflecting sex difference were determined in the profile based on the radius of curvature computed at each dot. The eminence of glabella and the nasal root, shown to be the places of skull apparently most characteristic of sex, were approximated to circular arcs with the least squares method, the radii of which were expected to serve for sexing. In both places, Student's t-test revealed a significant difference between the male and female groups (p less than 0.01). It was thus demonstrated that in male the eminence of glabella and the nasal concavity develop much more markedly than in female, presenting as a clear skeletal difference between both sexes. PMID:3775765

Funayama, M; Aoki, Y; Kudo, T; Sagisaka, K

1986-08-01

37

[Did Wilhelm Kopp possess the Par. gr. 2254 and 2255? A study on his translation of Hippocrates' De victus ratione in morbis acutis].  

PubMed

In the preface of his Greek edition of Hippocrates, published in Basle in 1538, Janus Cornarius of Zwickau mentions a manuscript of the French physician Nicolas Kopp among the textual sources used by him to review the preceding edition. It is known that Nicolas inherited the library of his father Wilhelm, who made the translations of two Hippocratic treatises, Prognostikon and De victus ratione in morbis acutis, published in Paris in 1511. It is suggested that the manuscript used by Cornarius for his edition and earlier by Wilhelm Kopp for his translations can be identified with the Par. gr. 2254 and 2255. This proposal is verified in the present article by an examination of the translation by Wilhelm Kopp of the treatise De victus ratione in morbis acutis, which is contained in the original part of the manuscript Par. gr. 2254. PMID:12361058

Fortuna, S

2001-01-01

38

A plague outside the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>taking the torch Kaiser Wilhelm Institute The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics attempted broad description of human variation and reproduction. Taking the torch By the mid-1930s, the scientific basis of negative eugenics had been discredited. The well-documented phenomenon of hybrid vigor refuted notions of racial superiority, while Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that dysgenic genes do not increase in a population. Members of Thomas Hunt Morgan's group showed that the genotype-phenotype relationship is highly variable, while Lionel Penrose found that most cases in a mental institution in Colchester, England resulted from a combination of genetic, environmental, and pathological causes. After a 1935 panel concluded that the work of the Eugenics Record Office was without scientific merit, eugenics research was phased out, and the facility was closed in December 1939. In the meantime, eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ? with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg. Hitler read Fischer's textbook Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene while in prison at Landsberg and used eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). When he came to power in 1933, Hitler charged the medical profession with the task of implementing a national program of race hygiene ? a key element of which was passage of an act permitting involuntary sterilization of feebleminded, mentally ill, epileptics, and alcoholics. Within a year, more than 50,000 sterilizations were ordered, and doctors competed to fill sterilization quotas. By the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, an estimated 400,000 people had been sterilized. James Watson discusses the founding of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office.

2008-10-06

39

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the Astronomical Roengen Telescope- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission. ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module provides an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Pavlinskiy, Mikhail N.; Tkachenko, Alexey V.; Lapshov, Igor Y.

2013-01-01

40

Accuracy and repeatability of Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for measuring knee laxity in longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) can be used to assess temporal changes in anterior-posterior (A-P) knee laxity. However, the accuracy and precision of RSA is dependent on many factors and should be independently evaluated for a particular application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of RSA for measuring A-P knee laxity. The specific aims were to assess the variation or "noise" inherent to RSA, to determine the reproducibility of RSA for repeated A-P laxity testing, and to assess the accuracy of these measurements. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment utilized three rigid models of the tibiofemoral joint to assess the noise and to compare digitization errors of two independent examiners. No differences were found in the kinematic outputs of the RSA due to examiner, repeated trials, or the model used. In a second experiment, A-P laxity values between the A-P shear load limits of +/-60 N of five cadaver goat knees were measured to assess the error associated with repeated testing. The RSA laxity values were also compared to those obtained from a custom designed linkage system. The mean A-P laxity values with the knee 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion for the ACL-intact goat knee (+/-95% confidence interval) were 0.8 (+/-0.25), 0.9 (+/-0.29), and 0.4 (+/-0.22) mm, respectively. In the ACL-deficient knee, the A-P laxity values increased by an order of magnitude to 8.8 (+/-1.39), 7.6 (+/-1.32), and 3.1 (+/-1.20)mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between the A-P laxity values measured by RSA and the independent measurement technique. A highly significant linear relationship (r(2)=0.83) was also found between these techniques. This study suggests that the RSA method is an accurate and precise means to measure A-P knee laxity for repeated testing over time. PMID:11522316

Fleming, B C; Peura, G D; Abate, J A; Beynnon, B D

2001-10-01

41

Wilhelm Reich's self-censorship after his arrest as an enemy alien: the chilling effect of an illegal imprisonment.  

PubMed

After discussing Wilhelm Reich's place in psychoanalysis, the article explores his arrest as an 'enemy alien' in December 1941. Reich's emotional responses to his imprisonment (which was illegal and which lasted nearly a month) are explored. A number of scholars have suggested that many European radical psychoanalysts refrained from sharing their former political ideas once they emigrated to the United States. Following a brief discussion of this pattern of 'silencing,' it is argued that Reich's withholding certain documents from publication was due to a self-imposed censorship, motivated in part by the fear of further governmental interference with his life and work. This fear, however, did not extend to his discussion of his newly developed theory of orgone energy. PMID:24628260

Bennett, Philip W

2014-04-01

42

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and plaque, still image with detailSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torch Eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ÃÂ with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg.

2008-10-06

43

The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Ins1rument Aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-German X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned and complementary X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Russian-led Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV (with limited sensitivity above 12 keV).

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2012-01-01

44

Double-segment Wilhelm Tell technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in unstable isthmic spondylolisthesis and adjacent segment discopathy.  

PubMed

The Wilhelm Tell technique is a novel instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure using a specially designed composite carbon fibre cage and a single short-threaded cancellous screw that obliquely passes through the upper adjacent vertebral body, the interbody cage itself and through the lower adjacent vertebral body. This single-stage fusion method, which is in principle a combination of the Louis technique and modern cage surgery, is reported to have a lower rate of pseudoarthrosis formation than stand-alone cage techniques. In addition, it eliminates both the surgical trauma of paravertebral muscle retraction and the risk of neural damage by poorly located pedicular screws. This anterior approach allows decompression of neural structures within the anterior part of the spinal canal and the foraminal region. It is the purpose of this case report, to present the successful application of this novel technique in a 32-year-old woman who concurrently suffered from severe instability-related back pain from L4/5 isthmic spondylolisthesis and marked L5/S1 degenerative disc disease. PMID:16459090

Wenger, Markus; Vogt, Emanuel; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

2006-02-01

45

Treating Epiphora in Adults With the Wilhelm Plastic Nasolacrimal Stent: Mid-Term Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25-88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed.

Ciampi, Juan J., E-mail: juanciampi@hotmail.com; Lanciego, Carlos [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); Navarro, Sofia [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Ophthalmology Service (Spain); Cuena, Rafael [Research-Statistics Unit of the Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo (Spain); Velasco, Javier [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); Perea, Miguel [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Ophthalmology Service (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, Lorenzo [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain)

2011-02-15

46

Treating epiphora in adults with the Wilhelm plastic nasolacrimal stent: mid-term results of a prospective study.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25–88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed. PMID:20390276

Ciampi, Juan J; Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; García-García, Lorenzo

2011-02-01

47

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

2013-01-01

48

Patient-specific knee joint finite element model validation with high-accuracy kinematics from biplane dynamic Roentgen stereogrammetric analysis.  

PubMed

Little is known about in vivo menisci loads and displacements in the knee during strenuous activities. A new method that combines high-speed kinematics measured with biplane dynamic Roentgen stereogrammetric analysis (DRSA) and a subject-specific finite element (FE) model for studying in vivo meniscal behavior is presented here. Further model calibration in a very controlled uniaxial low and high-rate compression loading condition is presented by comparing the model behavior against the measured high-accuracy menisci DRSA kinematics and direct tibio-femoral pressure measurement from a K-scan sensor. It is apparent that certain model aspects such as removing of the pressure sensor from the model can result in relatively large errors (14%) in contact parameters that are not reflected in the change of the measured meniscal kinematics. Changing mesh size to 1mm by 1mm elements increased the magnitude of all but one of the contact variables by up to 45%. This local validation using accurate localized patient-specific geometry and meniscal kinematics was needed to enhance model fidelity at the level of contact between menisci and cartilage. PMID:18675422

Papaioannou, G; Nianios, G; Mitrogiannis, C; Fyhrie, D; Tashman, S; Yang, K H

2008-08-28

49

Development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

2013-09-01

50

DFVLR Roentgen satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entire engineering model is being concluded in the shuttle configuration. The flight model components are extensively included in the shuttle configuration and will not be changed until after a binding Atlas/Centaur (A/C) booster decision for the A/C configuration. The urgent projects for the altering of the shuttle configuration on the A/C configuration must be carried out before a binding Atlas/Centaur booster decision is completed. All other modification projects are being delayed until the presentation of a binding booster decision.

1987-01-01

51

Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As result of the Challenger accident, the alternative possibility for launch of the ROSAT mission with an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is being considered. An overview of the problems involved in having the ROSAT flight ready for either a Shuttle or Atlas/Centaur launch is presented.

1986-01-01

52

The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2012-09-01

53

The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2012-01-01

54

When Science Isn't Enough: Wilhelm Hueper, Robert A. M. Case, and the Limits of Scientific Evidence in Preventing Occupational Bladder Cancer.  

PubMed

A recent outbreak of occupational bladder cancer in a Buffalo, New York, factory confirmed the carcinogenicity of ortho-toluidine, an aromatic amine that had first been implicated in human bladder cancer cases decades earlier. Events leading to this outbreak replicated the history of numerous earlier bladder cancer outbreaks among workers exposed to beta-naphthylamine and benzidine, two other aromatic amines that were widely used in the dye and rubber industries and that have been responsible for bladder cancer outbreaks in the United States, Germany, Switzerland, England, France, Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, the former Soviet Union, Poland, and China. The historic development of scientific knowledge of occupational bladder cancer prefigured many debates that later occurred around other environmental carcinogens; two of the giants of occupational medicine, Wilhelm Hueper and Robert A. M. Case, played seminal roles in the study of these chemicals. Examination of the history of worker exposure to aromatic amines and the subsequent development of bladder cancer at Du Pont, Allied Chemical, and other U.S. manufacturers demonstrates that these carcinogens were regulated only after cancer epidemics were recognized. Production and use of aromatic amines continues in developing countries; these nations will inevitably experience similar outbreaks unless steps are taken to eliminate exposure to these deadly chemicals. This paper chronicles the history of occupational bladder cancer in the United States, highlighting the roles of Hueper and Case in occupational cancer investigation and prevention. PMID:9990166

Michaels

1995-07-01

55

[Experiences with the "short arc motion" protocol for rehabilitation of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F according to Wilhelm].  

PubMed

Rehabilitation of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F (according to Wilhelm) is difficult because of the broad bone-tendon interface favouring adhesions. Therefore RB Evans developed the so called "short arc motion" protocol to improve the results of extensor tendon injuries in zones E and F. This protocol consists of immobilisation of the PIP and DIP joints of the injured finger interrupted by regularly performed limited active motion exercises according to the principle of "minimal active tension". Evans demonstrated superior results using this protocol compared to pure immobilisation. In this study we retrospectively evaluated our results using the "short arc motion" regime in isolated extensor tendon injuries since 2000. 10 patients could be examined with a mean follow-up of 2 years and 5 months after operative treatment of fresh extensor tendon injuries as well as one patient with an old extensor tendon lesion. According to the Strickland-Glogovac formula our patients with fresh extensor tendon lesions had 70.3 % on average which is a good result. Using the Geldmacher score these patients had a mean result of 20.7 points indicating a good result too. With regard to the PIP joint, the mean extension deficit was 8.5 degrees. So our results are good, but not as good as those from Evans. Being aware of the limitations of a retrospective study lacking a control group of patients with traditional aftercare, we will continue to use the SAM protocol in our hospital. PMID:18543159

Kalb, K; Prommersberger, K-J

2008-06-01

56

Roentgen contrast media and fibrinolysis.  

PubMed

A review of the literature on the influence of contrast media (CM) on fibrinolysis showed that information currently available is contradictory, inconclusive and fragmentary. Results of some in vivo studies suggest that both ionic and nonionic CM increase fibrinolytic activity, either by lowering plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, by releasing endogenous tissue plasminogen activator and¿or by altering the fibrin meshwork of thrombi. Most in vitro studies on the subject contain results that are contradictory to those from in vivo studies. The discrepancies are due to obvious differences between systems which are, at best, only comparable under conditions of stagnant flow. Thus, great care should be exercised when extrapolating or interchanging data obtained in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8610513

Brosstad, F; Buchmann, M; Schilvold, A

1995-01-01

57

Soft tissue mineralization: roentgen analysis.  

PubMed

Numerous, incompletely understood, and undetermined physiologic factors may exert further but unappreciated influences on the development of ectopic calcification and ossification. In the former instance, in addition to serum calcium and phosphorous ion concentrations, tissue pH, blood supply, hormones, i.e., vitamin D, vitamin A, and various enzymes (e.g., alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase) may all play significant, ancillary, time-dependent, but as yet undetermined roles. Ossification, like calcification, may occur in association with many types of disorders and under a variety of circumstances, some of which, such as trauma, have been reduplicated in the laboratory. However, experimental conditions that produce ectopic bone, as well as the species that are predilected do not always coincide with clinical observations in man. Not only are there differences between species in regard to susceptibility to ectopic bone production under particular circumstances, i.e., rabbits are the most susceptible and mice the least to mechanical injury, but there are differences between individuals. Individual variability in susceptibility to soft tissue ossification suggests either a personal or familial predilection. If such liability is inherited, this would be an example of an ecogenetic condition, in which someone is susceptible to an environmental agent by virtue of genetic constitution. Histocompatibility (HLS) antigens have provided substantiation of this concept. In the case of soft tissue ossification, causative environmental agents could include trauma, burns, hip replacement, and immobility secondary to neurological insults. In the case of soft tissue calcification, trauma, infections, or repeated injections could constitute the triggering environmental event. Not only do individuals at risk develop bone, but those that do tend to do so in characteristic places. Therefore, there is an additional differential susceptibility at various sites in the same individual. In cases with neurological conditions, thigh muscles are more susceptible than paraspinal muscles. The underlying condition is a further moderator, i.e., in paraplegics, thigh muscles are most apt to be involved. Elbows are most commonly affected after burns regardless of the site of the burn. Ectopic ossification also has a further predilection for distribution. Not only are muscle groups unequal in risk in terms of site, but the type of muscle affected is relevant, since skeletal muscles are involved in these same conditions to the exclusion of smooth muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2941237

Feldman, F

1986-01-01

58

Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.  

PubMed

During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945. PMID:16887759

Steger, Florian

2006-09-01

59

Making filmless radiology work  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESPITE 2 DECADES of optimistic and confident predictions that filmless radiology was imminent, the centennial commemoration of Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray will come and go this year with only a small number of radiology departments interpreting more than a small fraction of imaging studies using a computer workstation. The reasons for this undoubtedly representa combination of economic constraints,

Eliot L. Siegel; John N. Diaconis; Stephen Pomerantz; Robert Allman; Brian Briscoe

1995-01-01

60

Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about an early German embryologist who used experimental investigation to advance the field of developmental biology/experimental embryology. He founded the first journal in this field, dedicated to understanding causal relationships in development.

Megan Kearl (Arizona State University)

2012-07-08

61

Lohrmann, Wilhelm Gotthelf (1796-1840)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveyor and amateur astronomer, born in Dresden, he was the second selenographer (after TOBIAS MAYER) to make and publish a lunar map based on quantitative measurements and geometric calculations, rather than merging eye-sketches. Lohmann's map was based on a diameter of the Moon of about a meter, over five times the diameter of Mayer's. He was helped and encouraged by CARL GAUSS and J ENCKE. Pu...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

62

[Conventional roentgen diagnosis of induratio penis plastica].  

PubMed

The therapeutic decision in the management of Peyronie's disease depends on the confirmation or exclusion of inflammatory activity. Plain films of the penis in mammographic technique demonstrate the presence of fibrotic or calcified areas, in which conservative treatment is not more effective. In twelve out of 32 patients, we found calcifications of various size. PMID:1799848

Platzbecker, H; Köhler, K; Böhm, W D

1991-01-01

63

Wedge filters for megavoltage roentgen ray beams.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation, to construct a range of fixed wedge filters and to simulate these with a motorized wedge, led to the derivation of 5 equations. These equations can be used to construct and test a consistent set of fixed wedge filters, eliminating elaborate trial and error experiments. The fixed wedge filters already in existence for the Philips SL75-10 and SL75-20 linear accelerators fitted these equations rather well. After adapting the motorized wedge of the SL75-14 according to these equations, it simulated the fixed wedges accurately. PMID:6099043

van der Laarse, R; van Overbeek, P A; Strackee, J

1984-01-01

64

THE ROENTGEN FEATURES OF EATON AGENT PNEUMONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

F EW reports have appeared in the litera- ture in recent years about the roent- genographic findings in Eaton agent pneu- monia. Much work has been done, however, on the mycoplasma organisms and their role as pathogens in human disease. The history of this work was succinctly reviewed by Shepard and Calvy7 and will be briefly alluded to further on.

DONALD H. HEBERT

65

[Roentgen image presentation in the patient's room. Simple equipment for demonstration and storage of roentgen images].  

PubMed

Immediate presentation of the more significant X-ray pictures facilitates planning and supervision of therapy in trauma surgery and orthopedics. If a wire rope is stretched in front of the window X-ray pictures can be clipped onto it, which avoids time-consuming searches. Suspended filing boxes placed in each sickroom make appropriate storage of each patient's X-ray pictures possible. The expenditure for all this amounted to 100 DM for each two-bedded room. Wire ropes and boxes were technically easy to install with a minimum investment of time. The presentation of X-ray pictures considerably increased the patients' understanding of their illness. It was also very rare for X-ray pictures to get mixed up once this system had been instituted. PMID:9082570

Prokop, A; Rehm, K E; Sagebiel, A

1996-12-01

66

Karl Wilhelm Theodor Richard von Hertwig (1850-1937): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a pioneer in the area of embryonic germ layers, who conceptualized the coelom still used in classification and phylogeny. He was also an influential teacher of zoology.

Katherine Brind'Amour (Arizona State University Embryo Project)

2012-04-19

67

[Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the discovery of X-rays].  

PubMed

W.C. Röntgen reported the discovery of X-rays in December 1895 after seven weeks of assiduous work during which he had studied the properties of this new type of radiation able to go through screens of notable thickness. He named them X-rays to underline the fact that their nature was unknown. The news of this discovery immediately aroused an immense interest in the public and also initiated intense research in several directions. Physicians and physicists began as early as January 1896 to use X-rays on patients to investigate the skeleton and subsequently the lung and other organs. This was the birth or radiology. Rapidly they observed skin erythema, which led to the idea of using X-rays against a variety of lesions. In June 1896 the first patient was treated by radiotherapy. J.J. Thomson (Cambridge, U.K.) showed that X-rays were able to ionize gaz and the study of this phenomenon led to the discovery of electrons in 1897. In order to understand the emission of X-rays, H. Becquerel (Paris) investigated the role of the phosphorescence of the glass of the tube and while doing so discovered radioactivity in March 1896. X-rays and radioactivity were at the origin of the scientific revolution at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Research on radioactive materials demonstrated the existence of atoms which had been till then only a convenient hypothesis for explaining chemical reactions, but whose reality was considered as dubious by most physicists. Moreover, interaction of particles emitted by radionuclides and atoms enabled first the study of the structure of the atom and subsequently its nucleus. Matter, elements which were thought to be immutable were found to be transmutable, and eventually to disintegrate. The origin of the energy transferred to the radiation which was emitted appeared as a mystery and in order to explain it the physicist had to accept that matter could convert energy. In 1903 Einstein established the equivalence between matter and energy. Matter, energy, electricity, light which were formerly considered as continuous quantities were found to be discrete: there are particles of matter (elementary particles), energy (quanta, Planck 1905), electricity (electron), light (photons). Radioactive decay, particle interactions imposed a probabilistic physics which progressively replaced classic deterministic physics. Radioactivity can be used as a clock to measure time in the universe. Datations were made for fossils, art masterpieces and also for the earth, the solar system and universe. X-rays diffraction proved to be a powerful tool for studying crystals and molecules, in particular protein, and in 1953 enabled to demonstrate the DNA double helix. Hence X-rays and radioactivity originated a revolution in physics and science and in the vision of nature. The imperceptible and yet so powerful rays demonstrated the deficiencies of our senses. Mathematical entities and instrumentation must complement our sensations. The huge increment in our knowledge is accompanied by a divorce between the scientist and the layman who now often has great difficulties understanding new concepts not only in physics but also in biology. PMID:8696882

Tubiana, M

1996-01-01

68

Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

2006-11-01

69

A clínica pulsional de Wilhelm Reich: uma tentativa de atualização  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busca-se propor uma fundamentação da psicoterapia corporal de inspiração reichiana dentro do quadro de referência da pri meira teoria freudiana das pulsões. Tenta-se explicar os elementos próprios da abordagem reichiana a partir da idéia de uma dinâmica psíquica baseada no conflito entre pulsão e defesa. Também são discutidas, brevemente, algumas possibilidades de ampliação desse modelo a partir de propostas oriundas

Ricardo Amaral Rego

2003-01-01

70

Measurement errors in roentgen-stereophotogrammetric joint motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract?In many biomechanical motion studies, kinematic parameters are estimated from position measurements on a number of landmarks. In the present investigation, dummy motion experiments are\\u000aperformed in order to study the error dependence of kinematic parameters on geometric factors (number of markers, isotropic vs anisotropic landmark distributions, landmark distribution size), on kinematic factors (rotation step magnitude, the presence of translational

A. de Lange; HWJ Huiskes; J. M. G. Kauer

1990-01-01

71

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - the astronomer as a poet; (German Title: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - der Astronom als Poet)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution illuminates a hitherto unknown side of the famous astronomer Bessel: his delight in occasionally writing poetry. These poems were thought to be of private use only, in particular as rhymed answers to his intimate correspondent Heinrich Christian Schumacher.

Fürst, Dietmar

72

The x-ray centennial--Thompsons and Thomsons.  

PubMed

When x rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen in November, 1895, the news spread rapidly through Europe, Great Britain, and the United States and many individuals became involved in their development. Some of the more prominent participants shared the name of Thompson or Thomson, which causes confusion when the history of x rays is discussed because of their similar pronunciation. In Britain they were William Thompson (Lord Kelvin), J. J. Thomson, and Silvanus P. Thompson and in the United States it was Elihu Thomson. In addition, one of the first books on x rays published in the United States was written by Edward Thompson. PMID:8497211

Almond, P R

1993-01-01

73

Radiation and health*  

PubMed Central

Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects.

Lindell, B.

1987-01-01

74

The Wilhelm tell technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Technical note.  

PubMed

Experience indicates that stand-alone cages may lack the necessary stability to secure highly unstable motion segments at the lumbosacral junction. The authors have designed a special carbon fiber composite interbody cage that allows additional screw placement in anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedures performed at the lumbosacral junction. PMID:12650410

Markwalder, Thomas-Marc; Wenger, Markus; Elsig, Jean-Pierre; Laloux, Etienne

2003-03-01

75

Hanging the Kaiser: Anglo?Dutch relations and the fate of Wilhelm II, 1918–20  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flight of the German Kaiser to the Netherlands at the end of the First World War led to a crisis in Anglo?Dutch relations. Prime Minister David Lloyd George made the trial of the Kaiser a key issue in the British general election campaign of December 1918. Article 227 of the Treaty of Versailles called for the Kaiser's surrender by

Nigel J. Ashton; Duco Hellema

2000-01-01

76

Wilhelm Julius Foerster und die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und kosmischen Physik" (1891 bis 1914).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Am 19. Mai 1891 wurde ins Leben gerufen die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und der kosmischen Physik (nachfolg.: V.A.P.) - eine der beiden institutionellen Vorläufer der sich 1953 konstituierenden "Vereinigung der Sternfreunde".

Tiemann, K.-H.

77

How Wilhelm Dilthey Influenced Popular Science Writing: Kurd Laßwitz's "Homchen. Ein Tiermärchen aus der oberen Kreide"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second half of the nineteenth century, popularization of science appeared to be a necessity of the time. Scientists and politicians discussed the pros and cons of making scientific knowledge accessible to the public. The question of how and by whom popularization should be done was a common topic in newspapers and magazines of the time. Even though museums as well as zoological and botanical gardens played an important role in disseminating knowledge, it can be said that the popularization of science basically was (and probably still is) a "language-based event".1

Azzouni, Safia

78

Ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm grown under controlled atmospheres.  

PubMed Central

When Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 was grown under controlled atmospheres with 1 and 5% O2 and without CO2, the amount of ochratoxin produced was the same as that produced by the control colonies. Increasing the O2 level up to 40% reduced ochratoxin production by 75%, whereas at 60% O2, ochratoxin production was enhanced. In atmospheres enriched with 10 or 20% CO2, ochratoxin production was reduced when O2 concentrations were below 20% and enhanced when the O2 concentration was 40 or 60% O2. Ochratoxin production was completely inhibited at 30% CO2 and above, regardless of the O2 level. Colony growth was partially inhibited at 60% CO2, and no growth occurred at 80% CO2 or above. However, when colonies inhibited by 60% CO2 or above were subsequently exposed to air, radial growth, number of sclerotia formed, and the amount of ochratoxin produced were the same as in the control colonies. The results indicate that A. ochraceus is tolerant to CO2 concentrations higher than those required to control storage insects.

Paster, N; Lisker, N; Chet, I

1983-01-01

79

[Wilhelm Reich--Arthur Janov--a comparison of their work].  

PubMed

Although he does not always mention it, A. Janov agrees with many of W. Reich's opinions on theoretical-philosophical foundations and the theory of neurosis and other illnesses; from their criticism of society both of them develop the demand for prophylaxis of neurosis as a prerequisit for their common utopia of a selfregulated society. Primal therapy and Orgon therapy are two different forms of the "New Body Therapies" group. The authors disagree with their views of the physiological nature of Pain (A. Janov) and blokked orgon, the "function of the orgasm" and "orgastic potency", concepts that were considered by Reich to be his most important. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are given. PMID:6523964

Sprengler, M

1984-01-01

80

[Roentgen diagnostic staging program and treatment of subluxation of the talar supinator].  

PubMed

In case of 380 patients (286 operated), who were followed up, we will prove the usefulness of an already some years ago by us recommended step-program with timely, personal and economically defensible expense for opportune and complete diagnosis of frequent fibular ligamentous injuries in the ankle joint. Measurements of x-rays in stress are demonstrated, also principles of treatment including operative-technical details. Only consistent measures offer good prerequisites for healing with restored function. PMID:2386463

Wehner, W; Kupfer, M; Kunzelmann, F; Kerner, U

1990-04-01

81

[Roentgen morphological aspects of the structure of the oesophagus (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The clinically most important disturbance of the function of esophagus is that of esophago-gastric area. Because there is up till now no recognized opinion about the mechanism of the esophago-gastric sphincter, there are a lot of theories about that. In our own radiologic studies of the esophagus we were able to demonstrate in a low percentage the intern muscularis mucosae. The structure of these intern folds of the muscularis mucosae are like a spiral line or a screw, this is in accordance with the direction of muscle bundles of the theories of "Muscular Stretch Closure Function of the Terminal Esophagus". PMID:6454631

Ernst, V H; Grönninger, J

1981-06-01

82

From Bertha Roentgen's hand to current medical imaging: one century of radiological progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   From 1896 to 1996 radiology progressed at an amazing and unforeseen pace. The analysis of a few examples shows that these\\u000a developments were due to a few groups and were enhanced by a close interaction between radiologists, physicists, engineers\\u000a and manufacturers. Radiologists emphasize needs and are often able to suggest avenues for research; engineers exploit the\\u000a basic discoveries of

M. Tubiana

1997-01-01

83

Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the objective crystal spectrometer on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out experiments to determine the optimum parameters for the production of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the lambda equals 4.4 - 7.1 nm range using electron beam evaporation and ion-polishing. We report on the deposition of Co/C and Ni/C coatings, of which we polished the metal layers with Kr+- and Ar+- ions of 300, 500, and 1000 eV. We examined the effect of different polishing parameters on the smoothening of the Co- and Ni-layers. The in-situ reflectivity of lambda equals 3.16 nm during deposition and the ex-situ grazing incidence reflectivity of Cu-K(alpha ) radiation (lambda equals 0.154 nm) were used to analyze the coatings. We found optimum performance of the mirrors when applying polishing for 40 s with 500 eV Kr+-ions at an angle of 20 degrees and an ion beam current of 20 mA. Using these parameters, we produced Co/C multilayer coatings on forty flat super-polished 6 multiplied by 6 cm2 Si (111) crystals for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Russian Spectrum Rontgen Gamma satellite. The coatings on the flight crystals have a period Lambda of 3.95 plus or minus 0.02 nm and a reflectivity of more than 8% averaged over s- and p-polarization over the entire wavelength range of interest. We present a detailed analysis of the coatings on the crystals.

Louis, Eric; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Abdali, Salim; Christensen, Finn E.; Voorma, Harm-Jan; Koster, Norbert B.; Frederiksen, Peter K.; Tarrio, Charles; Gullikson, Eric M.; Bijkerk, Fred

1995-06-01

84

The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)

Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others

1974-01-01

85

The capability of fluoroscopic systems to determine differential Roentgen-ray absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A clinical fluoroscopic unit used in conjunction with a TV image digitization system was investigated to determine its capability to evaluate differential absorption between two areas in the same field. Fractional contrasts and minimum detectability for air, several concentrations of Renografin-60, and aluminum were studied using phantoms of various thicknesses. Results showed that the videometric response, when treated as contrast, shows a linear response with absorber thickness up to considerable thicknesses.

Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

1975-01-01

86

Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet x-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC offers many advantages: a uniform gas gain, an excellent energy resolution, the possibility to match the strip pitch to the desired positron resolution, a fast charge collection, and low operating voltages. However, a stable behavior of the MSPC requires a careful choice of both substrate and strip electrode material. The low energy detectors are equipped with polyimide windows of 0.5 micrometers thickness, providing a high quantum efficiency even at 200 eV with an energy resolution comparable to that of solid state detectors. The MSPC is capable of operating at high counting rates (10(superscript 5) ph s(superscript -1)) and the electronics are designed to match this capability.

Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Bahnsen, Axel; Christensen, Finn E.; Madsen, M. M.; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

1991-10-01

87

An application of scanning electron microscopy combined with roentgen microanalysis (SEM-EDS) in canine urolithiasis.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis is a common diagnostic and therapeutic problem in small-animal veterinary practice. The traditional diagnostic approach usually consists of clinical, radiological and ultrasonographic examination of the patient. The main diagnostic material is still urine sediment, ignoring the fact that presence of crystalluria is not always of pathological significance. In order to establish the most effective therapeutic and preventative strategies, especially in the case of multicomponent stone, it is crucial to define the exact elemental composition of the given stone including crystallization nidus chemical contents. In the course of the research, the usefulness of scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray-dispersive spectrometry in analysis of canine mixed and compound stones was investigated. The obtained results indicated that the tested method allows one to trace the dynamics of the crystallization process, including crystallization nucleus detection, and concurrently and quantitatively assess the elemental composition of the given urinary concrement. Moreover, the conducted research showed epidemiological data of urolithiasis occurrence in a population of dogs coming from the southern part of Poland. PMID:22155717

Kali?ski, Krzysztof; Marycz, Krzysztof; Czoga?a, Joanna; Serwa, Ewa; Janeczek, Witold

2012-02-01

88

Early victims of X-rays: a tribute and current perception  

PubMed Central

X-rays were discovered in 1895 and since then much has been written about Wilhelm Roentgen and the events surrounding the discovery. However, there have been only scattered references in the literature about the early workers who dedicated their life, and death, to X-rays. Radiology has come of age since then. Large exposure times have been reduced to milliseconds and there has been a change from analogue to digital. The advent of new and rapidly developing modalities and the ubiquitous presence of cone beam CT (CBCT) highlight the need to remember the early victims of X-rays, especially with the lack of universal guidelines for taking a CBCT scan. The aim of this article is to alert the oral radiologist to exposing patients irrespective of need, and to pay respect to the victims on the 116th anniversary of the discovery of X-rays.

Sansare, K; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

89

Jakob Wilhelm Heinrich Lehmann (1800-1863) - theologian, astronomer and democrat of 1848. A biographical sketch. (German Title: Jakob Wilhelm Heinrich Lehmann (1800-1863) - Theologe, Astronom und 48er Demokrat. Eine biographische Skizze)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

J. W. H. Lehmann, a theologian and practising parson, a friend of Jacobi and correspondent of Bessel, Encke, Humboldt and Schumacher, was one of the best known and recognised astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. His special field of work was computational astronomy. Lehmann was one of the rare politically engaged scholars of his time. During the events of 1848-1850 he played an important role among several democratic associations in the Brandenburg region, being a politically considerate and clear-sighted character.

Falk, Gebhard

90

Wilhelm August Gottlieb Manniske, MD (1769-1835): microscope use during removal of buried corneal body in 1792.  

PubMed

In 1792, a priest in Germany consulted a young doctor about a buried corneal foreign body hidden in a small, hard mass that partly covered the pupil. During removal of the foreign body, the doctor inspected the corneal incision with a microscope to confirm the suspected presence of the foreign body. This may be the first use of a microscope in eye surgery. PMID:23411892

Muirhead, J Fraser

2013-02-01

91

Iron matters: Its influence on what we think we know about the deep Earth's interior (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron is not only the most abundant element in the Earth, but it is also the only major element with multiple electronic configurations (oxidation and spin state). The loss of a single electron or a change in the distribution of electrons between orbital states may appear minor at the atomic scale, but at the macroscopic level the effects can be profound. The oxidation state of iron varies through the mantle, from predominantly Fe2+ in the upper mantle and transition zone to roughly 50% Fe3+ in the lower mantle due to the strong affinity of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 perovskite for Fe3+, and spin crossover transitions have been discovered to occur in both of the dominant lower mantle phases. This presentation will examine the effect of both oxidation state and spin state of iron on the physical and chemical properties of the mantle, as well as on dynamic processes that occur within our planet.

McCammon, Catherine

2013-04-01

92

Geological cycles and a two-stage history of the Continental Crust (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental crust is the archive of Earth history, and the apparently cyclical nature of geological evolution is a feature of the geological record. The advent of radiometric ages has highlighted that the spatial and temporal distribution of the Earth's record of rock units and events is heterogeneous with distinctive peaks and troughs in the distribution of ages of igneous crystallization, metamorphism, continental margins and mineralization. It is argued that the temporal distribution largely reflects the different preservation potential of rocks generated in different tectonic settings, rather than fundamental pulses of activity, and the peaks of ages are linked to the timing of supercontinent assembly. In contrast there are other signals, such as the Sr isotope ratios of seawater, mantle temperatures, and redox conditions on the Earth, where the records are regarded as primary because they are not sensitive to the numbers of samples of different ages that have been analysed. Models based on the U-Pb, Hf and O isotope ratios of detrital zircons suggest that at least ~60-70% of the present volume of the continental crust had been generated by 3 Ga. The sedimentary record is biased by preferential sampling of relatively young material in their source terrains. The implication is that there were greater volumes of continental crust in the Archaean than might be inferred from the compositions of detrital zircons and sediments. The growth of continental crust was a continuous rather than an episodic process, but the rates of continental growth were significantly higher before 3 Ga than subsequently. The time-integrated Rb/Sr ratios, and the average SiO2 contents, indicate that new continental crust was largely mafic over the first 1.5 Ga of Earth's evolution, and that significant volumes of pre-3 Ga crust may have been associated with intraplate magmatism. Since ~3 Ga there has been an increase in Rb/Sr, SiO2, and the inferred thickness of new crust, consistent with an increase of continental input into the oceans and the onset of plate tectonics. The 60-70% of the present volume of the continental crust estimated to have been present at 3 Ga, contrasts markedly with the <10% of crust of that age apparently still preserved and it requires ongoing destruction (recycling) of early formed crust and subcontinental mantle lithosphere back into the mantle through processes such as subduction and delamination.

Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, Peter A.; Dhuime, Bruno

2014-05-01

93

The Science of Religions in a Fascist State: Rudolf Otto and Jakob Wilhelm Hauer During the Third Reich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German science of religions of the early twentieth century grew from the seeds of German idealism and Romanticism: anti-rationalism, anti-materialism, vitalism, experientialism, and ardent nationalism. In many accounts, National Socialism grew from these seeds, too. This essay examines the actual relationship between the science of religions and Nazism by examining the two most prominent German scientists of religions during

Gregory D. Alles

2002-01-01

94

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSFC is developing eight x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission. The Engineering Unit tests are successful. MSFC is on schedule to deliver flight units in the November of 2013 and January 2014.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2013-01-01

95

Fixation of total hip components in rheumatoid arthritis and arthrosis. A radiographic, roentgen stereophotogrammetric, densitometric and histomorphometric study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiographic survival of the Charnley prosthesis was studied in two retrospective, matched-pair cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthrosis (OA) patients. In RA, the 7-year radiographic socket survival improved from 87% to 96% after the introdu...

I. Oensten

1994-01-01

96

[Quality assurance in roentgen diagnosis. Comparison of constancy test methods according to DIN and IEC and practical consequences in Germany].  

PubMed

Since 1987 constancy tests for X-ray imaging equipment are required by the German Röntgenordinance and are performed according to the DIN 6868 standards. On an international level, standards for these tests have been developed by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 1223 series); however, these standards have so far not been applied in nation-wide quality programmes in any country. Typical aspects of both, DIN and IEC standards, are demonstrated for direct radiography and indirect radioscopy and indirect radiography as examples. DIN standards optimise test procedures for minimum effort and cost efficiency designed for execution even in small hospitals and practices by the users. For each type of x-ray equipment tests are performed with only one universal test device, which is precisely specified and independent of local conditions. Oplimisation is misation is missing for IEC test procedures; they are designed for more performance characteristics and need for each x-ray equipment more individual test devices, which are mostly open for local choice and need a considerably higher effort in respect of time consumption and test films compared to DIN. Adoption of the IEC standards for the constancy tests in Germany would involve considerable financial and organisational effort which is probably not counterbalanced by an increased benefit. PMID:8924457

Rassow, J; Kütterer, G; Neitzel, U; Puschert, W

1996-07-01

97

[The filter effectiveness of common 15-micron filters (DIN 58362). II: Scanning electron microscopy and roentgen analysis].  

PubMed

When i.v. solutions are used, millions of foreign particles are washed into the organism. Our town studies could recently show that these particles may interact with the organism and thus cause injury. A new method is introduced here (energy dispersive X-ray analysis in scanning electron microscopy, SEM, Jeol 35 CF/EDX, EEDS II Ortec), with which the element combination of foreign particles can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. As a first step an analysis of the particulate matter in filtrates of infusion solutions was carried out in the same way, materials used in infusion therapy (e.g. infusion sets, cannulas, etc.) were analyzed. The results show that most of the particulate matter consists of glass from ampoules, plastic materials from infusion sets and rubber from the rubber stoppers of infusion bottles. PMID:2503453

Walpot, H; Franke, R P; Burchard, W G; Agternkamp, C; Müller, F G; Mittermayer, C; Kalff, G

1989-06-01

98

Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

Bederson, Benjamin

2003-04-01

99

The State of the Art of Medical Imaging Technology: from Creation to Archive and Back  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations.

Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

2011-01-01

100

Anniversary Paper: Image processing and manipulation through the pages of Medical Physics  

SciTech Connect

The language of radiology has gradually evolved from ''the film'' (the foundation of radiology since Wilhelm Roentgen's 1895 discovery of x-rays) to ''the image,'' an electronic manifestation of a radiologic examination that exists within the bits and bytes of a computer. Rather than simply storing and displaying radiologic images in a static manner, the computational power of the computer may be used to enhance a radiologist's ability to visually extract information from the image through image processing and image manipulation algorithms. Image processing tools provide a broad spectrum of opportunities for image enhancement. Gray-level manipulations such as histogram equalization, spatial alterations such as geometric distortion correction, preprocessing operations such as edge enhancement, and enhanced radiography techniques such as temporal subtraction provide powerful methods to improve the diagnostic quality of an image or to enhance structures of interest within an image. Furthermore, these image processing algorithms provide the building blocks of more advanced computer vision methods. The prominent role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the advancement of medical image processing methods, and in the establishment of the ''image'' as the fundamental entity in radiology and radiation oncology, has been captured in 35 volumes of Medical Physics.

Armato, Samuel G. III; Ginneken, Bram van [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Room Q0S.459, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

2008-10-15

101

Evolution of Medical Imaging and Computational Demands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first medical images produced using x-rays appeared less than a year after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. For over a century x-ray projection radiography has been and continues to be the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality. For over seventy years mathematics and computational methods were used in a general way for image processing and analysis. The really challenging mathematical and computational problems did not emerge until the 1970s with the beginning of computed tomography (CT) to produce images popularly known as CAT (computer-assisted tomography) scans. This was followed rapidly by positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged in the 1980s and is in many ways the most informative medical imaging methodology. Computer-based mathematical methods are fundamental to the success of these imaging modalities, and are increasingly important in several other novel imaging techniques. The technologies involved in each modality are competely different, have varying diagnostic value, and are described by different fundamental equations. The common underlying theme is that of the reconstruction of important characteristics of medical interest from indirect measurements. Several of these methodologies for visualizing internal body anatomy and function will be discussed and related to the evolution of computational capabilities. This brings out aspects of these biomedical imaging technologies where a deeper understanding is needed, and to frontiers where future advances are likely to come from continued research in physics jointly with the mathematical sciences.

Deans, Stanley R.

2000-11-01

102

German-American Cultural Interaction in the Jacksonian Era: Six Unpublished Letters by Francis Lieber and John Pickering to Wilhelm von Humboldt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letters by German-American writer and political scientist Francis Lieber and American lawyer and linguist John Pickering to Wilhem von Humboldt in Berlin, published here for the first time, give insight into the cultural interaction between Germany and the United States during the Jacksonian era, and may open new perspectives for German-American…

Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt

1998-01-01

103

[Analysis of migration of screwed acetabular components following revision arthroplasty of the hip joint. Results of single-image roentgen analysis].  

PubMed

Out of 57 revised acetabular components, which were regularly checked, 47 had been replaced by a cemented Müller's acetabular reinforcement ring resp. a cementless Müller's Sl-shell with flange. Both types of cups are anchored in the acetabular roof with cancellous bone screws (tab. 1). 42 cases with radiograph series permitted a detailed analysis with the EBRA-method, a computer aided method for the evaluation of acetabular spatial migration based on standard radiographs of the pelvis. The clinical results were very satisfying (tab. 6). The screwed acetabular components migrated little, although, some essential displacements of the center of rotation (in relation to the anatomical position) had to be accepted. As was recognizable with today's inaccurate methods of measuring the center of the head, the displacement too far towards cranial influenced the migration tendency less than an excessive lateralisation. Especially satisfying is the fact, that no increased migration was observed after reconstruction bone grafting of severe acetabular defects, provided that at least a partly direct contact between the acetabular component and the original bone stock was obtained. For the first time EBRA shall be introduced here as a method which shows the migration and the spatial inclination of the acetabular cup in a vector chart. PMID:7941687

Dihlmann, S W; Ochsner, P E; Pfister, A; Mayrhofer, P

1994-01-01

104

LSS ARRS  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs Lung Screening Feasibility Study (LSS)LSS Presentation at May 2001 ARRS Meeting Presentation at the American Roentgen Ray Society Meeting May 2001 presentation at the annual meeting of the American Roentgen Ray Society: The Lung Screening

105

76 FR 53705 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Seductive Luxury and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David Roentgen'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following...Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David Roentgen,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

2011-08-29

106

[Prima inter pares--internal medicine in Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century].  

PubMed

In 1901 the Society for Internal Medicine was founded, the purpose of which was to reestablish unity within the field of internal medicine. Paediatrics, dermatology, laryngology, and neurology had established themselves as independent specialties and the unity of internal medicine had disintegrated in the 19th century. On the basis of Nothnagel's complications (First Department of Medicine) and Schrötter's treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria (Third Department of Medicine), the 19th century continued to exert an influence on medicine until well into the first decade of the 20th century. Neusser furthered haematology and endocrinology and laid the foundations for the Central Roentgen Institute. Before the main task of neurological research became the concern of psychiatry, Frankl-Hochwart conducted research in the fields of neurology and neuro-endocrinology. With the appointment of Noorden, the study of pathological metabolism and diabetes became the principal concern of the First Medical Department. Nevertheless, the research work of his assistant Eppinger made a major contribution to electrocardiography in the first decade of our century. Similarly, Wilhelm Türk at Neusser's department helped to make Vienna a centre of haematology through his improvements in technique, his textbooks and, among other things, his description of agranulocystosis. Nesser's self-willed disciple, Franz Chvostek, continued to propagate making spot diagnoses, as introduced by his mentor, and Schrötter's disciple, Josef Sorgo, expanded on his teacher's endoscropic methods, which he eventually managed to develop into a new therapeutic procedure. Adolf von Strümpell took over Schrötter's "propaedeutic clinic," but returned to his homeland, Germany, a year after having been appointed to the position in Vienna. PMID:6649644

Wyklicky, H

1983-09-16

107

William IV of Hesse-Cassel - the purpose of astronomy for a princely court in the 16th century. (German Title: Wilhelm IV von Hessen-Kassel - Der Nutzen der Astronomie für einen Fürstenhof des 16. Jahrhunderts)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For princes in the 16th century, astronomy played a major role. When God wants to give a fair warning to man about terrestrial events by means of the stars, a responsibly acting prince must pay attention to this. Thus astronomers had an influence on political events. This contribution discusses the question whether William IV of Hesse-Cassel had planned his self-formation as an «astronomer-landgrave» from the beginning. It is, however, shown that his first star catalogues can be seen in the context of the construction of astronomical clocks, and not as a pure research programme. For William, astronomical activities thus were no putting himself into service of a pure research programme, but part of his staging of princely reign.

Gaulke, Karsten

108

Comment on 'Historical review of a long-overlooked paper by R. A. Daly concerning the origin and the early history of the moon' by Ralph B. Baldwin and Don Wilhelms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R. A. Daly made mention of the possibility of an impact theory for the origin of the moon prior to his 1946 paper on the subject. In the revised edition of his book 'Igneous Rocks and the Depths of the Earth' (1933), Daly suggested that the lunar mass may have separated from the earth as the result of a collision between the earth and a planetoid. This, and not the 1946 paper, was the first publication of this theory for the origin of the moon.

Spera, F. J.; Stark, L. E.

1993-02-01

109

Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems (hundreds of degrees below zero Celsius) produce low energy radio and microwave photons, whereas cool bodies like our own (about 30 degrees Celsius) produce infrared radiation. Very high temperatures (millions of degrees Celsius) are one way of producing X-rays.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

110

Lif Measurements of Scalar Mixing in Turbulent Shear Layers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of shear layer flows at high Reynolds numbers remains a very interesting problem. Straight mixing layers have been studied and yielded information on the probability density function (pdf) of a passive scalar across the layer. Konrad and Koo...

P. S. Karasso M. G. Mungal

1993-01-01

111

CONNECTIVE TISSUE REPARATION IN THE LIVER DURING ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to determine the course of the connective ; tissue reparation in the liver under the influence of total irradiation with ; great doses of roentgen rays. The experiments were carried out on 84 albino ; rats, 13 of them belonging to the control group (non-irradiated), and 30 animals ; irradiated with a dose of 400 roentgens,

Loogna

1961-01-01

112

LOW TEMPERATURE THERMOLUMINESCENCE OF GAMMA IRRADIATED POTASSIUM DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) induced by Co\\/; sup 60\\/ gamma irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature (-198 deg C) was ; investigated. Glow curves in the temperature range --196 to 0 deg C were ; measured for a series of gamma exposure dosages ranging from 10⁴ roentgen ; to 5 x 10⁶ roentgen. The heating rate used for glow

Sims

1962-01-01

113

Considering Hermeneutics and Education: Hermes, Teachers, and Intellectualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher roles in contemporary American schools should be more closely aligned to hermeneutics as the study of meaning (interpretation/understanding). A marriage between Platonic notions of interpretation and the quest for meaning with the interpretive theories of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm Dilthey, and Hans-Georg…

Boyles, Deron Robert

114

Teaching Literacy for Love and Wisdom: Being the Book and Being the Change. Language and Literacy Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This powerful book lays out an inspiring new vision for the teaching of English, building on themes central to Wilhelm's influential "You Gotta BE The Book." With this new work, Wilhelm and Novak challenge business as usual in the language arts. They call for nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the aims and methods of the English…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Novak, Bruce

2011-01-01

115

Bacterial Endocarditis. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in X-Irradiated and Nonirradiated Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacterial endocarditis and associated renal lesions were induced in rats given two exposures to 400 roentgens, followed by one or two intravenous injections of a broth culture of Streptococcus mitis. Cultures of the same organism induced a similiar infect...

B. Highman P. D. Altland A. R. Hanks N. W. Rantanen

1969-01-01

116

Current Trends in Survivorship of Radiologists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the deaths of physicians who entered the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), the American College of Physicians (ACP), the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology (AAOO), the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS),...

1975-01-01

117

An Exercise in Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of thalassemia major of unusual duration was presented to illustrate the classical roentgen changes in this hemoglobinopathy. Since the patient was the oldest recorded survivor with Cooley's anemia prior to her recent death, she served as a mirror ...

P. J. Loiacono M. M. Reeder

1968-01-01

118

Radioactive Material Equations and Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online calculator solves solutions in relationship to nuclei, nuclear reactions, half life time, disintegration constant, becquerels, curie, Avogadro's number, equivalent radiation dose, absorbed dose, radionuclide, ionizing activity, atomic weight, quality factor, roentgen equivalent man (rem), rad, sievert and gray.

Raymond, Jimmy

119

Experimental Studies for the Development of a New Method for Stroke Volume Measuring Using X-Ray Videodensitometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantitative videodensitometry was studied with a view to its possible application as a new, non-invasive method of measuring cardiac stroke volume. To begin with, the accuracy of roentgen volumetric measurements was determined. After this, blood volume v...

H. J. Odenthal

1982-01-01

120

Radiation sickness  

MedlinePLUS

... immediate chemical effects on human tissue . X-rays, gamma rays, and particle bombardment (neutron beam, electron beam, protons, ... no "minimum threshold." Exposure from x-rays or gamma rays is measured in units of roentgens. For example: ...

121

16-year-old female twins undergoing anthropometric study by Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer( page 4 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Twin Studies   German/Nazi Eugenics   Leading Eugenicists

2007-10-25

122

16-year-old female twins undergoing anthropometric study by Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer( page 6 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Twin Studies   German/Nazi Eugenics   Leading Eugenicists

2008-03-26

123

75 FR 17920 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition to Designate a Class of Employees for the Ames Laboratory, Ames...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Campus variably known as Annexes 1 and 2, Hot Canyon, Wilhelm Hall or Metallurgy Building, Spedding Hall, Research and Chemistry Buildings. Period of Employment: January 1, 1955 through December 31, 1960. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2010-04-08

124

77 FR 23 - Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...restrictions on the ability of a banking entity and nonbank financial company supervised by...Wilhelm, Director for Financial Markets Group, (202...restrictions on the ability of a banking entity and nonbank financial company supervised...

2012-01-03

125

Mixed signal pnCCD readout ASIC for the future X-Ray astronomy mission eROSITA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the eROSITA X-ray telescope (extended Roentgen Survey with an imaging telescope array) aboard the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite an improved type of the pnCCD used for one of XMM-Newton cameras will be used. The eROSITA X-ray telescope instrument consists of seven mirror modules (Wolter-I optics) each having its own 384times384 pixel frame store pnCCD detector in the focal plane. The

Sven Herrmann; Werner Buttler; Robert Hartmann; Peter Holl; Norbert Meidinger; Lothar Strueder

2007-01-01

126

Physicists and Physics in Munich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan

127

Factorization law for two lower bounds of concurrence  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of two lower bounds of concurrence in bipartite quantum systems when one party goes through an arbitrary channel. We show that these lower bounds obey the factorization law similar to that of [Konrad et al., Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. We also discuss the application of this property in an example.

Mirafzali, Sayyed Yahya; Sargolzahi, Iman; Ahanj, Ali; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khayyam Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran and School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-09-15

128

The use of federal and state databases to conduct health services research related to physical and occupational therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freburger JK, Konrad TR. The use of federal and state databases to conduct health services research related to physical and occupational therapy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:837-45. Objective: To describe the characteristics of a number of secondary databases that have the potential to answer questions related to the use of, access to, and effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) and occupational

Janet K. Freburger; Thomas R. Konrad

2002-01-01

129

Schulfach Englisch (The English Course)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discussion of course objectives of English taught as a second language with reference to Konrad Schroder's Englisch als Schulfach'' (English as an Academic Subject), Neusprachliche Mitteilungen, v24 p144-152, and Helmut Schwartz's Noch einmal: Englisch als Schulfach'' (Once Again: English as an Academic Course), Neusprachliche…

Loebner, Horst-Dieter

1973-01-01

130

Ein Anti-Macht-Wort zur Didaktik der 'Progressive' Form. [An Anti-Macht Comment on Teaching the Progressive Form (of the English Verb)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rejects the semantic analysis of the English progressive form proposed by Konrad Macht in 1973. Citing performance data from tenth grade classes and reviewing the contents of school grammars in use at the intermediate level, a teaching grammar for the progressive form is developed. (IFS/WGA)

Zydatiss, Wolfgang

1979-01-01

131

Development and Calibration of the ART-XC Mirror Modules for the Spectrum Rontgen Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-lead X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module Xray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV.

Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; Elsner, R.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Odell, S.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2013-01-01

132

[Roentgenological-endovascular occlusion and ligation of internal iliac arteries in bleeding tumors of the bladder].  

PubMed

A comparative estimation of the effectiveness of hemostasis by means of ligation of the internal iliac arteries and roentgen-endovascular occlusion of these vessels was carried out in 30 patients with a bleeding carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate growing into its wall. For the occlusion of the internal iliac artery metallic spirals were used in 15 patients, in 4 of them they were used in combination with a gelatine sponge. The roentgen-endovascular occlusion is thought by the authors to be the method of choice. PMID:4060510

Granov, A M; Anisimov, V N; Grinval'd, V A; Ryzhkov, V K; Borisova, N A

1985-08-01

133

Flight programs and X-ray optics development at MSFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HEROES balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG). A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin-shell optics to the arcsecond-level.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

134

System design considerations for an x-ray phase-contrast imaging system based on in-line holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Roentgen discovered x-ray and performed the first x-ray imaging more than 100 years ago, x-ray imaging has always been based on the biological tissue's differences in x-ray attenuation. However, x-ray-tissue interaction causes x-ray phase changes as well, and the tissue\\

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu; Aimin Yan

2005-01-01

135

Accelerator Radiological Protection A Personal and Privileged Odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not generally recognised that it was at accelerator laboratories that the foundations of the health physics profession, as we know it today, were laid. The dying years of the nineteenth century saw the birth of radiological protection. Roentgen's discovery of x-rays in 1895 with the aid of a primitive electron accelerator foreshadowed the important rôle particle-accelerators were to

Ralph H. Thomas; Marcus Tullius Cicero

136

Development of quality assurance in radiation therapy in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diagnostic radiology developed rapidly following Roentgen's discovery, limitations on voltage delayed penetrating external radiation therapy until after World War II. Quality assurance has developed in both the USA and Canada in many different institutions. Tolerances for implementation of the prescribed tumor dose have been established. A series of quality assurance procedures for calibration, three dimensional dose distributions, the treatment

John S. Laughlin

1984-01-01

137

The development of radiotherapy in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical data on the development of radiotherapy in Slovenia are presented from its first use in this county in 1902 until the present. The Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana was established in 1938 with the intention of providing a sound development of radium and roentgen cancer treatment. After World War II, the development of radiotherapy was dynamic, which is

Janez Kuhelj; Božena Ravnihar

1996-01-01

138

Radiation dose reduction in the neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison of three gadolinium oxysulfide screen-film combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant radiation exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit was quantitated by thermoluminescent dosimetry in 513 mobile unit roentgen examinations of the chest and abdomen. Three combinations of gadolinium oxysulfide intensifying screens and radiographic films were compared. The skin entrance dose in millirads at the mid-chest, mid-abdomen and symphysis pubis levels was measured. Radiation dose reductions of 52% and 68%

R. L. Smathers; B. A. Alford; J. Messenger; S. K. Agarwal; T. S. Taylor

2009-01-01

139

SODART optical block of the SRG satellite: design and integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer. The integrated unit meets all mechanical, thermal and optical specifications and it is now

Finn E. Christensen; Peter K. Frederiksen; Josef Polny; Ib L. Rasmussen; Hans-Joachim Wiebicke; Oleg V. Terekhov; Konstantin N. Borozdin; Tatyana Litvinova; Valentin K. Sysoev; Roald S. Kremnev; Sergei N. Aleksashkin; Oleg V. Stekolchikov

1998-01-01

140

Aversion to Sucrose Produced by Contingent X-Irradiation: Temporal and Dosage Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats were made familiar with milk in the course of five days. A few days later, experimental Ss were permitted to drink sucrose solution and, from 3.5 to 32 hours afterward, were exposed to 50 roentgens of X-rays. Sham controls were treated in the same wa...

S. H. Revusky

1967-01-01

141

Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

142

Comments on Modern Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of physics, at the threshold of the modern era, in 1880, is briefly reviewed. The classical description of a physical event, as observed in Galilean frames, is outlined. The following experiments are discussed: aether drift (Michelson and Morley), propagation of radio waves (Hertz;Lodge), magnetic fields generated by motion of charge with respect to the aether (Roentgen; Trouton and

B. R. Gossick

1963-01-01

143

Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

1994-01-01

144

Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the photosphere at x-ray wavelengths when observing the disk of the Sun, this part of the solar atmosphere emits so little that far from the peak of its Planck curve it appears dark in x-ray images. This impression of hot plasma following the magnetic field direction is further strengthened by quantitative studies that calculate coronal magnetic field strength and direction based on photospheric measurements and compare them with the observed brightness and location of the x-ray emitting structures. Such comparisons make it clear that, for the most part, the hot plasma conforms to the geometry of the magnetic field and that the coronal brightness is strongly linked to the strength of the magnetic fields which have erupted to the solar surface from the interior. It is also the case that the larger-scale, fainter corona, as well as coronal holes, are strongly influenced by the large-scale solar magnetic field. We may get a small hint of the reason that the coronal plasma outlines the direction of B by examining the thermal conductivity of a hot plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. This quantity has enormously different values in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the field for a coronal temperature of 10(exp 6) K, a particle density of 10(exp 9)/cu cm and a magnetic field strength of 100 G, the conductivity along the field is approximately 13 orders of magnitude greater than that perpendicular to the field. It is therefore not surprising that a parcel of plasma which is locally heated would conduct that heat preferentially in the direction of the field. We also note that the thermal conductivity parallel to the magnetic field increases with temperature T, while the perpendicular conductivity decreases. To the extent that the loop aspect ratio, i.e., the ratio of loop length to loop width, is determined by the thermal conductivity, we would expect that higher temperature loops are longer and thinner than cooler ones. However, if the loop width becomes smaller than the spatial resolution of the observing instrument, this effect will not be directly observ

Golub, Leon

1997-01-01

145

Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on the…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

146

Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

2012-01-01

147

Reading Motivation: Exploring the Elementary Gender Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…

Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

2010-01-01

148

Next Steps in the Journey: Teaching with "Urgency:" A Call for Immediate Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a staggering number of students dropping out of school, widespread below-grade reading proficiency, and PISA results showing a demoralizing lag internationally in math, science, and general problem solving, teachers need to exercise all the control available to them to engage students in meaningful learning. Wilhelm suggests six steps…

Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

2008-01-01

149

Structural robustness of metabolic networks with respect to multiple knockouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a generalised framework for analysing structural robustness of metabolic networks, based on the concept of elementary flux modes (EFMs). Extending our earlier study on single knockouts [Wilhelm, T., Behre, J., Schuster, S., 2004. Analysis of structural robustness of metabolic networks. IEE Proc. Syst. Biol. 1(1), 114–120], we are now considering the general case of double and multiple knockouts.

Jörn Behre; Thomas Wilhelm; Axel von Kamp; Eytan Ruppin; Stefan Schuster

2008-01-01

150

A Poetic Journey: The Transfer and Transformation of German Strategies for Moral Education in Late Eighteenth-Century Dutch Poetry for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most popular Dutch educational enlightenment authors was Hieronymus van Alphen. His three volumes of "Little Poems for Children" published in 1778 and 1782 were extremely successful, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Inspired by the German poets Christian Felix Weisse and Gottlob Wilhelm Burmann, Van Alphen brought about an…

Parlevliet, Sanne; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

2013-01-01

151

Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

Karran, Terence

2009-01-01

152

Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

153

Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after

Lutz D. Schmadel; Susanne Guski-Leinwand

2011-01-01

154

Charles Davenport and Eugen Fischer, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchCharles Davenport, 1925, and Eugen Fischer, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office, about 1938.

2008-10-06

155

Hardware: Door Furniture Product Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Selection guide--General principles, chart; Application; and Ranges--(1) G and S Allgood Ltd - 'MODRIC'; (2) Wilhelm Engstfeld GmbH - 'WEHAG'; (3) Hans Grinberg - 'HAGRI'; (4) Laidlaw and Thomson Ltd - British 'PENNINE'; (5) Newman-Tonks Ltd - S...

1983-01-01

156

The Practice of Finitism: Epsilon Calculus and Consistency Proofs in Hilbert's Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief flirtation with logicism around 1917, David Hilbertproposed his own program in the foundations of mathematics in 1920 and developed it, in concert with collaborators such as Paul Bernays andWilhelm Ackermann, throughout the 1920s. The two technical pillars of the project were the development of axiomatic systems for everstronger and more comprehensive areas of mathematics, and finitisticproofs of

Richard Zach

2003-01-01

157

Rontgen's Discovery of X Rays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the story of Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and presents one view of the extent to which the discovery of the x-ray was an accident. Reconstructs the sequence of events that led to the discovery and includes photographs of the lab where he worked and replicas of apparatus used. (GS)

Thumm, Walter

1975-01-01

158

From University to Comprehensive Higher Education: On the Widening Gap between "Lehre und Leben."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory of Wilhelm von Humboldt concerning the role of the university is discussed, focusing on four imperatives regulating its activities--unity of research and teaching; the empirical sciences; science and socialization; and science and universal enlightenment. The current status of the university is assessed in relation to these ideals. (MSE)

Bertilsson, Margareta

1992-01-01

159

Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.  

PubMed

Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977952

Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

2013-08-01

160

"The Lengthened Shadow of One Man": The Public Intellectual and the Founding of Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies five intellectuals who made distinctive contributions to the founding of new universities in England, Germany, and the United States. Institutional and individual biographies profile: Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia); Wilhelm von Humboldt (University of Berlin); Lord Brougham (University College, University of London); A.D.…

Wyatt, John

1998-01-01

161

Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

162

Integrating Fiction and Nonfiction Reading into the Business Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal of high school teachers is to help students appreciate that reading does not end when they leave the classroom. When students find reading meaningful, they are more likely to see themselves as readers and choose to read long after they leave the classroom setting (Hinchman, Alvermann, Boyd, Brozo, & Vacca, 2003-2004; Wilhelm, 2001).…

Fiene, Judy; Pedersen, Erin

2013-01-01

163

Recent Progress on Certain Quartic Diophantine Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Ljunggren proved many results on quartic Diophantine equations of the form aX4-bY2 = c, with c?{+/-1,-2,+/-4}. Noticeably absent from this set of values of c is c = 2. We describe some recent progress on this problem, and discuss some open problems which require further study.

Walsh, P. G.

2008-01-01

164

[Sigmund Freud--portrait of writer].  

PubMed

As physician and writer Freud held an ambivalent attitude towards poets. Jens clarifies this by reference to Wilhelm Stekel's address and the subsequent discussion in Freud's Wednesday evening society, both concerned with the world première of Gerhart Hauptmann's stage play Griselda (1909). PMID:1754689

Jens, W

1991-11-01

165

Personalizing Our Teaching: No Specific Human Being Left behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the challenge of individualizing instruction, Wilhelm reminds us of some specific areas teachers must focus on: developing apprenticeship and inquiry settings in which student difference is a resource; connecting students to their reading and writing; honoring and using students' first languages; situating instruction in real or…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

166

Brothers Grimm Bicentenntial: Blueprint for a Community Celebration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty at McNeese State University (Louisiana) and local civic, educational, and cultural groups encouraged their community to commemorate the anniversary of the births of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German scholars who recorded fairy tales, myths, legends, and folk songs that are now an important part of the western world's cultural heritage,…

Novak, Sigrid Scholtz

167

Portrayals of Wundt and Titchener in Introductory Psychology Texts: A Content Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the content of introductory psychology books by performing a content analysis on texts from the 1970s and 1990s to determine whether the books incorporated recent historical scholarship in discussions of Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Finds that some texts still misrepresent the relation between Wundt and Titchener. (CMK)

Zehr, David

2000-01-01

168

Proactivity vs Reactivity: Preparing Students for Success with CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm has studied the Common Core State Standards and come away with a generally positive opinion. His concern is that now that the Standards are written, we let professional teachers mold them into the best possible practices for teaching their students. With specific advice for working with students--developing background knowledge, making…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

2012-01-01

169

Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

Krewson, Margrit B.

170

Looking for One's Shadow at Noon: Vol. II. Finding the Self in School and Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains a collection of essays, reflections, and other writings (many of which originally appeared in several journals) on the relations among self and school and community. The first selection is an obituary of Fritz Perls, a leader of Gestalt therapy. The second essay, "A Social and Political Reassessment of the Work of Wilhelm…

Leue, Mary M.

171

The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1856, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment with a Leyden Jar which showed that the ratio of the quantity of electricity when measured statically, to the same quantity of electricity when measured electrodynamically, is numerically equal to the directly measured speed of light. In 1861, in his paper entitled 'On Physical Lines of Force', James Clerk-Maxwell

Frederick David Tombe

172

The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

Reyes, G. Mitchell

2004-01-01

173

Profile Measurements During Cavitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the problems of modern cavitation research is the experimental determination of the wing loads on airfoils during cavitation. Such experiments were made on various airfoils with the support of the naval ministry at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research at Goettingen.

Walchner, O.

1944-01-01

174

Determiner Syntax in Middle Low German: Evidence from the "Luebecker Ratsurteile"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I take a look at Middle Low German nominal phrases as evidenced in the Lubecker Ratsurteile, a collection of court proceedings published by Wilhelm Ebel in 1955, which cover the years 1421-1550. By digitizing the corpus, I was able to perform a corpus analysis on noun phrases, where I concentrated on determiner use and form,…

Gougeon, Elliott E.

2012-01-01

175

Returning to the Scene of the Crime: The Brothers Grimm and the Yearning for Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost two hundred years ago, in 1812, two German brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, collected folk stories, and revised and published them in a book of fairy tales. The publication, Grimm's Fairy Tales, remains amongst the best sellers in contemporary western children's literature despite increasing feminist concerns that the tales deliver outdated and inappropriate patriarchal messages. This thesis seeks to

Maureen Clack

2006-01-01

176

Technology in Our Schools: A Call for a Cost/Benefit Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm is a vocal advocate for the substantive integration of technology into language arts classes in ways that support the "critical" use of technologies and the learning of new concepts and procedures for reading and composing. He makes the case that no one can be considered fully literate without a familiarity with and appreciation for our…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

177

Meeting the Challenge: Creating Engaging and Powerful Contexts for Literacy Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the conditions of "flow" experience from two studies into the literate lives of young men (Smith and Wilhelm 2002; 2006) that were explanatory, when present, of motivation and engagement in various activities including literacy, and when absent, of a lack of motivation and engagement in various activities including literacy.…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

178

Politische Führung als politikwissenschaftliches Problem: zur Einführung in den Gegenstand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Frage, über welche Handlungsspielräume politische Führer verfügen und was Führung im Kern ausmacht, wird in der Politikwissenschaft\\u000a höchst kontrovers diskutiert. Unklar ist, welches Verhalten einen Regierungschef als führungsstark oder führungsschwach kennzeichnet.\\u000a Ist es ein Zeichen von Stärke oder Schwäche, wenn ein Bundeskanzler wie Konrad Adenauer intensiv von der Richtlinienkompetenz\\u000a Gebrauch gemacht hat? Ist Angela Merkel schon deswegen eine führungsstarke

Henrik Gast

179

The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

NONE

1995-10-01

180

Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

1974-01-01

181

Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

2012-01-01

182

The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2006-03-01

183

Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

Walker, Mark

2006-05-01

184

Cleansing of the colon without enemas.  

PubMed

Several methods have been used to cleanse the large bowel prior to roentgen examination and rectoscopy for more than ten years. A method with administration of a salt solution (SALAX) in combination with different oral laxatives (Cascara sagrada, Dantron, Bisacodyl) without cleansing enemas is described. Hospitalized patients should have an individual preparation while ambulatory patients are almost completely cleansed if they carefully follow the given instructions. PMID:1215526

Rosengren, J E; Aberg, T

1975-11-01

185

Carcinogenic Effects of Ionising Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within less than a decade after the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen, in1895, cancer was recognized to be a late complication\\u000a of injury by ionizing radiation, and for decades thereafter it was assumed that cancer would result only from doses large\\u000a enough to cause severe damage of tissue. In the interim, the carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation have been

Arthur C. Upton

186

X-ray phase-contrast imaging with 2D grating interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and pre-clinical applications but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade x-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or

Ming Jiang; Christopher Lee Wyatt; Ge Wang

2008-01-01

187

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging Methods for Biological Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Different from the conventional method based on the attenuation contrast mechanism, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) is proposed for the study of biological tissues and structures. This technique

Fu Jian; Li Jian; Zhu Jian; Zhou Xingyu; Zhou Zhenggan; Wei Dongbo

2009-01-01

188

Use of radionuclides in cancer research and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer occurs as a result of misregulation of cell growth, which appears to be a consequence of alteration in the function\\u000a of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Ionising radiation has been used, since the discovery of X-rays in 1896 by Roentgen,\\u000a both in cancer research and treatment of the disease. The main purpose of cancer research is to understand the

M. Teresa Macías

2009-01-01

189

The ART-XC Instrument on board the SRG Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2013 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany

M. Pavlinsky; V. Akimov; V. Levin; I. Lapshov; A. Tkachenko; N. Semena; V. Arefiev; A. Glushenko; A. Yaskovich; R. Burenin; S. Sazonov; M. Revnivtsev; M. Buntov; S. Grebenev; A. Lutovinov; M. Kudelin; S. Grigorovich; D. Litvin; V. Lazarchuk; I. Roiz; M. Garin; M. Gubarev; B. Ramsey; K. Kilaru; S. L. O'Dell; R. Elsner

2011-01-01

190

DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and PA beam loss monitor (BLM) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and Proton Accelerator (PA) beam loss monitor (BLM) system is reported. The low leakage current (<0.1 pA), good plateau (approx800 V) and linearity range up to 200 Roentgen/h are obtained in the first prototype. All of these give us good experience for further improving the ionization chamber construction.

Xu, Mei-Hang; Tian, Jian-Min; Chen, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Bo; Xu, Tao-Guang; Lu, Shuang-Tong

2009-02-01

191

The novel combined x-ray image intensifier and its imaging performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The x-ray imaging technology has been improved greatly since Roentgen discovered x-ray in 1895 and it is very important in some fields such as medical treatment, nondestructive test and industrial detection. At present, there are many kinds of x-ray imaging technologies based on the different image detectors. To meet the requirement of real time observation, digital image processing and long-distance

Chunyu Yu; Benkang Chang; Rongguo Fu; Xiao Yao

2006-01-01

192

An adjustable short-focal length, high-gradient PMQ electron-beam final-focus system for the PLEIADES ultra-fast x-ray Thomson source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the span of a 100 year since the discovery of first x-rays by Roentgen that won him the first Nobel prize in physics, several types of radiation sources have been developed. Currently, radiations at extremely short wavelengths have only been accessed at synchrotron radiation sources. However, the current 3rd generation synchrotron sources can only produce x-rays of energy up

Jae-Ku Lim

2006-01-01

193

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging: Phase Reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical X-ray imaging has always been based on the biological tissue's differences in X-ray attenuation ever since Roentgen discovered X-ray over 100 years ago. However X-ray-tissue interaction causes X-ray phase changes as well. We have identified the four clinically important factors that affect the X-ray phase visibility in clinical imaging. These factors are: body part attenuation, the spatial coherence of

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu

2005-01-01

194

Changes in knee motion over the first 3 years with a mobile-bearing prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to evaluate the mobility of the polyethylene bearing in 25 patients implanted with a mobile-bearing PCL-retaining TKR (Interax ISA, Striker Howmedica) under in vivo, weight-bearing conditions over 3 years' follow-up. We compared the bearing motion in response to specific tests in two consecutive follow-ups with Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA). Results showed that polyethylene continued to displace on

Alessandro Russo; Luisa Montagna; Laura Bragonzoni; Andrea Visani; Maurilio Marcacci

2006-01-01

195

Electrodynamics of a compound system with relativistic corrections  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic interaction of a moving compound charged system with leading relativistic corrections is studied. An effective Hamiltonian is obtained by using a set of canonical transformations, and it is demonstrated that the coupling of the total motion to internal degrees of freedom is uniquely determined by Lorentz covariance. Several known results such as the Roentgen term and the interaction of the spin with the electric field are recovered, and new results for various relativistic and recoil corrections are obtained.

Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2007-08-15

196

A DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY EXPOSURE DOSE CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design ot a miniature condenser ionization chamber for the ; measurement of diagnostic x-ray exposure dose is described. Response relative to ; the roentgen as a function of energy for x-rays with a range of half value layers ; from 0.2 to 5.0 mm Al (effective energies of 12.8 and 41.5 kev, respectively) is ; kept constant by the

R. Garrett; J. S. Laughlin

1959-01-01

197

The use of BaF2 thermoluminescence in determining radiation quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoluminescence of high-purity BaF2 crystals was studied. The thermoluminescent light output per roentgen as a function of photon energy was measured over the range 30 keV to 1.25 MeV and agrees reasonably well with a calculation based on the assumption that the light output depends only on the energy absorbed in the crystal. The K-edge of Ba is also

R. L. Dixon; F. C. Watts

1972-01-01

198

Spectrum-RG\\/eROSITA\\/Lobster astrophysical mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A medium size satellite will be launched in the 2010-2011 timeframe into a 600 km equatorial (less than or equal to 5 deg.) orbit from Kourou or into a less than or equal to 30 deg. orbit from Baikonur as a fallback option. The payload includes eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array, MPE, Germany) with 7 Wolter-type

M. Pavlinsky; G. Hasinger; A. Parmar; G. Fraser; E. Churazov; M. Gilfanov; R. Sunyaev; A. Vikhlinin; P. Predehl; L. Piro; V. Arefiev; A. Tkachenko; V. Pinchuk; D. Gorobets

2006-01-01

199

eROSITA focal plane instrumentation design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German X-ray instrument eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the main instrument of the new Spectrum-RG mission orbiting at L2. The launch of the Russian satellite is planned for the year 2012. The scientific goal of eROSITA is primarily an all sky survey with detection and analysis of 100 thousand clusters of galaxies in order

Sven Herrmann; Robert Andritschke; Johannes Elbs; Olaf Haelker; Robert Hartmann; Norbert Meidinger; Lothar Strueder; Lars Tiedemann

2009-01-01

200

Spectrum-RG astrophysical project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission will be launched in the 2012 year into a L2 orbit with Soyuz launcher and Fregat buster from Baikonur. The mission will conduct all-sky survey with X-ray mirror telescopes eROSITA and ART-XC up to 11 keV. It will allow detection of about 100 thousand clusters of galaxies and discovery large scale Universe structure. It will also discover

M. Pavlinsky; R. Sunyaev; E. Churazov; A. Vikhlinin; S. Sazonov; M. Revnivtsev; V. Arefiev; I. Lapshov; V. Akimov; V. Levin; M. Buntov; N. Semena; S. Grigorovich; V. Babyshkin; P. Predehl; G. Hasinger; H. Böhringer; J. Schmitt; A. Santangelo; A. Schwope; J. Wilms

2009-01-01

201

Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have\\u000a always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben,\\u000a Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar\\u000a Voigt,

Klaus Hentschel

2009-01-01

202

Patho-Teleology and the Spirit of War: The Psychoanalytic Inheritance of National Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides a historical overview of the proposed discipline of Völkerpsychologie (“national psychology”), which claimed national identity as the defining element of the human psyche. In the incarnations of founders Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal (1860–1890) and their successor Wilhelm Wundt (1900–1920), Völkerpsychologie adopts the Hegelian conception of Germany as the motivating cultural force of world history. Lazarus', Steinthal's,

David J. Rosenberg

2008-01-01

203

Physical Realizations of Quantum Computing Are the DiVincenzo Criteria Fulfilled in 2004?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Obituary: Martti Mikael Salomaa -- DiVincenzo criteria and beyond / M. M. Salomaa and M. Nakahara -- Single-electron charge and spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots / T. Fujisawa -- Superconducting quantum computing: status and prospects / F. K. Wilhelm and K. Semba -- Controlling three atomic qubits / H. Häffner ... [et al.] -- Liquid-state NMR quantum computer: Hamiltonian formalism and experiments / Y. Kondo, M. Nakahara and S. Tanimura -- Optical quantum computation / K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro.

Nakahara, Mikio; Kanemitsu, Shigeru; Salomaa, Martti M.; Takagi, Shin

2006-03-01

204

Otmar von Verschuer performing lung volume tests, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solution In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

205

Otmar von Verschuer collects fingerprints, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solutionIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

206

Otmar von Verschuer examines twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solutionIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

207

Xanthophyll synthesis in diatoms: quantification of putative intermediates and comparison of pigment conversion kinetics with rate constants derived from a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recently, we reported the presence of the violaxanthin-antheraxanthin-zeaxanthin cycle in diatoms, and showed that violaxanthin\\u000a is the putative precursor of both diadinoxanthin and fucoxanthin in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (M. Lohr and C. Wilhelm, 1999, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 8784–8789). In the present study, two possible intermediates\\u000a in the synthesis of violaxanthin from ?-carotene were identified

Martin Lohr; Christian Wilhelm

2001-01-01

208

Enzyme-assisted physicochemical enantioseparation processes—Part II: Solid–liquid equilibria, preferential crystallization, chromatography and racemization reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution addresses the design and investigation of two hybrid enantioseparation processes including an enzymatic racemization step in order to enhance the overall performance. Complementary to part I where the manufacturing and the characterization of an amino acid racemase (EC 5.1.1.10) was emphasized [Würges, K., Petrusevska, K., Serci, S., Wilhelm, S., Wandrey, C., Seidel-Morgenstern, A., Elsner, M.P., Lütz, S., 2009.

Katerina Petruševska-Seebach; Kerstin Würges; Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern; Stephan Lütz; Martin P. Elsner

2009-01-01

209

Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

2011-08-01

210

Otmar von Verschuer examines eye color of twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

211

Application of Alternative Fumigants Through Drip Irrigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ajwa, H. A., Trout, T., Mueller, J., Wilhelm, S., Nelson, S. D., Soppe, R., and Shatley, D. 2002. Application of alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems. Phytopathology 92:1349-1355. Strawberry fields in California (9,500 ha annually) are pre-plant fumi- gated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin to prevent serious soil pest and disease problems. Although soil fumigation with methyl bromide has ensured

H. A. Ajwa; T. Trout; J. Mueller; S. Wilhelm; S. D. Nelson; R. Soppe; D. Shatley

2002-01-01

212

A fighter for Liberty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper contains a biography by Ion (Ivan) K. Inculetz (Inculet)(1884-1940), a graduated from the physical-mathematical department of the Sankt-Petersburg University (1911), a secretary of the board of "Nauchnoie Obozrenie" (ed. Wilhelm Bittner), A member of the Sovet in Petrograd in 1917, the first president of the Parliament "Sfatul Tarii" of the Democratic Republic of Moldova, a minister in few Romanian Governements, a member of the Romanian Academy.

Gaina, Alexei

213

Otmar von Verschuer examines hair color of twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

214

Distribution and gender effects of the subscales of a German version of the temperament autoquestionnaire briefTEMPS-M in a university student population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper examines the distribution of the temperamental characteristics and gender effects of a new autoquestionnaire developed by Akiskal et al. (TEMPS-A) in its German briefTEMPS-M version. Methods: As described in a companion article [J. Affect. Disord. 85 (2005), 53, this issue], based on a study population of 1056 students of the Westfälische-Wilhelms-Universität in Münster, Germany, we constructed the

Andreas Erfurth; Alexander L. Gerlach; Nikolaus Michael; Ines Boenigk; Inga Hellweg; Salvatore Signoretta; Kareen Akiskal; Hagop S. Akiskal

2005-01-01

215

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

216

Josef jadassohn--an appreciation on the occasion of his 150th birthday.  

PubMed

Josef Jadassohn was a pioneering dermatologist who influenced the development of his specialty in many ways. He introduced the patch test for detection of hypersensitivity reactions, gave original descriptions of several entities, such as nevus sebaceous, granulosis rubra nasi, and pachyonychia congenita, and edited the Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, the most comprehensive textbook of dermatology ever published. Moreover, Jadassohn left a phalanx of distinguished students, including Felix Lewandowsky, Wilhelm Lutz, Max Jessner, Hans Biberstein, Hermann Pinkus, and Marion B. Sulzberger. PMID:23928455

Weyers, Wolfgang

2013-10-01

217

The first 50 years of military radiology 1895-1945.  

PubMed

Following the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Röntgen the value to the military surgeon of the new technique was soon realised. The localisation of retained bullets by radiography avoided inappropriate exploration of the wound. The X-rays were first used on casualties from the Abyssinian War of 1896 and the developing radiological technology was progressively applied to military surgery. In addition the needs of warfare stimulated the development of all aspects of radiology. PMID:17629432

Thomas, Adrian M K

2007-08-01

218

Drifting From Slow to D'oh!: Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Sü?, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during a sustained-attention task; subjects completed either a go\\/no-go version requiring executive control over habit

Jennifer C. McVay; Michael J. Kane

2012-01-01

219

The Radiation Therapy Planning Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is to describe mathematicalaspects of radiation therapy planning to readers with a background inapplied mathematics.The use of X-rays for cancer therapy began a few days after their discovery.Wilhelm Rontgen announced the discovery of X-rays on December28, 1895, and Emil Grubbe used them for cancer therapy on January 12,1896 [40]. X-rays are still the most common form of radiation

Christoph Borgers

1997-01-01

220

An unprecedented sensation-public reaction to the discovery of X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since discoveries in physics are usually spread via technical journals, they are rarely the focus of public interest. It was different with Wilhelm Rontgen`s preliminary communication, On a new kind of rays. On 5 January 1896 a report in the Vienna Presse succeeded in bringing the Wurzburg X-rays to the attention of popular newspapers, magazines and finally to the experts as well.

Schedel, A.

1995-11-01

221

Sterne, Mond, Kometen. Bremen und die Astronomie. Zum 75. Jahrestag der Gründung der Olbers-Gesellschaft Bremen e.V.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: I. Klassische Astronomie. Newton und die vielen Bewegungen des Mondes (M. C. Gutzwiller). Ueber die Möglichkeit, dass ein Comet mit der Erde zusammenstossen könne (Wilhelm Olbers). Wilhelm Olbers und die Kometen (V. Kasten). Himmel so hell wie 90000 Sonnen - Das Olbersche Paradoxon (P. H. Richter). II. Die Gründer der Olbers-Gesellschaft. Die Gründerjahre der Olbers-Gesellschaft (H.-J. Leue). Max Völkel - Erster Präsident der Olbers-Gesellschaft (A. Müller). Wilhelm Finke - Pädagoge und Physiker (D. Wattenberg). Der Grungedanke der Lösung war... - Ursprung der Stern-Projektion in Planetarien (F. Finke). III. Arbeit und Leben in der Olbers-Gesellschaft. >Stein-Zeit< (E. P. Sixt). Himmlische Zeiten - 40 Jahre Amateur-Astronomie in der Olbers-Gesellschaft (H.-J. Leue). Spiegelschleifen als Hobby - damals und heute (W. Jaeckel). Philipp Fauths Mondatlas (H. Dierks). IV. Mensch, Zeit und Kosmos. Das Spronser Bergheiligtum bei Meran. Die älteste Sternwarte der Menschheit in situ? (A. Egen). Die kosmische Funktion des Goldenen Schnitts (T. Landscheidt). Bremer Sonnenuhren - Eine Einführung in die Messung der Sonnenzeit (D. Vornholz). Olbers und die Zeit auf Besuch bei Carl Schütte (Ein Singspiel von Malvina Elisabeth Schütte, geb. Focke).

Richter, P. H.

222

The cosmic Era and the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THe book describes the main directions of development of cosmic research in the USA, USSR, Europe, Japan and China. The main inventors and creators of cosmic technics are designed : Tsiolkovskii, Tsander, Korolev, Oberth, Verner von Braun, Goddard and the most important cosmic flies by Sputnik, Gagarin, Tereshkova, Leonov, Armstrong. The main program of cosmic research are outlined in such areas as maps, geological research, meteorolgy, television, radio and military. The Romanian contributions are described: Ioan Vitez, Konrad Haas, Traian Vuia, Aurel Vlaicu, Hermann Oberth and Dumnitru Prunariu.

Closca-Grigore, Carmen

223

The first accurate description of an aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

Schröder, Wilfried

2006-12-01

224

Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.  

PubMed

The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. PMID:22975293

Andrew, Nicola

2013-05-01

225

Superconducting qubits on the way to a quantum processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental research on supeconducting qubits has seen an enormous progress in recent years. About 10 years after its first theoretical proposals, experiments have demonstrated the necessary building blocks for the exploration of quantum information along several avenues: Single qubit-rotations, long coherence times, high-fidelity nondemolition readout, two-qubit interactions and gates, coupling to delocalized qubit modes. With this progress, analogies to other qubit candidates such as magnetic resonance systems, atomic, and optical systems are evident, but we also see the specific strengths of superconducting qubits play out - in situ tunable strong qubit-qubit coupling, strong coupling between qubits and the quantized electromagnetic field, strong intrinsic nonlinearity, and the possibility to fabricate large circuits. Most of these achievements will be discussed later in the session. I will give an introduction to superconducting qubits in the perspective of quantum information processing [1] accessible to outsiders in the field. I will put the different elements of the session in the perspective of an actual scalable architecture which allows for fault-tolerant quantum computation [1,2]. In order to make further progress in direction, the fidelities of quantum operations need to be improved. I will discuss the crucial topic of understanding and further supressing noise from material defects in these systems, which can influence both the phase and bit-flip error rate [3,4]. I will show, how optimal control theory can help to find fast and high-fidelity shaped pulses for superconducting qubits, even though they, other than spin 1/2 systems, have relatively close leakage levels outside the qubit manyfold [5,6]. This technique also allows to optimize pulses in the presence of telegraph noise [6]. Finally, I will describe how the strong nonlinearity of Josephson circuit can be used for the generation of single microwave photons [7] and lead to a nonlinear generalization of cavity quantum electrodynamics effects [8].[1] M.R. Geller, E.J. Pritchett, A.T. Sornborger, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0603224 [2] A.G. Fowler, W. Thompson, Z. Yan, A.H. Majedi, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[3] R. de Sousa, K.B. Whaley, F.K. Wilhelm, and J. von Delft, Phys. Rev. Lett 95, 247006 (2005)[5] A.K. Sporl, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, S.J. Glaser, V. Bergholm, M.J. Storcz, J. Ferber, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0504202[6] P. Rebentrost, I. Serban, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[7] M. Mariantoni, M.J. Storcz, F.K. Wilhelm, W.D. Oliver, A. Emmert, A. Marx, R. Gross, H. Christ, and E. Solano, cond-mat/0509737[8] I. Serban, E. Solano, F.K. Wilhelm, cond-mat/0606734.

Wilhelm, Frank

2007-03-01

226

Disposal of LLW and ILW in Germany - Characterisation and Documentation of Waste Packages with Respect to the Change of Requirements  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1998 termination of LLW and ILW emplacement in the Morsleben repository (ERAM), Germany, the treatment, conditioning and documentation of radioactive waste products and packages have been continued on the basis of the waste acceptance requirements as of 1995, prepared for the Konrad repository near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, Germany. The resulting waste products and packages are stored in interim storage facilities. Due to the Konrad license issued in 2002 the waste acceptance requirements have to be completed by additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, e. g. for the declaration of chemical waste package constituents. Therefore, documentation of waste products and packages which are checked by independent experts and are in parts approved by the responsible authority (Office for Radiation Protection, BfS) up to now will have to be checked again for fulfilling the final waste acceptance requirements prior to disposal. In order to simplify these additional checks, databases are used to ensure an easy access to all known facts about the waste packages. A short balance of the existing waste products and packages which are already checked and partly approved by BfS as well as an overview on the established databases ensuring a fast access to the known facts about the conditioning processes is presented. (authors)

Bandt, G.; Spicher, G. [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Steyer, St.; Brennecke, P. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection Germany, Salzgitter (Germany)

2008-07-01

227

Effective Temperatures Teff for Main Sequence A stars and Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) stars using 2MASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BHB stars are good tracers of the halo. Accurate Teff are needed to obtain [Fe/H] from their spectra. For fainter stars, Teff may be derived from (B-V) , but this index is sensistive to surface gravity (log g) and increasingly insensitive to temperature as Teff increases. Kinman and Castelli (in preparation) show how Teff can be derived from 2MASS J, H and Ks and independently derived V magnitudes using an updated Kurucz model. We show that the Teff found in this way compare satisfactorily with those recently obtained by Di Benedetto, Fulbright and Gray et al. for dwarf stars with 6,500 < Teff < 10,000 K. They also agree with the Teff recently found for nearby BHB stars by Kinman et al. There are, however, systematic differences between our 2MASS-derived Teff and the Teff derived from UBV data for both main-sequence A stars and BHB stars by Wilhelm et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 2308 & 2329. This difference is small for stars with Teff near 7,000 K but increases for stars whose 2MASS-derived temperatures are near 10,000 K. For these high temperature stars, the 2MASS -derived temperatures are approxinmately 1,000 K hotter. This systematic difference correlates with the difference between the log g assumed by Wilhelm et al. and that which would be predicted from recent theoretical models and which has been derived for nearby BHB stars. The metallicity distribution found by Wilhelm et al. for their BHB stars is skewed towards lower metallicities when compared with other recent distributions of [Fe/H] for halo stars. This would be expected if their temperatures were systematically too low.

Kinman, T. D.; Miller, L. R.

2001-12-01

228

[Luminescent digital radiography].  

PubMed

A review is made of the papers concerned with luminescent digital radiography, a new method for roentgen diagnostic examination based on the use of a luminescent screen which storage energy of ionizing radiation during exposure and liberates it in the form of light flashes (photostimulated luminescence) on screen scanning with a narrow beam of laser radiation. The principal bases of the method, properties of the storage screen and the most important parameters of the unit for luminescent digital radiography are considered. The advantages of the new method are discussed as compared with the methods used before as are prospects for its use. PMID:2388546

Gurvich, A M; Miagkova, M G; Riudiger, Iu

1990-01-01

229

Design and performance of the 1. 5 MV injector for FXR  

SciTech Connect

The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at LLNL is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelerator, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 1.5 MV, cold cathode injector makes use of six accelerator modules as voltage sources. High voltage testing of the accelerator modules and their associated pulse forming lines and Marx banks has been completed, and beam tests of the complete injector assembly are in progress. Design information and preliminary test results are presented.

Kulke, B.; Ravenscroft, D.S.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1981-03-04

230

/sup 57/Co-bleomycin scintigraphy for the staging of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The value of Cobalt-57 bleomycin (/sup 57/Co-BLM) scintigraphy in the detection of lymph node metastases in the hilum and mediastinum was investigated in 132 patients with peripherally located lung cancer. In one half of the patients with metastases, these were visualized. Specificity was 98%. These results were better than those obtained with chest radiography and conventional roentgen tomography. /sup 57/Co-BLM scintigraphy is routinely used in the staging of patients with lung cancer, obviating the need for mediastinoscopy.

Nieweg, O.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; Sluiter, H.J.; van der Wal, A.M.; Woldring, M.G.

1989-03-15

231

A soft X-ray image of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Snowden, S. L.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Trumper, J.

1991-02-01

232

What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.

Snowden, Steve

2007-01-01

233

Forty years of Galilean Electromagnetism (1973-2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review Galilean Electromagnetism since the 1973 seminal paper of Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond and Michel Le Bellac and we explain for the first time all the historical experiments of Rowland, Vasilescu Karpen, Roentgen, Eichenwald, Wilson, Wilson and Wilson, which were previously interpreted in a Special Relativistic framework by showing the uselessness of the latter for setups involving slow motions of a part of the apparatus. Galilean Electromagnetism is not an alternative to Special Relavity but is precisely its low-velocity limit in Classical Electromagnetism.

Rousseaux, Germain

2013-08-01

234

[Habitus, capital and fields: the search for an acting head of the Hamburg Asylum Friedrichsberg in 1897].  

PubMed

In 1897 Hamburg was in search of an Oberarzt for the asylum Friedrichsberg who should function as the acting head of the head Wilhelm Reye (1833-1912). This search was part of the intended reformation of the outmoded psychiatric care in Hamburg. During this application procedure the Hamburg Physikus John Wahncau examined all possible candidates and applicants. The article explores the election process by using some sociological categories developed by Pierre Bourdieu (habitus, capital, field). The author argues that not only meritocratic attributes led to the choice of one candidate, but also his functional "fitting" into the field in Hamburg. PMID:16201321

Sammet, Kai

2005-01-01

235

Reform in the garden.  

PubMed

English gardens powered by steam engines offer an intriguing view of how technological and scientific progress was naturalized in the landscape of 19th-century Prussia, and in Prussian culture, during the early years of industrial modernization. One such garden is Peacock Island, in the Havel River near Potsdam. A product of the reform era that preceded and followed the Napoleonic Wars, it expressed the goal of Friedrich Wilhelm III and his government to enter into the British system of factory production and world trade. Modern science, as represented especially by Alexander von Humboldt, played a prominent role. PMID:12535923

Wise, M Norton; Wise, Elaine M

2002-12-01

236

Correspondence between Tycho Brahe and Thaddeus Hagecius - the beginnings. (German Title: Briefwechsel zwischen Tycho Brahe und Thaddaeus Hagecius - Anfänge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voluminous correspondence of Tycho is one of the most interesting sources of the history of astronomy. Nevertheless, it is until today poorly known and rarely cited (Thoren being a counter-example), and a modern critical edition is lacking. Among Tycho Brahe's most frequent correspondents are Wilhelm, the landgrave of Hesse, and his court astronomer Ch. Rothmann. At third place - regarding the number of letters - we find the court physician and astronomer Thaddaeus Hagecius from Prague. Their correspondence lasted from 1575 tpo 1597. This article presents and analyses the most important letters of the Hagecius - Brahe correspondence.

Smolka, Josef

237

Eugen Goldstein and his laboratory work at Berlin Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 19th century, the astronomer Wilhelm Foerster, director of Berlin Observatory, initiated an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine experimentally the nature of electricity in space. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity. He discovered, e.g., the canal rays, and he introduced the term cathode ray. He became assistent at Berlin Observatory, and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result, Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes.

Hedenus, M.

2002-07-01

238

The onset of labour: an alternative theory.  

PubMed

This article, based mainly on the theories and discoveries of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), puts forward the bio-energetic theory of the onset of labour, which assumes it to be one of many examples of bio-energetic pulsation in the organism. It suggests that chronic muscular tension ('armouring') interferes with this spontaneous pulsation and may account for many of the difficulties experienced by women in labour. A form of psychotherapy ('orgone-therapy') based on these theories may prove helpful in childbirth education, in the non-intrusive induction of labour, and in labour itself. A research project to test this hypothesis is suggested. PMID:9439268

Jones, P

1996-02-01

239

On the early history of Dorpat Observatory and its instrumental equipment (German Title: Zur frühen Geschichte der Dorpater Sternwarte und ihrer instrumentellen Ausstattung )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dorpat Observatory became famous in the first place through the scientific work of Wilhelm Struve, but this article deals with its little-known early history. The first astronomer appointed at Dorpat University, founded in 1802, was J.W.A. Pfaff, who had to make his first astronomical observations from an attic. From 1807 onward he could use an interim building. The instruments acquired before completion of the observatory in 1810 will he discussed, among them a reflecting telescope built by J.G.F. Schrader, which was never completed, however.

Oestmann, Günther

240

Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

Law, J. Randolph

1993-01-01

241

Three new species of Kerevata (Braconidae: Rogadinae: Clinocentrini) from mainland Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Three new species of the distinctive, cyclostome, braconid wasp genus Kerevata (viz. Kerevata jamesmayi sp. nov., K. clarksoni sp. nov. and K. hammondi sp. nov.) from Mt Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea are described and illustrated, and a key provided to enable their identification and separation from the only other species described to date, K. pacifica, from New Britain in the Bismark Archipelago off the S. E. coast of New Guinea. Characters used to differentiate Kerevata from the related Confusocentrus are modified. PMID:24943171

Butcher, Buntika Areekul; Quicke, Donald L J

2014-01-01

242

Freud's confrontation with the telic mind.  

PubMed

Sigmund Freud's relations with four significant figures in his life are traced: Ernst Brücke, Josef Breuer, Wilhelm Fliess, and Carl G. Jung. In each of these relationships, Freud was confronted with the dilemma of wanting to describe people in what is obviously a teleological fashion while simultaneously meeting the strictures of natural-science reductions to the nontelic. Freud initially fell back on a dialectical theory, but later substituted libido theory as a concession to biological reductionism. Strangely enough, in depolarizing libido as the 'power behind the sexual drive' Freud lost the opportunity to portray the clear teleology his theory calls for. PMID:7229336

Rychlak, J F

1981-04-01

243

Christoph Rothmann and the dispersal of the celestial spheres. The letters to the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel of 1585. (German Title: Christoph Rothmann und die Auflösung der himmlischen Sphären)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prepared by the new star of 1572 and the comet of 1577, the comet of 1585 led to the explicit and definitive elimination of the concept of the solid heavenly spheres. On the basis of precise observations of the comet, Christoph Rothmann in Kassel developed the concept of a fluid heaven consisting of pure air. This combination of experience and theory, together with his Copernicanism, illustrates Rothmann's importance in the history of cosmology. An appendix contains five previously unpublished letters from Rothmann to the landgrave Wilhelm IV on the subject of the comet, and also the imperial privilege granted to Rothmann to publish several astronomical studies.

Granada, Miguel A.

244

Recent notes on Tycho Brahe's library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Norlind lists 216 books presumed to have been in Tycho's library, but the actual count must have been much higher. The largest block of surviving books are in the Clementinum in Prague, just over 50 volumes but nearly 100 titles. Tycho tried to acquire books in many ways, and particularly by buying the library of Paul Wittich after the death of this one-time visitor to Hven. This talk will also describe two annotated volumes from Tycho's library that have recently come onto the antiquarian market: Apianus' Astronomicum Caesareum (Ingolstadt, 1540) and Cornelius Gemma's De naturae divinis characterismis (Antwerp, 1575).

Gingerich, Owen

245

Dynamics of the bounds of squared concurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the quantum entanglement is a fundamental characteristic for various quantum systems. Since the computable entanglement measure for higher dimensional quantum states itself is absent, the dynamics of the entanglement expressed in an operational method will be of interest. We study the dynamics of ? , an analytical lower bound of squared concurrence, of a bipartite d?d quantum state when one party goes through an arbitrary noisy channel. For a pure input state, the range of ? is obtained explicitly. For a mixed input state, an upper bound of ? is found. Interestingly, the tangle ?' , as an upper bound of squared concurrence, also has a similar dynamical property. Our results are similar to that of Konrad and can help the estimation of high-dimension bipartite entanglement in experiments.

Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng

2009-03-01

246

Average shear-wave velocity structure of the Kamchatka peninsula from the dispersion of surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average shear-wave velocity structure has been estimated for the path between the Kamchatka Isthmus and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski. It is obtained from the Monte Carlo inversion of the Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves measured using broad-band seismograms of events in Northern Kamchatka recorded by the IRIS station PET in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski. The Moho interface was found at a depth of 35±5 km and the Konrad one at 18±4 km. An important feature of the found structure is a low velocity in the upper mantle. This result is coherent with the recent and present-% day volcanic activity in Kamchatka. Synthetic long period seismograms computed for the obtained structure are in good agreement with observed ones.

Shapiro, N. M.; Gorbatov, A. V.; Gordeev, E.; Dominguez, J.

2000-09-01

247

Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women.  

PubMed

Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema ("Kindchenschema") as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship. PMID:19451625

Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Griffin, Mark D; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C

2009-06-01

248

Alois Alzheimer: A Hundred Years after the Discovery of the Eponymous Disorder  

PubMed Central

The familiar term “Alzheimer’s disease” was coined by Emil Kraepelin to honour his pupil, Alois Alzheimer. However, little is known about the life of the man after whom this important and well-known disease was termed. On the centennial of the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease, it is appropriate to report some aspects of the life and scientific work of Alois Alzheimer. The authors contacted all the libraries of the Universities where Alzheimer studied and/or worked to receive any original material regarding Alois Alzheimer. This review is based for a most part on an original biography written by Konrad and Urlike Maurer after the interviews to Alzheimer’s nieces, Hildegard Koeppen, Ilse Lieblein, Bärbel Lippert, Karin Wei?, and his nephew, Rupert Finsterwalder. The authors obtained this biography from the Central Library of Medicine in Koeln.

Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

2006-01-01

249

Testing Evolution Equation for Entanglement of Two-Qubit Systems in Noisy Channels on Ensemble Quantum Computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the experimental demonstration of decoherence dynamics of entanglement for the four Bell states in two-qubit nuclear-spin systems on ensemble quantum computers. Using artificial error operators to simulate noisy channels, we experimentally investigate the effect of noises on the four Bell states, and furthermore observe the time evolution of entanglement for the four Bell states in different noisy channels by calculating concurrences. Our experimental results show that the concurrences of the different Bell states under the same artificial error operations have the same values within the experimental error, and are independent of the different Bell states. These experimental results verify the theoretical evolution equation developed by Konrad et al.[Nature Phys. 4 (2008) 99] for two-qubit entanglement.

Zhang, Han; Luo, Jun; Ren, Ting-Ting; Sun, Xian-Ping

2010-09-01

250

LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535  

SciTech Connect

Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

Oehmigen, Steffen [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)] [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Ambos, Frank [Sat. Kerntechnik GmbH (Germany)] [Sat. Kerntechnik GmbH (Germany)

2013-07-01

251

eROSITA - Mapping the X-ray universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian/German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is currently scheduled for launch late 2015/early 2016. eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters to redshifts {z > 1} in order to study the large scale structure in the universe and test cosmological models including dark energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of a few million active galactic nuclei, including obscured objects, revolutionizing our view of the evolution of supermassive black holes. The survey will also provide new insights into a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including X-ray binaries, active stars, and diffuse emission within the Galaxy. eROSITA is currently (Jan 2014) in its flight model and calibration phase. All seven flight mirror modules (plus one spare) have been delivered and measured in X-rays. The first camera including the complete electronics has been extensively tested. So far, all subsystems and components are well within the expected performance.

Predehl, P.

252

The moral responsibility of scientists in Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>epilogue What the eugenicists knew The eugenicists at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute had to know that their knowledge was used for murder. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.

2008-10-06

253

NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)

Spiess, Hans W.

2002-03-01

254

One hundred years of the Fritz Haber Institute.  

PubMed

We outline the institutional history and highlight aspects of the scientific history of the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, from its founding in 1911 until about the turn of the 21st century. Established as one of the first two Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, the Institute began as a much-awaited remedy for what prominent German chemists warned was the waning of Germany's scientific and technological superiority relative to the United States and to other European nations. The history of the Institute has largely paralleled that of 20th century Germany. It spearheaded the research and development of chemical weapons during World War I, then experienced a "golden era" during the 1920s and early 1930s, in spite of financial hardships. Under the National Socialists it suffered a purge of its scientific staff and a diversion of its research into the service of the new regime, accompanied by a breakdown in its international relations. In the immediate aftermath of World War II it suffered crippling material losses, from which it recovered slowly in the postwar era. In 1952, the Institute took the name of its founding director and the following year joined the fledgling Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Institute supported diverse research into the structure of matter and electron microscopy in its geographically isolated and politically precarious location in West Berlin. In subsequent decades, as Berlin benefited from the policies of détente and later glasnost and the Max Planck Society continued to reassess its preferred model of a research institute, the FHI reorganized around a board of coequal scientific directors and renewed its focus on the investigation of elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces, topics of research that had been central to the work of Fritz Haber and the first "golden era" of the Institute. Throughout its one-hundred-year history, the Institute's pace-setting research has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel laureates. Here we highlight the contributions made at the Institute to the fields of gas-phase kinetics and dynamics, early quantum physics, colloid chemistry, electron microscopy, and surface chemistry, and we give an account of the key role the Institute played in implementing the Berlin Electron Synchrotron (BESSY I and II). Current research at the Institute in surface science and catalysis as well as molecular physics and spectroscopy is exemplified in this issue [Angew. Chem. 2011, 123, 10242; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 10064]. PMID:21957069

Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; James, Jeremiah

2011-10-17

255

Second ROSAT PSPC Catalog (ROSAT, 2000)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This catalogue contains sources from PSPC-ROSAT (Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter aboard the Roentgen Satellite), as provided by Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE). It supersedes the 1994 version (Cat. ) The current release of the catalog is comprised of results from 4093 sequences (sky coverage of 14.5%). The complete version contains entries for 95,331 detections whereas the short version has 43,156 detections. 2189 obvious sources were not detected by the automated Standard Analysis Software System (SASS), and are not yet contained in this catalogue. These data have been screened by ROSAT data centers in the US, Germany, and the UK as a step in the production of the ROSAT RESULTS ARCHIVE. The RRA contains extracted source and associated products with an indication of reliability for the primary parameters. (3 data files).

Rosat, Consortium

2000-07-01

256

Malignant melanoma following scalp irradiation for tinea capitis.  

PubMed

X-Rays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895 and were subsequently used in the treatment of many ailments. Numerous benign skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis have historically been treated with X-rays. During the 1930s and 1940s radiotherapy was introduced as an effective treatment for scalp ringworm (tinea capitis). Over the past few years radio-induced malignancies have been reported, with basal cell carcinoma predominating. We report a very rare case of a 64-year-old male with a 9.5mm Breslow thickness melanoma occurring over 50 years following irradiation. This case highlights the presence of another risk factor in the development of melanoma. With the increasing age of this irradiated population we may continue to see further evidence of the link between melanoma and skin irradiation. PMID:17467352

Sawyer, A R; McGoldrick, R B; Mackey, S P; Powell, B; Pohl, M

2007-01-01

257

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART -XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module provides an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.

2012-01-01

258

The early bolometric evolution of Nova Cygni 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on combined ultraviolet and optical observations of early stages of the outburst of Nova Cygni 1992. We show that the initial optical rise and decline were produced by the dramatic increase in UV line opacity and its gradual subsequent lifting as the ejecta expand. The source of the M(sub v) - t(sub 3) relation is easily understood in light of these low-resolution UV spectra. The multiwavelength data confirm the theoretical prediction that a nova evolves at a constant bolometric luminosity in the early stages of outburst. We verify the prediction for this nova for at least the first month of the outburst. The detection of far-UV radiation with the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer and the detection of an increasing X-ray flux with Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) imply that this phase lasted for more than 6 months.

Shore, Steven N.; Sonneborn, George; Starrfield, Sumner; Gonzalez-Riestra, Rosario; Polidan, Ronald S.

1994-01-01

259

[Digital luminescence radiography. Part 1: Basic principle, technical execution and clinical use].  

PubMed

Digital luminescence radiography (DLR) is a new technique in projection radiography, which enables the production of plain X-ray images and motion tomographies with high quality, and is suitable for digital image management. With this procedure the X-ray image produced by conventional roentgen devices is temporarily stored on a reusable photostimulable storage phosphor screen which is characterized by a wide dynamic range. A laser beam scans the exposed phosphor screen and recovers the stored X-ray information as photostimulated luminescence radiation. A photomultiplier converts the emitted light into electrical signals. After normalization and digitization the signals are transmitted to an image processor. The stored digital image can be individually processed and displayed, digitally archived or transferred to any location. The technique is described in two following papers. Part 1 covers the basic principle of the system and the technical implementation of the data acquisition with its advantages and disadvantages as compared with conventional film/screen radiography. PMID:1761263

Döhring, W; Urbach, D

1991-10-20

260

Remote operation of microwave systems for solids content analysis and chemical dissolution in highly radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

Microwave systems provide quick and easy determination of solids content of samples in high-level radioactive cells. In addition, dissolution of samples is much faster when employing microwave techniques. These are great advantages because work in cells,using master-slave manipulators through leaded glass walls, is normally slower by an order of magnitude than direct contact methods. This paper describes the modifiction of a moisture/solids analyzer microwave system and a drying/digestion microwave system for remote operation in radiation environments. The moisture/solids analyzer has operated satisfactorily for over a year in a gamma radiation field of 1000 roentgens per hour and the drying/digestion system is ready for installation in a cell.

Sturcken, E.F.; Floyd, T.S.; Manchester, D.P.

1986-10-01

261

New horizons for study of the cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems. [image reconstruction techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the development of computer-controlled three-dimensional reconstruction techniques designed to determine the dynamic changes in the true shape and dimensions of the epi- and endocardial surfaces of the heart, along with variable time base (stop-action to real-time) displays of the transmural distribution of the coronary microcirculation and the three-dimensional anatomy of the macrovasculature in all regions of the body throughout individual cardiac and/or respiratory cycles. A technique for reconstructing a cross section of the heart from multiplanar videoroentgenograms is outlined. The capability of high spatial and high temporal resolution scanning videodensitometry makes possible measurement of the appearance, mean transit and clearance of roentgen opaque substances in three-dimensional space through the myocardium with a degree of simultaneous anatomic and temporal resolution not obtainable by current isotope techniques. The distribution of a variety of selected chemical elements or biologic materials within a body portion can also be determined.

Wood, E. H.

1976-01-01

262

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4 kA, 20 MeV, linear induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. The authors have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. They regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3-5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4 kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-08-01

263

Initial performance parameters on FXR  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the new flash x-ray induction LINAC (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been completed. Initial tuning of the machine has produced stable current pulses in excess of 2 kA at the design energy of 20 MeV, with an 80 ns FWHM pulse width, producing single-pulse radiation doses near 500 Roentgen at one meter from the target. The electronic spot size on the bremsstrahlung target is estimated at 3 to 5 mm. In this paper we will discuss the basic FXR design; running-in and tuning of the machine; emittance measurements; beam stability; switch gap synchronization; and measurements of the radiation dose and angular distribution.

Kulke, B.; Innes, T.G.; Kihara, R.; Scarpetti, R.D.

1982-06-11

264

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-01-01

265

Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design, it is useful to have flash X-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. Such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator called FXR was designed. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 Ka electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.; Kihara, R.; Kuenning, R.; McFarlane, B.; North, G.; North, K.; Parkinson, S.; Ravenscroft, D.

1981-02-01

266

Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

Foster, B. R.

1975-01-01

267

Nuclear reactions in deuterium-saturated palladium under irradiation by 10?MeV ?-quanta, in dense molecular deuterium at 1.2?kbar pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-pressure chamber with a Pd-rod inside was filled up with 1.2 kbar molecular deuterium (DHPC). Then the saturated by deuterium palladium rod was irradiated during 18 hours by 11 MeV braking ?-quanta at 11-13 ?A electron beam using the MT-25 electron accelerator. The element compositions of all the DHPC surfaces which had been in contact with dense deuterium gas were studied using scanning electronic microscopes with Roentgen microprobe analysis. It was determined that all the surfaces, including surfaces of the high-purity Pd-rod (99.995%), were covered either by a partially homogeneous layer or large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements as C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and heavy metals as Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Pb were observed on the chambers inner surfaces.

Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R. S.

2013-08-01

268

Results from the irradiation of stainless steel and copper by 23 MeV ?-quanta in the atmosphere of molecular deuterium at a pressure of 2 kbar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal samples were arranged inside a "finger-type" high-pressure chamber (DHPC-FT) filled by deuterium. They were two aluminum rods, a copper rod, two specimens of homogeneous YMn2 alloy, and a stainless steel wire. The pressure of molecular deuterium in DHPC-FT was about 2 kbar. The samples were irradiated by braking ?-quanta at a threshold energy of 23 MeV. All the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray (roentgen) microelement probe analysis (RMPA). Considerable changes in the surface structure and elemental composition were found for the samples of copper, aluminum, YMn2 alloy, and stainless steel. Unusual results were analyzed in detail and compared with the earlier data.

Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R.

2014-05-01

269

ROSAT observations of z greater than 3 quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful pointed observations using the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) were made of seven z greater than 3 optically selected quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). Four detections and three 3 sigma upper limits resulted. Combining these data with the heterogeneous sample of Avni & Tananbaum (1986) confirms their conclusion that the ratio of x-ray to optical luminosity is correlated with optical luminosity and probably not correlated with redshift. This suggests that x-ray luminosity evolves more slowly than optical luminosity. These results are then used in conjunction with the LBQS database to estimate the contribution to the 2 keV x-ray background of bright, optically selected quasars with m(sub B(sub J)) less than 18.85; the result is about 5%.

Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; Foltz, C. B.

1994-01-01

270

Laboratory x-ray spectroscopy experiments in support of NASA`s x-ray satellite missions  

SciTech Connect

With support from NASA, we are performing a series of laboratory astrophysics investigations designed to address fundamental uncertainties in basic atomic physics processes relevant to the interpretation of discrete X-ray spectra of cosmic plasmas. Moderate resolution spectra acquired by the ASCA Observatory already demonstrate the inadequacy of currently available spectral modelling codes for this wavelength band. With the upcoming launches of AXAF, XMM, ASTRO E, and Spektrum Roentgen-Gamma, the demand for significant advances in this field will increase dramatically. Our program is based on the exploitation of the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a unique set of spectrometers and experimental techiques specifically developed for this purpose. Recent experiments have been devoted to definitive measurements of line emissivities for iron L-shell ions in optically thin, collisional plasmas.

Kahn, S. M., Columbia University

1998-05-22

271

Research and technology, 1990: Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goddard celebrates 1990 as a banner year in space based astronomy. From above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere, four major orbiting observatories examined the heavens at wavelengths that spanned the electromagnetic spectrum. In the infrared and microwave, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), measured the spectrum and angular distribution of the cosmic background radiation to extraordinary precision. In the optical and UV, the Hubble Space Telescope has returned spectacular high resolution images and spectra of a wealth of astronomical objects. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph has resolved dozens of UV spectral lines which are as yet unidentified because they have never before been seen in any astronomical spectrum. In x rays, the Roentgen Satellite has begun returning equally spectacular images of high energy objects within our own and other galaxies.

1990-01-01

272

Terahertz Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past 30 years have witnessed the evolution of medical imaging. Imaging technology has drastically improved medical care and, as a result, everyday life. Since the discovery of X-rays by William Roentgen in 1895, doctors have used radiography to diagnose many diseases of the internal organs for several decades. The development of X-rays brought about a revolution in the field of medical diagnostics. The peak of this revolution would begin in the 1970s when computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were developed. Enormous progress in the field of computer technology has been boosting the evolution of imaging technology since the 1990s. To date, medical imaging innovations have focused on achieving excellent anatomic resolution and contrast.

Han, Joon Koo

273

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

274

What can be Learned from X-Ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in the Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar wind charge exchange produces diffuse X-ray emission with a variable surface brightness comparable to that of the cosmic background. While the temporal variation of the charge exchange emission allows some separation of the components, there remains a great deal of uncertainty as to the zero level of both. Because the production mechanisms of the two components are considerably different, their spectra would provide critical diagnostics to the understanding of both. However, current X-ray observatories are very limited in both spectral resolution and sensitivity in the critical soft X-ray (less than 1.0 keV) energy range. Non-dispersive high-resolution spectrometers, such as the calorimeter proposed for the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, will be extremely useful in distinguishing the cascade emission of charge exchange from the spectra of thermal bremsstrahlung cosmic plasmas.

Snowden, Steven L.

2007-01-01

275

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL--Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

276

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Three 2D Gratings  

PubMed Central

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade X-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or microfocused source. In this paper, we report an extension using 2D gratings that reduces the imaging time and increases the accuracy and robustness of phase retrieval compared to current grating-based phase-contrast techniques. Feasibility is demonstrated via numerical simulation.

Jiang, Ming; Wyatt, Christopher Lee; Wang, Ge

2008-01-01

277

The evolution of the quasar continuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We now have in hand a large data base of Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), optical, and IR complementary data. We are in the process of obtaining a large amount of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data for the same quasar sample. For our complementary sample at high redshifts, where the UV was redshifted into the optical, we have just had approved large amounts of observing time to cover the quasar continuum in the near-IR using the new Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) array spectrographs. Ten micron, optical, and VLA radio, data also have approved time. An ISO US key program was approved to extend this work into the far-IR, and the launch of ASTRO-D (early in 1993) promises to extend it to higher energy X-rays.

Elvis, M.

1992-01-01

278

Section for Interventional Radiology--sIRcro 10 years of existence and organised activities (2000-2010).  

PubMed

Shortly after the Roentgen's discovery (1895), X-rays were applied for depicting vascular system (Lindenthal and Haschek 1896). But it took rather long time before another brilliant idea (Seldinger 1953) for percutaneous puncture and catheterization of superficial artery was developed instead of these previously performed and the surgical arteriotomy. The percutaneous puncture enabled another idea to emerge, i.e. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty--PTA (Dotter/Judkins 1964). Thus it was proved that catheter could be used not only in diagnostics but also in therapy, and the method was applied to other organs and organic systems. The application of interventional radiology in Croatia started in late 1970s and early 1980s. The number and type of procedures increased rapidly in the four largest hospitals and educational centres (Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek), so that the need was felt to establish a Section for Interventional Radiology of the Croatian Society of Radiology (2000). PMID:23941018

Simuni?, Slavko; Glavina, Kresimir; Maskovi?, Josip; Vidjak, Vinko

2013-06-01

279

Flash x-ray apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of producing flash x-rays with an average dose exceeding about 5 roentgen per second. It comprises supplying a charging current to a thyratron connected to Blumleins in parallel; charging the middle conductor of each Blumlein to a positive voltage; commutating the input power to each Blumlein at a repetitive rate exceeding 10 Hertz; supplying the power output from the Blumleins in series through a pair of connectors to a pair of spaced-apart electrodes disposed in an evacuated environment; and generating x-ray radiation in the space between the two electrodes having output intensity exceeding 1 {times} 10{sup 5} photons/keV/shot.

Collins, C.B.; Devan Loo, F.; Coogan, J.J.; Bowen, T.S.; Krause, R.K.

1991-08-27

280

Shock wave structure in the Cygnus Loop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of a supernova remnant (SNR) blastwave with clouds of various sizes determines the appearance of the SNR in all wavelength bands, and it may determine the overall evolution of the remnant. The Cygnus Loop provides excellent examples of the interaction with both large and small clouds at various stages, and its brightness, large size and low reddening make it a natural target for study. We consider X-ray, optical and ultraviolet (UV) observations of features at the eastern edge of the Cygnus Loop to look for evidence of cloud evaporation, turbulent stripping from a cloud and pressure enhancement associated with the blastwave-cloud interaction. We consider the effects of the sputtering of dust grains on the temperature derived from Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) spectra and we briefly consider the clumpiness of H-alpha emission to be expected from compression of a turbulent magnetic field.

Raymond, J. C.; Curiel, S.

1994-01-01

281

Results from the intercalibration of optical low-light calibration sources 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 38th Annual Meeting on Atmospheric studies by Optical methods at Siuntio in Finland, an intercalibration workshop for optical low-light calibration sources was held in Sodankylä, Finland. The main purpose of this workshop was to provide a comparable scale for absolute measurements of aurora and airglow. All sources brought to the intercalibration workshop were compared to an international standard source (Fritz-Peak) using the Lindau Calibration Photometer built by Wilhelm Barke and Hans Lauche in 1984. The international standard source is on loan from Michael Gadsden, Aberdeen. The results were compared to several earlier intercalibration workshops. It was found that most sources were fairly stable over time with errors in the range of 5-20%. To further validate the results, two sources were also intercalibrated at UNIS, Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Preliminary analysis indicate good agreement with the intercalibration in Sodankylä.

Brändström, B. U. E.; Enell, C.-F.; Widell, O.; Hansson, T.; Whiter, D.; Mäkinen, S.; Mikhaylova, D.; Axelsson, K.; Sigernes, F.; Gulbrandsen, N.; Schlatter, N. M.; Gjendem, A. G.; Cai, L.; Reistad, J. P.; Daae, M.; Demissie, T. D.; Andalsvik, Y. L.; Roberts, O.; Poluyanov, S.; Chernouss, S.

2011-12-01

282

Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 8 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 8)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions span a time interval of more than 450 years. There are biographical investigations on Georg Joachim Rheticus, C.W.A. von Wahl and K.F. Heym, investigation on a reprint of a chapter of the principal work of Nicolaus Copernicus, on Christoph Scheiner and the "camera obscura", and, with respect to the history of timekeeping, on the "big Nuremberg clock". 19th century topics are: a contribution on the honorary doctorate of Joseph Fraunhofer, and on the construction of a lunar globe by Wilhelmine Witte, while the report on Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and the cholera pandemia in Königsberg in the year 1831 gives a view into everyday life of scientists. 20th century topics are: the contributions on Bruno Thüring in Vienna and his relations with national socialism, as well as on Arthur Beer, Albert Einstein and the Warburg library. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

283

Conception and development of the Second Life® Embryo Physics Course.  

PubMed

The study of embryos with the tools and mindset of physics, started by Wilhelm His in the 1880s, has resumed after a hiatus of a century. The Embryo Physics Course convenes online allowing interested researchers and students, who are scattered around the world, to gather weekly in one place, the virtual world of Second Life®. It attracts people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life: applied mathematics, artificial life, bioengineering, biophysics, cancer biology, cellular automata, civil engineering, computer science, embryology, electrical engineering, evolution, finite element methods, history of biology, human genetics, mathematics, molecular developmental biology, molecular biology, nanotechnology, philosophy of biology, phycology, physics, self-reproducing systems, stem cells, tensegrity structures, theoretical biology, and tissue engineering. Now in its fifth year, the Embryo Physics Course provides a focus for research on the central question of how an embryo builds itself. PMID:23586840

Gordon, Richard

2013-06-01

284

Eugen Goldstein and his Laboratory Work at the Berlin Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 19th century the astronomer and director of the Berlin Observatory, Wilhelm Foerster, started an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine the nature of electricity in space experimentally. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity, e. g. he discovered the canal rays and he introduced the term ``cathode ray''. He became assistent at the Berlin Observatory and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes. My speech is about the biography of Eugen Goldstein and his work at the Berlin Observatory. I will discuss some of his experiments and show a reproduction of his artificial comet tails.

Hedenus, Michael

285

High pressure study on Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-? single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport measurements to 2.5 GPa on electron-doped cuprates revealed modest changes in physical properties, if any [1]. Room temperature synchrotron diffraction on powder samples show that the non-superconducting parent Pr2CuO4 exhibits a gradual structural transition from T' to T phase when subject to pressures greater than 15 GPa [2]. Pr2-xCexCuO4 (PCCO) is superconducting for a Ce doping range 0.12 -- 0.2 (T' structure). Both pressure and Ce doping have the same shrinkage effect on the lattice constants. Here, we report high pressure ac susceptibility, resistivity and Raman shift data on x = 0.15 single crystals to 30 GPa. References: [1] C. Murayama et al., Nature, 339, 293 (1989) [2] H. Wilhelm et al., Science and Technology of High Pressure, Proceedings of AIRAPT-17, pp. 740-743, Universities Press, Hyderabad, India (2000)

Rotundu, Costel R.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Goncharov, Alexander; Greene, Richard L.

2008-03-01

286

The history of cholinesterase reactivation: hydroxylamine and pyridinium aldoximes.  

PubMed

Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) the substance which will turn out to be of importance to those interested in the treatment of organophosporus cholinesterase inhibitor exposure, was synthesized by Wilhem Clemens Lossen in 1865 while working in Halle as an assistant in the laboratory of Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz. The Lossen synthesis generated hydroxylamine in aqueous solution. Anhydrous hydroxylamine was prepared almost simultaneously by Lobry de Bruyn and Crismer (1891). Using hydroxylamine as a starting point Meyer synthesized aldoximes and ketoximes (1897). Lange, a PhD student of Ladenburg, isolated 2-methyl-pyridine (alpha-picoline). Some fifty years later Wilson, working in the laboratory of Nachmansohn, demonstrated the ability of hydroxylamine to reactivate cholinesterase inhibited by organophosphates. Finally Wilson and Ginsburg using 2-methyl-pyridine as a starting point synthesized the first pyridinium aldoxime reactivator of clinical relevance, pralidoxime (1955). PMID:23136724

Petroianu, G A

2012-10-01

287

Translator's preface.  

PubMed

Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977951

Lamiell, James T

2013-08-01

288

Physics, ballistics, and psychology: a history of the chronoscope in/as context, 1845-1890.  

PubMed

In Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Leipzig laboratory and at numerous other research sites, the chronoscope was used to conduct reaction time experiments. The author argues that the history of the chronoscope is the history not of an instrument but of an experimental setup. This setup was initially devised by the English physicist and instrument maker Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) in the early 1840s. Shortly thereafter, it was improved by the German clockmaker and mechanic Matthäus Hipp (1813-1893). In the 1850s, the chronoscope was introduced to ballistic research. In the early 1860s, Neuchâtel astronomer Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901) applied it to the problem of physiological time. The extensions and variations of chronoscope use within the contexts of ballistics, physiology, and psychology presented special challenges. These challenges were met with specific attempts to reduce the errors in chronoscopic experiments on shooting stands and in the psychological laboratory. PMID:16021765

Schmidgen, Henning

2005-02-01

289

Molecular Structure of Nitric acid (aq)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nitric acid was first discovered in 1648 by a German chemist, Johann Rudolf. However, in 1901 Wilhelm Ostwald developed the Ostwald Process, which became the principle way of producing nitric acid. During the Ostwald process, ammonia gas is successively oxidized to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide by air or oxygen in the presence of a platinum gauze catalyst. Nitric acid has a characteristic choking odor that is acrid and suffocating. It is a caustic and corrosive liquid which will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Nitric acid is not combustible, but it may give off poisionous oxides of nitrogen and acid fumes when heated in fire. Nitric acid is mainly used in the production of fertilizers, explosives, flares and rocket propellants. Nitric acids react with toluene in the presence of sulfuric acid to form trinitrotoluene (TNT).

2002-09-10

290

Results from the intercalibration of optical low light calibration sources 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 38th Annual European Meeting on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods in Siuntio in Finland, an intercalibration workshop for optical low light calibration sources was held in Sodankylä, Finland. The main purpose of this workshop was to provide a comparable scale for absolute measurements of aurora and airglow. All sources brought to the intercalibration workshop were compared to the Fritz Peak reference source using the Lindau Calibration Photometer built by Wilhelm Barke and Hans Lauche in 1984. The results were compared to several earlier intercalibration workshops. It was found that most sources were fairly stable over time, with errors in the range of 5-25%. To further validate the results, two sources were also intercalibrated at UNIS, Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Preliminary analysis indicates agreement with the intercalibration in Sodankylä within about 15-25%.

Brändström, B. U. E.; Enell, C.-F.; Widell, O.; Hansson, T.; Whiter, D.; Mäkinen, S.; Mikhaylova, D.; Axelsson, K.; Sigernes, F.; Gulbrandsen, N.; Schlatter, N. M.; Gjendem, A. G.; Cai, L.; Reistad, J. P.; Daae, M.; Demissie, T. D.; Andalsvik, Y. L.; Roberts, O.; Poluyanov, S.; Chernouss, S.

2012-05-01

291

The emergence and development of Bekhterev's psychoreflexology in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology.  

PubMed

After its foundation, the Laboratory for Experimental Psychology at Leipzig University became an international center for psychological research, attracting students from all over the world. The Russian physiologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) was one of Wilhelm Wundt's students in 1885, and after returning to Russia he continued enthusiastically his experimental research on mental phenomena. However, he gradually distanced himself from Wundt's psychological project and developed a new concept of psychology: the so-called Objective Psychology or Psychoreflexology. The goal of this paper is to analyze Bekhterev's position in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology, by showing how the former came to reject the latter's conception of psychology. The results indicate that Bekhterev's development of a philosophical program, including his growing interest in establishing a new Weltanschauung is the main reason behind his divergence with Wundt, which is reflected in his conception of scientific psychology. Despite this, Wundt remained alive in Bekhterev's mind as an ideal counterpoint. PMID:24615694

de Freitas Araujo, Saulo

2014-01-01

292

Barrow, Leibniz and the geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus.  

PubMed

In 1693, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorum a geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus. It is shown that this proof closely resembles Isaac Barrow's proof in Proposition 11, Lecture 10, of his Lectiones Geometricae, published in 1670. This comparison provides evidence that Leibniz gained substantial help from Barrow's book in formulating and presenting his geometrical formulation of this theorem. The analysis herein also supports the work of J. M. Child, who in 1920 studied the early manuscripts of Leibniz and concluded that he had frequently copied his diagrams from Barrow's book, but without acknowledgement. It is also shown that the diagram of Leibniz associated with his 1693 proof has often been reproduced with errors that make some aspects of his text difficult to comprehend. PMID:24908795

Nauenberg, Michael

2014-07-01

293

[The "diagnosis" in the light of Charles S. Peirce, Sherlock Holmes, Sigmund Freud and modern neurobiology].  

PubMed

A diagnostic hypothesis is a causa ficta. It is an assumption, suitable to explain phenomena, which are not yet proven to be the only and valid explanation of the observed. One of Wilhelm Hauff's faitales illustrates how a hypothesis is generated. It is based on the interpretation of signs. Signs are of an ikonic, an indexical or a symbolic nature. According to S. Peirce, a hypothesis is created by abduction, to Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes by immersion into thoughts, and to S. Freud by free floating attention. The three procedures are alike. Neurobiological structures and functions, which correspond to these processes, are described; especially the emotional-implicite memory. The technique of hypothesis-generation is meaningful to clinical medicine. PMID:16722205

Adler, R H

2006-05-10

294

The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2012-03-01

295

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

296

Letter to the Editor: Recent advances in research on cognition and emotion in OCD: a review.  

PubMed

Cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) ascertain that catastrophic (mis)interpretations of normally occurring intrusive thoughts are causal to the onset and maintenance of OCD. Recently, Calkins, Berman and Wilhelm have highlighted research validating the cognitive model. However, the current comment article stresses various findings that challenge basic premises of the cognitive theory. Moreover, a review of clinical studies investigating cognitive and behavioral therapies for OCD questions the added value of cognitive interventions over and above behavior therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention for this disorder. We suggest an alternative, potentially more useful route of investigation, stressing executive (dis)functions as the cause of OCD patients to (automatically) act on internal and external stimuli. We further suggest that dysfunctional beliefs proposed as paramount in the pathogenesis of OCD according to the cognitive model may be less important and specific than formerly believed. PMID:24146274

Anholt, Gideon E; Kalanthroff, Eyal

2013-12-01

297

["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper. PMID:23155759

Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf

2012-01-01

298

Withstanding trauma: the significance of Emma Eckstein's circumcision to Freud's Irma dream.  

PubMed

The author considers the medical rationale for Wilhelm Fliess's operation on Emma Eckstein's nose in February 1895 and interprets the possible role that this played in Freud's dream of Irma's injection five months later. The author's main argument is that Emma likely endured female castration as a child and that she therefore experienced the surgery to her nose in 1895 as a retraumatization of her childhood trauma. The author further argues that Freud's unconscious identification with Emma, which broke through in his dream of Irma's injection with resistances and apotropaic defenses, served to accentuate his own "masculine protest". The understanding brought to light by the present interpretation of Freud's Irma dream, when coupled with our previous knowledge of Freud, allows us to better grasp the unconscious logic and origins of psychoanalysis itself.(1.) PMID:23824652

Bonomi, Carlo

2013-07-01

299

Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history  

SciTech Connect

Within months of Roentgen`s discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F{sub 1} mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig.

Miller, R.W. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-11-01

300

Identification of the broad solar emission features near 117 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm et al. have recently called attention to the unidentified broad emission features near 117 nm in the solar spectrum. They discuss the observed properties of these features in detail but do not identify the source of this emission. We show that the broad autoionizing transitions of neutral sulfur are responsible for these emission features. Autoionizing lines of ion{S}{i} occur throughout the spectrum between Lyman alpha and the Lyman limit. Sulfur is a normal contributor to stellar spectra. We use non-LTE chromospheric model calculations with line data from the Kurucz 2004 ion{S}{i} line list to simulate the solar spectrum in the range 116 to 118 nm. We compare the results with SUMER disk-center observations from Curdt et al. and limb observations from Wilhelm et al. Our calculations generally agree with the SUMER observations of the broad autoionizing ion{S}{i} emission features, the narrow ion{S}{i} emission lines, and the continuum in this wavelength region, and agree with basic characteristics of the center-to-limb observations. In addition to modeling the average spectrum, we show that a change of ±200 K in the temperature distribution causes the intensity to change by a factor of 4. This exceeds the observed intensity variations 1) with time in quiet regions at these wavelengths, and 2) with position from cell centers to bright network. These results do not seem compatible with current dynamical models that have temporal variations of 1000 K or more in the low chromosphere.

Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L.; Loeser, R.

2006-06-01

301

Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

2012-01-01

302

Photogeneration of, and Efficient Collisional Energy Transfer from, Vibrationally Excited Hydrogen Isocyanide (hnc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved IR emission spectroscopy has previously been used to characterize the 193 nm photodissociation dynamics of vinyl cyanide, H_{2}CC(H)CN. Of significance, it was observed that the major molecular elimination channels generated ro-vibrationally excited photofragments consisting of: HCN + H_{2}CC: and HNC + HCCH, for which the HCN / HNC branching ratio was deduced to be 3.3 to 1. In the present study, we examine the collisional deactivation of the vibrationally excited (E_{vib}=15 kcal mole^{-1} above the zero-point energy) ?_{1} NH and ?_{3} NC stretches of HNC, in response to collisions with a series of inert rare-gas atoms: Rg=He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Spectral modeling of the IR emission allows direct determination of the time-dependent average internal energy of HNC, and therefore a quantification of the average energy lost per collision, as a function of the internal energy. Similar to vibrationally excited radicals, collisional deactivation of HNC is shown to be remarkably efficient, likely due to comparatively strong HNC / Rg intermolecular attractive interactions. Subsequently, depending upon the relative rates, excited HNC can either isomerize to the energetically more stable HCN, or be rapidly quenched and kinetically trapped as HNC. Potential implications for the astrophysical HNC / HCN abundance ratio problem will be discussed. M. J. Wilhelm, M. Nikow, L. Letendre, and H. L. Dai J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044307 (2009). M. J. Wilhelm, M. Nikow, J. M. Smith, and H. L. Dai J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 23 (2013).

Wilhelm, Michael J.; Dai, Hai-Lung

2013-06-01

303

Venus surface investigation based on VIRTIS measurements on Venus Express  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dense atmosphere of Venus prevented systematic studies of its surface at optical wavelengths in the past. The discovery of near infrared nightside atmospheric windows has opened a new challenge for detailed surface studies. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on Venus Express is the first experiment collecting continuously nightside surface emission data from the planet. The observed high variability of measured signatures is mainly due to spatial variations of cloud optical depth and surface elevation. The investigation of surface properties requires a convergent approach of radiative transfer simulations and VIR- TIS data analyses. Therefore, a selection of orbits with well calibrated data over the northern hemisphere was performed for footprints that cover a maximum range of surface elevation variations. Radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that the conservative character of cloud multiple scattering below 2 µm and a strong dependence of radiance ratios on surface elevation in this spectral region allow the mapping of surface topography and a retrieval of the surface temperature. To the first order, the surface temperature is a function of ground elevation. Small deviations from this first order dependence have been identified that are possibly due to different surface materials. 1 Institut f¨r Planetologie, Westf¨lische Wilhelms-Universit¨t M¨nster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str.10, u a a u 48129 M¨nster, Germany u 2 German PlaceNameAerospace PlaceTypeCenter (DLR), Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Dpt. Marine Remote Sensing, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 CityplaceBerlin, countryregionGermany 3 German PlaceNameAerospace PlaceTypeCenter (DLR), Institute for Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 CityplaceBerlin, country-regionGermany 4 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, e 92195 Meudon, France 5 INAF-IASF (Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), via Statedel Fosso del Cavaliere, 100 00133 placeplaceCityRome, placeItaly

Arnold, Gabriele; Haus, Rainer; Döhler, Wolfgang; Kappel, David; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

304

Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal  

SciTech Connect

During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium (HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements. (authors)

Moeller, Kai D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BFS, Postfach 10 01 49, D-38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2007-07-01

305

Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany  

SciTech Connect

In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

Koenig, Werner [TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Baumann, Roland [Siemens AG, Power Generation (Germany)

2007-07-01

306

Advanced techniques in safeguarding a conditioning facility for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Although reprocessing continues to be the main factor in the waste management of nuclear reactors, the alternative of direct final disposal is currently being developed to the level of industrial applications, based on an agreement between the heads of the federal government and the federal states of Germany. Thus, the Konrad and Gorleben sites are being studied as potential final repositories as is the pilot conditioning facility (PKA) under construction. Discussions on the application of safeguards measures have led to the drafting of an approach that will cover the entire back end of the fuel cycle. The conditioning of fuel prior to direct final disposal represents one element in the overall approach. A modern facility equipped with advanced technology, PKA is a pilot plant with regard to conditioning techniques as well as to safeguards. Therefore, the PKA safeguards approach is expected to facilitate future industrial applications of the conditioning procedure. This cannot be satisfactorily implemented without advanced safeguards techniques. The level of development of the safeguards techniques varies. While advanced camera and seal systems are basically available, the other techniques and methods still require research and development. Feasibility studies and equipment development are geared to providing applicable safeguards techniques in time for commissioning of the PKA.

Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany))

1992-01-01

307

Southwest Energy Innovation Forum: Presentations and Panel Discussions from the October 18, 2010 Forum, ARPA-E and Arizona State University (Videos)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Southwest Energy Information Forum on October 18, 2010, included officials from federal, state, and local government, academia, industry and private-sector leaders, non-profit foundations, entrepreneurs, researchers, and innovators. This diverse group discussed how to grow regional energy innovation, government support for innovative projects, potential partnerships, other topics aimed at improving America's energy future. Videos of presentations, panel discussions, and breakout sessions are: • Welcome and ARPA-E Overview, Rick Shangraw and Arun Majumdar (58:41) • Remarks from Representative Harry Mitchel (08:29) • Investing in Energy Innovation, Tom Cain, Jim Croce, Sean Greene and Joel Kurtzman (57:58) • Corporate Partnering to Bring Energy Innovation to Scale, Gary Dirks, Russ Frew, James Mulroy and Brook Porter (59:25) • Innovation Panel, Tom Baruch, Michael Crow, Ginger Lew and Arun Majumdar (1:11:30) • Solar Energy Panel, Roger Angel, Bud Annan, Joe Armstrong and Christiana Honsberg (1:11:57) • Advanced Fuels Panel, Devens Gust, Mike Lynch and Wim Vermaas (1:00:07) • Energy Storage Panel, John Affinito, John Boyes and Cody Friesen (1:02:55) • Solar Energy Panel, Nolan Browne, Sean Gallager, Richard Hayslip (01:08:09) • Advanced Fuels Panel, Tom Hicks, John Steedman and David Thompson (59:07) • Energy Storage Panel, Massoud Amin, Grover Coors and Konrad Jarausch (1:16:31) • Closing Panel - Energy Innovation: From Concept to Market, Nick Donofrio, Paul Kedrosky, Ginger Lew and Arun Majumdar

Shangraw, Rick; Mitchell, Harry; Kedrosky, Paul; Cain, Tom; Croce, Jim; Greene, Sean; Kurtzman, Joel; Bowles, Thomas; Mayes, Kris; Naimark, Rick; Plant, Tom; Mitchell, Lesa; Kirks, Gary; Frew, Russ; Mulroy, James; Porter, Brook; Donofrio, Nick; Baruch, Tom; Crow, Michael; Lew, Ginger; Majumdar, Arun; Danielson, David; Angel, Roger; Annan, Bud; Armstrong, Joe; Honsberg, Christiana; Toone, Eric; Gust, Devens; Lynch, Mike; Vermaas, Wim; Johnson, mark; Affinito, John; Boyes, John; Friesen, Cody; Browne, Nolan; Gallagher, Sean; Hayslip, Richard; Hicks, Tom; Steedman, John; Thompson, Dave; Amin, Massoud; Coors, Grover; Jarausch, Konrad; Donofrio, Nick; Kedrosky, Paul

308

Mitochondrial diaphorases as NAD+ donors to segments of the citric acid cycle that support substrate-level phosphorylation yielding ATP during respiratory inhibition.  

PubMed

Substrate-level phosphorylation mediated by succinyl-CoA ligase in the mitochondrial matrix produces high-energy phosphates in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, when the electron transport chain is dysfunctional, provision of succinyl-CoA by the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is crucial for maintaining the function of succinyl-CoA ligase yielding ATP, preventing the adenine nucleotide translocase from reversing. We addressed the source of the NAD(+) supply for KGDHC under anoxic conditions and inhibition of complex I. Using pharmacologic tools and specific substrates and by examining tissues from pigeon liver exhibiting no diaphorase activity, we showed that mitochondrial diaphorases in the mouse liver contribute up to 81% to the NAD(+) pool during respiratory inhibition. Under these conditions, KGDHC's function, essential for the provision of succinyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA ligase, is supported by NAD(+) derived from diaphorases. Through this process, diaphorases contribute to the maintenance of substrate-level phosphorylation during respiratory inhibition, which is manifested in the forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase. Finally, we show that reoxidation of the reducible substrates for the diaphorases is mediated by complex III of the respiratory chain.-Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Pour-Ghaz, I., Mansour, J. J., Németh, B., Starkov, A. A., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. Mitochondrial diaphorases as NAD(+) donors to segments of the citric acid cycle that support substrate-level phosphorylation yielding ATP during respiratory inhibition. PMID:24391134

Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Pour-Ghaz, Issa; Mansour, Josef J; Németh, Beáta; Starkov, Anatoly A; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

2014-04-01

309

Baby Schema in Infant Faces Induces Cuteness Perception and Motivation for Caretaking in Adults.  

PubMed

Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that baby schema ('Kindchenschema') is a set of infantile physical features such as the large head, round face and big eyes that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in other individuals, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. Previous work on this fundamental concept was restricted to schematic baby representations or correlative approaches. Here, we experimentally tested the effects of baby schema on the perception of cuteness and the motivation for caretaking using photographs of infant faces. Employing quantitative techniques, we parametrically manipulated the baby schema content to produce infant faces with high (e.g. round face and high forehead), and low (e. g. narrow face and low forehead) baby schema features that retained all the characteristics of a photographic portrait. Undergraduate students (n = 122) rated these infants' cuteness and their motivation to take care of them. The high baby schema infants were rated as more cute and elicited stronger motivation for caretaking than the unmanipulated and the low baby schema infants. This is the first experimental proof of the baby schema effects in actual infant faces. Our findings indicate that the baby schema response is a critical function of human social cognition that may be the basis of caregiving and have implications for infant-caretaker interactions. PMID:22267884

Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Gur, Ruben C; Sachser, Norbert

2009-03-01

310

Is attentional prioritisation of infant faces unique in humans?: Comparative demonstrations by modified dot-probe task in monkeys.  

PubMed

Humans innately perceive infantile features as cute. The ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that the infantile features of mammals and birds, known as the baby schema (kindchenschema), motivate caretaking behaviour. As biologically relevant stimuli, newborns are likely to be processed specially in terms of visual attention, perception, and cognition. Recent demonstrations on human participants have shown visual attentional prioritisation to newborn faces (i.e., newborn faces capture visual attention). Although characteristics equivalent to those found in the faces of human infants are found in nonhuman primates, attentional capture by newborn faces has not been tested in nonhuman primates. We examined whether conspecific newborn faces captured the visual attention of two Japanese monkeys using a target-detection task based on dot-probe tasks commonly used in human visual attention studies. Although visual cues enhanced target detection in subject monkeys, our results, unlike those for humans, showed no evidence of an attentional prioritisation for newborn faces by monkeys. Our demonstrations showed the validity of dot-probe task for visual attention studies in monkeys and propose a novel approach to bridge the gap between human and nonhuman primate social cognition research. This suggests that attentional capture by newborn faces is not common to macaques, but it is unclear if nursing experiences influence their perception and recognition of infantile appraisal stimuli. We need additional comparative studies to reveal the evolutionary origins of baby-schema perception and recognition. PMID:23644178

Koda, Hiroki; Sato, Anna; Kato, Akemi

2013-09-01

311

The coherent structure of turbulent mixing layers. 1: Similarity of the primary vortex structure. 2: Secondary streamwise vortex structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary spanwise organized vortex structure and the secondary streamwise vortex structure of turbulent mixing layers have been investigated. Flow visualization motion pictures of a constant density mixing layer were used to measure the properties of the large scale vortices. It was found that after an initial transition region mean properties of the large scale vortices reach the expected linear growth with downstream distance required by similarity. In the self-similar region, the vortex core area and visual thickness increase continuously during its life-span. A theoretical model of probability distribution function for the large-scale vortex circulation was developed. This distribution is found to be lognormal and to have a standard deviation, normalized with the mean of 0.28. From this model the mean life-span of the vortices could also be obtained and was found to be 0.67 times the mean life-span position. The streamwise streak pattern observed by Konrad (1976) and Breidenthal (1978) in plan-view pictures of the mixing layer was investigated, using flow visualization and spanwise concentration measurements. It was confirmed that this pattern is the results of a secondary vortex structure dominated by streamwise, counter-rotating vortices. A detailed description of its spatial relation to the primary, spanwise vortex structure is presented. From time average flow pictures, the onset position and initial scale of the secondary structures were determined.

Bernal, L. P.

1981-06-01

312

Multipartite entanglement evolution under separable operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how multipartite entanglement evolves under the paradigm of separable operations, which include the local operations and classical communication as a special case. We prove that the average “decay” of entanglement induced by a separable operation is measure independent (among SL-invariant ones) and state independent: The ratio between the average output entanglement and the initial entanglement is solely a function of the separable operation, regardless of the input state and of the SL-invariant entanglement measure being used. We discuss the “disentangling power” of a quantum channel and show that it exhibits a similar state invariance as the average entanglement decay ratio. Our Rapid Communication significantly extends the bipartite results of Horodecki and Horodecki, Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 901 (2010), Konrad , Nat. Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys885 4, 99 (2008), and Tiersch , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.170502 101, 170502 (2008) as well as the multipartite one of Gour, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.190504 105, 190504 (2010), all of the previous work being restricted to one-sided or particular noise models.

Gheorghiu, Vlad; Gour, Gilad

2012-11-01

313

Immunity in Society: Diverse Solutions to Common Problems  

PubMed Central

Understanding how organisms fight infection has been a central focus of scientific research and medicine for the past couple of centuries, and a perennial object of trial and error by humans trying to mitigate the burden of disease. Vaccination success relies upon the exposure of susceptible individuals to pathogen constituents that do not cause (excessive) pathology and that elicit specific immune memory. Mass vaccination allows us to study how immunity operates at the group level; denser populations are more prone to transmitting disease between individuals, but once a critical proportion of the population becomes immune, “herd immunity” emerges. In social species, the combination of behavioural control of infection—e.g., segregation of sick individuals, disposal of the dead, quality assessment of food and water—and aggregation of immune individuals can protect non-immune members from disease. While immune specificity and memory are well understood to underpin immunisation in vertebrates, it has been somewhat surprising to find similar phenomena in invertebrates, which lack the vertebrate molecular mechanisms deemed necessary for immunisation. Indeed, reports showing alternative forms of immune memory are accumulating in invertebrates. In this issue of PLoS Biology, Konrad et al. present an example of fungus-specific immune responses in social ants that lead to the active immunisation of nestmates by infected individuals. These findings join others in showing how organisms evolved diverse mechanisms that fulfil common functions, namely the discrimination between pathogens, the transfer of immunity between related individuals, and the group-level benefits of immunisation.

Babayan, Simon A.; Schneider, David S.

2012-01-01

314

The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

2013-04-01

315

Reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities of various beech plants (Fagaceae): testing and application of a mechanistic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanistic model (Konrad &Roth-Nebelsick a, in prep.) was applied for the reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities and photosynthesis parameters of extant and fossil Fagaceae. The model is based on an approach which couples diffusion and the biochemical process of photosynthesis. Atmospheric CO2 is calculated on the basis of stomatal diffusion and photosynthesis parameters of the considered taxa. The considered species include the castanoid Castanea sativa, two quercoids Quercus petraea and Quercus rhenana and an intermediate species Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis. In the case of Quercus petraea literature data were used. Stomatal data of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis, Quercus rhenana and Castanea sativa were determined by the authors. Data of the extant Castanea sativa were collected by applying a peeling method and by counting of stomatal densities on the digitalized images of the peels. Additionally, isotope data of leaf samples of Castanea sativa were determined to estimate the ratio of intercellular to ambient carbon dioxide. The CO2 values calculated by the model (on the basis of stomatal data and measured or estimated biochemical parameters) are in good agreement with literature data, with the exception of the Late Eocene. The results thus demonstrate that the applied approach is principally suitable for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric CO2.

Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Konrad, W.

2006-12-01

316

"Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities  

PubMed Central

Jean Hamburger (1909–1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz. Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a “golden” book, “Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service” (“Advice to the Medical Students in my Service”), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice.

2013-01-01

317

Holocene geological records of flood regime in French Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a review of a ca. 10-years research effort (1-9) aiming at reconstructing floods dynamics in in French Alps through the Holocene, based on lake sediment records. We will particularly discuss how such geological records can be considered as representative of past climate. This implies a wise interpretation of data in order to really understand "what does the core really says". Namely, we showed that different lake systems record different types of flood events. Low altitude lakes, fed by large-scale catchment areas are more sensitive to regional heavy rainfall events (2-5), whereas high altitude small lakes record local extreme rainfall events (6). Moreover, human societies' development must be taken into account as it is susceptible to modulate the climate-geological record relationship (7). Altogether our data permit the establishment of a Holocene-long perspective upon both regional heavy rainfall and torrential activities in high elevation sites. We hence show that both types of events frequency co-evolve in Northern as well as Southern French Alps where Holocene colder spells generally present higher flood frequencies (6-9). On the other hand, intensities of torrential events present a North-South opposite pattern: during warm spells (e.g. the Medieval Warm Period or nowadays), northern Alps are subject to rare but extremely intense heavy rainfall events, whereas in the southern Alps torrential floods are both rare and weak. During cold spells (e.g. the Little Ice Age), the inverse pattern is observed: torrential floods are more frequent everywhere and above-average intensity in Southern Alps. This point is particularly important for risk management in mountain areas in a context of global warming. Our results point out how complex can be the response of regional system to global climate changes. We are hence far from completely understanding this complexity which is moreover imperfectly simulated by climate models. As geological records represent the only way to reconstruct long-term trends in flood regimes, more efforts must still be pursued to get a more complete image of this complexity and further improve climate models. 1. Chapron et al. The Holocene 12, 177-185 (2002) 2. Arnaud et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 51, 81-92 (2012) 3. Debret et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2185-2200 (2010) 4. Arnaud et al. The Holocene 15, 420-428 (2005) 5. Revel-Rolland et al. Chem. Geol. 224, 183-200 (2005) 6. Wilhelm et al. Clim. Change 113, 563-581 (2012) 7. Giguet-Covex et al. Quat. Res. 77, 12-22 (2012) 8. Wilhelm et al. Quat. Res. 78, 1-12 (2012) 9. Wilhelm et al. J. Quat. Sci. 28, 189-199 (2013)

Arnaud, Fabien; Wilhelm, Bruno; Giguet-Covex, Charline; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Debret, Maxime; Révillon, Sidonie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Revel, Marie

2014-05-01

318

Status of the CCD camera for the eROSITA space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approved German X-ray telescope eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission. After satellite launch to Lagrangian point L2 in near future, eROSITA will perform a survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5 keV - 2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2 keV - 8 keV) it will provide the first complete imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of 100,000 clusters of galaxies up to redshift z ~ 1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. Detection of single X-ray photons with information about their energy, arrival angle and time is accomplished by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 ?m thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. It is a further development of the sensor type which is in operation aboard the XMM-Newton satellite since 1999. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed in the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, the MPI Halbleiterlabor. By means of a unique so-called 'cold-chuck probe station', we have characterized the performance of each PNCCD sensor on chip-level. Various tests were carried out for a detailed characterization of the CCD and its custom-made analog readout ASIC. This includes in particular the evaluation of the optimum detector operating conditions in terms of operating sequence, supply voltages and operating temperature in order to achieve optimum performance. In the course of the eROSITA camera development, an engineering model of the eROSITA flight detector was assembled and is used for tests since 2010. Based on these results and on the extensive tests with lab model detectors, the design of the front-end electronics has meanwhile been finalized for the flight cameras. Furthermore, the specifications for the other supply and control electronics were precisely concluded on the basis of the experimental tests.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Elbs, Johannes; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Herrmann, Sven; Miessner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmaler, Gabriele; Strüder, Lothar; Tiedemann, Lars

2011-09-01

319

Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.  

PubMed

In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure. After some 120 years the BNA is alive and flourishing. Now retitled Terminologia Anatomica, it has been amended and added to many times, is still in Latin but now with synonyms in English, the new lingua franca of science, for every anatomical, histological and embryological term. May our successors be equally effective. PMID:24123982

Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

2013-11-01

320

Paperless or vanishing society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as severe as ASTM D 4303, which is used to rate the lightfastness of artists's paint.

Turner Luke, Joy

2002-06-01

321

Davenport's involvement in the American eugenics movement and Nazism, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>taking the torch A common interest Eugen Fischer and Charles Davenport both believed in negative eugenics to prevent those with "bad genes" from reproducing. Taking the torch By the mid-1930s, the scientific basis of negative eugenics had been discredited. The well-documented phenomenon of hybrid vigor refuted notions of racial superiority, while Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that dysgenic genes do not increase in a population. Members of Thomas Hunt Morgan's group showed that the genotype-phenotype relationship is highly variable, while Lionel Penrose found that most cases in a mental institution in Colchester, England resulted from a combination of genetic, environmental, and pathological causes. After a 1935 panel concluded that the work of the Eugenics Record Office was without scientific merit, eugenics research was phased out, and the facility was closed in December 1939. In the meantime, eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ? with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg. Hitler read Fischer's textbook Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene while in prison at Landsberg and used eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). When he came to power in 1933, Hitler charged the medical profession with the task of implementing a national program of race hygiene ? a key element of which was passage of an act permitting involuntary sterilization of feebleminded, mentally ill, epileptics, and alcoholics. Within a year, more than 50,000 sterilizations were ordered, and doctors competed to fill sterilization quotas. By the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, an estimated 400,000 people had been sterilized. James Watson discusses the founding of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office.

2008-10-06

322

Eugenics loses favor in the U.S., but gains support in Nazi Germany , James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torch Eugenics lost favor in the U.S. Hitler and German geneticists were embracing eugenics, even as people in the United States had come to view the movement as mere prejudice. Taking the torch By the mid-1930s, the scientific basis of negative eugenics had been discredited. The well-documented phenomenon of hybrid vigor refuted notions of racial superiority, while Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that dysgenic genes do not increase in a population. àMembers of Thomas Hunt Morgan's group showed that the genotype-phenotype relationship is highly variable, while Lionel Penrose found that most cases in a mental institution in Colchester, England resulted from a combination of genetic, environmental, and pathological causes. àAfter a 1935 panel concluded that the work of the Eugenics Record Office was without scientific merit, eugenics research was phased out, and the facility was closed in December 1939. In the meantime, eugenics was gathering steam in Germany àwith help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." àIn 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg. Hitler read Fischer's textbook Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene while in prison at Landsberg and used eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). When he came to power in 1933, Hitler charged the medical profession with the task of implementing a national program of race hygiene àa key element of which was passage of an act permitting involuntary sterilization of feebleminded, mentally ill, epileptics, and alcoholics. Within a year, more than 50,000 sterilizations were ordered, and doctors competed to fill sterilization quotas. By the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, an estimated 400,000 people had been sterilized. James Watson discusses the founding of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office.

2008-10-06

323

The connection between American eugenics and Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>taking the torch Beginning eugenic sterilization When Hitler came to power in 1933, German eugenicists got the large-scale sterilization program they wanted. Taking the torch By the mid-1930s, the scientific basis of negative eugenics had been discredited. The well-documented phenomenon of hybrid vigor refuted notions of racial superiority, while Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that dysgenic genes do not increase in a population. Members of Thomas Hunt Morgan's group showed that the genotype-phenotype relationship is highly variable, while Lionel Penrose found that most cases in a mental institution in Colchester, England resulted from a combination of genetic, environmental, and pathological causes. After a 1935 panel concluded that the work of the Eugenics Record Office was without scientific merit, eugenics research was phased out, and the facility was closed in December 1939. In the meantime, eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ? with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg. Hitler read Fischer's textbook Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene while in prison at Landsberg and used eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). When he came to power in 1933, Hitler charged the medical profession with the task of implementing a national program of race hygiene ? a key element of which was passage of an act permitting involuntary sterilization of feebleminded, mentally ill, epileptics, and alcoholics. Within a year, more than 50,000 sterilizations were ordered, and doctors competed to fill sterilization quotas. By the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, an estimated 400,000 people had been sterilized. James Watson discusses the founding of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office.

2008-10-06

324

Denitrification activity of aquifer material from two different sandy aquifers in northern Germany measured by laboratory incubation experiments in relation to influencing sediment parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In NO3¯ contaminated aquifers containing reduced compounds like organic carbon or sulfides, denitrification is an intense process. Its characterization is of interest because NO3¯ consumption improves water quality and N2O production can cause emission of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Spatial distribution of NO3¯ and N2 produced by denitrification in groundwater (excess N2) reflects the NO3¯ input as well as cumulative denitrification during aquifer passage. The amount and spatial distribution of reduced compounds within denitrifying aquifers is not well known. Recent findings from parallel investigations on in situ denitrification and reactive compounds suggests that single-well 15N tracer tests might be suitable to characterize the stock of reduced compounds in aquifers (Konrad 2008), but an evaluation of this approach has not been realized until now. The overall objective of our studies is to measure the spatial and long-term dynamics of denitrification within two sandy aquifers in northern Germany. This includes measurement of the actually occurring denitrification process in the field by 15N-tracer experiments and incubation experiments with corresponding aquifer material. Beside the comparison of field and laboratory data concerning the denitrification activity, we also want to determine the long-term denitrification potential which is governed by the stock of reactive material within these sediments. Here we present the first results of these long-term incubation experiments to investigate the stock of reactive material present in these sediments and its denitrification activity. In these batch experiments we filled the aquifer material from different depths between two and 68 m below ground in glass bottles, supplemented it with K15NO3 solution, sealed the bottles airtight with rubber septa and flushed the headspace with pure N2. Afterward the bottles where stored in the dark by 10° C to obtain aquifer like conditions. The labeled denitrification products (15[N2O+N2]), N2, N2O, CO2, Nitrate, Sulfate and pH were analyzed six times during the experiment. In order to study the stock of reduced compounds within the incubated sediments we also performed other laboratory measurements with the aquifer material. We measured its capability to reduce potassium permanganate and the concentrations of extractable sulfate, dissolved organic carbon, hot water soluble organic matter and total C, N and S per kilogram sediment. Results up to now show for most of the incubated glass bottles with sediments an almost linear increase of the denitrification products over time. The measured denitrification rates for aquifer material from the zone of heterotrophic denitrification and for sediments from the zone of autotrophic denitrification range from 0.2 to 42 ?g N kg-1d-1and from 22 to 120 ?g N kg-1d-1, respectively. The relationships between denitrification rates and the parameters of the reduced compounds will be discussed. References: Konrad, C. (2008): Methoden zur Bestimmung des Umsatzes von Stickstoff, dargestellt für drei pleistozäne Grundwasserleiter Norddeutschlands, PhD thesis, Dresden Univ. of Techn., Germany, 157 pp.

Eschenbach, Wolfram; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heiner; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus H. M.; Walther, Wolfgang

2010-05-01

325

Radiation coloring of nonstoichiometric M(1-x)R(x)F(2+x) single crystals with a fluorite defect structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are reported concerning the radiation coloring of nonstoichiometric crystals of the M(1-x)R(x)F(2+x) type in the presence of fluorite defects. Samples of the crystals are cut using the Stockbarger technique in a chemically active fluoridating atmosphere generated by pyrolysis of tetrafluoroethylene. The samples were irradiated at 77 and 300 K using a Co-60 gamma-ray source and the total doses were in the range 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 7th roentgen. Absorption spectra of the crystals were analogous spectra for MF2-RF3 single crystals with RF 3 contents of less than 1 mole percent. It is shown that the properties of radiation coloring of the two types of crystal are very different: F-centers formed at 300 K in Ca(1-x)R(x) F(2+x), but not at 77 K. Complex color centers were observed at 77 K in Ca(1-x)R(x)F(2+x) single crystals and the intensity of the centers was determined by the competition among the electron trapping processes involving the r3(+) ions. It is concluded that the coloring characteristics of the M(1-x)R(x)F(2+x) crystals are related to their structural characteristics as compared with the MF2-RF3 crystals.

Rustamov, Ia.; Tavshunskii, G. A.; Khabibullaev, P. K.; Bessonova, T. S.; Sobolev, B. P.

1985-06-01

326

Increased chromosome damage in pediatric heart catheterization patients after diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography.  

PubMed

Chromosome damage (CD) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels were studied in lymphocytes from 30 pediatric heart catheterization patients receiving radiation during diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography procedures. Forty-eight-hour CD and 72-hr SCE cultures were prepared from sequential samples taken from each patient: samples 1-3 via the catheter the same day (1) before exposure, (2) after fluoroscopy, and (3) after cineangiography; and sample 4 by venipuncture the next morning. Significant increases in CD (dicentrics, rings, and fragments), but not SCE, were observed. From a mean base level of 0.4% cells with CD, the CD levels increased 2-3-fold in samples 3 and 4 (p = .001). Rings only occurred in samples 3 and 4. While increased CD levels also correlated with increasing age, body surface area, and weight, partial correlations controlling for these factors clearly indicate that the CD effects are principally attributable to the radiological procedures (p = .001). Increased CD levels correlated with both the roentgen dose of cineangiography exposure (p = .002) and the volume of contrast medium (p = .000); however, partial correlations, controlling for either factor, indicate that the contrast medium was the principal factor (p = .006). PMID:3678209

Shafer, D A; Raviele, A A; Dunbar, V G; Click, L A

1987-01-01

327

The ART-XC Instrument on board the SRG Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2013 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmiumtelluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of 1 arcmin, a field of view of ~30 arcmin and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Arefiev, V.; Glushenko, A.; Yaskovich, A.; Burenin, R.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Buntov, M.; Grebenev, S.; Lutovinov, A.; Kudelin, M.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.

2011-09-01

328

The ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1', a field of view of ~30' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Babyshkin, V.; Lomakin, I.; Menderov, A.; Moskvinov, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.

2012-09-01

329

BeppoSAX Observations of MKN 110  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mkn 110 is a bright, nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, which underwent a long optical monitoring campaign, during the past 12 years. Optical observations show that Mkn 110 vary, both in flux and spectral shape. The intensity and width of its Broad Emission Lines (BELs) also vary, from typical Seyfert 1, to typical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSyl) values, so suggesting that this could be the first supermassive black holes where accretion state related transitions, as frequently observed in stellar-size black holes, have finally been observed. To verify these suggestions we asked to monitor Mkn 110 with BeppoSAX with three 50 ksec observations six months apart. The goal of the proposal was to observe spectral variations in X-ray, already suggested by previous, existing ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) observations of the same source. The first of these three SAX (Satellite per Astronomia X) observations was taken on May 2000, and lacks the Low-Energy instrument (0.1-2 keV is the band in which NLSy1 and Sy1 X-ray spectra differ most).

Nicastro, Fabrizio; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

330

Nde: Surfing the Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Nondestructive Evaluation demand an arsenal of techniques. This was as true twenty years ago as it is today. As materials and their associated technologies progress, so must the strategy for evaluating the quality of the product. Nondestructive Evaluation is a constant struggle to extract, from classical and quantum physics, the quintessential elements that will optimally address an inspection requirement, apart from purely academic interest. It must work to be useful and thereby advance the field. The electromagnetic spectrum, from Roentgen to Maxwell/Hertz, lies at the foundation of both classical and quantum physics. Not only has NDE plucked pearls form every nook of the spectrum ranging from X-rays to T-rays but also has managed to utilize virtually every known coupling of the spectrum to the classical mechanics of heat and sound. I will ``surf'' the spectrum to provide a sampling of what NDE has extracted past and present as well as try to couple to its future.

Ringermacher, Harry I.

2010-02-01

331

The ART-XC Instrument on Board the SRG Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes . a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6- 30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1 ', a field of view of 30 ' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinksy, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovish, A.; Sunyaeve, R.; Churazov, E.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.

2012-01-01

332

Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Zabanov, S.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01

333

Assessment of radiology installations in Macedonia, Greece.  

PubMed

Nine, small and large radiology installations in Macedonia, Greece using 40 generators and a total of 47 roentgen tubes were assessed and their work load was calculated. The results of quality control measurements in 39 of these (27 radiographic and 12 fluoroscopic tubes) are presented. The parameters measured were: (a) kvp, (b) radiation output, (c) timer accuracy, (d) field coincidence and (e) total filtering. For fluoroscopic equipment spatial resolution and radiation field alignment were also measured. Equipment exploitation seems to be very low, since more than half of the equipment was less than 8 years old, with a work load under 200 mA.min per week. The total work load was calculated to be about 4612 mA.min per week, corresponding to 123,960 patients. These were examined by 52 radiologists supported by 58 radiographers. Skin exposure was measured for fluoroscopy patients (2.8 +/- 2.7 R/mA per min), as well as for a set of routine radiographic examinations. PMID:1855511

Okkalides, D

1991-01-01

334

High-current beam transport in the FXR injector  

SciTech Connect

The FXR injector is designed to generate a nominal 4-kA, 1.5-MeV electron beam which represents the central portion of a 15 to 20 kA beam emitted from the cold cathode. Because of difficulties in reaching the 4-kA level repeatably and with good beam quality during the early running-in experiments, it was decided at that time to develop an accelerator tune based on a 2.5-kA injected beam that was better behaved. This beam adequately satisfied the overall design requirements for FXR, with 500 Roentgen of bremsstrahlung produced at 1 meter from the target, and with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. More recently, we have begun to develop a 4-kA tune. During preliminary tests carried out in September and October, 1982, we found that in order to extract a 3.8-kA, 1.65-MeV injector beam, the earlier, axial-magnetic-field profile had to be modified and strengthened considerably, and the observed quality (pulse shape) of the emerging beam was not as good as before. This note will describe the modeling effort that was carried out to explain these results.

Kulke, B.

1982-12-01

335

Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography  

SciTech Connect

For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.

1981-02-10

336

Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR  

SciTech Connect

The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

1981-01-01

337

Scintillation Counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

Bell, Zane W.

338

The Most Distant X-Ray Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this program we have used ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite Mission) to observe X-ray emission around several high redshift radio galaxies in a search for extended, hot plasma which may indicate the presence of a rich galaxy cluster. When this program was begun, massive, X-ray emitting galaxy clusters were known to exist out to to z=0.8, but no more distant examples had been identified. However, we had identified several apparently rich clusters around 3CR radio galaxies at z greater than 0.8, and hoped to use ROSAT to confirm the nature of these structures as massive, virialized clusters. We have written up our results and submitted them as a paper to the Astrophysical Journal. This paper has been refereed and requires some significant revisions to accommodate the referees comments. We are in the process of doing this, adding some additional analysis as well. We will resubmit the paper early in 2000, and hopefully will meet with the referee's approval. We are including three copies of the submitted paper here, although it has not yet been accepted for publication.

Dickinson, Mark

1999-01-01

339

The density-dependency of dark- and low-background radiation effects on water and water solution properties.  

PubMed

The effects of dark -(Ev=0 lux) and low-background radiation (BGR), where R<1?Rongen/h, on physicochemical properties (specific electrical conductivity, heat fusion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxygen contents) of distilled water (DW) and physiological solution (PS) at 4°C and 18°C were studied. The incubation of DW and PS samples in dark and in low BGR (under dark) medium at 4°C and 18°C brings to changes of their physicochemical properties compared with DW and PS samples incubated in light and normal BGR condition (Ev=500-550 lux and R=17 ?Roentgen/h). The observed changes of DW and PS properties depended on their initial temperature, density and ionic composition. It is suggested that water molecules dissociation and ions hydration are sensitive to illumination and BGR. Therefore, the cell-bathing medium can be considered as a messenger through which direct and non direct (by modulating of others factors-induced effects) influences of illumination and BGR on cell metabolism are realized. PMID:22239063

Baghdasaryan, Naira; Mikayelyan, Yerazik; Barseghyan, Sedrak; Dadasyan, Erna; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

2012-03-01

340

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. [Annual astronomy report  

SciTech Connect

This report is for the period from July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991. A listing of personnel for this period is presented. Progress is reported for research of solar flare gamma ray spectroscopy, stars and galactic binary x-ray sources, supernova remnants, pulsar studies, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays, interstellar matter and molecular clouds, galaxies, active galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies, and diffuse cosmic x-rays. Completed and operating flight programs include ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), Galileo Heavy Ion Counter, Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on GRO, Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), and archival and other data analysis. Progress is reported on the following instrumentation: Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) for the ISTP/WIND spacecraft, the Energetic Particle Acceleration Composition and Transport (EPACT) experiment for the ISTP/WIND spacecraft, the Monitoring X-ray Experiment (MOXE), X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), ASTRO-D, x-ray spectrometer for AXAF, Isotope Matter Antimatter eXperiment (IMAX), Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS), Advanced Gamma Ray Astronomy Telescope Experiment (AGATE), Compton gamma ray telescope development, new gamma-ray burst timing network, Astromag, Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag (LISA), WiZard study of antiprotons, positrons, and nuclei in cosmic rays, International Gamma-Ray Laboratory (INTEGRAL), Rapidly Moving Telescope (RMT), x-ray detector development, and sounding rockets. A list of publications is provided.

Not Available

1992-01-01

341

Three-Dimensional CT Modeling Versus Traditional Radiology Techniques in Treatment of Acetabular Fractures  

PubMed Central

Recently, the authors have used the computer generated three-dimensional (3-D) CT moving images for preoperative planning and screw/pin insertion in more than 28 cases involving plate and screw fixation of complex acetabular fractures. The authors also used stereolithography (wax or plastic 3-D model of bony anatomy) to develop a computer-generated "clip on" interpositioning template for accurate placement of plate and screws. Application of these new technologies gives the surgeon precise information about the fracture patterns and provides an effective means for preoperative planning and accurate fixation of acetabular fractures. The accuracy of the 3-D virtual presentation of the anatomy is impressive and was substantiated by phantom studies. Postoperation CT revealed no case of screw penetration in the joint. Among other benefits over conventional surgical technique, the computer-assisted surgery provided decreased operative time and morbidity, decreased radiation exposure, and obviated the need for oblique, inlet and outlet roentgen views of the pelvis for preoperative planning. A case report specifically demonstrates preoperative planning for reconstruction of acetabular fracture.

Brown, George A; Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow; Gehlert, Rick J

2001-01-01

342

Postoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer--long-term results from the Oslo study  

SciTech Connect

The long-term results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of postoperative radiotherapy as an adjuvant to radical mastectomy are presented. There were 1115 patients including 27 protocol deviants. The follow-up time is 11-20 years. In the first part a conventional roentgen unit was used, and in the second part a /sup 60/Co unit, with considerably increased dosage and altered treatment plan. Both types of radiation techniques lowered the incidence of loco-regional recurrences significantly, but had no significant influence on the overall survival. The relapse-free survival was significantly improved by /sup 60/Co radiation in Stage II patients, but was unaffected by radiation in the other subgroups. Regarding survival, Stage II patients with medially located tumors seemed to benefit more from /sup 60/Co radiation than those with lateral tumors. A significant increase in the number of deaths caused by myocardial infarction was observed in Stage I patients having /sup 60/Co radiation, indicating that the radiation dose to the heart is of significance.

Host, H.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Loeb, M.

1986-05-01

343

Multi-scale visual words for hierarchical medical image categorisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomedical literature published regularly has increased strongly in past years and keeping updated even in narrow domains is difficult. Images represent essential information of their articles and can help to quicker browse through large volumes of articles in connection with keyword search. Content-based image retrieval is helping the retrieval of visual content. To facilitate retrieval of visual information, image categorisation can be an important first step. To represent scientific articles visually, medical images need to be separated from general images such as flowcharts or graphs to facilitate browsing, as graphs contain little information. Medical modality classification is a second step to focus search. The techniques described in this article first classify images into broad categories. In a second step the images are further classified into the exact medical modalities. The system combines the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and density-based clustering (DENCLUE). Visual words are first created globally to differentiate broad categories and then within each category a new visual vocabulary is created for modality classification. The results show the difficulties to differentiate between some modalities by visual means alone. On the other hand the improvement of the accuracy of the two-step approach shows the usefulness of the method. The system is currently being integrated into the Goldminer image search engine of the ARRS (American Roentgen Ray Society) as a web service, allowing concentrating image search onto clinically relevant images automatically.

Markonis, Dimitrios; Seco de Herrera, Alba G.; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

2012-02-01

344

RHEUMATOID (MARIE-STRUMPELL) SPONDYLITIS, Technique of Examination and Importance of the Costal Joints  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid spondylitis in the early prodromal stage may present a complex and obscure clinical picture making diagnosis difficult. It is in this early stage that roentgen examination of the small joints of the spine will often aid in or lead to the correct diagnosis of the disease in which the classical clinical symptoms and roentenographic findings in the sacroiliac fissure have not appeared and may never appear. The changes in these small joints, particularly in the costovertebral and costotransverse joints, are less obvious and require experienced and careful interpretation, but it is to these that the roentgenologist must direct his attention if he is to be of assistance in early diagnosis. A technical procedure for this examination is presented, along with a discussion of the clinical importance of changes at this site. Demonstration of involvement of the sacroiliac joints is of diagnostic importance, but this finding is no more necessary to the diagnosis of rheumatoid spondylitis than is involvement of any other single joint of the spine. Insistence on sacroiliac involvement will often result in missed diagnosis, and has led in part to erroneous conclusions as to sex incidence of the disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.

Williams, A. Justin

1949-01-01

345

X-ray optic developments at NASA's MSFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a successful history of fabricating optics for astronomical x-ray telescopes. In recent years optics have been created using electroforming replication for missions such as the balloon payload HERO (High energy replicated optics) and the rocket payload FOXSI (Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager). The same replication process is currently being used in the creation seven x-ray mirror modules (one module comprising of 28 nested shells) for the Russian ART-XC (Astronomical Rontgen Telescope) instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission and for large-diameter mirror shells for the Micro-X rocket payload. In addition to MSFC's optics fabrication, there are also several areas of research and development to create the high resolution light weight optics which are required by future x-ray telescopes. Differential deposition is one technique which aims to improve the angular resolution of lightweight optics through depositing a filler material to smooth out fabrication imperfections. Following on from proof of concept studies, two new purpose built coating chambers are being assembled to apply this deposition technique to astronomical x-ray optics. Furthermore, MSFC aims to broaden its optics fabrication through the recent acquisition of a Zeeko IRP 600 robotic polishing machine. This paper will provide a summary of the current missions and research and development being undertaken at NASA's MSFC.

Atkins, C.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

2013-05-01

346

THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NEUTRONS AND X-RAYS ON THE WHOLE BODY.  

PubMed

Irradiation of the whole bodies of mice with neutron rays in sufficient quantities, leads to a clinical, bacteriological and anatomical picture similar to that following Roentgen irradiation. The mucosa of the small intestine and the lymphoid and hemapoietic tissues are the most radiosensitive. The mechanism of death after both forms of radiation seems to be a combination of tissue destruction and enterogenous infection, the former predominating in the acute deaths after large doses. Aside from any possible delayed effects from exposure to small doses over a long period of time, concerning which we have no information, these changes after relatively large doses make it imperative that workers in laboratories generating neutrons protect themselves from exposure by screening. For the same amount of ionization measured by a small bakelite-walled thimble chamber, neutrons are more biologically destructive than x-rays. The average daily dose to those working with neutrons should not exceed one-fourth of the tolerance dose accepted for x-rays. Whether daily doses of this magnitude, over a long period of time, will result in damage is not known. Also, if neutrons are tried therapeutically normal tissue must be protected from undue irradiation. PMID:19870690

Lawrence, J H; Tennant, R

1937-11-30

347

Quantitative X-Ray Imaging of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Aortas of ApoE-/-/LDL-/- Double Knockout Mice  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To determine if hemorrhage into an arterial wall can be detected in CT images by virtue of the iron content. Materials and Methods: Aortas from male apoE-/-/LDL-/- mice (n = 31) were infused in situ with contrast agent, for micro-CT scanning and histology. Roentgen-opacities within the aortic walls were identified by histology and micro-x-ray fluorescence to be iron or calcium. Dual-energy scanning was performed at 2 energy levels using synchrotron-based micro-CT [(2 {mu}m)3 voxels, 16 and 20 keV] and 64-slice CT (0.4 x 0.4 x 0.6 mm voxels, 80 and 120 kVp). Results: Opacities were identified as hemorrhage-related clusters of multiple punctate deposits, containing both Fe (0.48 x 10-12 g/voxel) and Ca (3.18 x 10-2 g/voxel), or as isolated confluent accumulations of exclusively calcium. Subtraction of the dual-energy CT scans discriminated iron from calcium deposits. Conclusion: Detection and quantification of iron deposits in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic lesions is feasible by dual-energy CT imaging.

Langheinrich,A.; Michniewicz, A.; Sedding, D.; Lai, B.; Jorgensen, S.; Bohle, R.; Ritman, E.

2007-01-01

348

Polycapillary x-ray microbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As known, Kumakhov optics, or polycapillary optics, is based on the effective passage of X-ray radiation through the bundles of monocapillaries of various configurations; the latter takes place due to the phenomenon of total external reflection of X-rays from the inner capillary walls. In our work the basic characteristics of intense quasi-parallel X-ray polycapillary microbeams from a laboratory source in a scheme of microfocus X-ray tube/polycapillary structure, are investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Experimental studies are carried out by means of a special automated stand. The received experimental data are compared with the results of computer statistical modeling. Modeling includes of the several theoretical models for various types of deviations of a reflection surface from ideal such as the roughness, waviness and bending. The effect of decrease of full divergence of microbeams near the exit end face of polycapillary system (quasi-decrease of divergence) is found out. But, unlike the observable effects of decrease of local divergence, proposed and discovered in works of Dabagov et al. and described on the base of surface channeling, the given effect can be well enough described within the limits of geometrical optics. Now on the base of Kumakhov optics at the Institute for Roentgen Optics the new generation of devices is developed and created: "laboratory synchrotron", fluorescent spectrometers, reflectometers, diffractometers, X-ray microscopes and combinations of several devices in one.

Romanov, A. Yu.

2008-08-01

349

eROSITA in-orbit calibration strategy and plan: from the ground to the science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA is a German X-ray astronomical observatory on-board Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) with an expected launch in 2014 and operation at libration point L2. It consists of 7 identical mirror modules with 7 identical CCD cameras as focal plane instrumentation. It will observe the X-ray sky in the 0.25 - 10 keV range (4 yr all-sky survey, then pointed observations). Another instrument aboard SRG, ART-XC, will extend the spectral range to higher energies. We describe how the on-ground calibration is planned for the PANTER and PUMA X-ray test facilities, with respect to maximum scientific exploitation, in combination with an in-orbit calibration. This will be performed within one module and between the 7 eROSITA modules. If XMM-Newton will still be operational, a dedicated cross-calibration campaign is envisaged. The selection of the celestial targets and the procedure of the measurements with the internal Fe-55 calibration source are outlined.

Freyberg, Michael J.; Dennerl, Konrad

2012-09-01

350

The X-ray emission of 3C 273 observed with ASCA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report preliminary results of an Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation of 3C 273. There is no spectral variability within the ASCA observation, in contrast to the longer term behavior found with European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga which established significant changes in the spectral index of the power-law continuum on timescales of a week or more, uncorrelated with luminosity. Comparison of the ASCA data with a simultaneous Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Ginga observation in 1990 December shows that while the shape of the spectrum above approximately 1 keV is essentially the same, the flux in the soft component, below approximately 1 keV, considerably weaker relative to the hard component in the ASCA observation. The 2-10 keV luminosity is at least a factor of approximately 1.5 greater in the ASCA observation than in the ROSAT/Ginga observation while the ratio of 2-10 keV luminosity to 0.4-1.0 keV luminosity increases by a factor of approximately 1.2. Thus the spectral shape of the hard component appears to be independent of the relative magnitude of the soft component and is an important constraint on emission and reprocessing models. We find no significant Fe K line-emission in this observation. The data also highlight very well some of the outstanding problems in the instrumental responses.

Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; Ricker, George; Woo, Jonathan; Weaver, Kim; Kii, Tsuneo; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kotani, Taro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi

1994-01-01

351

Radiation dose reduction in the neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison of three gadolinium oxysulfide screen-film combinations.  

PubMed

Infant radiation exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit was quantitated by thermoluminescent dosimetry in 513 mobile unit roentgen examinations of the chest and abdomen. Three combinations of gadolinium oxysulfide intensifying screens and radiographic films were compared. The skin entrance dose in millirads at the mid-chest, mid-abdomen and symphysis pubis levels was measured. Radiation dose reductions of 52% and 68% were achieved using the intermediate and fast combinations relative to the near par speed standard combination. Comparison of the relative line pair resolution of the three combinations under clinical conditions was done and subjective comparison of image detail and image mottle was made by two radiologists. The standard and intermediate speed combinations were considered very acceptable for general neonatal diagnostic interpretation but the fastest combination was not considered acceptable for general purposes. Because of the decreased radiation dose, the intermediate speed combination is now used for all routine neonatal radiography at our institution. The near par speed combination is now used only occasionally for "high-detail" examinations. The fastest combination has a limited role for frequently repeated, less critical studies, such as tube or catheter placement or routine follow-up examinations. PMID:6511267

Smathers, R L; Alford, B A; Messenger, J; Agarwal, S K; Taylor, T S

1984-01-01

352

HUBBLE SEES A NEUTRON STAR ALONE IN SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

his is the first direct look, in visible light, at a lone neutron star, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble results show the star is very hot (1.2 million degrees Fahrenheit at the surface), and can be no larger than 16.8 miles (28 kilometers) across. These results prove that the object must be a neutron star, because no other known type of object can be this hot, small, and dim (below 25th magnitude). The first clue that there was a neutron star at this location came in 1992, when the ROSAT (the Roentgen Satellite) found a bright X-ray source without any optical counterpart in optical sky surveys. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 was used in October 1996 to undertake a sensitive search for the optical object, and found a stellar pinpoint of light within only 2 arc seconds (1/900th the diameter of the Moon) of the X-ray position. Astronomers haven't directly measured the neutron star's distance, but fortunately the neutron star lies in front of a molecular cloud known to be about 400 light-years away in the southern constellation Corona Australis. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

2002-01-01

353

Increased chromosome damage in pediatric heart catheterization patients after diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome damage (CD) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels were studied in lymphocytes from 30 pediatric heart catheterization patients receiving radiation during diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography procedures. Forty-eight-hour CD and 72-hr SCE cultures were prepared from sequential samples taken from each patient: samples 1-3 via the catheter the same day (1) before exposure, (2) after fluoroscopy, and (3) after cineangiography; and sample 4 by venipuncture the next morning. Significant increases in CD (dicentrics, rings, and fragments), but not SCE, were observed. From a mean base level of 0.4% cells with CD, the CD levels increased 2-3-fold in samples 3 and 4 (p = .001). Rings only occurred in samples 3 and 4. While increased CD levels also correlated with increasing age, body surface area, and weight, partial correlations controlling for these factors clearly indicate that the CD effects are principally attributable to the radiological procedures (p = .001). Increased CD levels correlated with both the roentgen dose of cineangiography exposure (p = .002) and the volume of contrast medium (p = .000); however, partial correlations, controlling for either factor, indicate that the contrast medium was the principal factor (p = .006).

Shafer, D.A.; Raviele, A.A.; Dunbar, V.G.; Click, L.A.

1987-01-01

354

Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800{degree}F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection.

Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.

1990-06-01

355

Primary stability of tibial components in TKA: in vitro comparison of two cementing techniques.  

PubMed

In spite of improvements in cementing technique, migration of tibial component remains a problem in total knee arthroplasty. This study compares the primary stability of tibial components using two different cementing techniques with roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) in vitro. A total of 20 tibia specimens were matched into two groups, 10 specimens per group. Cementing technique was randomized to each group. In the first group only the base and in the second group the base and stem were cemented. The implants and the tibial metaphysis were marked with markers for the RSA analysis. All specimens were tested with an axial load of 2,000 N for 1,000 and 10,000 cycles and RSA analysis was performed. Endpoints for radiosterometric analysis were maximum total point motion, maximum subsidence, lift off, rotation and translation along the x-, y-, and z-axes. After 1,000 and 10,000 cycles, no significant differences could be found, but two tibial components of the surface cementing group showed a migration of more than 2 mm defined as failure compared to six failed tibial components in the full cementing group (P = 0.068). This higher number of failed arthroplasties in the fully cemented prosthesis group demonstrates a disadvantageous load distribution in the tibia apophysis which can cause an early component loosening. PMID:19572121

Skwara, Adrian; Figiel, J; Knott, T; Paletta, J R J; Fuchs-Winkelmann, S; Tibesku, C O

2009-10-01

356

Initial stability of tibial components in primary knee arthroplasty. A cadaver study comparing cemented and cementless fixation techniques.  

PubMed

The purpose of this roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) study was to evaluate the initial stability of cemented and cementless tibial components in vitro. Twenty tibia specimens were matched into two groups. In the first group, the tibial trays were cemented superficially and in the second group cementless fixation with stem and screws was performed. An axial load of 2000 N for 1000 and 10,000 cycles was applied onto the specimens and RSA was performed. The experimental results after 1000 cycles showed a higher migration with significant differences for the parameters maximum lift off (p = 0.011) and maximum total point motion (p = 0.002) in the cementless group. After 10,000 cycles, the migration in the cementless group increased significantly for maximum lift off (p = 0.043), maximum subsidence (p = 0.045) and maximum total point motion (p = 0.013). The higher migration rates in the cementless group demonstrate a lower initial mechanical stability of cementless tibial components which can cause an early component loosening. PMID:21845999

Efe, Turgay; Figiel, Jens; Danek, Susanna; Tibesku, Carsten O; Paletta, Jürgen R J; Skwara, Adrian

2011-06-01

357

Learning Radiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Learning Radiology website was conceived and created by Professor William Herring of the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. The site was started in June 2002, and now receives upwards of 12,000 visitors a day. Since the time the site was started, it has grown to include video podcasts, lectures from medical professionals, and interactive tutorials. The materials on the site are divided into seven topical areas, including Lectures, Notes, Images, Case of the Week Archive, and Quick Quizzes. In the Lectures area visitors can find talks on everything from bone tumors to the "ABCs of Heart Disease." Many of the talks are available in a variety of formats, including as pdf files and PowerPoint presentations. In the Notes area, visitors can read clear and concise summaries of over 45 topics, including Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Paget's Disease. Also, visitors can follow Learning Radiology via Twitter and take advantage of their interactive Museum of Modern Imaging, which includes fun and informative areas like the Hall of Hype and Roentgen's Room.

Herring, William

2012-05-11

358

The Burch-Schneider cage: 9-year survival in Paprosky type 3 acetabular defects. Clinical and radiological follow-up.  

PubMed

Revision hip arthroplasty in cases with severe acetabular deficiency represents a technical challenge. The aim of this study was to determine: 1. The 9-year survival of the Burch Schneider anti-protrusio cage (BS-APC) in severe acetabular defects. 2. The migration of the cage and correlation of this with functional outcome. 3. The anticipated functional outcome users can expect in a district general hospital setting in the management of severe acetabular defects. A single-surgeon consecutive series of 30 complex acetabular reconstructions using the BS-APC was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and radiological follow up at 5-9 years was obtained. Survival was established with revisions and further surgery as different end-points. A radiological analysis using ein bilt roentgen analyse (EBRA) was performed. At a mean follow-up of 85 months (range: 64-118) 26 patients (87%) were alive. Nine-year survival was 95% for revision of BS-APC as an end-point and 92% with any cause of further surgery as an end-point. The mean Oxford Hip Score was 34.5 and UCLA activity score was 4.4. All cases demonstrated evidence of significant migration, but no screws were found to be broken. There was no correlation between cup migration and Oxford hip score (p=0.07). Our non-specialist centre experience suggests the BS-APC should not be dismissed as a reconstruction option in the most severe acetabular defects. PMID:22383324

Jones, Luke; Grammatopoulos, George; Singer, Gian

2012-01-01

359

Global Studies of Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy, The Magellanic Clouds, and M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the course of this grant we used various spacecraft surveys of the Galaxy and M31 in conjunction with our extensive CO spectral line surveys to address central problems in galactic structure and the astrophysics of molecular clouds. These problems included the nature of the molecular ring and its relation to the spiral arms and central bar, the cosmic ray distribution, the origin of the diffuse X-ray background, the distribution and properties of x-ray sources and supernova remnants, and the Galactic stellar mass distribution. For many of these problems, the nearby spiral M31 provided an important complementary perspective. Our CO surveys of GMCs (Galactic Molecular Clouds) were crucial for interpreting Galactic continuum surveys from satellites such as GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite) because they provided the missing dimension of velocity or kinematic distance. GMCs are a well-defined and widespread population of objects whose velocities we could readily measure throughout the Galaxy. Through various emission and absorption mechanisms involving their gas, dust, or associated Population I objects, GMCs modulate the galactic emission in virtually every major wavelength band. Furthermore, the visibility. of GMCs at so many wavelengths provided various methods of resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity for these objects in the inner Galaxy. Summaries of our accomplishments in each of the major wavelength bands discussed in our original proposal are given

Thaddeus, Patrick

1999-01-01

360

ROSAT detection of an X-ray shadow in the 1/4-keV diffuse background in the Draco nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection by the Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) X-ray telescope of a shadow in the 1/4-keV (C-band, 0.1 to 0.284 keV) cosmic diffuse background is reported. The location and morphology of the local minimum in X-rays are in clear agreement with a discrete H I cloud. The shadow is very deep with a minimum level at 50 percent of the surrounding emission; therefore, a minimum of 50 percent of the observed off-cloud flux must originate on the far side of the cloud. The analysis of H I velocity components links the cloud with the Draco nebula (distance of about 600 parsecs); it then follows that there is significant 1/4-keV X-ray emission at large distance (more than 400 parsecs) from the galactic plane along this line of sight. The extent of the distant emission region is uncertain, and if it indicates the existence of a hot galactic corona, it must be patchy in nature.

Snowden, S. L.; Mebold, U.; Hirth, W.; Herbstmeier, U.; Schmitt, J. H. M.

1991-01-01

361

Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-augmented and nonaugmented porous total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Sixty osteoarthritic patients undergoing primary, uncemented total hip arthroplasty were matched for age and weight and randomized into one of four groups with respect to implant coating and postoperative, protected weight-bearing status: group 1, hydroxyapatite-augmented, 12 weeks; group 2, nonaugmented, 12 weeks; group 3, hydroxyapatite-augmented, 6 weeks; and group 4, nonaugmented, 6 weeks. Tantalum spheres were implanted periprosthetically into the femur at the time of the arthroplasty, thus providing constant references for stereoscopic radiographs. Patients were then evaluated over a 2-year period with clinical examination, plain radiography, and roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Clinical evaluation using the Charnley scoring system showed no significant preoperative or postoperative intergroup differences, whereas visual analog testing noted less thigh pain with hydroxyapatite-augmented stems at the 12-week and 6-month follow-up evaluations. Plain radiographic analysis produced no significant differences, with no instability detected, and bony ingrowth was uniform in all groups. Stereographic evaluation showed migration in all groups, but there were no significant differences between the augmented and nonaugmented stems or the 6-week and 12-week partial weight-bearing protocols. Charnley, plain radiographic, and stereogrammetric evaluations all suggest that migration is unaltered by enhanced surfaces and early, unprotected weight bearing does not jeopardize implant fixation regardless of coating design. The lower incidence of visual analog thigh pain with the hydroxyapatite-augmented stems, however, may be a reflection of bony ingrowth and, as such, add some validity to the theoretic advantages of enhanced surface prostheses. PMID:7699376

Ciccotti, M G; Rothman, R H; Hozack, W J; Moriarty, L

1994-12-01

362

Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated porous total hip arthroplasty: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Sixty osteoarthritic patients undergoing primary uncemented total hip arthroplasty were matched for age and weight and randomized into one of four groups with respect to implant coating and postoperative protected weight-bearing status: group 1, hydroxyapatite, 12 weeks; group 2, uncoated, 12 weeks; group 3, hydroxyapatite, 6 weeks; group 4, uncoated, 6 weeks. Tantalum spheres were implanted periprosthetically into the femur at the time of arthroplasty, thus providing constant references for stereoscopic radiographs. Patients were then evaluated over a 1-year period with clinical examination, plain radiography, and roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Clinical evaluation using Charnley scoring showed no significant preoperative or postoperative intergroup differences, whereas visual analog testing noted less thigh pain with hydroxyapatite-coated stems at 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Plain radiographic analysis produced no significant differences, with no instability detected and bony ingrowth noted uniformly in all groups. The preliminary stereographic evaluation showed migration in all groups, but there were no significant differences between coated and uncoated stems or 6-week and 12-week partial weightbearing protocols. The Charnley, plain radiographic, and preliminary stereogrammetric evaluations all suggest that migration is unaltered by enhanced surfaces and that early unprotected weightbearing does not jeopardize implant fixation regardless of coating design. The lower incidence of visual analog thigh pain with the hydroxyapatite-coated stems, however, may be a reflection of bony ingrowth and as such add some validity to the theoretical advantages of enhanced surface prostheses. PMID:10149615

Ciccotti, M G; Rothman, R H; Veress, S A; Hozack, W J; Moriarty, L; Beight, J

1991-10-01

363

Rheumatoid (Marie-Strumpell) spondylitis; technique of examination and importance of the costal joints.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid spondylitis in the early prodromal stage may present a complex and obscure clinical picture making diagnosis difficult. It is in this early stage that roentgen examination of the small joints of the spine will often aid in or lead to the correct diagnosis of the disease in which the classical clinical symptoms and roentenographic findings in the sacroiliac fissure have not appeared and may never appear. The changes in these small joints, particularly in the costovertebral and costotransverse joints, are less obvious and require experienced and careful interpretation, but it is to these that the roentgenologist must direct his attention if he is to be of assistance in early diagnosis. A technical procedure for this examination is presented, along with a discussion of the clinical importance of changes at this site. Demonstration of involvement of the sacroiliac joints is of diagnostic importance, but this finding is no more necessary to the diagnosis of rheumatoid spondylitis than is involvement of any other single joint of the spine. Insistence on sacroiliac involvement will often result in missed diagnosis, and has led in part to erroneous conclusions as to sex incidence of the disease. PMID:18116229

WILLIAMS, A J

1949-04-01

364

Evaluation of the resolving potency of a novel reconstruction filter on periodontal ligament space with dental cone-beam CT: a quantitative phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis of the alveolar bone condition is important for the treatment planning of periodontal disease. Especially the determination of periodontal ligament space is the most important remark because it represents the periodontal tissue support for tooth retention. However, owing to the image blur of the current cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging technique, the periodontal ligament space is difficult to visualize. In this study, we developed an original periodontal ligament phantom (PLP) and evaluated the image quality of simulated periodontal ligament space using a novel reconstruction filter for CBCT that emphasized high frequency component. PLP was composed from two resin blocks of different materials, the bone equivalent block and the dentine equivalent block. They were assembled to make continuously changing space from 0.0 to 1.0 millimeter that mimics periodontal ligament space. PLP was placed in water and the image was obtained by using Alphard-3030 dental cone-beam CT (Asahi Roentgen Industry Co., Ltd.). Then we reconstructed the projection data with a novel reconstruction filter. The axial images were compared with conventional reconstructed images. In novel filter reconstruction images, 0.4 millimeter of the space width was steadily detected by calculation of pixel value, on the other hand 0.6 millimeter was in conventional images. With our method, the resolving potency of conebeam CT images was improved.

Houno, Yuuki; Hishikawa, Toshimitsu; Gotoh, Ken-ichi; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Kodera, Yoshie

2014-03-01

365

[Étienne Destot (1864-1918): The first radioanatomist in Lyon, France].  

PubMed

Destot was born in Dijon, France, in 1864. He began his education in Burgundy, then he started his preclinical curriculum in Lyon, France, from 1884. He had to leave Lyon, and spent some times in Algeria to treat a tuberculosis. He came back in Lyon as a resident in 1886. Destot worked as an assistant in the laboratory of anatomy of Leo Testut in 1880. His thesis, in 1892, analyzed mortality in the departments of surgery of the Lyon hospitals. The polemical results he presented compromised his surgical career. He went on as prosector by Leo Testut, and then became electrician-physician in 1895 (electrotherapy and galvanotherapy). Étienne Destot of Lyon, France, developed in 1895 the first radiography room ever at the Hôtel-Dieu of Lyon, France. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays in the same year, and Destot felt his discovery could revolutionize the approach of anatomy and traumatology. He studied wrist, ankle and calcaneus fractures, and described a new anatomy: "traumatic anatomy". For example, he focused on the posterior talar surface hollow in posterior tarsus fractures. He proposed the term of "thalamus" for this articular surface; this term is nowadays widely used by the clinicians. He introduced the term of "third malleolus" to describe the posterior part of the distal extremity of the tibia. He was the first author to analyze the normal and pathological movements of the scaphoid bone and the lunatum in wrist extension. PMID:24646447

Viard, B; Trost, O; Trouilloud, P; Salomon, C

2014-03-01

366

Reduced effects of thyroid hormone on gene expression and metamorphosis in a paedomorphic plethodontid salamander.  

PubMed

It has been over a century since Gudernatsch (1912, Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwickl Mech Org 35:457-483) demonstrated that mammalian thyroid gland extracts can stimulate tadpole metamorphosis. Despite the tremendous developmental diversity of amphibians, mechanisms of metamorphosis have mostly been studied in a few model systems. This limits our understanding of the processes that influence the evolution of developmental aberrations. Here we isolated thyroid hormone receptors alpha (TR?) and beta (TR?) from Oklahoma salamanders (Eurycea tynerensis), which exhibit permanently aquatic (paedomorphic) or biphasic (metamorphic) developmental modes in different populations. We found that TR? and TR? were upregulated by thyroid hormone (T3 ) in tail tissues of larvae from metamorphic populations, but basal levels of TR expression and T3 responsiveness were reduced in larvae from paedomorphic populations. Likewise, we found that T3 treatment resulted in complete loss of larval epibranchials in larvae from metamorphic populations, but little to no epibranchial remodeling occurred in larvae from paedomorphic populations over the same duration. This is the first study to directly demonstrate reduced gene expression and metamorphic responses to T3 in a paedomorphic plethodontid compared to metamorphic conspecifics, and the first salamander system to show differential expression of thyroid hormone receptors associated with alternative developmental patterns. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 322B: 294-303, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24890624

Aran, Robert P; Steffen, Michael A; Martin, Samuel D; Lopez, Olivia I; Bonett, Ronald M

2014-07-01

367

Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?  

PubMed

A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton. PMID:19220191

Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

2009-02-16

368

[Karl Jaspers. 100 years of “Allgemeine Psychopathologie” (General Psychopathology)].  

PubMed

With his "Allgemeine Psychopathologie" (general psychopathology) published in 1913, Karl Jaspers laid a comprehensive methodological and systematic foundation in psychiatry. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced "static understanding" into psychopathology, i.e. the unprejudiced reproduction of conscious phenomena. From the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey he further adopted the distinction between causal understanding as a means of accessing nature and pathological processes and hermeneutic understanding, also called genetic understanding, as a way of accessing mental phenomena. The intrusion of an event that is incomprehensible in terms of an understandable development is seen as indicating an extraconscious phenomenon or transition to a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early in his life. After quitting law studies he graduated in medicine, arrived in psychopathology without any psychiatric training, to psychology without ever studying psychology and to a chair in philosophy without a degree in philosophy. Despite believing himself to be chronically ill and to die early, Jaspers produced a life’s work almost immeasurable in scope. He died in 1969 aged 86 years. PMID:24121445

Häfner, H

2013-11-01

369

Previously Unrecognized Large Lunar Impact Basins Revealed by Topographic Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of a large population of apparently buried impact craters on Mars, revealed as Quasi- Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [1,2,3] and as Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) [4] in crustal thickness model data [5] leads to the obvious question: are there unrecognized impact features on the Moon and other bodies in the solar system? Early analysis of Clementine topography revealed several large impact basins not previously known [6,7], so the answer certainly is "Yes." How large a population of previously undetected impact basins, their size frequency distribution, and how much these added craters and basins will change ideas about the early cratering history and Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon remains to be determined. Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data [8] will be able to address these issues. As a prelude, we searched the state-of-the-art global topographic grid for the Moon, the Unified Lunar Control Net (ULCN) [9] for evidence of large impact features not previously recognized by photogeologic mapping, as summarized by Wilhelms [lo].

Frey, Herbert V.

2008-01-01

370

Stephan Mueller (1930”1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stephan Mueller, professor emeritus at the Institute of Geophysics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich and highly respected leader of international geoscience, died February 17, 1997. His untimely death, due to pneumonia following intestinal surgery, came just 18 months after his retirement from the ETH Chair of Geophysics and Directorship of the Swiss Seismological Service. He is survived by his wife, Doris, two sons, and six grandchildren. Mueller received a diploma in physics at the University of Stuttgart in 1957 and an M.S. in electrical engineering from Columbia University in New York in 1959. As an undergraduate at Stuttgart, he was influenced by seismologist Wilhelm Hillerand geophysics quickly became his major academic and career objective. After receiving a 1954-1955 German Academic Interchange Scholarship at Columbia, Mueller sought out Maurice Ewing and his group at Lamont Geological Observatory, where Mueller's enthusiasm for geophysics was strongly encouraged. While at Lamont, he participated in the first U.S. deep-sea geophysical expedition in the Mediterranean Sea during the summer of 1956 aboard the RV Vema.

Olsen, Kenneth H.; Ansorge, Joerg

371

The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.  

PubMed

After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education. PMID:10650563

Danto, E A

1999-01-01

372

[Pure autonomic failure and acetylcholine: historical and current aspects].  

PubMed

Abstract The discovery of acetylcholine was closely related to research on the autonomic nervous system. At the onset of the twentieth century, John Newport Langley (1852-1925), a patriarch of modern autonomic research, classified the autonomic nervous system into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteral systems, proposed the concept of preganglionic and postganglionic autonomic nerves, and suggested the presence of a "receptive substance" allowing the interaction of postganglionic nerve terminals and effector visceral organs. Around the same time, Henry Hallett Dale (1875-1968) revealed the pharmacological properties of acetylcholine, and he and his colleague, Wilhelm Feldberg (1900-1993), demonstrated that acetylcholine acts as a mediator of nerve impulses across nerve junctions (synapses) between nerves (sympathetic ganglia), and between the vagus nerve and heart (parasympathetic nerve terminals). On the other hand, Bradbury and Eggleston first described 3 patients with orthostatic hypotension in 1925, introducing the term "idiopathic orthostatic hypotension". However, this term was used loosely. Therefore, Roger Bannister proposed "pure autonomic failure" as the term for idiopathic orthostatic hypotension without other neurological symptoms. Recently, autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy associated with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies has attracted attention as a differential diagnosis of pure autonomic failure, which is characterized by Lewy body pathology. PMID:24807370

Asahina, Masato

2014-05-01

373

Xanthophyll synthesis in diatoms: quantification of putative intermediates and comparison of pigment conversion kinetics with rate constants derived from a model.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the presence of the violaxanthin-antheraxanthin-zeaxanthin cycle in diatoms, and showed that violaxanthin is the putative precursor of both diadinoxanthin and fucoxanthin in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (M. Lohr and C. Wilhelm, 1999, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 8784-8789). In the present study, two possible intermediates in the synthesis of violaxanthin from beta-carotene were identified in P. tricornutum, namely beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin epoxide. In low light, the latter pigment prevails, but in high light beta-cryptoxanthin accumulates, probably as the result of an increased activity of the xantophyll-cycle de-epoxidase. The apparent kinetics of several xanthophyll conversion steps were determined for P. tricornutum and Cyclotella meneghiniana Kuitzing. The experimentally determined conversion rates were used to evaluate the hypothetical pathway of xanthophyll synthesis in diatoms. For this purpose a mathematical model was developed which allows the calculation of theoretical rates of pigment conversion for microalgae under steady-state growth conditions. A comparison between measured and calculated conversion rates agreed well with the proposal of a sequential synthesis of fucoxanthin via violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin. The postulation of zeaxanthin as an obligatory intermediate in the synthesis of violaxanthin, however, resulted in large discrepancies between the measured and calculated rates of its epoxidation. Instead of zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin epoxide may be involved in the biosynthesis of violaxanthin in diatoms. PMID:11289603

Lohr, M; Wilhelm, C

2001-02-01

374

A Nation Emerges: Sixty-five Years of Photography in Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Getty Research Library at the Getty Institute has over 600 digitized images of Mexico from its special collections by Mexican, American, and European photographers in a multitude of photographic formats. The earliest is from 1857, and these photographic images document the history of the nation from different perspectives. To get acquainted with a timeline of Mexico starting in 1810 and going through 1923, visitors should click on "Chronology" on the right hand side of the page. Throughout the chronology are photos and brief descriptions that can be viewed in more depth if users click on "View Full Record", beneath the photo. An extremely helpful and interesting glossary of terms and names can be viewed if visitors click on "Glossary" on the left hand side of the page. The "Glossary" contains the definitions of particular types of photographic images, or processes, as well as explanations of the many ethnic groups that inhabited Mexico at one time or another. Another very interesting section to peruse is of the "Photographers", which is also accessible on the left hand side of the page. With three-dozen photographers to read about including Wilhelm Kahlo, Frida Kahlo's father, visitors will find that some photographers made postcards from the images taken of the revolution in northern Mexico.

375

Subsurface density mapping of the earth with cosmic ray muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its original discovery by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen in 1895, one of the directions of researchers pursued was an application of x-ray radiography to larger objects, while the advent of high voltage x-ray tubes allowed radiographs of industrial objects to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In spite of the great motivation we have to survey the earth's interior, we now know that x rays are not sufficiently penetrative to successfully target geophysical objects. Our current knowledge about the cross sections of the muon with matter solves the problem about this x-ray's inspectable size limit. These particles do not interact strongly with matter, and those with relativistic momentum travel long distances penetrating deep into rock. By tracking the ray paths of the muon after passing through the object, the method gives researchers the ability to study the earth in new ways. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing the earth's interior with muons.

Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

2013-10-01

376

Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

2010-12-01

377

Wundt contested: The first crisis declaration in psychology.  

PubMed

When reflecting on the history and the present situation of their field, psychologists have often seen their discipline as being in a critical state. The first author to warn of a crisis was, in 1897, the now scarcely known philosopher Rudolf Willy. He saw a crisis in psychology resulting, firstly, from a profuse branching out of psychology. Adopting a radical empiriocriticist point of view, he, secondly, made the metaphysical stance of scholars like Wilhelm Wundt responsible for the crisis. Meanwhile, the priest Constantin Gutberlet responded to the claim of crisis arguing, on the contrary, that the crisis resulted from research that was empirical only. Throughout the discipline psychologists felt troubled by a widespread sense of fragmentation in the field. I will argue that this is due to psychology's early social success and popularization in modern society. Moreover the paper shows that the first declaration of crisis emerged at a time when a discussion of fundamentals was already underway between Wundt and the empiriocriticist Richard Avenarius. The present historical research reveals the depth of the confrontation between Wundt and Willy, entailing a clash of two worldviews that embrace psychological, epistemological, and political aspects. PMID:22520192

Mülberger, Annette

2012-06-01

378

[Hermann Lebert (1813-1878): natural scientist, spa doctor, histopathologist and clinician in Switzerland, France and Germany].  

PubMed

H. Lebert was in many ways an extraordinary personality. He began is career as a scientist performing experimental research in botany and zoology. After a short period as a spa doctor--work he approached on a scientific basis--he performed one of the first microscopic tissue analyses, as well as writing two significant works with a wealth of pictures on pathophysiology and histopathology, thereby paving the way for cellular pathology. In addition to general problems relating to inflammation, he concentrated on tumors and tuberculosis. He was one of the first to recommend pre-operative histology, making him a pioneer of biopsy diagnostics.As a clinician he worked in nearly all areas of internal medicine, including neurology, and published a large number of monographs, of which the first German monograph on acute articular rheumatism was one. Rheumatology played a considerable role in both his histopathological and clinical activities.Of particular interest is the fact that Lebert frequently travelled between Switzerland, France and Germany and was applauded in all three as a great scientist, as awards from both Napoleon III and the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV can testify. PMID:20213086

Kaiser, H

2010-07-01

379

A reality check on Hardy-Weinberg.  

PubMed

G. H. Hardy (1877-1947) and Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) had very different lives, but in the minds of geneticists, the two are inextricably linked through the ownership of an apparently simple law called the Hardy-Weinberg law. We demonstrate that the simplicity is more apparent than real. Hardy derived the well-known trio of frequencies {q 2, 2pq, p 2} with a concise demonstration, whereas for Weinberg it was the prelude to an ingenious examination of the inheritance of twinning in man. Hardy's recourse to an identity relating to the distribution of types among offspring following random mating, rather than an identity relating to the mating matrix, may be the reason why he did not realize that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can be reached and sustained with non-random mating. The phrase 'random mating' always comes up in reference to the law. The elusive nature of this phrase is part of the reason for the misunderstandings that occur but also because, as we explain, mathematicians are able to use it in a different way from the man-in-the-street. We question the unthinking appeal to random mating as a model and explanation of the distribution of genotypes even when they are close to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Such sustained proportions are possible under non-random mating. PMID:23769204

Stark, Alan E; Seneta, Eugene

2013-08-01

380

Neurocognitive mechanisms of individual differences in face cognition: A replication and extension.  

PubMed

Face cognition performance is related to individual differences in cognitive subprocesses, as reflected in the amplitudes and latencies of event-related brain potentials (ERPs; Herzmann, Kunina, Sommer, & Wilhelm, 2010). In order to replicate and extend these findings, 110 participants were tested on a comprehensive task battery measuring face cognition abilities and established cognitive abilities, followed by ERP recordings in a face-learning-and-recognition task. We replicated the links of the ERP components indicating the speed of structural face encoding (N170 latency) and access to structural representations in memory (early repetition effect [ERE]/N250r) with the accuracy and speed of face cognition and with established cognitive abilities. As a novel result, we differentiated between the accuracy of face perception and face memory on the behavioral and electrophysiological levels and report a relationship between basic visual processes (P100 amplitude) and face memory. Moreover, the brain-behavior relationships for the ERE/N250r held true, even though we eliminated pictorial and perceptual structural codes from the priming effects by using backward masking of the primes with novel unfamiliar faces. On a methodological level, we demonstrated the utility of the latent difference score modeling technique to parameterize ERP difference components (e.g., ERE/N250r) on a latent level and link them to face cognition abilities. PMID:24379165

Kaltwasser, Laura; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Wilhelm, Oliver; Sommer, Werner

2014-06-01

381

The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.  

PubMed

In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. PMID:24650856

Berry, Dominic

2014-06-01

382

Jewish mysticism in romantic medicine? Indirect incorporation of Kabbalistic elements in the work of Gotthilf Heinrich Schubert.  

PubMed

This paper attempts a first outline of an analysis of the connection between the Kabbalah, the tradition of Jewish mysticism, and medicine in the Romantic age. The physician and natural philosopher Gotthilf Heinrich Schubert (1780-1860), a friend and pupil of the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, is chosen as a representative of the era. The political, institutional, and philosophical background at the beginning of the 19th century is outlined to make intelligible the contemporary disposition for mystical ideas. The historical lines of connection between the Kabbalistic tradition and Romantic medical thought as represented by Schubert are investigated, and examples are given for some correspondences of ideas and topics. The specific combination of these topoi, and a multitude of historical lines of connection, primarily through the work of Schelling and the theologian Friedrich Christoph Oetinger, support the hypothesis that Schubert was indirectly influenced by ideas from the Kabbalah. Finally, the history of the reception of Romantic medicine is sketched, with special regard to those strands that are likely to have incorporated elements from the Jewish mystical tradition. PMID:11619479

Roelcke, V

1994-01-01

383

Morphology and distribution of Müller cells in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that an antibody against neuron-specific enolase (NSE) selectively labels Müller cells (MCs) in the anuran retina (Wilhelm et al. 1992). In the present study the light- and electron-microscopic morphology of MCs and their distribution were described in the retina of the toad, Bufo marinus, using the above antibody. The somata of MCs were located in the proximal part of the inner nuclear layer and were interconnected with each other by their processes. The MCs were uniformly distributed across the retina with an average density of 1500 cells/mm2. Processes of MCs encircled the somata of photoreceptor cells isolating them from each other by glial sheath, except for those of the double cones. Some of the photoreceptor pedicles remained free of glial sheath. Electron-microscopic observations confirmed that MC processes provide an extensive scaffolding across the neural retina. At the outer border of the ganglion cell layer these processes formed a non-continuous sheath. The MC processes traversed through the ganglion cell layer and spread beneath it between the neuronal somata and the underlying optic axons. These processes formed a continuous inner limiting membrane separating the optic fibre layer from the vitreous tissue. Neither astrocytic nor oligodendrocytic elements were found in the optic fibre layer. The significance of the uniform MC distribution and the functional implications of the observed pattern of MC scaffolding are discussed. PMID:8481951

Gábriel, R; Wilhelm, M; Straznicky, C

1993-04-01

384

From Gauß to Biermann: Highlights from the first 117 years of publications in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present facsimiles of some of the scientifically and historically most relevant papers published in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes (AN) between 1821 and 1938. Almost all of these papers were written and printed in German and it is sometimes not completely straightforward to find these original works and then to cite the historically correct version, e.g. in case of a series of articles or editorial letters. It was common during the early years that many contributions were made in form of letters to the editor. We present a summary for these original works with an English translation of their titles. Among the highlights are the originals of the discovery of stellar parallaxes by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, the discovery of the solar cycle by Heinrich Schwabe, the discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle, the first ever measured stellar radial velocity by Hermann Vogel, the discovery of radio emission from the Sun by Wilsing and Scheiner, the first ever conducted photoelectric photometry of stars by Paul Guthnick and up to the pioneering work by Karl Schwarzschild, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and others. As a particular gimmick we present the still world record holding shortest paper ever published; by Johannes Hartmann in AN 226, 63 (1926) on Nova Pictoris. Our focus is on contributions in the early years and published until 1938 near the verge of the second world war.

von Berlepsch, R.; Strassmeier, K. G.

2009-06-01

385

A Novel Metabolite from Aspergillus ochraceus JGI 25 Showing Cytotoxicity to Hela Cells.  

PubMed

This study aims at the isolation of filamentous fungi, extraction of metabolites, and evaluation of the cytotoxic properties on HeLa cells and normal human lymphocytes. We isolated fungi from the soil by serial dilution method. One of the isolates was chosen and identified as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm (Trichocomaceae) by standard techniques. The metabolites were extracted using methanol. Different concentrations of the extract were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity on HeLa cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the safety of the extract was checked on normal human lymphocytes. The extract was purified by chromatographic techniques like thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. The extract showed significant cytotoxic potential on HeLa cells at low concentrations with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of <50 ?g/ml. The extract gave 10 fractions by thin layer chromatography, and fraction B had higher toxicity than the rest. This fraction gave a single peak by high-performance liquid chromatography and had a mass-to-charge ratio of 905.65, which did not match any of the earlier known fungal metabolites or metabolites from other strains of A. ochraceus. The metabolite from A. ochraceus is alkaloid in nature, cytotoxic to HeLa cells, and appears to be a novel with anticancer potentials, which could be explored further for characterization of the active component. PMID:24403650

Nadumane, Varalakshmi K; Venkat, Prerana; Pal, Anamika; Dharod, H; Shukla, Megha; Prashanthi, K

2013-09-01

386

A Novel Metabolite from Aspergillus ochraceus JGI 25 Showing Cytotoxicity to Hela Cells  

PubMed Central

This study aims at the isolation of filamentous fungi, extraction of metabolites, and evaluation of the cytotoxic properties on HeLa cells and normal human lymphocytes. We isolated fungi from the soil by serial dilution method. One of the isolates was chosen and identified as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm (Trichocomaceae) by standard techniques. The metabolites were extracted using methanol. Different concentrations of the extract were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity on HeLa cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the safety of the extract was checked on normal human lymphocytes. The extract was purified by chromatographic techniques like thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. The extract showed significant cytotoxic potential on HeLa cells at low concentrations with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of <50 ?g/ml. The extract gave 10 fractions by thin layer chromatography, and fraction B had higher toxicity than the rest. This fraction gave a single peak by high-performance liquid chromatography and had a mass-to-charge ratio of 905.65, which did not match any of the earlier known fungal metabolites or metabolites from other strains of A. ochraceus. The metabolite from A. ochraceus is alkaloid in nature, cytotoxic to HeLa cells, and appears to be a novel with anticancer potentials, which could be explored further for characterization of the active component.

Nadumane, Varalakshmi K.; Venkat, Prerana; Pal, Anamika; Dharod, H.; Shukla, Megha; Prashanthi, K.

2013-01-01

387

Delay discounting in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats: steady-state and rapid-determination adjusting-amount procedures.  

PubMed

Lewis rats have been shown to make more impulsive choices than Fischer 344 rats in discrete-trial choice procedures that arrange fixed (i.e., nontitrating) reinforcement parameters. However, nontitrating procedures yield only gross estimates of preference, as choice measures in animal subjects are rarely graded at the level of the individual subject. The present study was designed to examine potential strain differences in delay discounting using an adjusting-amount procedure, in which distributed (rather than exclusive) choice is observed due to dynamic titration of reinforcer magnitude across trials. Using a steady-state version of the adjusting-amount procedure in which delay was manipulated between experimental conditions, steeper delay discounting was observed in Lewis rats compared to Fischer 344 rats; further, delay discounting in both strains was well described by the traditional hyperbolic discounting model. However, upon partial completion of the present study, a study published elsewhere (Wilhelm & Mitchell, 2009) demonstrated no difference in delay discounting between these strains with the use of a more rapid version of the adjusting-amount procedure (i.e., in which delay is manipulated daily). Thus, following completion of the steady-state assessment in the present study, all surviving Lewis and Fischer 344 rats completed an approximation of this rapid-determination procedure in which no strain difference in delay discounting was observed. PMID:22693360

Stein, Jeffrey S; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Brewer, Adam T; Francisco, Monica T; Madden, Gregory J

2012-05-01

388

Moral lesson from American eugenics movement and Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>epilogue The lesson of eugenics The state shouldn't make genetic decisions. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.

2008-10-06

389

Doctors preforming euthanasia, Muller-Hill and WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Benno Muller-Hill, James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>in the third reich>epilogue They couldn't see anything wrong German psychiatrists and doctors learned about euthanasia in medical school and, so, saw nothing wrong with it. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.

2008-10-06

390

A Marble Embryo: Meanings of a Portrait from 1900  

PubMed Central

Portraits of scientists use attributes of discovery to construct identities; portraits that include esoteric accessories may fashion identities for these too. A striking example is a marble bust of the anatomist Wilhelm His by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner. Made in 1900, it depicts the founder of modern human embryology looking down at a model embryo in his right hand. This essay reconstructs the design and viewing of this remarkable portrait in order to shed light on private and public relations between scientists, research objects and audiences. The bust came out of a collaboration to model the face of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach and embodies a shared commitment to anatomical exactitude in three dimensions. His’s research agendas and public character explain the contemplative pose and unprecedented embryo model, which he had laboriously constructed from material a midwife supplied. The early contexts of display in the His home and art exhibitions suggest interpretive resources for viewers and hence likely meanings. Seffner’s work remains exceptional, but has affinities to portraits of human embryologists and embryos produced since 1960. Embryo images have acquired such controversial prominence that the model may engage us more strongly now than it did exhibition visitors around 1900.

Hopwood, Nick

2012-01-01

391

Geodetic documents in the Gotha library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until 1800, there existed only rough maps in the dukedoms Gotha-Altenburg and Weimar based on a net of geographical positions measured by simple instruments. After Franz Xaver von Zach had made his first astronomical observations to determine geographical coordinates he realised that these old maps had an accuracy of at best some minutes of arc. The king of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm III (1797-1840), asked Zach in October 1802 to accept the direction of the measurement of the territories around Erfurt and the Eichsfeld. In this situation it was obvious for Zach to consider a survey of Thuringia and a great measurement of degree similar to the French model. His ideas were promoted by the duke of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Ernst II (1772-1804). Zach planned to perform his survey in four degrees of latitude and six degrees of longitude with respect to the Seeberg observatory. The measurements had to cross over the borderlines of several countries. The documents in the Forschungs- and Landesbibliothek prove that the diplomatic preparations for the survey got on until the end of 1803. Zach obtained passports and grants to pass and to survey some territories (Hessen-Kassel, Hannover, Coburg-Saalfeld, Braunschweig, Sachsen). Their governments had exchanged diplomatic notes on this topic. The death of Ernst II in 1804, the consequences of the war (battle of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806) and Zach's resignation as director of the Seeberg observatory led to the end of the survey.

Hopf, Cornelia; Schwarz, Oliver

392

Mycotoxin production by molds isolated from 'Greek-style' black olives.  

PubMed

Seventeen mold strains were isolated from 'Greek-style' black olives produced in Morocco. Eight of these isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavus, seven as Aspergillus petrakii, and two as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm. The A. flavus strains were tested for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; and A. ochraceus and A. petrakii strains were tested for production of ochratoxin, penicillic acid, patulin, and citrinin. The organisms were tested for mycotoxin production on five different substrates, including rice powder-corn steep agar, autoclaved rice, yeast-extract sucrose broth (YES), potato dextrose agar (PDA), and fresh olive paste. All strains of A. flavus produced aflatoxins on all substrates except olive paste and PDA. In PDA, only two strains produced Aflatoxin B1. Five A. ochraceus group isolates produced penicillic acid on one or more of the substrates, but only two out of the five produced penicillic acid on olive paste. None produced ochratoxin, patulin or citrinin. Quantities of aflatoxin B1 produced in rice ranged from 5 to 14 micrograms/g of rice, and of penicillic acid 15-32 micrograms/g of rice. In olive paste, the concentrations of penicillic acid were 11.4 and 30.2 micrograms/g. Biological toxicity of extracts of mold cultures was confirmed using chicken embryos and a microbiological test. Crude extracts of cultures were also tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) Test, and some gave positive mutagenic responses. PMID:3079463

Gourama, H; Bullerman, L B

1988-02-01

393

Physics & The Detection of Medical X-Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Wilhelm Conrad RÃÂöntgen, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist were alive today, he would most likely heartily approve of this very informative and well-designed site dealing with the detection of medical x-rays. This site was created by the Physics Education Research Group at Kansas State University and it serves as a good introduction to the science behind the discovery and subsequent use of x-rays in a variety of medical settings. The site starts with a brief discussion of RÃÂöntgen's initial discovery of x-rays, and then goes on to offer a brief history of radiology. After that, visitors can learn about different detection methods, including the use of fluorescence film. One feature of the site that is most useful is the inclusion of links to other relevant sites that cover such topics as the concept of an x-ray dose and reduction measures. Overall, the site will be very welcome for beginning students of radiology and medical technology.

394

Explaining History. Hippolyte Taine's Philosophy of Historical Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historians of European historiography have often characterized Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893) as an adherent of the positivist school of thought, typical for the development of a scientific culture in Western Europe that differed from its German counterpart.1 In accordance with that view, Wilhelm Dilthey grouped him together with other scholars like John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer against who Dilthey tried to develop his conception of the human sciences based on the notion of "verstehen" (see Dilthey [1924] 1957, 139ff.). Dilthey understood Taine as proposing to analyze the human mind by identifying its individual components and then explaining their meaning by laws of their relation. He argued that such an approach might be adequate for the natural sciences, but neglected the fact that an analysis of the mind had to start from a given psychological connection that was prior to any definition of particular phenomena. From Dilthey's point of view, applying Taine's theory to historical studies only made them look more objective while actually Taine was unaware of just following the prevailing convictions of his time (idem, 191f.).

Müller, Philipp

395

George A. Kolstad (1919-1996)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

George A. Kolstad, creator and leader of the U.S. Department of Energy's Geosciences Research Program, died of an aneurysm August 7, 1996, in Baltimore, Md. He is survived by Chris, his wife of 52 years, three children, Martha Rae Kolstad Wilhelm of Grinnell, Iowa, Charles D. Kolstad of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Peter K. Kolstad, of Los Angeles, Calif., and four grandchildren. George is also survived by three brothers and a sister.George was born in Elmira, N.Y., on December 10, 1919. Following high school graduation in 1937, he worked at Eastman Kodak while enrolled in night courses at the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester. He entered Bates College in 1939 and completed his B.S. in physics and mathematics in 1943. During World War II, he worked on piezo-electricity, radar countermeasures, and information flow from radar systems in combat environments. Following his Ph.D. in physics at Yale and brief service on the faculty there, he joined the Atomic Energy Commission in 1950. He began a career of fostering and nurturing basic research efforts, first in physics and mathematics, and then in the geosciences. He was a guest staff member at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen, in 1956-1957, and served as a trustee of Bates College from 1958 to 1964.

Luth, W.; Heiken, G.; Weill, D.; Wang, H.; Gilbert, C.; Mitterer, R.; Duba, A.; Goldstein, N.

396

Secular perihelion advances of the inner planets and asteroid Icarus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small effect expected from a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al., 2013) is used to explain the remaining secular perihelion advance rates of the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and the asteroid (1566) Icarus-after taking into account the disturbances related to Newton’s Theory of Gravity. Such a rate was discovered by Le Verrier (1859) for Mercury and calculated by Einstein (1915, 1916) in the framework of his General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Accurate observations are now available for the inner Solar System objects with different orbital parameters. This is important, because it allowed us to demonstrate that the quantitative amount of the deviation from an 1/r potential is-under certain conditions-only dependent on the specific mass distribution of the Sun and not on the characteristics of the orbiting objects and their orbits. A displacement of the effective gravitational from the geometric centre of the Sun by about 4400 m towards each object is consistent with the observations and explains the secular perihelion advance rates.

Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

2014-08-01

397

Dynamics of the Spin Liquid Phase of Cs2CuCl4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a spin-liquid phase of an antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice and in a magnetic field are studied with a combination of Gutzwiller-projected wavefunctions and mean-field theory. Candidate ground states that support fermionic gapless spinon excitations include four different U(1) spin liquidsootnotetextY. Zhou, X. G. Wen, cond-mat/0210662 (2003).. The lattice and the states interpolate between limiting cases of 1D decoupled chains (J/J^' = 0) and the isotropic 2D square lattice (J/J^'= ?). Parameters of the mean field theory are chosen to minimize the ground state energy of the corresponding Gutzwiller-projected wavefunction. The spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1, calculated within the mean-field approximation, is compared to NMR measurementsootnotetextM. A. Vachon, O. Ma, J. B. Marston, V. F. Mitrovi'c, unpublished (2007). in the spin liquid phase of Cs2CuCl4ootnotetextY. Tokiwa, T. Radu, R. Coldea, H. Wilhelm, Z. Tylczynski, F. Steglich, PRB 73, 134414 (2006)..

Ma, Ookie; Vachon, Marc-Andre; Mitrovi{?}, Vesna F.; Marston, Brad

2008-03-01

398

The negative impact of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

A decline in ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20–48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ?30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/? or DLD+/? littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on “in-house” mitochondrial ATP reserves.—Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.

Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

2013-01-01

399

The coherent structure of turbulent mixing layers. I. Similarity of the primary vortex structure. II. Secondary streamwise vortex structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary spanwise organized vortex structure and the secondary streamwise vortex structure of turbulent mixing layers have been investigated. Flow visualization motion pictures of a constant density mixing layer were used to measure the properties of the large scale vortices. It was found that after an initial transition region mean properties of the large scale vortices reach the expected linear growth with downstream distance required by similarity. In the self-similar region, the vortex core area and visual thickness increase continuously during its life-span. A theoretical model of probability distribution function for the large-scale vortex circulation was developed. This distribution is found to be lognormal and to have a standard deviation, normalized with the mean of 0.28. From this model the mean life-span of the vortices could also be obtained and was found to be 0.67 times the mean life-span position. The streamwise streak pattern observed by Konrad (1976) and Breidenthal (1978) in plan-view pictures of the mixing layer was investigated, using flow visualization and spanwise concentration measurements. It was confirmed that this pattern is the result of a secondary vortex structure dominated by streamwise, counterrotating vortices. A detailed description of its spatial relation to the primary, spanwise vortex structure is presented. From time average flow pictures, the onset position and initial scale of the secondary structures were determined. From concentration measurements, spanwise variations in mean properties, resulting from the secondary structure, were found. This also showed an increase of the spanwise scale with downstream distance and the existence of the streamwise vortices in the fully developed turbulent region. In this region the mean spacing is found approximately equal to the vorticity thickness.

Bernal, Luis Paulino

400

Visual Recognition of Age Class and Preference for Infantile Features: Implications for Species-Specific vs Universal Cognitive Traits in Primates  

PubMed Central

Despite not knowing the exact age of individuals, humans can estimate their rough age using age-related physical features. Nonhuman primates show some age-related physical features; however, the cognitive traits underlying their recognition of age class have not been revealed. Here, we tested the ability of two species of Old World monkey, Japanese macaques (JM) and Campbell's monkeys (CM), to spontaneously discriminate age classes using visual paired comparison (VPC) tasks based on the two distinct categories of infant and adult images. First, VPCs were conducted in JM subjects using conspecific JM stimuli. When analyzing the side of the first look, JM subjects significantly looked more often at novel images. Based on analyses of total looking durations, JM subjects looked at a novel infant image longer than they looked at a familiar adult image, suggesting the ability to spontaneously discriminate between the two age classes and a preference for infant over adult images. Next, VPCs were tested in CM subjects using heterospecific JM stimuli. CM subjects showed no difference in the side of their first look, but looked at infant JM images longer than they looked at adult images; the fact that CMs were totally naïve to JMs suggested that the attractiveness of infant images transcends species differences. This is the first report of visual age class recognition and a preference for infant over adult images in nonhuman primates. Our results suggest not only species-specific processing for age class recognition but also the evolutionary origins of the instinctive human perception of baby cuteness schema, proposed by the ethologist Konrad Lorenz.

Lemasson, Alban; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Masataka, Nobuo

2012-01-01

401

Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenland ice core from NorthGRIP (NGRIP) contains a proxy climate record across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary of unprecedented clarity and resolution. Analysis of an array of physical and chemical parameters within the ice enables the base of the Holocene, as reflected in the first signs of climatic warming at the end of the Younger Dryas/Greenland Stadial 1 cold phase, to be located with a high degree of precision. This climatic event is most clearly reflected in an abrupt shift in deuterium excess values, accompanied by more gradual changes in ^18O, dust concentration, a range of chemical species, and annual layer thickness. A timescale based on multi-parameter annual layer counting provides an age of 11,700 calendar yr b2k (before AD 2000) for the base of the Holocene, with a maximum counting error of 99 yr. A proposal that an archived core from this unique sequence should constitute the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period) has been ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences. The results have been published in Journal of Quaternary Science vol. 24(1), pp. 3-17, 2009 by an author team consisting of Mike Walker, Sigfus Johnsen, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Trevor Popp, Jørgen-Peder Steffensen, Phil Gibbard, Wim Hoek, John Lowe, John Andrews, Svante Björck, Les C. Cwynar, Konrad Hughen, Peter Kershaw, Bernd Kromer, Thomas Litt, David J. Lowe, Takeshi Nakagawa, Rewi Newnham, and Jakob Schwander. The poster presents the definition and the underlying data.

Rasmussen, S. O.

2009-04-01

402

On the performances of different IMRT treatment planning systems for selected paediatric cases  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the performance of seven different TPS (Treatment Planning Systems: Corvus, Eclipse, Hyperion, KonRad, Oncentra Masterplan, Pinnacle and PrecisePLAN) when intensity modulated (IMRT) plans are designed for paediatric tumours. Methods Datasets (CT images and volumes of interest) of four patients were used to design IMRT plans. The tumour types were: one extraosseous, intrathoracic Ewing Sarcoma; one mediastinal Rhabdomyosarcoma; one metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma of the anus; one Wilm's tumour of the left kidney with multiple liver metastases. Prescribed doses ranged from 18 to 54.4 Gy. To minimise variability, the same beam geometry and clinical goals were imposed on all systems for every patient. Results were analysed in terms of dose distributions and dose volume histograms. Results For all patients, IMRT plans lead to acceptable treatments in terms of conformal avoidance since most of the dose objectives for Organs At Risk (OARs) were met, and the Conformity Index (averaged over all TPS and patients) ranged from 1.14 to 1.58 on primary target volumes and from 1.07 to 1.37 on boost volumes. The healthy tissue involvement was measured in terms of several parameters, and the average mean dose ranged from 4.6 to 13.7 Gy. A global scoring method was developed to evaluate plans according to their degree of success in meeting dose objectives (lower scores are better than higher ones). For OARs the range of scores was between 0.75 ± 0.15 (Eclipse) to 0.92 ± 0.18 (Pinnacle3 with physical optimisation). For target volumes, the score ranged from 0.05 ± 0.05 (Pinnacle3 with physical optimisation) to 0.16 ± 0.07 (Corvus). Conclusion A set of complex paediatric cases presented a variety of individual treatment planning challenges. Despite the large spread of results, inverse planning systems offer promising results for IMRT delivery, hence widening the treatment strategies for this very sensitive class of patients.

Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Alber, Markus; Asell, Mats; Clivio, Alessandro; Dobler, Barbara; Larsson, Malin; Lohr, Frank; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Muzik, Jan; Polednik, Martin; Vanetti, Eugenio; Wolff, Dirk; Wyttenbach, Rolf; Cozzi, Luca

2007-01-01

403

3D computation of the demagnetizing field in a magnetic material of arbitrary shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fourier Transform technique is used to compute the demagnetizing field in a magnetic material of arbitrary shape. This technique, also known as the "0-padding" algorithm, has already been utilized for cubic or parallelepipedic material (Yuan and Neal, 1992; Yuan, 1992; Berkov et al., 1993; Patterson, 1993; Fabian et al., 1996). It offers preciseness, efficiency and can be parallelized effectively. We have adapted it to materials of arbitrary geometry. The material is placed in a parallelepipedic box containing air called the fictitious domain. The new algorithm has the main quality of the initial one: its efficiency (the number of computations is of order O(N log N) for N mesh elements in the fictitious domain instead of O( N2) for the direct convolution product), with some flexibility in the choice of the material geometry. In this paper, we prove that the algorithm gives the expected result. We present results obtained on the Cray T3E parallel computer for a cube surrounded by air, for reference, and a piece of a magnetic recording head. They are compared to the field computed with the Flux3D software (Imhoff et al., 1990; Brunotte et al., 1992; Chen and Konrad, 1997). They compare qualitatively well everywhere for the cube. For the head, they also compare well except in a thin region including the interface between material and air where the field undergoes a big variation. The field was also calculated in a sphere magnetized uniformly and compared to its analytical value. For a mesh with 32×32×32 elements, the results agree within 0.055% in average over the mesh elements completely inside the sphere. We have noted the presence of peaks near the border inside the sphere.

Bagnérés, Anne; Durbiano, Sophie

2000-07-01

404

BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between astronomers in his days, when his working place at Altona still belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. This paper is followed by a second one by the same author and deals with the correspondence of H. C. Schumacher and H C. Oersted (1777-1851) and shows how intense and diverse their cooperation was. In a subsequent paper, Wolfgang Kokott describes the role of the Astronomisches Jahrbuch (published from 1776 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin), a ranking international publication, with Bode's modest Berlin Observatory serving as a clearinghouse of information originating from virtually all European countries. "Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalisation of Astrophysics" is the title of Theodor Schmidt-Kaler's contribution and presents Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy: establishment of course lectures and a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, stimulations and suggestions for astronomy at high school and for the formation of high school teachers, international organisation, and the planning of a southern observatory. Peter Habison describes the contribution of Leo de Ball (1853-1916, Director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna) to international astronomy. Internationalization in astronomy is also discussed in a following paper by Gudrun Wolfschmidt on the establishment of the Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1863 and finally the International Astronomical Union in 1919. In the second but last paper of the book, Hilmar Duerbeck describes the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere in 1849, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht and Ristenpart, to the middle of the 20th century. The paper also includes the astronomical development at the Universidad Catolica and various international expeditions, which aimed at the observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907. An overview of

Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

2002-12-01

405

Boguslawsky crater, Moon: Geology of the Luna-Glob Landing Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floor of crater Boguslawsky (~95 km in diameter, centered at 72.9S, 43.26E) was selected as the primary landing site for the Russian Luna-Glob mission. Two landing ellipses, 30x15 km each, were chosen on the floor of the crater: Ellipse West is at 72.9S, 41.3E; Ellipse East is at 73.3S, 43.9E. Using high-resolution LROC images, we identified six geologic units within Boguslawsky crater, including smooth plains sp, rolling plains rp, secondary craters sc, a hilly unit hu, the crater wall cw, and the ejecta blanket eb of the 24-km sized crater Boguslawsky D. Units sp, rp, sc, hu, and possibly cw are accessible within the western landing ellipse. The eastern landing ellipse contains units sp, rp, eb, and sc. Based on our crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements and using the lunar production function and chronology of [1], we find Boguslawsky crater formed approximately 4 Ga ago. Because this age was derived from a count area on the western crater wall, which might have been modified by mass wasting, it represents a minimum age, i.e., the crater might be older. Applying the stratigraphy of [2], Bouguslawsky is pre-Nectarian in age, consistent with the age assignment of the geologic map [3]. Our CSFD results indicate that the rolling plains have an absolute model age of about 3.96 Ga old, thus being indistinguishable within the error bars from the CSFD of the Boguslawsky wall. The smooth plains and the ejecta blanket of Boguslawsky D exhibit very similar absolute model ages of 3.77 and 3.74 Ga, respectively. Thus, our ages for the crater floor are somewhat younger than the ages in the geologic map of [3] while Boguslawsky D appears to be older, i.e., it is Imbrian in age and not Eratosthenian as shown in [3]. To assess the safety of the landing ellipses, we studied the distribution of slopes and boulders. Within the two proposed landing sites, we find that the slopes at ~30m base-length are generally less than 5-10 degrees. However, local slopes associated with small impact craters (mostly <500 m diameter) can be up to 45 degrees. Using LRO Diviner data, our thermal model [4] indicates several areas with higher thermal inertia and, thus, rock abundances. However, many of those areas likely can be attributed to temperature differences caused by insufficient topographic correction. However, we found several areas with high rock abundances that are clearly not affected by topography and are associated with the morphologically freshest craters. Manual boulder counts for those areas on LRO NAC images confirm a large number of boulders on the surface. For example, in an area of about 4 km2, we counted more than 16,000 boulders between ~0.5 m and up to 13 m in size around a small crater at the eastern edge of the western landing ellipse. References: [1] Neukum et al. (2001), Space Sci. Rev. 96; [2] Wilhelms (1987) USGS Prof. Paper 1348; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979) USGS I-1162; [4] Bauch et al. (2014), Submitted to PSS.

Hiesinger, Harald; Ivanov, Mikhail; Hendrik Paskert, Jan; Bauch, Karin; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn

2014-05-01

406

X-ray emission from chemically peculiar stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have searched the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) All-Sky Survey (RASS) database at the positions of about 100 magnetic Bp-Ap stars of the helium-strong, helium-weak, silicon, and strontium-chromium subclasses. We detect X-ray sources at the positions of 10 of these stars; in four cases the X-ray emission presumably arises from an early-type companion with a radiatively driven wind, while we believe that the magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) star is the most likely X-ray source (as opposed to a binary companion) in at least three and at most five of the six remaining cases. The helium-strong stars have X-ray emission levels that are characteristic of the luminous OB stars with massive winds (log L(sub x)/L(sub bol) is about -7), whereas the He-weak and Si stars (which generally show no evidence for significant mass loss) have log L(sub x)/L(sub bol) values that can reach as high as about -6. In contrast, we find no convincing evidence that the cooler SrCrEu-type CP stars are intrinsic X-ray sources. We discuss the X-ray and radio emission properties of our sample of CP stars, and argue that both types of emission may be magnetospheric in origin; however, there is clearly not a simple one-to-one correspondence between them, since many of the magnetic stars that are detected radio sources were not detected as X-ray sources in the present survey.

Drake, S. A.; Linsky, J. L.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Rosso, C.

1994-01-01

407

Modeling Atmospheric Depth Effects of the Jovian X-ray Auroras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral emissions from Jupiter have been observed across the photon spectrum including ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths. X-ray emissions with a total power of about 1 GW were observed by the Einstein Observatory, the Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies [Cravens et al. 1995, Kharchenko et al. 1998, Liu and Schultz 1999, Kharchenko et al. 2006, 2008, Hui et al. 2009 and Ozak et al. 2009] have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. Sulfur and oxygen ions in the outer magnetosphere are presumably accelerated by field-aligned potentials up to energies of about 1 MeV per nucleon, before they precipitate into the high latitude atmosphere [Cravens et al. 2003]. Most of the incident ions are stripped from their electrons in collisions with atmospheric neutrals and subsequent charge-transfer collisions of highly-charged ions emit X-ray photons as they de-excite to the ground state. This study presents the results of an ion precipitation Monte Carlo simulation, where X-ray luminosities are determined and atmospheric altitude effects as well as incident angle dependence are considered. Updated cross sections for ionization, charge transfer and stripping collisions are used in the model, as well as an empirical stopping power. The results of this simulation will be compared to the equilibrium charge model presented by Ozak et al. [2009], which found opacity of the atmosphere for the outgoing X-ray photons to be important for the simulated spectrum for incident ion energies greater than a 2 MeV per nucleon. The quenching of long-living metastable oxygen and sulfur ions and their effect for the spectrum will also be analyzed.

Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David; Cravens, Thomas; Kharchenko, Vasili; Hui, Yawei; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

2010-05-01

408

[Endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries as an innovation method of treatment of refractory arterial hypertension. First experience in Russia].  

PubMed

Excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system forms the basis of pathogenesis of essential arterial hypertension (AH). The present work was aimed at evaluating efficacy and safety of endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries in patients with AH refractory AH based on the initial first experience in with using this methodology in the Russian Federation. The interventions were carried out on December 14-15th, 2011 in the first five patients presenting with AH refractory to antihypertensive therapy consisting of three and more drugs in therapeutic doses, one of which was a diuretic. The selection criteria were systolic arterial pressure (SAP) ?160 mm Hg or ?150 mm Hg in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obligatory conditions for selection were the preserved renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ?45 ml/min] and the absence of the secondary form of AH. The procedure of denervation was performed in the conditions of roentgen-operating room using special Medtronic Ardian Simplicity Catheter System™. In all cases we managed to perform bilateral denervation of renal arteries with the radiofrequency effect in not less than 4 zones of each of vessels. Efficacy of each of the effect was registered with due regard for reaching certain temperature and values of impedance. The interventions were not accompanied by the development of any complications either in the area of manipulations or the site of puncture. Neither were there any complications from the side of the cardiovascular or excretory systems of the body. Diurnal monitoring of AP (DMAP) registered a significant decrease in SAP averagely from 174±12 to 145±10 mm Hg three days after the intervention. A persistent antihypertensive effect was confirmed by the DMAP findings one month after denervation - the SAP level averagely amounted to 131±6 mm Hg. Endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries is a safe and efficient method of treatment of AH resistant to multicomponent antihypertensive therapy. PMID:22836328

Danilov, N M; Matchin, Iu G; Chazova, I E

2012-01-01

409

X-ray absorption toward the red quasar 3C 212  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) X-ray spectrum of the z = 1.049 'red quasar' 3C 212 has a strong low-energy cutoff. The spectrum can be fitted with a power law (of energy index 1.4(+0.8, -0.6) with low-energy photoelectric absorption in excess of the Galactic value that, if at the redhsift of the quasar, would have a column density of (0.9(+0.8, -0.6)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm. Possible sites for the absorption are a nuclear torus, an intervening damped Lyman-alpha system, or intracluster material (e.g., a cooling flow) around the quasar. The implied absorbing column density is sufficient to redden a normal quasar spectrum to the observed steep optical slope. The observed continuum, if dereddened by this amount, can produce the observed emission line fluxes and ratios. The absence of the graphite lambda-2175 feature in 3C 212 however, requires dust different from the local Milky Way composition, or an intervening absorber with z less than 0.4. Alternative acceptable fits to the X-ray spectrum are (1) a blackbody with a temperature of 0.7 keV (in the quasar frame) modified only by Galactic absorption, and (2) an optically thin thermal plasma with excess absorption. Although a blackbody spectrum would be unprecedented, the model is consistent with all the available X-ray and optical data and cannot be ruled out. We discuss possible observations that can discriminate among the above models.

Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Mathur, Smita; Wilkes, Belinda J.

1994-01-01

410

Optimal acetabular orientation for hip resurfacing.  

PubMed

Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation. We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47 degrees, 10 degrees to 81 degrees) and anteversion angle (14 degrees, 4 degrees to 34 degrees) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46 degrees (29 degrees to 60 degrees) and 16 degrees (4 degrees to 30 degrees) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of +/- 10 degrees about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45 degrees of inclination and 20 degrees of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone. In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45 degrees (+/- 10) and anteversion of 20 degrees (+/- 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40 degrees and an anteversion of 25 degrees. PMID:20675749

Grammatopoulos, G; Pandit, H; Glyn-Jones, S; McLardy-Smith, P; Gundle, R; Whitwell, D; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

2010-08-01

411

X-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in the Perseus cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we report on new x-ray observations of the Perseus cluster made using four separate pointings of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). We searched for x-ray emission associated with 16 radio galaxies and detected six above 3 sigma. We made use of the PSPC spectra to determine if the x-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in Perseus is thermal or nonthermal in origin (i.e., hot gas or an active galactic nuclei (AGN)). For the head-tail radio galaxy IC 310, we find that the data are best fit by a power law model with an unusually large spectral index alpha = 2.7. This is consistent with its unresolved spatial structure. On the other hand, a second resolved x-ray source associated with another radio galaxy 2.3 Mpc from the Perseus center (V Zw 331) is best fit by a thermal model. For three sources with insufficient flux for a full spectral analysis, we calculated hardness ratios. On this basis, the x-ray emission associated with the well known head-tail source NGC 1265 is consistent with thermal radiation. The x-ray spectra of UGC 2608 and UGC 2654 probably arise from hot gas, although very steep power-law spectra (alpha greater than 3.2) are also possible. The spectrum of NGC 1275 is quite complex due to the presence of an AGN and the galaxy's location at the center of a cluster cooling flow.

Rhee, George; Burns, Jack O.; Kowalski, Michael P.

1994-01-01

412

The Works of Henry Moseley, 1887-1915  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1913 Henry Moseley, an unknown young English physicist published an article in the Philosophical Magazine under the title of ``The High Frequency Spectra of the Elements.'' The 10-page article was to have far reaching implications in both chemistry and physics and helped to resolve a major conundrum in the periodic table of the elements. The talk will briefly examine the life and work of Moseley who died tragically while fighting in the trenches of World War I in 1915. The build-up to the discovery of atomic number took several different avenues including contributions from Rutherford and Barkla. However the more direct motivation for Moseley's work, as he readily acknowledged, were the articles of an unknown Dutch econometrician Anton Van den Broek who attempted to improve on Mendeleev's periodic table. Moseley began as a student of Rutherford at Manchester and took a keen interest in the development of research using X-rays following the work of Roentgen, von Laue and Bragg. Although Rutherford was at first reluctant to enter this new field he soon yielded to young Moseley's request and sent him to Leeds for brief training with Bragg. On returning to Manchester, Moseley devised an ingenious apparatus in which a set of metal samples could be rotated so as to become the target for a beam of electrons in order to measure the frequencies of the emitted K X-rays. The first set of such experiments used nine successive elements in the periodic table, from titanium to zinc. Moseley's now immense fame rests with the results of this study as well as a subsequent one which extended the study into a further 30 elements, in addition to the use that his method was put to by himself as well as subsequent chemists and physicists.

Scerri, Eric

2013-04-01

413

A method to evaluate the in vivo behaviour of lumbar spine implants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to design a method for evaluating the stabilizing effect of different lumbar spine implants in vivo, and to apply this method to a comparison of plates versus rods in lumbar spine posterolateral fusion using transpedicular screw fixation. Fourteen patients, seven operated on with transpedicular plates and screws (VSP), and seven operated on with rods and screws (Diapason), matched according to number of levels fused, had tantalum markers inserted in the vertebrae at surgery, enabling roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Mean patient age was 45 (range 33-56) years. In each group, two patients underwent fusion between L4 and L5, three between L5 and S1, and two from L4 to S1. In three patients, concomitant nerve root decompression was performed using a facet joint preserving technique. RSA was performed 4 weeks after surgery. This interval was chosen to allow enough time for soft tissue healing, but not fusion healing, to occur. RSA was performed in supine and standing position without any mobility provocation, in line with the postoperative regimen given. Movements between the outermost vertebrae of the fusion were calculated along the transverse, vertical and sagittal axes. The method of measurement along these three axes has previously been determined to be accurate to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.7 mm, respectively. One patient stabilized with rods and screws between L5 and S1 displayed a sagittal translation of 1.01 mm but no mobility along the transverse or vertical axes. In the remaining 13 patients, positional change from supine to standing did not provoke any intervertebral mobility above the RSA accuracy along any of the axes. With the limited provocation described, in line with the postoperative regimen for lumbar fusion patients, plates with transpedicular screws and rods with transpedicular screws both seem to give adequate intervertebral stability in posterolateral lumbar fusions. PMID:10905442

Gunnarsson, G; Axelsson, P; Johnsson, R; Strömqvist, B

2000-06-01

414

Influence of backscattering on the spatial resolution of semiconductor X-ray detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pixelated X-ray detectors using semiconductor layers or scintillators as absorbers are widely used in high-energy physics, medical diagnosis, or non-destructive testing. Their good spatial resolution performance makes them particularly suitable for applications where fine details have to be resolved. Intrinsic limitations of the spatial resolution have been studied in previous simulations. These simulations focused on interactions inside the conversion layer. Transmitted photons were treated as a loss. In this work, we also implemented the structure behind the conversion layer to investigate the impact of backscattering inside the detector setup. We performed Monte Carlo simulations with the program ROSI ( Roentgen Simulation) which is based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. Line-spread functions of different fully implemented detectors were simulated. In order to characterize the detectors' spatial resolution, the modulation transfer functions (MTF) were calculated. The additional broadening of the line-spread function by carrier transport has been ignored in this work. We investigated two different detector types: a directly absorbing pixel detector where a semiconductor slab is bump-bonded to a readout ASIC such as the Medipix-2 setup with Si or GaAs as an absorbing semiconductor layer, and flat-panel detectors with a Se or a CsI converter. We found a significant degradation of the MTF compared to the case without backscattering. At energies above the K-edge of the backscattering material the spatial resolution drops and can account for the observed low-frequency drop of the MTF. Ignoring this backscatter effect might lead to misinterpretations of the charge sharing effect in counting pixel detectors.

Hoheisel, M.; Korn, A.; Giersch, J.

2005-07-01

415

Seeing Red and Shooting Blanks: A Study of Red Quasars and Blank Field X-Ray Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have identified a population of 'blank field sources' (or 'blanks') among the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) bright unidentified X-ray sources with faint optical counterparts. The extreme X-ray over optical flux ratio of blank field sources is not compatible with the main classes of X-ray emitters except for extreme BL Lacertae objects at fx/fv is equal to or less than 35. From the analysis of ROSAT archival data we found evidence for only three sources, out of 16, needing absorption in excess of the Galactic value and no indication of variability. We also found evidence for an extended nature for only one of the five blanks with a serendipitous HRI (High Resolution Imager) detection; this source (1WGA J1226.9+3332) was confirmed as a z=0.89 cluster of galaxies. Palomar images reveal the presence of a red (O - E is equal to or greater than 2) counterpart in the X-ray error circle for six blanks. The identification process brought to the discovery of another high z cluster of galaxies, one (possibly extreme) BL Lac and two apparently normal type 1 AGNs (Active Galactic Nuclei). These AGNs, together with four more AGN-like objects seem to form a well defined group: they present type 1 X-ray spectra but red Palomar counterparts. We discuss the possible explanations for the discrepancy between the X-ray and optical data, among which: a suppressed big blue bump emission, an extreme dust to gas (approximately 40 - 60 the Galactic ratio) ratio value and a high redshift (z is greater than or equal to 3.5) QSO (Quasi-Stellar Object) nature. These AGN-like blanks seem to be the bright (and easier to study) analogs of the sources which are being found in deep Chandra observations. Five more blanks have a still an unknown nature.

Elvis, Martin; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

416

Anatomist and the pioneer of radiology Étienne Destot--95th anniversary of his death.  

PubMed

Destot was a leading pioneer in radiology, a pupil of Ollier, an anatomist, and researcher who followed in the experimental medicine tradition of Claude Bérnard. This work is an extensive, in depth, look at the life and work of Étienne Destot. On February 5, 1896, he began performing X-ray examinations, less than two months after Roentgen's discovery! His pioneering work described a space bordered by the hamate, capitate, triquetrum, and lunate; this space is now known as Destot's space. Tanton stated that Destot was the first to reveal the mechanism of fractures of the posterior margin of the distal tibia and to emphasize their clinical relevance; in honor of this contribution, Tanton named such a fracture the “fracture of Destot.” Moreover, Destot is credited with being the first physician to use the term “pilon” in the orthopedic literature. He first described fractures of the scaphoid in 1905. He also described superficial hematomas, Destot's sign, located above the inguinal ligament or in the scrotum or thigh. Such hematomas are indicative of pelvic fractures. Destot is credited with inventing or improving many pieces of medical equipment (e.g., Lambotte's screw plates, anastomotic boutons for the digestive tube, monopolar endocavital radiological tubes). He was also active in developing technical aspects of equipment (e.g., radioscopic examination of the heart, a prototype of the mobile radiological laboratory). Étienne Destot is best known as a radiologist; however, his influence extends well beyond this field. He was an anatomist and surgeon, the founder of radiology in Lyon, prosector, physician, electrician, researcher, and artist. PMID:24772482

Bá?a, Václav; Kachlík, David; Bá?ová, Tereza; Bartoška, Radek; Marvan, Ji?í; Douša, Pavel; Secrest, Thomas; Džupa, Valér

2014-04-01

417

[Neoplasms and medical thermodynamics].  

PubMed

Oncology--just as every field of medicine that deals with etiology, diagnostics, pathomechanism and treatment of diseases--is only a part of the general human knowledge, whose all significant achievements must be used to protect human health. This pursuit has as its object not only the benefits form practical discoveries (L. Pasteur, W.C. Roentgen, P. Curie and M. Sk?odowska-Curie, V. Schally etc.), but also theoretical generalizations (A. Einstein, W.K. Heisenberg and I. Prigogine). Unfortunately it is the lack and/or slow adaptation of that information, that is responsible for the still unsatisfactory progress in clinical oncology. Responsibility rests not only with oncologists, but primarily with editors of medical journals and textbooks, who have a moral duty to follow the entire general knowledge, especially in the field of the basic research. On the basis of an analysis of the contents of the Polish oncology textbooks and materials from the specialist conferences in gynaecologic oncology, they were found to: 1. Omit the current, particularly domestic literature, 2. Contain mostly works, whose conclusions are textbook information, 3. Rarely include studies in the area of medical thermodynamics, 4. Attempt to explain the effects of the modern technologies, e.g. fotodynamics or nanotechnology using theoretical generalizations which are inadequate for them, and 5. Disregard the rule primum non nocere not only in prevention but even in the treatment of neoplasms. Neoplastic disease has many conditionings and types because of the unique identity of the neoplasms which cause it and which are caused by universal and natural phenomena of the self-organizing dissipative structures. It requires not only early diagnosing but also causative treatment already in the precancerous states, which are better detected by modern methods based on the quantum thermodynamics (lasers, fotodynamics, nuclear magnetic resonance, genetic nanotechnology etc.). PMID:14674119

Klimek, Rudolf

2003-09-01

418

Biochemical and morphological effects of contrast media on the kidney.  

PubMed

The intravenous use of roentgen contrast media (CM) is associated with a low incidence of renal impairment. This paper considers the intravascular handling and retention of CM in relation to effects on renal function - specifically the ability of the kidney to reabsorb and catabolise low molecular weight proteins. Renal morphology following experimental administration of a high dose of an isotonic dimeric CM (iodixanol at 3 g I/kg) in rats showed numerous, large, protein-containing vacuoles or droplets in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. These were fully formed within 3.5 hours. The process of vacuole-formation involving the uptake of CM appears to be analogous to dextran uptake that occurs via fluid phase endocytosis. These vacuoles or CM droplets are abundant for 7 days but then slowly decline over several weeks. The quantitative recovery of (14)C iodixanol (3g I/kg) from the kidneys between 3.5 hours to 7 days after administration was about 1% of the dose, with some 0.2% of the original dose still present at 28 days. Subcellular analysis to determine the site of the radiolabel showed that the (14)C was associated with lysosomal marker enzymes. The CM-induced vacuoles/droplets are most probably giant lysosomes, which contain the intracellularly retained CM. Co-administration of tracer doses of (125)I-labelled cytochrome C with iodixanol showed some impairment of low molecular weight protein reabsorption, but remarkably this process was not effected when the vacuoles were fully formed. The conspicuous morphology of the vacuoles, the CM retention and the transient proteinuria and enzymuria cannot presently be associated with any functionally significant impairment of tubular or cellular processes. PMID:8610515

Dobrota, M; Powell, C J; Holtz, E; Wallin, A; Vik, H

1995-01-01

419

Validation of the in vivo volumetric wear measurement for total knee prostheses in model-based RSA.  

PubMed

Implant failure related to polyethylene wear remains an important issue in total knee arthroplasty. Polyethylene wear is usually assessed in vivo by measuring the remaining insert thickness on X-ray images of the knee. To reflect the amount of wear debris more accurately, a 3-dimensional overlap measurement has been suggested, which is based on implant component models which are matched on calibrated stereo X-ray images using model-based roentgen stereophotogrammatic analysis. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of pose estimation, insert thickness deviation and variation in the femoral-tibial contact location on the accuracy and precision of the measurement using simulations and a phantom experiment. We found that the pose estimation was the largest source of variation. The 95% prediction interval varied between 111 and 283 mm(3), which is approximately 100-200% of the detected volumetric wear. Insert thickness variation resulted in prediction intervals of 74-174 mm(3). Variation of the femoral-tibial contact location in the phantom experiment gave a prediction interval of 40 mm(3). Large differences in the detected wear volume were found for different flexion angles. At most 56% of the true wear volume was detected (129 of 230 mm(3), 30° of flexion). In summary, both the accuracy and precision of the volumetric wear measurement were low. The prediction interval of the volumetric wear measurement is at least as large as the measurement outcome itself. This is an important limitation to the applicability of the volumetric wear measurement in clinical practice and further clinical validation is required. PMID:23540721

van Ijsseldijk, E A; Lebel, B; Stoel, B C; Valstar, E R; Gouzy, S; Vielpeau, C; Kaptein, B L

2013-04-26

420

Migration analysis of a metaphyseal anchored short-stem hip prosthesis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Metaphyseal anchored short-stem hip implants were designed to improve load transmission and preserve femoral bone stock. Until now, only few outcome data have been available and migration studies are one of the few ways of obtaining data that are predictive of implant survival. We therefore evaluated a metaphyseal anchored short-stem hip implant by Ein Bild Roentgen Analyse femoral component analysis (EBRA-FCA). Patients and methods First, the EBRA-FCA method was validated for the short-stem hip implant. Then 80 of the first 100 consecutive implants were evaluated after at least 2 years. Clinical assessment was performed using the WOMAC and the UCLA score. Results After 2.7 (2.0–4.2), years none of the implants had been revised and by that time the stems had subsided by a mean of 0.7 mm (SD 1.8) (95% CI: 0.3–1.1). Of the 80 implants, 78 were stable after 2 years, with 74 being primary stable and 4 showing secondary stabilization after initial subsidence. Continuous migration was seen in only 2 patients. The clinical outcome showed good results with a mean WOMAC of 11 (SD 13) and a mean UCLA score of 7.3 (SD 2.0). [OK?] Interpretation The metaphyseal anchored short-stem hip implant showed good functional results and a high degree of stability after 2 years. The outcome is comparable to that of clinically proven conventional hip implants and if the results are confirmed by long-term studies, short-stem hip arthroplasty might be an alternative for young patients requiring hip replacement.

2012-01-01

421

Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the skin of the face and neck  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 300,000 new cases of carcinomas of the skin are diagnosed each year in the Unied States. The great majority of these lesions are on the skin of the face and neck. The proximity of these neoplasms to important structures such as the eyes, nose, and ears has prompted this discussion of the role of radiation therapy in their management. Most carcinomas of the skin of the nose and eyelids are basal cell carcinomas, while most tumors arising on the pinna are squamous cell carcinomas. Despite the fact that cutaneous carcinomas of the face and neck are essentially totally curable, hundreds of patients in the United States annually die or become horribly disfigured through neglect or improper treatment. Radiotherapy of cutaneous carcinomas can be rewarding when the proper care and expertise are applied. The radiation therapist is afforded an unusual opportunity to deal with a highly curable malignant neoplasm, but at the same time he can model his means to obtain the best aesthetic results. Many carcinomas of the skin are expeditiously and effectively cured by simple excision, but others, regardless of size, may be treated best by radiotherapy because of better aesthetic results. The use of acids, caustics, or electrocoagulation offers no particular advantage and is seldom as satisfactory as a clean excision. The surgical procedure often may be an excisional biopsy, which offers the opportunity of adequate histopathologic study of the specimen. Various modalities of radiation therapy may be successfully utilized, but none has the elasticity and definite advantage of relatively low kilovoltage roentgen therapy.

Chahbazian, C.M.; Brown, G.S.

1980-09-05

422

Obstetrical events that shaped Western European history.  

PubMed

Taking into account that marriage, the family as a social unit, and concepts of legitimacy developed to ensure the devolution of property and that, when these concepts apply in a society based on hierarchically organized monarchies, they also involve the devolution of power, this essay furnishes examples of dislocations in such devolutions, in terms of familiar incidents in western European history. That Jane Seymour died in childbirth but her son Edward VI survived long enough to ensure the stability of the Church of England is the first example. The infertility of Mary Tudor, when married to Philip II of Spain, prevented the formation of an Anglo-Spanish dynasty that would have been Roman Catholic is the second example of such a dislocation. Likewise, the infertility of Charles II's wife, Catherine of Braganza, led to the succession of James II, a practicing Roman Catholic, whose attempts to undermine the Church of England led to the Glorious Revolution of 1788 and the preservation of English Protestantism. Another example is the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte, in childbirth, which led to the scramble of George III's aging sons to marry and beget an heir to the throne. The only success led to the birth of the future Queen Victoria, whose dynastic competence remains unquestionable, but who herself had some passing involvement with obstetrical developments. Finally, the delivery of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who sustained a brachial plexus injury that produced Erb's palsy of the left arm, is considered, and the question of intrapartum fetal hypoxia is raised as a hypothesis, in addition to the mechanical trauma and its effect on his personality. PMID:1285448

Ober, W B

1992-01-01

423

A conversation with Paul Greengard. Interview by Eric J Nestler.  

PubMed

Paul Greengard was born in New York City in 1925. After completing high school, he served three years in the US Navy during World War II and then completed his bachelor's degree at Hamilton College where he majored in physics and mathematics. He obtained a PhD in biophysics from Johns Hopkins University in 1953 and pursued postdoctoral training with Wilhelm Feldberg at the National Institute for Medical Research in England. After eight years as head of biochemistry at Geigy, and sabbaticals at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Vanderbilt University, he joined the Yale University faculty as a full professor of pharmacology in 1968. While he was at Yale, Greengard's laboratory performed groundbreaking research, which demonstrated a role for cyclic nucleotides, protein kinases and protein phosphatases, and their protein substrates in the regulation of synaptic transmission. In 1983, Greengard moved to The Rockefeller University, where he has since served as the Vincent Astor Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. Greengard's paradigm-shifting research has continued at Rockefeller and has informed our understanding and possible treatment of a host of brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression. He is the author of more than 950 research articles and reviews. Greengard has received numerous awards and honors, including the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000, the Metropolitan Life Foundation Award for Medical Research, The National Academy of Sciences Award in Neuroscience, the Ralph W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience for the Society for Neuroscience, and the Karolinska Institutet's Bicentennial Gold Medal. He is a member of the US National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The following interview was conducted on May 29, 2012. PMID:23294305

Greengard, Paul

2013-01-01

424

Purinergic signaling in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Geoffrey Burnstock completed a BSc at King's College London and a PhD at University College London. He held postdoctoral fellowships with Wilhelm Feldberg (National Institute for Medical Research), Edith Bülbring (University of Oxford) and C. Ladd Prosser (University of Illinois). He was appointed to a Senior Lectureship in Melbourne University in 1959 and became Professor and Chairman of Zoology in 1964. In 1975 he became Head of Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at UCL and Convenor of the Center of Neuroscience. He has been Director of the Autonomic Neuroscience Institute at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine since 1997. He was elected to the Australian Academy of Sciences in 1971, the Royal Society in 1986, the Academy of Medical Sciences in 1998 and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Physicians in 1999 and 2000. He was awarded the Royal Society Gold Medal in 2000. He is editor-in-chief of the journals Autonomic Neuroscience and Purinergic Signalling and on the editorial boards of many other journals. Geoffrey Burnstock's major research interest has been autonomic neurotransmission and he is best known for his seminal discovery of purinergic transmission and receptors, their signaling pathways and functional relevance. He has supervised over 100 PhD and MD students and published over 1400 original papers, re-views and books. He was first in the Institute of Scientific Information list of most cited scientists in Pharmacology and Toxicology from 1994-2004 [59.083 citations (March 2011) and an h-index of 109]. PMID:21607164

Burnstock, Geoffrey

2011-04-15

425

A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology  

PubMed Central

Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.

HOPWOOD, NICK

2006-01-01

426

Doctors in the mental institutions being reassigned, Muller-Hill and WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Benno Muller-Hill, James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>in the third reich>applying the solution Moving on to Poland Doctors and helpers who ran the gas chambers at mental institutions were reassigned to extermination camps in Poland. Applying the "final solution" The gassing of mental patients ceased in August 1941, after Bishop Count von Galen preached against euthanasia in Münster. Many doctors and other personnel who had gained expertise in running gas chambers at mental institutions were then transferred to Poland, where the first gas chamber was built at the Auschwitz extermination camp in January 1942. Carbon monoxide gas was replaced with hydrogen cyanide (Zyclon B). In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele. When, in 1943, Mengele was posted as the senior physician at Auschwitz, von Verschuer obtained funding from the Reich Research Council to support twin research there. One project attempted to identify "specific proteins" involved in a genetically determined response to infection. For this experiment, Jewish and Gypsy twins were injected with identical amounts of typhoid bacteria, then blood samples were taken at regular intervals, and sent to Berlin for analysis. Twins who survived this and other experiments were often killed by direct injection of chloroform or other agents in the heart. Of the more than 3,000 twins conscripted into twin studies at Auschwitz, only 200 survived the war. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss how the euthanasia techniques used at mental hospitals were transferred to the extermination camps in Poland.

2008-10-06

427

Corpse burners and doctors, Muller-Hill and WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Benno Muller-Hill, James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>in the third reich>applying the solution They did it for the money Destruction center staff who collected and cremated the corpses of gas victims earned the same salary as a medical doctor. Applying the "final solution" The gassing of mental patients ceased in August 1941, after Bishop Count von Galen preached against euthanasia in Münster. Many doctors and other personnel who had gained expertise in running gas chambers at mental institutions were then transferred to Poland, where the first gas chamber was built at the Auschwitz extermination camp in January 1942. Carbon monoxide gas was replaced with hydrogen cyanide (Zyclon B). In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele. When, in 1943, Mengele was posted as the senior physician at Auschwitz, von Verschuer obtained funding from the Reich Research Council to support twin research there. One project attempted to identify "specific proteins" involved in a genetically determined response to infection. For this experiment, Jewish and Gypsy twins were injected with identical amounts of typhoid bacteria, then blood samples were taken at regular intervals, and sent to Berlin for analysis. Twins who survived this and other experiments were often killed by direct injection of chloroform or other agents in the heart. Of the more than 3,000 twins conscripted into twin studies at Auschwitz, only 200 survived the war. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss how the euthanasia techniques used at mental hospitals were transferred to the extermination camps in Poland.

2008-10-06

428

The Jews and the mentally ill, Muller-Hill and WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Benno Muller-Hill, James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>in the third reich>applying the solution Germany's two "problems" The Nazis used the same techniques to deal with mental patients and Jews. Applying the "final solution" The gassing of mental patients ceased in August 1941, after Bishop Count von Galen preached against euthanasia in Münster. Many doctors and other personnel who had gained expertise in running gas chambers at mental institutions were then transferred to Poland, where the first gas chamber was built at the Auschwitz extermination camp in January 1942. Carbon monoxide gas was replaced with hydrogen cyanide (Zyclon B). In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele. When, in 1943, Mengele was posted as the senior physician at Auschwitz, von Verschuer obtained funding from the Reich Research Council to support twin research there. One project attempted to identify "specific proteins" involved in a genetically determined response to infection. For this experiment, Jewish and Gypsy twins were injected with identical amounts of typhoid bacteria, then blood samples were taken at regular intervals, and sent to Berlin for analysis. Twins who survived this and other experiments were often killed by direct injection of chloroform or other agents in the heart. Of the more than 3,000 twins conscripted into twin studies at Auschwitz, only 200 survived the war. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss how the euthanasia techniques used at mental hospitals were transferred to the extermination camps in Poland.

2008-10-06

429

[Nasolacrimal stent implantation: report of a case].  

PubMed

Epiphora (watering eye) is generally caused by insufficient drainage of tears. The most common cause of epiphora in adults is idiopathic inflammatory obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. The traditional surgical treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction is an external dacryocystorhinostomy, which has an 85% to 95% success rate. To eliminate cutaneus wounds and scarring some techniques were introduced, for example the endonasal laser dacryocystorhinostomy and the nasolacrimal stent. The aim of this report was to evaluate the first case of nasolacrimal stent implantation in Brazil. The procedure was performed in the "Hospital das Clínicas" of the University of São Paulo - USP. A female patient with tearing of the right eye and secretion was submitted to a nasolacrimal stent implantation, with fluoroscopic guidance. The stent used in this procedure was the polyurethane Tearleader stent set. (Dr. Wilhelm type-PBN MEDICALS - Denmark). After 3 months, the patient started complaining of tearing, so the stent was removed and the patient was submitted to an external dacryocystorhinostomy. At present the patient does not have any symptoms or complaints. This procedure is less invasive and simple, causes no facial scars and avoids surgical trauma, but the long term success rates achieved using polyurethane nasolacrimal stents are low as compared with the external dacryocystorhinostomy. In addition, the patients usually complaint of tearing even having patent lacrimal system. In summary, long-term studies are needed to resolve some complications. Maybe a new stent design and new methods of unblocking the stent in situ would improve in the near future the levels of patency that currently are modest. PMID:18408851

Lunardelli, Patrícia; Aoki, Lísia; Jervásio, Ana Carolina; Zagui, Roberta Melissa Benetti; Matayoshi, Suzana

2008-01-01

430

Magnetic Anomalies Within Lunar Impact Basins: Constraints on the History of the Lunar Dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that lunar crustal magnetization has a combination of origins including shock remanent magnetization in transient magnetic fields and thermoremanent magnetization in a steady core dynamo magnetic field (e.g., Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 2008; Richmond and Hood, JGR, 2008; Garrick-Bethell et al., Science, 2009; Hood, Icarus, 2011). In particular, magnetic anomalies within the interiors of lunar impact basins and large craters provide a potentially valuable means of constraining the history of the former dynamo (Halekas et al., MAPS, 2003; Hood, 2011). These anomalies likely have a thermoremanent origin owing to high subsurface temperatures reached at the time of impact and therefore require a long-lived, steady magnetic field to explain their magnetization. Central anomalies have previously been confirmed to be present using Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP MAG) data within several Nectarian-aged basins (Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Crisium, and Humboldtianum), implying that a dynamo existed during this lunar epoch (Hood, 2011). Here, we further analyze low altitude LP MAG data for several additional basins, ranging in age from Nectarian to Imbrian. Results indicate that magnetic anomalies with a probable basin-related origin are present within at least two additional Nectarian-aged basins (Serenitatis and Humorum) and one Imbrian-aged basin (Schrodinger). No discernible anomalies are present within the largest Imbrian-aged basins, Imbrium and Orientale. While there is uncertainty regarding the age of the Schrodinger basin, it has been reported to be slightly more recent than Imbrium (Wilhelms, 1984). Our initial interpretation is therefore that a dynamo likely existed during the Imbrian epoch. The absence of anomalies within Imbrium and Orientale can be explained by insufficient conditions for acquisition of strong magnetization (e.g., inadequate concentrations of efficient remanence carriers) following these relatively large impacts.

Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

2011-12-01

431

The effects of steam injection in a sandstone reservoir (Etchegoin Formation), Buena Vista field, California  

SciTech Connect

At Buena Vista field, California, 120 ft of post-steamflood core, spanning the middle Pliocene Wilhelm Member of the Etchegoin Formation, was taken to assess the influence of stratigraphy on light-oil steamflood (LOSF) processes and to determine what steam-rock reactions occurred and how these affected reservoir properties. High-quality steam (600F (300C)) had been injected ({approximately}1,700 psi) into mixed tidal flat and estuarine facies in an injector well located 55 ft from the cored well. Over a period of 20 months, steam rapidly channeled through a thin ({approximately}7 ft), relatively permeable (1-1,000 md), flaser-bedded sandstone unit. Conductive heating above this permeable unit produced, in the vicinity of the cored well, a 35-ft steam-swept zone (oil saturation = 0), overlain by a 29-ft steam-affected zone in which oil saturation had been reduced to 13%, far below the presteam saturation of 30%. Steam-induced alteration ('artificial diagenesis') of the clay-rich reservoir rock was recognized using SEM, petrography, and X-ray diffraction. Salient dissolution effects were the complete to partial removal of siliceous microfossils, Fe-dolomite, volcanic rock fragments, and labile heavy minerals. The artificial diagenetic effects are first encountered in the basal 6 ft of the 29-ft steam-affected zone. Based on the distribution of the authigenic phases, the authors conclude that the reactions took place, or were at least initiated, in the steam condensate bank ahead of the advancing steam front. Although these changes presumably reduced permeability, the steamflood process was effective in reducing oil saturation to zero in the steam-contacted portion of the reservoir.

Grant, C.W.; Reed, A.A. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

432

Neurology outside Paris following Charcot.  

PubMed

The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France. PMID:20938155

Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

433

The determination of Teff for metal-poor A-type stars using V and 2MASS J, H and K magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective temperatures (T_eff) can be determined from (V-J)_0, (V-H)_0 and (V-K)_0 colours that are derived from 2MASS magnitudes. This gives another way to estimate the T_eff of faint blue halo stars (V la 15) whose temperatures are now usually deduced from bo. Transformations (adapted from Carpenter \\cite{carp01b}) are used to change colours derived from the 2MASS data to the Johnson system. T_eff is then derived from these colours using an updated Kurucz model. Tables are given to derive T_eff as a function of (V-J)_0, (V-H)_0 and (V-K)_0 for a variety of metallicities and log g suitable for blue horizontal branch and main sequence stars. The temperatures obtained in this way are compared with those in the recent literature for various stars with 5 <= V <= 15 and T_eff in the range 6500 to 9500 K; systematic differences are ~ 100 K. An exception is the sample of BHB stars observed by Wilhelm et al. (\\cite{wbsl99}) whose T_eff are significantly cooler than those we derive by an amount that increases with increasing temperature. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http: / /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/ qcat?J/ A+A/391/1039

Kinman, T.; Castelli, F.

2002-09-01

434

Slow Wave Sleep Induced by GABA Agonist Tiagabine Fails to Benefit Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a pivotal role in consolidating memories. Tiagabine has been shown to increase SWS in favor of REM sleep without impacting subjective sleep. However, it is unknown whether this effect is paralleled by an improved sleep-dependent consolidation of memory. Design: This double-blind within-subject crossover study tested sensitivity of overnight retention of declarative neutral and emotional materials (word pairs, pictures) as well as a procedural memory task (sequence finger tapping) to oral administration of placebo or 10 mg tiagabine (at 22:30). Participants: Fourteen healthy young men aged 21.9 years (range 18-28 years). Measurements and Results: Tiagabine significantly increased the time spent in SWS and decreased REM sleep compared to placebo. Tiagabine also enhanced slow wave activity (0.5-4.0 Hz) and density of < 1 Hz slow oscillations during NREM sleep. Fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) spindle activity, in particular that occurring phase-locked to the slow oscillation cycle, was decreased following tiagabine. Despite signs of deeper and more SWS, overnight retention of memory tested after sleep the next evening (19:30) was generally not improved after tiagabine, but on average even lower than after placebo, with this impairing effect reaching significance for procedural sequence finger tapping. Conclusions: Our data show that increasing slow wave sleep with tiagabine does not improve memory consolidation. Possibly this is due to functional differences from normal slow wave sleep, i.e., the concurrent suppressive influence of tiagabine on phase-locked spindle activity. Citation: Feld GB; Wilhelm I; Ma Y; Groch S; Binkofski F; Mölle M; Born J. Slow wave sleep induced by GABA agonist tiagabine fails to benefit memory consolidation. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1317-1326.

Feld, Gordon B.; Wilhelm, Ines; Ma, Ying; Groch, Sabine; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Molle, Matthias; Born, Jan

2013-01-01

435

Founding years of clinical neurology in Berlin until 1933.  

PubMed

During the so-called "Gründerjhare" or "founding years" in Berlin it became necessary to build new hospitals because of the rapid growth of population. As a result, several infirmaries, asylums for the insane and institutions for epileptics were build between 1877 and 1912. The new building of the University of Neuropsychiatric Clinic ("Nervenklinik") of the Charité was opened in 1905 according to plans made by Friedrich Jolly (1844-1904), the physician who named myasthenia gravis pseudoparalytica. A "Neurological Central Station", under the direction of Oskar and Cecil Vogt, in existence since 1898, was a research center dedicated more to morphology. There the study of the structure of the cerebral cortex by Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1925) and research into basal ganglia diseases by the Vogts began. The Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Cerebral Research, which moved into a new building in 1931, also had its origin here. Hermann Oppenheim (1858-1919) promoted independent clinical neurology, as did his younger contemporary, Max Lewandowsky (1876-1918), who was already advising physician for neurology at the Berlin-Friedrichshain Hospital. Hug Liepmann (1863-1925), the creator of apraxia theory, worked at the asylums for the insane in Dalldorf (Berlin-Wittenau) and Berlin-Herzberge. In 1911, the first neurological unit was established in the large hospital in Berlin-Buch under the direction of Otto Maas. Not until after World War I were further neurological hospital units founded, under the direction of Paul Schuster (1867-1940), Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965), Kurt Löwenstein (died in 1953) and Friedrich Heinrich Lewy (1885-1950). These Jewish physicians, as well as C.E. Benda and Otto Maas, had to leave their posts in 1933 and emigrate. The clinical institutions and scientific achievements of these pioneers of independent clinical neurology will be presented up to the point of its violent dissolution. PMID:15370309

Holdorff, B

2004-09-01

436

Two manic-depressives, two tyrants, two world wars.  

PubMed

Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin were tyrants who attained absolute power, and misused it in a gargantuan fashion, leaving in his wake a trail of hatred, devastation and death. All made war on their perceived enemies and on their own countrymen. In "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute power" (1994) Amherst, Prometheus Books, D. Jablow Hershman and I expose manic-depressive disorder as the force that drove them to absolute power and the terrible abuse of it. We uncover manic-depressive disorder as a hidden cause of dictatorship, mass killing and war, and show how the psychopathology of the disorder can be a key factor in the political pathology of tyranny. In our earlier "The Key To Genius: Manic-Depression and the Creative Life" (1998) Amherst Prometheus Books we catalog the role of the disorder in the lives and careers of Isaac Newton, Ludwig von Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh and other creative geniuses. Thus manic-depressive disorder is variable to the extreme of paradox. Key to the destroyers is an indifference to the suffering of others, a need to control everyone and everything, a resistance to reason, and grandiose and paranoid delusions. The paranoid and grandiose delusions of manic-depressives are as infectious and as virulent as a deadly microbe, and can easily infect those in thrall to the host figure. It is a phenomenon known as "induced psychosis" and its imprint is often to be seen on the world stage. In this article I will add Kaiser Wilhelm to the list of manic-depressive warmongers, and passages from Robert Payne's "The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler" that are not only pathognomonic of manic-depressive disorder, but of the mixed variant. PMID:17881137

Lieb, Julian

2008-01-01

437

The eugenics movement and Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third Reich>applying the solution A Faustian bargain Hitler allowed German eugenicists to carry on with their research in return for their help in marking Jews and Gypsies for death. Applying the "final solution" The gassing of mental patients ceased in August 1941, after Bishop Count von Galen preached against euthanasia in Münster. Many doctors and other personnel who had gained expertise in running gas chambers at mental institutions were then transferred to Poland, where the first gas chamber was built at the Auschwitz extermination camp in January 1942. Carbon monoxide gas was replaced with hydrogen cyanide (Zyclon B). In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele. When, in 1943, Mengele was posted as the senior physician at Auschwitz, von Verschuer obtained funding from the Reich Research Council to support twin research there. One project attempted to identify "specific proteins" involved in a genetically determined response to infection. For this experiment, Jewish and Gypsy twins were injected with identical amounts of typhoid bacteria, then blood samples were taken at regular intervals, and sent to Berlin for analysis. Twins who survived this and other experiments were often killed by direct injection of chloroform or other agents in the heart. Of the more than 3,000 twins conscripted into twin studies at Auschwitz, only 200 survived the war. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss how the euthanasia techniques used at mental hospitals were transferred to the extermination camps in Poland.

2008-10-06

438

Sterilization of the mentally ill at Bernburg: Part 4, Muller-Hill and WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Benno Muller-Hill, James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>in the third reich>"the final solution" Gas chamber, part 4 The brains of some victims were dissected out and sent for study to Julius Hallervorden, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Brain Research. "The final solution" to mental illness In September 1939, Hitler attacked Poland. Sterilizations slowed nearly to a halt, likely because most people who fit the legal crtieria had already been sterilized. Acting on Hitler's suggestion that incurable mental patients "be granted mercy killing," a panel of psychiatrists and medical doctors completed a one-page questionnaire on each of 283,000 patients in mental hospitals throughout Germany. More than one-fourth of cases, those who were incurable or could not work, were marked with a "ÃÂ" for death. In January, 1940 a shower room fitted with a carbon monoxide vent was first tested to kill patients at the psychiatric hospital in Brandenberg, outside Berlin. Gas chambers on the Brandenberg model were quickly set up at Bernberg and other sites around Germany to accept patients marked for death. In 1940-41, more than 70,000 patients were poisoned with carbon monoxide at these extermination centers. Other patients were starved; given sleeping pills, morphine or scopolamine; or slowly administered poisons to disguise the cause of death. No such ruse was thought necessary in Poland and East Prussia, where storm troopers simply shot thousands of mental patients. Benno Müller-Hill takes James Watson on a tour of the gas chamber at Bernberg Psychiatric Hospital, one of six euthanasia facilities for mental patients established in 1940-41.

2008-10-06

439

[Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].  

PubMed

The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

Hess, C W

1994-04-19

440

Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries  

PubMed Central

Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Miko?aj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach’s lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman’s observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng’s and Rejchman’s research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics.

Paprocka-Borowicz, Malgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

2013-01-01

441

A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.  

PubMed

Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

Hopwood, Nick

2007-01-01

442