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Konrad Adenauer's Military Advisors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis poses the question: Why did Konrad Adenauer appoint former Wehrmacht generals Hans Speidel and Adolf Heusinger as his military advisors. The question is used to examine the political relationships between the army officer corps, state, and soc...

J. R. Pournelle



Konrad Repository Facing its Construction  

SciTech Connect

According to the German Atomic Energy Act the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. This duty was assigned to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). In 1982, the Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB) as the precursor of BfS applied for a license for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in the Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter at the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony. After 25 years of plan approval procedure and subsequent lawsuits the license is now valid and Konrad is waiting for construction. Facing this challenge BfS has established a project team to supervise the in-house and external activities to be done. It is intended to construct the Konrad repository within a preparation period of two years and a subsequent erection phase of four years. Thus, Konrad is planned to come into operation in 2013. In this paper the development of the plan approval procedure, the technical design of the planned repository, especially with regard to safety-related aspects, and the planning for the construction will be discussed. (authors)

Kunze, V. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)



License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository  

SciTech Connect

Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben repository (1971-1998) in Germany as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the USA (1999 to present). Recently, the licensing procedure for the fourth such facility, the German Konrad repository, ended with a positive ''Planfeststellung'' (plan approval). With its plan approval decision, the licensing authority, the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Lower Saxony, approved the single license needed pursuant to German law to construct, operate, and later close down this facility.

Biurrun, E.; Hartje, B.



Johann Christoph Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German Title: Johann Christoph Sturm und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Johann Christian Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were two well-known scholars of their time, who showed mutual attention and esteem. The history of their relation is described, based on the mutual mentions in letters and publications.

Kratchovil, Stefan


Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiology of the diaphragm, pleura, thoracic cage, and upper air passages; Radiology of the breasts; Radiology of nodular lesions of the lung parenchyma; Roentgen signs of abnormalities in the lung: and overview; and Special examination of the larynx.

Meschan, I. Farrer-Meschan, R.M. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (USA))



Wilhelm Uhthoff: a phenomenon 1853 to 1927.  


The name of Wilhelm Uhthoff is associated with several aspects of progress in neurology in the 19th and 20th Century but is best known for his contribution to the pathophysiology of transient visual disturbance. Uhthoff was born on 31 July 1853 in Klein Warin, Germany and died on 21 March 1927 in Breslau, Germany. This ophthalmologist described for the first time that increased body temperature from physical exertion may lead to transient impairment of vision in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:18808742

Stutzer, P; Kesselring, Jurg



CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Health Disparities Research CRCHD Research Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research


CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Disparities Research Programs CRCHD Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research


Rosita - Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TheMax-Planck-InstitutfürextraterrestrischePhysik(MPE),the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP) and the Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik of the university of Tübingen (IAAT) propose to install a n X-ray telescope on the International Space Station (ISS). The name of the instrument is ROSITA which stands for "ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array". We plan to perform an all-sky survey in the medium X-ray range from 0.5 to 10 keV in order to detect systematically obscured X-ray sources. This was also the goal of the ABRIXAS mission which failed in 1999. It is still of high scientific interest and not yet covered by any other project. A survey in the hard X-ray band was recently claimed as a future priority in the "Decadal Survey" of the American National Academy of Sciences. Within an already conducted industrial study we could demonstrate the general feasibility of such a mission. The recent observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra lead to the expectation to detect more than 100,000 new X ray sources with ROSITA. These will be mainly- active galactic nuclei (AGN) but also several 10,000 clusters of galaxies up to cosmological distances. Compared with former surveys in the X-ray band, ROSITA is a hundred times more sensitive and a hundred times better in angular resolution. The instrument will be realised with a copy of the ABRIXAS mirror system but with a new detector developed on the basis of the EPIC pn-CCD. The camera will be especially designed for ROSITA but can also be considered as a prototype detector of the planned ESA mission XEUS. The major improvements of the new camera are the higher temporal resolution and a significantly reduced fraction of out-of-time events. The configuration of the mirror system will be modified slightly (compared to ABRIXAS) such that the light paths of the seven mirror modules are completely separated from each other thus avoiding ghost images. Currently, ESA is starting a Phase-A study for this project.

Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.


The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)|

Blamires, David



Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.  


This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his death in 1927. The claim that there was a "substantial but cautious modification of Johannsen's phenotype-genotype distinction" (Churchill, 1974, p. 24) from a statistical to an individual ontological perspective derives from a misreading of the 1903 and 1909 texts. The immediate purpose of this paper is to correct this reading of the 1903 monograph by showing how its problems and results grow out of Johannsen's earlier work in heredity and plant breeding. Johannsen presented his famous selection experiment as the culmination of a line of criticism of orthodox Darwinism by William Bateson, Hugo de Vries, and others (Johannsen, 1903). They had argued that evolution is based on stepwise rather than continuous change in heredity. Johannsen's paradigmatic experiment showed how stepwise variation in heredity could be operationally distinguished from the observable, continuous morphological variation. To test Galton's law of partial regression, Johannsen deliberately chose pure lines of self-fertilizing plants, a pure line being the descendants in successive generations of one single individual. Such a population could be assumed to be highly homogeneous with respect to hereditary type, and Johannsen found that selection produced no change in this type. Galton, he explained, had experimented with populations composed of a number of stable hereditary types. The partial regression which Galton found was simply an effect of selection between types, increasing the proportion of some types at the expense of others. PMID:20027784

Roll-Hansen, Nils



Approval of Existent Waste Packages and New Package Designs in Preparation for the Konrad Repository  

SciTech Connect

Low and intermediate level radioactive waste from German nuclear and other industries, research facilities and increasingly decommissioned nuclear installations is handled and prepared for interim storage and later disposal in the licensed KONRAD repository. This paper presents aspects, experiences and perspectives of container design testing and qualification procedures. Several new container designs, in particular different types of steel plate containers, have been tested and licensed; some are handled at present or just applied. Examples from typical qualification procedures including drop tests from 0.8 and 5 m height with prototype containers are presented. On the other hand several thousand waste packages are currently stored in interim storage facilities, many of them for more than 10 or 15 years. Based on existing package documentation applications and safety assessments for KONRAD are prepared and have to be evaluated. The paper discusses aspects, difficulties and strategies to demonstrate sufficient compliance to the current KONRAD repository requirements for the large number of existent waste packages. (authors)

Volzke, H.; Nieslony, G.; Hagenow, P. [BAM Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und - prufung, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)



A single camera roentgen stereophotogrammetry method for static displacement analysis.  


A new method to quantify motion or deformation of bony structures has been developed, since quantification is often difficult due to overlaying tissue, and the currently used roentgen stereophotogrammetry method requires significant investment. In our method, a single stationary roentgen source is used, as opposed to the usual two, which, in combination with a fixed radiogram cassette holder, forms a camera with constant interior orientation. By rotating the experimental object, it is possible to achieve a sufficient angle between the various viewing directions, enabling photogrammetric calculations. The photogrammetric procedure was performed on digitised radiograms and involved template matching to increase accuracy. Co-ordinates of spherical markers in the head of a bird (Rhea americana), were calculated with an accuracy of 0.12mm. When these co-ordinates were used in a deformation analysis, relocations of about 0.5mm could be accurately determined. PMID:10807998

Gussekloo, S W; Janssen, B A; George Vosselman, M; Bout, R G



Wilhelm Weinberg's 1913 Large Retrospective Cohort Study: A Rediscovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilhelm Weinberg, German physician, founder, and president of the Stuttgart Society for Racial Hygiene, published in 1913 the results of a large, retrospective cohort study entitled Die Kinder der Tuberkuloesen (Children of the Tuberculous). The exposed cohort comprised 18,212 children whose 3,246 fathers and 2,022 mothers died of tuberculosis between 1873 and 1902. The unexposed cohort comprised 7,574 children whose

Alfredo Morabia; Regina Guthold


Xspect - A telescope/spectrometer system on Spectrum Roentgen Gamma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and operation of the X-ray telescope and spectrometer instrument Xspect are described. Xspect is being developed under Danish/Soviet cooperation for the planned Spectrum Roentgen-Gamma orbiting astronomical observatory (scheduled launch 1993). The system comprises: (1) two 60-cm-aperture 8-m thin-foil conical shell telescopes approximating Wolter I optics for half-power widths of less than 2 arcmin and collecting areas 1700 and 1200 sq cm at 2 and 8 keV, respectively; (2) a detector system (position-sensitive proportional counters and solid-state spectrometer arrays are being evaluated); (3) a Bragg objective-crystal spectrometer; and (4) the structural and thermal assembly and star trackers. The sensitivity of the instrument in survey observations is demonstrated by means of simulated data, and the scientific objectives are briefly indicated.

Schnopper, Herbert W.


Wilhelm Ludwig and his contributions to population genetics.  


This article reviews the life and work of the German biologist Wilhelm Ludwig (1901-1959), whose contributions to population genetics have been largely ignored. Ludwig's work was a rich tapestry of population biology, spanning investigations into population growth, biological asymmetries, sex ratio, and paternity analysis. He was ahead of his time in explicitly combining the theory of population ecology and population genetics. His classic paper on annidation showed the possibility of population differentiation in the face of gene flow, and his early studies demonstrated the importance of selection in evolutionary change. Much of his work spanned the period of the Second World War in Germany, and interesting questions remain about his life during this turbulent period. PMID:21232329

Antonovics, J



Astronomical research in Kassel under Wilhelm IV. (German Title: Die astronomischen Forschungen in Kassel unter Wilhelm IV.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the reign of the learned Landgrave Wilhelm IV (1567-1592), Kassel was a centre of astronomical research. The observatory, founded in 1560, was the first permanent astronomical observatory of the modern age. Jost Bürgi and Christoph Rothmann were outstanding scholars at that observatory. Around 1586 the first stellar catalogue of the modern history of astronomy was established there, based on own observations. This book outlines the scientific work of the Kassel observatory on the basis of sources, which were partly use for the first time. The second part contains a partial edition of the German translation of the main work of Copernicus, made in 1586 in Kassel - an excellent document of the history of science and especially of the intellectual climate at the court of the Landgrave of Hesse.

Hamel, Jürgen; Rothenberg, Eckehard; von Mackensen, Ludolf


Wilhelm Troll (1897 - 1978): idealistic morphology, physics, and phylogenetics.  


Idealistic morphology as articulated by the botanist Wilhelm Troll, the main target of the critique voiced by the early phylogeneticists, was firmly embedded in its contemporary scientific, cultural, and political context. Troll appealed to theoretical developments in contemporary physics in support of his research program. He understood burgeoning quantum mechanics not only to threaten the unity of physics, but also the validity of the principle of causality. Troll used this insight in support of his claim of a dualism in biology, relegating the causal-analytical approach to physiology, while rejuvenating the Goethean paradigm in comparative morphology. This embedded idealistic morphology in the völkisch tradition that characterized German culture during the Weimar Republic and its aftermath. In contrast, the contemporary phylogeneticists anchored their research program in the rise of logical positivism and in Darwin's principle of natural selection. This, in turn, brought phylogenetic systematists of the late 1930s and early 1940s into the orbit of national-socialist racial theory and eugenics. In conclusion, the early debate between idealistic morphologists and phylogenetic systematists was not only ideologically tainted, but also implied a philosophical impasse that is best characterized as a conflict between the Goethean and Newtonian paradigm of natural science. PMID:22696827

Rieppel, Olivier



[Roentgen rays in the Spanish-American War].  


The Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, only 28 months after Roentgen discovered some mysterious rays. It was a war of short duration in which bloody battles with numerous casualties took place in Cuba within a few days a period. In this conflict North American military physicians employed the recently discovered and poorly known rays in the study of gunshot wounds. The early use of x-rays in the first important war after their discovery reveals a great sensitivity and attention of is highest military command and an exemplary preparation of its Medical Camps to use potentially efficient modern means to achieve their goals. The use of x-rays in this brief but key war conclusively demonstrated the usefulness of this technique in the management of war wounds, brought about a revolutionary change in the methods and criteria of diagnosis and treatment, and represented an enormous benefit for this type of patient. The knowledge acquired was applied in medical and surgical environments throughout the world and profoundly transformed healthcare. This rigorous and opportune experience was a transcendental scientific advance in the field of medicine, is a landmark in the history of radiology and deserves to be well known and recognized by all, especially by those who later on made of these rays their specialty. PMID:17058372

Bonmatí, J


"My goose child Martina": the multiple uses of geese in the writings of Konrad Lorenz.  


In 1935, the graylag goose Martina (1935-?) hatched from an egg in the home of the zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989). Martina imprinted on Lorenz, slept in his bedroom, mated with the gander Martin, and flew off in 1937. Over the following decades, Konrad Lorenz helped to establish the discipline of ethology, received a share of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and continued to write about his famous goose Martina. This essay examines the different instantiations of the geese in general, and Martina in particular, in Lorenz's writings aimed at readerships that included prewar zoologists, National Socialist psychologists, and popular audiences from the 1930s to 1980s. By developing an animal with her own biography, Lorenz created an individual whose lived and rhetorical agency made her especially well suited to perform widely divergent aspects of his evolving science. While a significant literature in the history of science has explored the standardization and stabilization of animals in science, I show how Lorenz's creation of a highly protean and increasingly public Martina was co-constitutive of the establishment of the science and public persona. PMID:22363967

Munz, Tania



Stranded in Vienna: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) (German Title: Gestrandet in Wien: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Ebert, born 1871 in Leipzig, did study astronomy for a short time in Geneva and afterwards in Munich where he finished his PhD. He spent most of his scientific life in France, working on problems of latitude determination and celestial mechanics, mostly at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. He was member of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Probably he used some of the regular meetings of the AG to introduce his work to German astronomers - for a rather short time he worked at the observatories of Kiel, Straßburg and Greifswald. In Greifswald he qualified for giving university lectures and he started to collect astronomical instruments to establish an observatory. M. Loewy, at that time director of Paris observatory, asked him to come back to France, first he had a position at Nice Observatory and shortly afterwards in Paris again. In 1909 he decided to live in Vienna, once more he applied for the qualification of giving university lectures; this time the procedure was easy going. He announced quite a lot of courses but nobody knows if they really took place. From February 1915 until his death in November 1916 he stayed in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna suffering from a disease which was uncurable at that time. His wife tried to get some information about his death in 1937. Already at that time he was unknown to the members of Vienna Observatory.

Schnell, Anneliese



Influence of serotonin on fraction of lesions in DNA induced by ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The influence of serotonin on the yield of thymine dimers and rupture of the N-glycoside bond (the yield of thymine in DNA irradiated with ultraviolet light and roentgen irradiation) was studied by means of two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. It was found that serotonin bound to DNA decreases the formation of UV-induced thymine dimers, but has no effect on the number of breaks in the N-glycoside bond in thymidine residues induced by roentgen irradiation. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the question of the mechanisms of the protective effect of serotonin in the photoprotection of yeast cells against the lethal action of UV- and roentgen radiation.

Ivanova, E.V.; Fraikin, G.Ya.




Microsoft Academic Search

A case of an extensive chronic roentgen-ray dermatosis on the face of a ; 68 year old man is reported which developed approximately thirty years after x-; ray treatment for sycosis barbae and eczema on the hands. Both fore-arms were ; amputated six and fourteen years after radiation therapy because of severe ; destructive lesions. Within the area of this





Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of pepsin exposed to roentgen irradiation was found to ; depend on the concentration of the enzyme during irradiation and the addition of ; organic compounds to the enzyme solution before radiation exposure. Pepsin was ; found to provide a significant selfprotection from radiation inactivation. ; Albumin protected pepsin from radiation to a degree which is comparable to

M. K. Loken; K. W. Stenstrom; J. F. Marvin; D. G. Mosser



Reading Wisdom with Reich: Proverbs 8-9 as Interpreted through the Psychotherapy of Wilhelm Reich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychology of Wilhelm Reich suggests a hermeneutic that can illuminate the somato-psychic concepts of Hokhmah or Holy Wisdom as presented in the Hebrew of Proverbs 8-9. Reich's psychology departs from his mentor Freud in its presentation of a living system that includes \\

Neil Douglas-Klotz


Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

Messling, Markus



Wilhelm Bleek and the Khoisan Imagination: A Study of Censorship, Genocide and Colonial Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1864, Wilhelm Bleek published a collection of Khoi narratives titled Reynard the Fox in South Africa, or Hottentot Fables and Tales. This article critically examines this foundational event in South African literary history, arguing that it entailed a Victorian circumscription of the Khoisan imagination, containing its libidinal and transgressive energies within the generic limits of the naïve European children's

Hermann Wittenberg



Wilhelm von Humboldt and the representative assemblies of the Basque Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article Joseba Agirreazkuenaga gives an account of Wilhelm von Humboldt's writings on the political culture of the Basque people. Humboldt had made two visits to the Basque country in 1799 and 1801, and after leaving public life published his observations about them in 1821. He saw the Basques as having developed a distinctive political culture, which was based




A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1909: Wilhelm Ostwald  

Microsoft Academic Search

This, the third of a series of thirteen articles on Nobel Laureates in chemical dynamics, features the work of Wilhelm Ostwald, who won the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on catalysis, equilibria, and reaction rates. The first two articles in this series discussed two of Ostwald's students--Jacobus van't Hoff (Nobel 1901) and Svante Arrhenius (Nobel 1903). Ostwald's own

Josh van Houten



Blood, Breath, Fears Redux, and Panic Attacks: Comment on Roth, Wilhelm, and Pettit (2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the hyperventilation theory (HVT) of panic attacks (PAs) proposed by R. Ley in the context of criticisms raised by W. T. Roth, F. H. Wilhelm, and D. Pettit (2005). Their interpretation of HVT is flawed by misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and oversimplification of the complex psychophysiological principles on which current HVT is based. Consequently, the \\

Ronald Ley



Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.  


This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

Triarhou, Lazaros C



Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>prologueThe equilibrium model of G.N. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg showed that sterilization of affected individuals themselves would never appreciably reduce the incidence of mental disorders, which were thought to be inherited in a recessive manner. Only a hideously massive program ÃÂ sterilizing or segregating the vast reservoir of heterozygous carriers predicted by the model ÃÂ would have any hope of reducing the incidence of mental illness.



The observatory of the Emperor Wilhelm University: the people behind the documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an overview of the personnel of Strasbourg Observatory between 1872 and 1919, by making use of official documents, recollections of Wilhelm Foerster and Hermann Kobold, reports and bibliographies. The careers of almost all scientific workers are briefly described, and supplemented by illustrations. In addition, the major projects carried out at the observatory are outlined, including those which were continued after the first world war, and the experiments which led to the development of a seismological station in Strasbourg. An Appendix includes the bibliography of PhD theses and of annual reports.

Duerbeck, H. W.


A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1909: Wilhelm Ostwald  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This, the third of a series of thirteen articles on Nobel Laureates in chemical dynamics, features the work of Wilhelm Ostwald, who won the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on catalysis, equilibria, and reaction rates. The first two articles in this series discussed two of Ostwald's students--Jacobus van't Hoff (Nobel 1901) and Svante Arrhenius (Nobel 1903). Ostwald's own studies of catalysis were guided by the work of those two former students. Ostwald's name remains associated with the catalytic process used to manufacture nitric acid from ammonia.

van Houten, Josh



Standardization of Containers for Radwaste from Operating and Decommissioned Nuclear Facilities for Final Storage in Konrad Mine. Revised Version. As of November 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compilation gives a survey on the present state of the investigations and talks on harmonization in the field of standardization of radioactive waste containers for final storage in the pit 'Konrad'. The results presented are contained i.a. in the fin...



Refracting Roentgen's rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging  

SciTech Connect

Absorption-contrast x-ray imaging serves to visualize the variation in x-ray attenuation within the volume of a given sample, whereas phase contrast allows one to visualize variations in x-ray refractive index. The former imaging mechanism has been well known and widely utilized since the time of Roentgen's Nobel prize winning work, whereas the latter mechanism--sought for, but not found, by Roentgen himself--has laid the foundation for a revolution in x-ray imaging which is the central topic of this review. We consider the physical imaging mechanisms underlying both absorption contrast and phase contrast, together with the associated inverse problem of how one may obtain quantitative two- or three-dimensional information regarding a sample, given one or more phase-contrast images of the same. Practical questions are considered, regarding optimized phase-contrast imaging geometries as a function of detector resolution, source size, x-ray spectrum, and dose. Experimental examples pertaining to biomedical applications are given, and prospects for the future outlined.

Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Wilkins, S. W. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Myers, D. E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Department of Medicine (RMH/WH), University of Melbourne, Clinical Sciences Building, Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050 (Australia); Paganin, D. M. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)



Wilhelm von Humboldt and the ‘Orient’: On Edward W. Said’s remarks on Humboldt’s Orientalist studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt’s studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed. Penguin Books, London, 1995] considers Humboldt to be part of the “official

Markus Meßling



Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon



Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon



Double-segment Wilhelm Tell technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in unstable isthmic spondylolisthesis and adjacent segment discopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wilhelm Tell technique is a novel instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure using a specially designed composite carbon fibre cage and a single short-threaded cancellous screw that obliquely passes through the upper adjacent vertebral body, the interbody cage itself and through the lower adjacent vertebral body. This single-stage fusion method, which is in principle a combination of the

Markus Wenger; Emanuel Vogt; Thomas-Marc Markwalder



[The letters of Ernst Wilhelm Brücke to Rudolf Virchow 1850-1857].  


Rudolf Virchow is one of the most prominent German physician of the nineteenth century. Virchow pioneered the modern concept of pathological processes by his application of the cell theory to explain the effects of disease in the organs and tissues of the body. He emphasized that diseases arose, not in organs or tissues in general, but primarily in their individual cells. Moreover, he campaigned vigorously for social reforms and contributed to the development of anthropology as a modern science. Ernst Wilhelm Brücke was an important researcher in most fields of physiology. His works were epoch-making and influential for our knowledge of the nature of cells and his optical works made the basis for the invention of the eye mirror which was later constructed by Helmholtz. He also is also known for his work on the physiology of language. For the first time the correspondence between these scientific celebrities is published. PMID:23868551

Andree, Christian



Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João



PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J Eiglsperger, H Cruz, P Raab, I Cirac, G Muga, J Larson, V Dodonov, W Becker Back row: A Eckardt, A Siddiki, K Vafayi, M Holthaus, E Räsänen, M Rodriguez, O Kullie, D Miloševi?, J Briggs, A Ribeiro, (not in the picture W Zwerger)

Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias



Charles Darwin and other great men in correspondence with Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli.  


The great Swiss-German botanist Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli (1817-1891) was a student of Lorenz Oken, A.P. de Candolle, and Matthias Jacob Schleiden and became a key figure in "genetic" (i.e., evolutionary-developmental) biology in the mid-late 19th century. He was an expert on the hawk-weed, Hieracium and also made important contributions to microbiology. One of his many outstanding students was Carl Correns, one of the 3 rediscoverers of Mendel's work. Naegeli was an early proponent and defender of Darwin. The correspondence preserved in the Naegeli family contains many important letters between Naegeli and his contemporaries. Those from Mendel to Naegeli have passed out of the Naegeli family and were published by Correns earlier in the century. However, exceptionally notable items still in the archives of the Naegeli family include 4 surviving letters from Darwin, 2 letters from Virchow, and 10 from Justus von Liebig. In spite of a lack of appreciation of Mendel's work, we call attention to the importance of those surviving documents from an era in which very few of the greatest naturalists and founders of modern biology--including Goethe, Darwin, Galton, Agassiz, von Humboldt, von Baer--were without "blind spots." PMID:8484417

Naegeli, W; Wiedemann, H R



Physiological optics, cognition and emotion: a novel look at the early work of Wilhelm Wundt.  


The German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, who later founded experimental psychology, arguably developed the first modern scientific conception of emotion. In the first edition of Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Thierseele (Lectures on human and animal psychology), which was published in 1863, Wundt tried to establish that emotions were essential parts of rational thought. In fact, he considered them unconscious steps of decision-making that were implied in all processes of conscious thought. His early work deserves attention not only because it is the attempt to conceptualize cognition and emotion strictly from a neural point of view but also because it represents the very foundation of the debate about the nature of emotion that revolved around William James' theory of emotion during the 1890s. However, this aspect of his work is little known because scholars who have analyzed Wundt's work focused on his late career. Furthermore, historical analysis interpreted Wundt's work within a philosophical framework, rather than placing it in the context of German medical and physiological research in which it belongs. In addition, Wundt's early works are hardly available to an English speaking audience because they were never translated. PMID:18948411

Wassmann, Claudia



Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.  

PubMed Central

Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a

Sellers, C



Selection within organisms in the nineteenth century: Wilhelm Roux's complex legacy.  


Selectionism, or the extension of darwinian chance/selection dynamics beyond the individual level, has a long history in biological thought. It has generated important theories in immunology or neurology, and turns out to be a convincing framework to account for the intrinsic stochastic nature of core events in cellular biology. When looking back at the intellectual origins of selectionism, the essay by the German embryologist Wilhelm Roux, Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus (The Struggle of the Parts in the Organism - 1881) might be one, if not the earliest reference after the darwinian revolution. It describes the individual as a multilevel structure, where each level results from a 'darwinian' struggle of its parts (molecules, cells, tissues, organs). But Roux's theory, far from being a simple extension of natural selection, has complex and even conflictual relationships with darwinism. This essay is worth rediscovering as a subtle historical testimony of the evolutionary and developmental life sciences debates of its time. Moreover, some of its theses may also enrich some current debates among evolutionary biologists over levels of selection, and among cellular and molecular biologists over the status of determinism in biology today. PMID:22525790

Heams, Thomas



Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome and its equipment with a telescope and, thus, laid the base for the modern Urania Popular Observatory. Please note: The printed version contains an error: Unfortunately, Reinhard E. Schielicke was not indicated as co-author of this paper.

Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.


[Capabilities of roentgen-endovascular surgery in conditions of the central multi-field clinical hospital union].  


Spanning 45 years team of the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 has achieved high results and made the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 one of the best medical centers of Russia providing state-of-the art care for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays the Center of interventional radiology and treatment provides all methods of roentgen-endovascular interventions on coronary, peripheral, cerebral vasculature, veins and bile ducts. The center has modern diagnostic and treatment equipment: digital angiography system with 3-dimensional angiography, 3D-navigation and CT angiography. Annually, about 1500 diagnostic coronarography and about 500 percutaneous coronary interventions are performed in the hospital. More than a half of peripheral arterial intervention is endovascular. The examples of such operations as single-step iliac artery stenting, inferior vena cava thrombectomy, embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the posterior cranial fossa, percutaneous transhepatic paracentetic cholangiostomy are given. PMID:24000616

Beliakin, S A; Ivanov, V A; Shklovski?, B L; Ivanov, A V



Histrionicotoxins: roentgen-ray analysis of the novel allenic and acetylenie spiroalkaloids isolated from a Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus.  


The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs. PMID:5288773

Daly, J W; Karle, I; Myers, C W; Tokuyama, T; Waters, J A; Witkop, B



Histrionicotoxins: Roentgen-Ray Analysis of the Novel Allenic and Acetylenic Spiroalkaloids Isolated from a Colombian Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus  

PubMed Central

The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs. Images

Daly, John W.; Karle, Isabella; Myers, Charles W.; Tokuyama, Takashi; Waters, James A.; Witkop, Bernhard



Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and plaque, still image with detailSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torch Eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ÃÂ with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg.



Suffering in Konrad Fleck’s Flore und Blanscheflur as a Catalyst in the Meeting with the Foreign: Emotional Bonds with the Orient in a Late-Medieval Sentimental Romance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already in the twelfth century European audiences learned about the later significantly popular account of Floire and Blancheflor\\u000a which emphasizes the far-reaching impact that deeply erotic emotions can have on political power structures. The Middle High\\u000a German sentimental version by Konrad Fleck serves here as a platform to analyze how much influence true love could have on\\u000a the behavior of

Albrecht Classen


Errichtung einer Windkraftanlage Typ WKA 60 mit rund 1,4 MW Nennleistung der Fa. MAN Technologie auf dem Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog, Dithmarschen. Schlussbericht. (Erection of a wind turbine Typ WKA 60 with about 1,4 MW rated power of MAN Technologie of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog, Dithmarschen. Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PreussenElektra Windkraft Schleswig-Holstein GmbH erected on the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog a wind turbine with a rated power of 1200 kW. The plant was installed from June 1991 until September 1991 at site. Following that, it was put into operation. Some detaile...

M. Bartsch K. Benndorf H. Bouillon P. Hauke H. J. Kuettner



The evolution of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia: from the dental school of Bogotá to Waldemar Wilhelm and his legacy.  


The evolution of the dental specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) in Colombia can be attributed to a myriad of altruistic, visionary leaders who paved the way for future generations. The process started with the indigenous groups who inhabited Colombia before Spanish rule, and continued with the founding of the Dental School of Bogotá in 1888 and the subsequent efforts of Waldemar Wilhelm in 1950, and consolidated with Wilhelm's legacy and surgical descendants. This article recognizes the pioneers, analyzes the circumstances under which they worked, describes how Colombian oral and maxillofacial surgeons fought plastic surgeons for the right to be in the operating room, and details the events involved in the structuring of the different oral and maxillofacial surgery residency programs in Colombia today. PMID:23691775

Castro-Núñez, Jaime



Development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.



[Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].  


During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

Meister, Kay



Treating Epiphora in Adults With the Wilhelm Plastic Nasolacrimal Stent: Mid-Term Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25-88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed.

Ciampi, Juan J., E-mail:; Lanciego, Carlos [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); Navarro, Sofia [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Ophthalmology Service (Spain); Cuena, Rafael [Research-Statistics Unit of the Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo (Spain); Velasco, Javier [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); Perea, Miguel [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Ophthalmology Service (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, Lorenzo [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain)



Double-segment Wilhelm Tell technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in unstable isthmic spondylolisthesis and adjacent segment discopathy.  


The Wilhelm Tell technique is a novel instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure using a specially designed composite carbon fibre cage and a single short-threaded cancellous screw that obliquely passes through the upper adjacent vertebral body, the interbody cage itself and through the lower adjacent vertebral body. This single-stage fusion method, which is in principle a combination of the Louis technique and modern cage surgery, is reported to have a lower rate of pseudoarthrosis formation than stand-alone cage techniques. In addition, it eliminates both the surgical trauma of paravertebral muscle retraction and the risk of neural damage by poorly located pedicular screws. This anterior approach allows decompression of neural structures within the anterior part of the spinal canal and the foraminal region. It is the purpose of this case report, to present the successful application of this novel technique in a 32-year-old woman who concurrently suffered from severe instability-related back pain from L4/5 isthmic spondylolisthesis and marked L5/S1 degenerative disc disease. PMID:16459090

Wenger, Markus; Vogt, Emanuel; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc



Three-dimensional kinematics of skeletal elements in avian prokinetic and rhynchokinetic skulls determined by Roentgen stereophotogrammetry.  


Several different types of cranial kinesis are present within modern birds, enabling them to move (part of) the upper bill relative to the braincase. This movement of the upper bill results from movement of the quadrate and the pterygoid-palatine complex (PPC). The taxon Palaeognathae is characterised by a very distinct PPC and a special type of cranial kinesis (central kinesis) that is very different from that found in the Neognathae. This has led some authors to hypothesise that there is a functional relationship between the morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. This hypothesis is tested here by analysing the movement pattern of both the upper bill and the PPC in birds with three different types of cranial kinesis: prokinesis, distal rhynchokinesis and central rhynchokinesis. Movement patterns were determined using a Roentgen stereophotogrammetry method, which made it possible to detect very small displacements (0.5 mm) of bony elements in three dimensions, while the jaw muscles and ligaments remained intact. We found that in all types of kinesis investigated the movements of the quadrate, jugal bars and PPC are similar. Movement of the quadrate is transferred to the upper beak by the jugal bar and the PPC, which moves almost exclusively forwards and backwards, thereby elevating or depressing the upper bill. The differences between the types of kinesis lie only in the position of the point of rotation. These findings indicate that there is no correlation between the specific morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. Several other factors, including the external forces applied during food acquisition, may influence the morphology of the PPC. Differences in PPC morphology therefore appear to be the result of different functional demands acting on the system simultaneously but with different strengths, depending on the species. PMID:11316494

Gussekloo, S W; Vosselman, M G; Bout, R G



Unraveling the neuron jungle: the 1879-1886 publications by Wilhelm His on the embryological development of the human brain.  


The neuron doctrine, one of the central paradigms of the neurological sciences, states that neurons are individual units. Wilhelm His helped to lay the scientific foundation for the neuron doctrine. This Swiss researcher's experimental approach, which was based on the examination of embryological material, is of particular interest because few investigators at that time were using it. Only selected excerpts from His' seminal 1886 work have been translated into English. Therefore, details regarding his experimental materials and primary observations are unavailable to the American reader. Our objective was to translate additional sections of the seminal 1886 publication and, when relevant, portions of previously untranslated works dating back to 1879 and 1883 so that we could better understand this embryologist's experimental materials, his primary observations, and the basis for his conclusions. By 1886, His had compiled a collection of 12 human embryos of various measured lengths and estimated gestational ages ranging from 2.15 mm to 24 mm, and 2 weeks to 8.5 weeks. He had studied the embryological development of nerve fibers in successively older specimens. For example, he contrasted the young embryo N, whose "nerves. stop only halfway and the distal part [of the extremity] is completely nerve-free," with the older embryo Zw, in which the nerves had already reached "the root of the fingers but none [were] in the territory of the end phalanges." In the 1870s and 1880s, using a discrete collection of 12 human embryos of consecutively older ages, His observed the development of nerve fibers and, from this pattern of growth, eventually suggested that nerve cells were individual units and that the transmission of impulses was possible without direct continuity between neurons. Although this age-based embryological approach seems relatively straightforward by today's standards, few other researchers were using it at the time. PMID:11709006

Louis, E D; Stapf, C




PubMed Central

The x-ray has a specific effect upon the epithelium lining the crypts and covering the villi of the small intestine. A suitable dose of x-ray will destroy this epithelium in large measure, leaving empty crypts and naked villi exposed to swarms of bacteria in the intestine. Subsequently one does not observe an overwhelming invasion of the tissues, lymph, and blood by intestinal bacteria. It seems obvious therefore that the intestinal epithelium is not the all important barrier which protects the tissues from invasion by intestinal bacteria.

Warren, S. L.; Whipple, G. H.



Improvement in the clinical practicability of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA): free from the use of the dual X-ray equipment.  


After total knee replacement, the monitoring of the prosthetic performance is often done by roentgenographic examination. However, the two-dimensional (2D) roentgen images only provide information about the projection onto the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) planes. Historically, the model-based roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) technique has been developed to predict the spatial relationship between prostheses by iteratively comparing the projective data for the prosthetic models and the roentgen images. During examination, the prosthetic poses should be stationary. This should be ensured, either by the use of dual synchronized X-ray equipment or by the use of a specific posture. In practice, these methods are uncommon or technically inconvenient during follow-up examination. This study aims to develop a rotation platform to improve the clinical applicability of the model-based RSA technique. The rotation platform allows the patient to assume a weight-bearing posture, while being steadily rotated so that both AP and ML knee images can be obtained. This study uses X-ray equipment with a single source and flat panel detectors (FPDs). Four tests are conducted to evaluate the quality of the FPD images, steadiness of the rotation platform, and accuracy of the RSA results. The results show that the distortion-induced error of the FPD image is quite minor, and the prosthetic size can be cautiously calibrated by means of the scale ball(s). The rotation platform should be placed closer to the FPD and orthogonal to the projection axis of the X-ray source. Image overlap of the prostheses can be avoided by adjusting both X-ray source and knee posture. The device-induced problems associated with the rotation platform include the steadiness of the platform operation and the balance of the rotated subject. Sawbone tests demonstrate that the outline error, due to the platform, is of the order of the image resolution (= 0.145 mm). In conclusion, the rotation platform with steady rotation, a knee support, and a handle can serve as an alternative method to take prosthetic images, without the loss in accuracy associated with the RSA method. PMID:23157078

Shih, Kao-Shang; Lee, Chian-Her; Syu, Ci-Bin; Lai, Jiing-Yih; Chen, Kuo-Jen; Lin, Shang-Chih



The Marshall Space Flight Center development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module consist of 28 nested Ni/Co thin shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of these modules to the IKI is scheduled for summer 2013. We present a status of the ART x-ray modules development at the MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.



The case of Heinrich Wilhelm Poll (1877-1939): a German-Jewish geneticist, eugenicist, twin researcher, and victim of the Nazis.  


This paper uses a reconstruction of the life and career of Heinrich Poll as a window into developments and professional relationships in the biological sciences in Germany in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century to the Nazi seizure of power in 1933. Poll's intellectual work involved an early transition from morphometric physical anthropology to comparative evolutionary studies, and also found expression in twin research--a field in which he was an acknowledged early pioneer. His advocacy of eugenics led to participation in state-sponsored committees convened to advise on social policy, one of which debated sterilisation and made recommendations that led eventually to the establishment of the notorious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. However, his status as a prominent geneticist and, in particular, as a eugenicist had an ironic and ultimately tragic dimension. Heinrich Poll was of Jewish birth, and this resulted in his career being destroyed by an application of the population policies he had helped put in place. PMID:19048794

Braund, James; Sutton, Douglas G



[The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].  


The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand, following Reichenbach's theory of the "od", rejected Beneke's philosophy because he himself joined another philisophy on the basis of the christian religion. However, when Reichenbach's latest book on these problems appeared in 1854, Beneke and Mayrhofer had died shortly before and no further discussion was possible. But Reichenbach's theory, based on the ideas of Mesmerism, and the controversial discussion about new explanations of the phenomenona seen by sensitive persons are characteristic for this time and also for our time as such perceptions are not entirely denied but thought over in a new way. PMID:6156792

Habacher, M



License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben ...

E. Biurrun B. Hartje



Making filmless radiology work  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESPITE 2 DECADES of optimistic and confident predictions that filmless radiology was imminent, the centennial commemoration of Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray will come and go this year with only a small number of radiology departments interpreting more than a small fraction of imaging studies using a computer workstation. The reasons for this undoubtedly representa combination of economic constraints,

Eliot L. Siegel; John N. Diaconis; Stephen Pomerantz; Robert Allman; Brian Briscoe



[Conventional roentgen diagnosis of induratio penis plastica].  


The therapeutic decision in the management of Peyronie's disease depends on the confirmation or exclusion of inflammatory activity. Plain films of the penis in mammographic technique demonstrate the presence of fibrotic or calcified areas, in which conservative treatment is not more effective. In twelve out of 32 patients, we found calcifications of various size. PMID:1799848

Platzbecker, H; Köhler, K; Böhm, W D



Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma astrophysical mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectrum-RG (SRG) mission, to be launched in 2011, will conduct the first all-sky survey in the 0.1-15 keV band via two imaging telescope systems, eROSITA and ART-XC. These will enable the detection of about 100 thousand clusters of galaxies and the mapping of the large scale structure of the Universe. They will also discover all obscured accreting Black Holes in nearby galaxies and about >=3 million new, distant AGNs. In the course of the survey mode two sky regions around the celestial polar zones will be observed with much higher sensitivity. Then, selected sources and dedicated sky regions will be observed in a pointing mode with high sensitivity in order to investigate the nature of dark matter and dark energy. An X-Ray Calorimeter, the SXC experiment, will permit observations of the brightest clusters of galaxies with record energy resolution in pointing mode and mapping of the hot intergalactic medium in the survey mode.

Pavlinsky, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Mitsuda, K.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Ohashi, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Fujimoto, R.



[Roentgen image presentation in the patient's room. Simple equipment for demonstration and storage of roentgen images].  


Immediate presentation of the more significant X-ray pictures facilitates planning and supervision of therapy in trauma surgery and orthopedics. If a wire rope is stretched in front of the window X-ray pictures can be clipped onto it, which avoids time-consuming searches. Suspended filing boxes placed in each sickroom make appropriate storage of each patient's X-ray pictures possible. The expenditure for all this amounted to 100 DM for each two-bedded room. Wire ropes and boxes were technically easy to install with a minimum investment of time. The presentation of X-ray pictures considerably increased the patients' understanding of their illness. It was also very rare for X-ray pictures to get mixed up once this system had been instituted. PMID:9082570

Prokop, A; Rehm, K E; Sagebiel, A



[Prof. Carl Wilhelm von Zehender (1819-1916)--first professor of ophthalmology and co-founder of the ophthalmological clinic at the University of Rostock--commemorative lecture at the 100th DOG meeting in Berlin from 26.9 to 29.9.2002].  


The Grand-ducal University Eye Department in Rostock was solemnly inaugurated 16 May 1892. According to many years of studies in Europe and on efforts to build this clinic, construction was outlined by Professor Carl Wilhelm v. Zehender, but the drafts were executed by the "Grossherzoglich-Mecklenburgisch-Schwerinschen Medicinalcommission" and Landbaumeister Schlosser in winter 1888/89. Professor v. Zehender, who originated from a very ancient Swiss family, was born in Bremen, 21 May 1819. He studied medicine in Goettingen, Jena, Prague, Paris and Vienna. During this time he developed a lifelong friendship with Albrecht v. Graefe. 1856 he took over the medical care for the hereditary duke Georg von Mecklenburg-Strelitz and published the "Correspondenzblatt für Aerzte im Grossherzoglichen Mecklenburg-Strelitz". 1857, during a conference in Heidelberg, his initiative led in the long run to the establishment of the "Heidelberger Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft", the forerunner of the "Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft", which was founded in 1920. In 1863 the first edition of "Klinische Monatsblaetter für Augenheilkunde" was published as a periodical; the cover page bore its name as the founder of the magazine. In 1866, after the death of the hereditary duke and a professorship in his hometown Berne, he became honorary professor of the Rostock University, and from 1869 onwards he chaired the clinic as a regular professor. After all his efforts to build his own hospital had failed, he demonstratively and finally resigned from his professorship in 1889. He went to Munich and became editor of the " Klinische Monatsblaetter für Augenheilkunde". In 1907 he moved with his wife via Eutin to Warnemuende. There the nestor of world ophthalmologists died at the age of 98. His burial place without gravestone is situated in today's landscape park "Stephan Jantzen". So far all efforts of the author and of the Rostock University Eye Department taken after 1980 to create a worthy note to this exceptional ophthalmologist in the Baltic Sea resort Warnemuende were unsuccessful, also for financial reasons. But on 2.9.2002 with the help of the Lighthouse Club of Warnemuende a memorial plaque to Prof. C. W. v. Zehender was mounted on the guest house "Margarete". This plaque commemorates Professor Zehender's merits in establishing the DOG, planning and building the eye clinic of the university of Rostock. PMID:12612842

Stave, Joachim; Guthoff, Rudolf


Karl Wilhelm Theodor Richard von Hertwig (1850-1937): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a pioneer in the area of embryonic germ layers, who conceptualized the coelom still used in classification and phylogeny. He was also an influential teacher of zoology.

Katherine Brind'Amour (Arizona State University Embryo Project)



Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen



Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833–1834 he published excellent

Ilse Seibold; Eugen Seibold



A clínica pulsional de Wilhelm Reich: uma tentativa de atualização  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busca-se propor uma fundamentação da psicoterapia corporal de inspiração reichiana dentro do quadro de referência da pri meira teoria freudiana das pulsões. Tenta-se explicar os elementos próprios da abordagem reichiana a partir da idéia de uma dinâmica psíquica baseada no conflito entre pulsão e defesa. Também são discutidas, brevemente, algumas possibilidades de ampliação desse modelo a partir de propostas oriundas

Ricardo Amaral Rego



[Effects of the medical products legislation on roentgen services].  


On January 1, 1995 the law concerning medical products (Medizinproduktgesetz-MPG) came into force. It essentially regulates the production, circulation, and the putting into service of medical products as well as equipment. Among other things, the so-called active medical products include medical X-ray equipment whose aspects concerning atomic law remain covered by the radiation protection regulation for X-ray sources (RöV). Parallel to the coming into force of the MPG, the RöV was modified (Section 50, MPG), which in future might result in considerable consequences for the manufacturer, the operator, and the authorities. PMID:7495900

Ewen, K; Huhn, W; Reichow, H



The x-ray centennial--Thompsons and Thomsons.  


When x rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen in November, 1895, the news spread rapidly through Europe, Great Britain, and the United States and many individuals became involved in their development. Some of the more prominent participants shared the name of Thompson or Thomson, which causes confusion when the history of x rays is discussed because of their similar pronunciation. In Britain they were William Thompson (Lord Kelvin), J. J. Thomson, and Silvanus P. Thompson and in the United States it was Elihu Thomson. In addition, one of the first books on x rays published in the United States was written by Edward Thompson. PMID:8497211

Almond, P R



SciTech Connect

Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno



The causes of domestication: an attempt to integrate some ideas of konrad lorenz with evolution theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Allopatric cultivation, usually alters the habitat, and captivity, by definition, removes the developmental systems from the\\u000a range of environmental stimuli for which they have been stabilized.

H. Spurway



[Early description of a pulmonary aspergillosis 1847 from Greifswald].  


In 1847 the student of medicine Theodor Sluyter (1817-1895) from Greifswald published his thesis in Berlin including the first well-documented case of human pulmonary aspergillosis. In 1856 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) classified the depicted fungi as an Aspergillus species. Possibly Carl Ferdinand Eichstedt (1816-1892) carried out the autopsy. He is known by the first description of a fungus as the cause of pityriasis versicolor in 1846. Further involved scientists from Greifswald were Wilhelm Baum (1799-1883), Theodor Litzmann (1815-1890) and the botanist Johann Konrad Schauer (1813-1848). Their curricula vitae are given in further details as well the curriculum of T. Sluyter. PMID:12955852

Knoke, M; Bernhardt, Hannelore; Schwesinger, G



Radiation and health*  

PubMed Central

Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects.

Lindell, B.



[The story of the Wilhelm Malcz's "Warsaw Medical Journal" (1828-1829)].  


The "Warsaw Medical Journal" (Pamietnik Lekarski Warszawski), the first Polish scientific medical journal, was published in Warsaw in the years 1828 and 1829. Its editor and publisher was W. Malcz - a great social activist and distinguished doctor. The articles were written mainly by doctors, but also by pharmacists and a writer, who informed readers about the development of medicine at home and abroad, enabled them to raise their professional qualifications, and encouraged them to engage in academic and literary activity. The articles comprised original works, sophistry, translations from foreign periodicals, descriptions of new instruments, book reviews and correspondence from Paris. The range of topics in the "Warsaw Medical Journal" was very broad. Articles covered internal and external diseases and pharmacology. In 1830 the journal was made the official organ of the Warsaw Medical Society. But then the November Uprising broke out, and prevented the journal's further development. PMID:12940258

Marek, Anna



The Evolution of Starbursts: The 331st Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starbursts are a spectacular phase in the life of galaxies, with the potential of changing the appearance of the galaxy and enriching its environment with metals in galactic winds. They are a sign post of galaxy evolution and galaxy assembly at high redshifts. This volume brings together all aspects of starburst evolution, focusing on the much debated question of what triggers starbursts.

Hüttmeister, Susanne; Manthey, Eva; Bomans, Dominik; Weis, Kerstin



[Periodogram analysis for signal and noise evaluation in roentgen video signals].  


Movements of the heart, the large vessels and the gastrointestinal tract can be evaluated for diagnostic purposes using fluoroscopic video systems. A new means of quantitatively evaluating the signal and noise components of the video signal is described. The signal and noise power components are determined from the periodogram after prior Fourier analysis. Variance is reduced by averaging and keeping the measuring conditions constant. For measurements of signal transfer properties, a radiological phantom capable of producing sinusoidal movements of the edge of the object was developed. An analysis of the performance of the theoretically derived evaluation parameters was carried out at a fluoroscopic unit under clinical conditions. Periodogram analysis makes possible objective image quality evaluation in clinical motion studies and in the technical quality assurance of fluoroscopic video systems. The use of a compact PC-based video measuring system renders application both practical and easy. PMID:8580283

Baehring, T; Keller, A; Raue, I



An application of scanning electron microscopy combined with roentgen microanalysis (SEM-EDS) in canine urolithiasis.  


Urolithiasis is a common diagnostic and therapeutic problem in small-animal veterinary practice. The traditional diagnostic approach usually consists of clinical, radiological and ultrasonographic examination of the patient. The main diagnostic material is still urine sediment, ignoring the fact that presence of crystalluria is not always of pathological significance. In order to establish the most effective therapeutic and preventative strategies, especially in the case of multicomponent stone, it is crucial to define the exact elemental composition of the given stone including crystallization nidus chemical contents. In the course of the research, the usefulness of scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray-dispersive spectrometry in analysis of canine mixed and compound stones was investigated. The obtained results indicated that the tested method allows one to trace the dynamics of the crystallization process, including crystallization nucleus detection, and concurrently and quantitatively assess the elemental composition of the given urinary concrement. Moreover, the conducted research showed epidemiological data of urolithiasis occurrence in a population of dogs coming from the southern part of Poland. PMID:22155717

Kali?ski, Krzysztof; Marycz, Krzysztof; Czoga?a, Joanna; Serwa, Ewa; Janeczek, Witold



The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)

Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others



[The Roentgen's discovery -first press releases, research articles and textbooks in Kraków].  


The author presents Kraków's publications from the pioneering years of radiology. She also emphasises the great role of the publications in the development of this field in Kraków's medical environment PMID:23944112

Urbanik, Monika




Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the genetic changes of 2 generations from 644 ; women who had received 65 r to ovaries and 90 r to pituitary. It was found that ; despite claims that there is no safe dose, no increase in genetic damage was ; found. The incidence of genetic damage to these offspring was less than that



Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet x-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC offers many advantages: a uniform gas gain, an excellent energy resolution, the possibility to match the strip pitch to the desired positron resolution, a fast charge collection, and low operating voltages. However, a stable behavior of the MSPC requires a careful choice of both substrate and strip electrode material. The low energy detectors are equipped with polyimide windows of 0.5 micrometers thickness, providing a high quantum efficiency even at 200 eV with an energy resolution comparable to that of solid state detectors. The MSPC is capable of operating at high counting rates (10(superscript 5) ph s(superscript -1)) and the electronics are designed to match this capability.

Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Bahnsen, Axel; Christensen, Finn E.; Madsen, M. M.; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, Herbert W.



Correlation between systolic time intervals and roentgen findings in normal subjects and cardiopathic patients.  


This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of non-invasive parameters in the follow-up of cardiopathic patients without valvular cardiac diseases. In 49 patients suffering from heart disease we have studied the changes of radiologic cardiac measurements and systolic time intervals (STI) in the 4 functional classes of the NYHA classification, investigating also the existence of any relationship between these different parameters. Only the patients in the 3rd and the 4th functional classes showed significant changes in STI and radiologic measurements, as compared with the control group. Moreover, significant negative correlations have been observed between relative heart volume and LVET (r = 0.69, P less than 0.001) and LVETc (r = 0.82, P less than 0.001) and positive correlations between relative heart volume and PEP (r = 0.59, P less than 0.01) and PEP/LVET ratio (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). These results, while confirming the close correlation between STI and cardiac performance, seem to demonstrate that relative heart volumetry is a fairly accurate index of the cardiac conditions in non-valvular heart diseases. PMID:731935

Ferro, G; Chiariello, M; Trimarco, B; Perticone, F; Laccarino, V; Ricciardelli, B; Rengo, F



The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)|

Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others



Imaging the gallbladder: a historical perspective.  


After Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen's discovery of the X-ray in 1895, it was initially thought that gallstones could not be visualized. Surgeons relied solely on the clinical examination to detect biliary disease. Today, no evaluation of the gallbladder would be complete without the performance of an imaging study. Radiology has gone through several eras in the imaging of gallstones. The plain film era, 1895-1924, was characterized by techniques that improved soft-tissue detail, allowing better detection of radiopaque stones. The contrast media era, 1924-1960, was initiated by the invention of IV cholecystography. In 1925, oral cholecystography was developed. During the era of expanding technology, 1960-1979, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, scintigraphy, and sonography came into use. The therapeutic era began in the 1980s. PMID:2003437

Feld, R; Kurtz, A B; Zeman, R K



Radiography of the eye and orbit: a historical overview.  


The history of radiography and orbital imaging begins in 1895 with Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of x-rays. Over the next three quarters of a century, radiographic pioneers like Dr. William Sweet, who developed the Sweet method, and Dr. George E. Pfahler, who made the first successful pictures of a brain tumor, helped to bring radiography into the 20th century. With each new radiologic innovation producing a forward surge followed by a period of refinement, new methods were invented and utilized to their diagnostic limits. But perhaps none of the radiologic innovations of this century--the Coolidge tube, the Potter-Bucky diaphragm, tomography and angiography-will have more impact than computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:3043742

Taveras, J L; Haik, B G


[Quality assurance in roentgen diagnosis. 1996 results and problems from the viewpoint of the Medical Section in accordance with ordinance 16 of the roentgen regulation of the Saxony Regional Medical Group].  


The "Arztliche Stelle gemäss RöV" was established in Saxony in 1992. Structure and results of quality assurance in radiological diagnostics are described briefly. Quality checks delivered acceptable results for the majority of X-ray devices. Typical errors are shown and explained by using some X-ray pictures. PMID:9340208

Wicke, P; Böhme, K



Self-Enhancement Biases, Laboratory Experiments, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the Increasingly Crowded World of Organizational Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six colleagues have provided thorough commentaries on our justice review. These commentaries are thoughtful and insightful, each making a worthwhile contribution in its own right. We appreciate the time and effort that the commentators have taken. In this brief response, we give some modest reflections on what they have written, paying special attention to the few continuing areas of conceptual

Russell Cropanzano; Zinta S. Byrne; D. Ramona Bobocel; Deborah E. Rupp



Thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems: Progress and future directions (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the past thirty years has established that thermodynamic modeling is extremely useful for illuminating the production, transport, chemical differentiation, and eruptive potential of magmas. The key to successful modeling of this kind is the formulation of an internally consistent thermodynamic database that includes properties of liquid and solid endmember components, and - most importantly - a cohesive set

Mark S. Ghiorso



Markerless Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis for in vivo implant migration measurement using three dimensional surface models to represent bone.  


Recent studies have shown that model-based RSA using implant surface models to detect in vivo migration is as accurate as the classical marker-based RSA method. Use of bone surface models would be a further advancement of the model-based method by decreasing complications arising from marker insertion. The aim of this pilot investigation was to assess the feasibility of a "completely markerless" model-based RSA in detecting migration of an implant using bone surface models instead of bone markers. A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was performed on a human cadaver knee, which was subsequently investigated by repeated RSA measurements performed by one observer. The cadaver knee was CT scanned prior to implantation of the TKA. Tibia-fibular surface models were created using two different commercially available software packages to investigate the effect of segmentation software on the accuracy of repeated migration measures of zero displacement by one observer. Reverse engineered surface models of the TKA tibial component were created. The analysis of the RSA images was repeated 10 times by one individual observer. For the markerless method, the greatest apparent migration observed about the three anatomical axes investigated was between -2.08 and 1.35 mm (SD ? 0.88) for z-axis translation, and -4.57° to 7.86° (SD ? 3.17) for R(y)-axis rotation, which were well beyond out of the range of what is typically considered adequate for clinically relevant RSA measurements. Use of tibia-fibular surface models of the bone instead of markers could provide practical advantages in evaluating implant migration. However, we found the accuracy and precision of the markerless approach to be lower than that of marker-based RSA, to a degree which precludes the use of this method for measuring implant migration in its present form. PMID:22465625

Seehaus, Frank; Olender, Gavin D; Kaptein, Bart L; Ostermeier, Sven; Hurschler, Christof



[Effects of high iodine doses in parenteral roentgen contrast media administration on parameters of the pro-/antioxidant balance].  


The aim of this study was to investigate effects of high iodine doses given parenterally as contrast medium on parameters of lipid status and thyroid hormone status as well as on parameters of the pro/antioxidative balance of spa patients. 29 patients with a comparable indication who had to undergo an angiography were chosen. The blood parameters of these patients were determined before and after the angiographic treatment. No provable changes of the thyroid parameters f-T3, f-T4 and TSH were found after the angiography. In case of enzyme activities, the protective enzymes SOD and GSHPX showed no changes, while the concentrations of peroxides and MDA were increased significantly. Corresponding to this, the total antioxidative status and the vitamin E level decreased significantly. Altogether these results stand for a moderate deterioration of the antioxidative protective potential by the highly iodine containing contrast medium. PMID:12094394

Winkler, R; Griebenow, S; Scheidleder, B; Bailer, H



The thermal control system of the x-ray telescope eROSITA on Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray telescope eROSITA is the main instrument besides the Russian ART-XC on the Spektrum-Rontgen-Gamma mission. Starting from 2014, an all-sky survey will be performed in the range between 0.3-10keV, followed by pointed observations. The main objective of thismission is the detection of 100 0000 galaxy clusters in order to constrain cosmological parameters, amongst others the density distribution and evolution of dark energy. Due to the minimum lifetime of seven years the thermal control system has to be completely passive without any consumables. With the ideal operational temperature of the CCD cameras being between 173K and 183K, this requires a very effective heat rejection system, consisting of a complex heat pipe system and a good thermal insulation. Simultaneously, a very sensitive temperature control via variable conductance heat pipes is implemented. For special outgassing requirements at the betinning of the mission these heat pipes are not working after launch but can be switched on any time. On the other hand the mirror moduules have to be tempered at room temperature and more than 200W of the electronics have to be dissipated without affecting the surrounding components or the satellite structure. The thermal control system has to be able to keep up the required temperature range and has to guarantee the optimum working conditions for all parts of the instrument. Calculations and verification tests validated the thermal concept.

Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter; Tiedemann, Lars



Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

Bederson, Benjamin



The State of the Art of Medical Imaging Technology: from Creation to Archive and Back  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations.

Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui



The Case of Heinrich Wilhelm Poll (1877–1939): A German-Jewish Geneticist, Eugenicist, Twin Researcher, and Victim of the Nazis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a reconstruction of the life and career of Heinrich Poll as a window into developments and professional relationships\\u000a in the biological sciences in Germany in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century to the Nazi seizure of power\\u000a in 1933. Poll’s intellectual work involved an early transition from morphometric physical anthropology to comparative evolutionary\\u000a studies,

James Braund; Douglas G. Sutton



Sports in the German University from about 1900 until the Early Years of the Federal Republic of Germany: The Example of Muenster and the ‘Westfaelische Wilhelms-University’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of modern sports in Germany is related not only to the rapid progress of industrialisation and urbanisation at the turn of the nineteenth into the twentieth century, but also to the social inventiveness of the emergent German bourgeoisie. Modern sports were the invention of the so-called educated class. They were popular among the sons of the German elite.

Michael Krüger



Production, assembly, and alignment of the XSPECT mirror modules for the SODART x-ray telescope on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Danish Space Research Institute is supplying the high throughput x-ray concentrators, the so called SODART telescopes, to be flown on the Spectrum Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) satellite. We have completed the process of the developing, building, testing and calibrating the two flight units and one spare unit. Their design is based on the principle of multiple, concentrically nested foil mirrors constituting a conical approximation of the Wolter I geometry. We describe some aspects of the mechanical design, alignment and production process. The optical characteristics of the thin foil telescopes are partly determined by the optical characteristics of the foil mirrors and partly by the assembly and alignment tolerances. The influence of the mirror manufacture processes on some aspects of its optical characteristics is discussed. The concept and the steps of the assembly and alignment procedure are given. The process of obtaining the required accuracy involves a number of technological processes that need optimization in order to reduce the mechanical errors. The overall alignment was tested and improved by optical methods. The experience gained during the development and building of the SODART telescopes shows the potential for improvements in the utilization of the foil mirrors optical characteristics and in future thin foil telescope design and manufacture.

Polny, Josef; Westergaard, Niels J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Noergaard-Nielsen, Hans U.; Schnopper, Herbert W.



76 FR 53705 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Seductive Luxury and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David Roentgen'' SUMMARY: Notice is the exhibition ``Seductive Luxury and Innovation: The Furniture of Abraham and David Roentgen,'' imported from abroad...



[Prima inter pares--internal medicine in Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century].  


In 1901 the Society for Internal Medicine was founded, the purpose of which was to reestablish unity within the field of internal medicine. Paediatrics, dermatology, laryngology, and neurology had established themselves as independent specialties and the unity of internal medicine had disintegrated in the 19th century. On the basis of Nothnagel's complications (First Department of Medicine) and Schrötter's treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria (Third Department of Medicine), the 19th century continued to exert an influence on medicine until well into the first decade of the 20th century. Neusser furthered haematology and endocrinology and laid the foundations for the Central Roentgen Institute. Before the main task of neurological research became the concern of psychiatry, Frankl-Hochwart conducted research in the fields of neurology and neuro-endocrinology. With the appointment of Noorden, the study of pathological metabolism and diabetes became the principal concern of the First Medical Department. Nevertheless, the research work of his assistant Eppinger made a major contribution to electrocardiography in the first decade of our century. Similarly, Wilhelm Türk at Neusser's department helped to make Vienna a centre of haematology through his improvements in technique, his textbooks and, among other things, his description of agranulocystosis. Nesser's self-willed disciple, Franz Chvostek, continued to propagate making spot diagnoses, as introduced by his mentor, and Schrötter's disciple, Josef Sorgo, expanded on his teacher's endoscropic methods, which he eventually managed to develop into a new therapeutic procedure. Adolf von Strümpell took over Schrötter's "propaedeutic clinic," but returned to his homeland, Germany, a year after having been appointed to the position in Vienna. PMID:6649644

Wyklicky, H



Undergraduate Biomedical Imaging Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical engineers, with their training in the life sciences as well as engineering, mathematics and physical sciences, are uniquely poised to both support and advance biomedical imaging technologies, which noninvasively capture the structure and function of living organisms. Biomedical imaging, born of Roentgen’s 1895 discovery of X-rays, now incorporates a wide variety of modalities that produce images reflecting the distribution

Cynthia B. Paschal; Kathy R. Nightingale; Kristina M. Ropella




Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) induced by Co\\/; sup 60\\/ gamma irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature (-198 deg C) was ; investigated. Glow curves in the temperature range --196 to 0 deg C were ; measured for a series of gamma exposure dosages ranging from 10⁴ roentgen ; to 5 x 10⁶ roentgen. The heating rate used for glow




Teaching Literacy for Love and Wisdom: Being the Book and Being the Change. Language and Literacy Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This powerful book lays out an inspiring new vision for the teaching of English, building on themes central to Wilhelm's influential "You Gotta BE The Book." With this new work, Wilhelm and Novak challenge business as usual in the language arts. They call for nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the aims and methods of the…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Novak, Bruce



Floristic Index for Establishing Assessment Standards: A Case Study for Northern Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report was to adapt the existing Wilhelm method (Swink and Wilhelm 1979, 1994) for evaluating the reference standard for species occurrences at reference wetlands and other vegetated habitats as a method to evaluate natural places by p...

B. K. Andreas R. W. Lichvar



10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...otherwise specified, the quantities used in the records required by this part shall be clearly indicated in special units of curie, rad, roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm,...



An Exercise in Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of thalassemia major of unusual duration was presented to illustrate the classical roentgen changes in this hemoglobinopathy. Since the patient was the oldest recorded survivor with Cooley's anemia prior to her recent death, she served as a mirror ...

P. J. Loiacono M. M. Reeder



Radioactive Material Equations and Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online calculator solves solutions in relationship to nuclei, nuclear reactions, half life time, disintegration constant, becquerels, curie, Avogadro's number, equivalent radiation dose, absorbed dose, radionuclide, ionizing activity, atomic weight, quality factor, roentgen equivalent man (rem), rad, sievert and gray.

Raymond, Jimmy


Studies of the Effects of Gravitational and Inertial Forces on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status and application are described of the biplane video roentgen densitometry, videometry and video digitization systems. These techniques were developed, and continue to be developed for studies of the effects of gravitational and inertial ...

E. L. Ritman E. H. Wood



Radiation sickness  


... immediate chemical effects on human tissue . X-rays, gamma rays, and particle bombardment (neutron beam, electron beam, protons, ... no "minimum threshold." Exposure from x-rays or gamma rays is measured in units of roentgens. For example: ...


An Exercise in Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of disease states may produce skeletal changes resembling rickets in an infant. Careful search for associated roentgen findings may lead to a specific etiology, as in the case presented. The differential diagnosis of the skeletal changes is discu...

J. F. Eckert R. S. Carvalho



Bacterial Endocarditis. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in X-Irradiated and Nonirradiated Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacterial endocarditis and associated renal lesions were induced in rats given two exposures to 400 roentgens, followed by one or two intravenous injections of a broth culture of Streptococcus mitis. Cultures of the same organism induced a similiar infect...

B. Highman P. D. Altland A. R. Hanks N. W. Rantanen



75 FR 17920 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition to Designate a Class of Employees for the Ames Laboratory, Ames...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Campus variably known as Annexes 1 and 2, Hot Canyon, Wilhelm Hall or Metallurgy Building, Spedding Hall, Research and Chemistry Buildings. Period of Employment: January 1, 1955 through December 31, 1960. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...



Curriculum Vitae: Kathleen Hoeger  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Publications: 1. BG Bateman, LA Kolp, K Hoeger. ... LA Kolp, KM Hoeger, DS Rice, K. Wilhelm, JD Kitchin III, BG Bateman, TS Thomas. ... More results from


International Portrait Catalogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the last days in September this year, I went to Berlin (West) to give a talk at the Wilhelm Foerster Volkssternwarte (People's observatory), on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of its "Bamberg" refractor.



Wind Measuring of High Altitudes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A meteorological tower was erected by 'Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke', located in the area of Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The meteorological data were evaluated by the Institute for Meteorology and Climatology of the University of Hannover. In the period fro...

G. Tetzlaff S. Theunert A. Hoff W. Ruhe R. Trapp



From Triads to Catalysis: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780–1849) on the 150th Anniversary of His Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Time: May 7, 1999. The Place: The auditorium (Döbereiner-Hörsaal) (Figure 1) of the Chemical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, the famous German university founded in 1558, which numbered among its faculty the illustrious philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling; the writer and critic Friedrich von Schlegel; and the dramatist and poet

George B. Kauffman



Physicists and Physics in Munich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan


Factorization law for two lower bounds of concurrence  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of two lower bounds of concurrence in bipartite quantum systems when one party goes through an arbitrary channel. We show that these lower bounds obey the factorization law similar to that of [Konrad et al., Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. We also discuss the application of this property in an example.

Mirafzali, Sayyed Yahya; Sargolzahi, Iman; Ahanj, Ali; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khayyam Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran and School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)



Special relationship between sterols and oxygen: Were sterols an adaptation to aerobic life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fascinating link between sterols and molecular oxygen (O2) has been a common thread running through the fundamental work of Konrad Bloch, who elucidated the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol, to recent work supporting a role of sterols in the sensing of O2. Synthesis of sterols by eukaryotes is an O2-intensive process. In this review, we argue that increased levels of

Anne M. Galea; Andrew J. Brown



The 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: Recognition for Behavioral Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for 1973 was awarded to 3 ethologists: Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and Nikolaas Tinbergen. This was a landmark event in the history of the field of ethology and potentially for the behavioral sciences more broadly. For the first time, the prize was awarded for research of a purely behavioral nature. The language

Donald A. Dewsbury



Moral sanctuary in business: A comment on the possibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of a moral sanctuary existing in the field of business. It seeks to add to the discussion begun by Professors Konrad and Roberts in recent studies. After some preliminary discussion on the nature of a moral sanctuary, the paper contends that from an Aristotelian-Thomistic perspective it is impossible for sanctuary

Donald X. Burt



Moral managers and business sanctuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard Konrad claims that businessmen are guilty of adhering to a vicious form of ethical relativism. In practice, the relativism takes the form of doing an act which ordinarily would be called wrong and then claiming that the act is right or justified because it falls under a special set of codes (business ethics) which preempt ordinary ones. These codes

David Roberts



People need people  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANTHROPOLIGISTS, SOCIOLOGISTS, AND PSYCHOLOGISTS all concur that man is a social being who requires the support and companionship of others throughout his life. In addition to learning, social cooperation has played an essential part in man's survival as a species, just as it has in the survival of sub-human primates like baboons and chimpanzees. As Konrad Lorenz (1965) pointed out,

John G. Bruhn



War on the Terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists, scientists and philosophers from Sigmund Freud to Konrad Lorenz and Bertrand Russell, concerned with the problem of war, have advanced the catharsis theory. Sport, they have argued, allows a cathartic discharge of the aggressive urge and provides a safety valve for war?like tendencies.Britain has a long history of adventurous aggression over the centuries when it was acquiring an empire.

Alfred Youngs



A Novel Nemaline Myopathy in the Amish Caused by a Mutation in Troponin T1  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 The Clinic for Special Children, Strasburg, PA; and 8 Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fur Informationstechnik, Berlin The nemaline myopathies are characterized by weakness and eosinophilic, rodlike (nemaline) inclusions in muscle fibers. Amish nemaline myopathy is a form of nemaline myopathy common among the Old Order Amish. In the first months of life, affected infants have tremors with hypotonia and mild contractures of

Jennifer J. Johnston; Richard I. Kelley; Thomas O. Crawford; D. Holmes Morton; Richa Agarwala; Thorsten Koch; Alejandro A. Schäffer; Clair A. Francomano; Leslie G. Biesecker



Ein Anti-Macht-Wort zur Didaktik der 'Progressive' Form. [An Anti-Macht Comment on Teaching the Progressive Form (of the English Verb)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rejects the semantic analysis of the English progressive form proposed by Konrad Macht in 1973. Citing performance data from tenth grade classes and reviewing the contents of school grammars in use at the intermediate level, a teaching grammar for the progressive form is developed. (IFS/WGA)|

Zydatiss, Wolfgang



Autobiography as Evasion: Joseph Conrad's A Personal Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we begin with the fundamentals of biography—names, dates and places— it is immediately apparent that Conrad’s life was an extraordinary one. Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski was born in 1857 in Berdyczow, in what had been Poland, was then a Russian province, and is now known as the Ukraine. In 1874 he travelled to Marseilles to become a seaman. Four

Lynda Prescott



Osteolysis of the clavicle  

SciTech Connect

A letter to the editor and reply from the author are presented dealing with a radiology case-of-the-month. The superficial location of the clavicle makes it more prone to radiation effects only if low-energy roentgen rays or an electron beam is used. Since the case history does not describe the equipment used. The letter writer was not certain if the superficial location of the clavicle was a factor. If high-energy roentgen rays are used, the superficial location of the clavicle was a factor. If high-energy roentgen rays are used, the superficial location of the clavicle is advantageous since it will absorb a lesser dose compared with the deeper tissues.

Ahmad, A.



[Roentgenological-endovascular occlusion and ligation of internal iliac arteries in bleeding tumors of the bladder].  


A comparative estimation of the effectiveness of hemostasis by means of ligation of the internal iliac arteries and roentgen-endovascular occlusion of these vessels was carried out in 30 patients with a bleeding carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate growing into its wall. For the occlusion of the internal iliac artery metallic spirals were used in 15 patients, in 4 of them they were used in combination with a gelatine sponge. The roentgen-endovascular occlusion is thought by the authors to be the method of choice. PMID:4060510

Granov, A M; Anisimov, V N; Grinval'd, V A; Ryzhkov, V K; Borisova, N A



Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was

J. C. Smith; G. R. Hollander; A. C. Spector



The importance of radioactivity in geoscience and mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost simultaneously with Roentgen rays, natural radioactivity was discovered. Its investigation led to important fundamentals of the geosciences: petrophysics, terrestrial heat flow, isotope geology, and absolute geological chronology. In applied geophysics and geology, exploration of radioactive ores and of tectonic faults, and radiometric well loggings, are used. Production of radioactive water and mining for uranium ores are discussed, including their

H.-G. Reinhardt; H. Gast




Microsoft Academic Search

S>A series of conducting plastic resins has been developed which make ; possible the direct measuremnent of absorbed dose in rads for photons and ; neutrons in muscle, bone, and polystyrene; rads for photons in muscle ; (insensitive to neutrons); and roentgens. The comnponents chosen for tissue, ; air, and polystyrene - equivalent materials should result in a ; conducting





Microsoft Academic Search

Some sulfhydryl compounds were examined as to their protective ; efficiency in mice and rats which had been exposed to total roentgen irradiation. ; d-Penicillamine and beta -d,l-homocystine produce a sensibilizing effcct also in ; rats thus endorsing former results obtained with mice. Thio-malic acid and ; alpha -thioglycerin were inefficient. Both findings corroborate our conception ; that efficient sulfhydril

H. Langendorff; M. Langendorff; R. Koch



Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn


Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn


Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.



Nuclear hostages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the




Aversion to Sucrose Produced by Contingent X-Irradiation: Temporal and Dosage Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats were made familiar with milk in the course of five days. A few days later, experimental Ss were permitted to drink sucrose solution and, from 3.5 to 32 hours afterward, were exposed to 50 roentgens of X-rays. Sham controls were treated in the same wa...

S. H. Revusky



Undergraduate Biomedical Imaging Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical engineers, with their training in the life sciences as well as engineering, math and physical sciences, are uniquely poised to both support and advance biomedical imaging technologies, which non- invasively capture the structure and function of living organisms. Biomedical imaging, born of Roentgen's 1895 discovery of X-rays, now incorporates a wide variety of modalities that produce images reflecting the

Summit Cynthia; B. Paschal; Kathy R. Nightingale




Microsoft Academic Search

This meter is designed for personal protection at highlevel gamma or x-; ray field, such as nuclear reactors in an emergency. Therefore, the maximum dose ; setting is 2.4 roentgens. A second model is designed for personal protection in ; general isotope treatment. The electronic circuit is the same one as used in ; the higher-level dose model, except for

K. Minami; T. Oshima



Electroencephalographic responses to ionizing radiation.  


Electroencephalographic recordings made from chronically implanted cortical electrodes indicate that ionizing radiation has an immediate effect upon brain wave patterns. X-rays delivered at the rate of 0.2 roentgen per second produce an arousal effect resembling that which occurs as a result of stimulation through peripheral receptor systems. PMID:13946488




Gastric polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

When roentgen examination shows a sharply defined polyp less than 2 cm. in diameter, the polyp is of a benign adenomatous type, and conservative treatment is recommended. If the polyp is smooth and larger than 2 cm. in diameter it is usually benign. However, since there may be such findings with a polypoid carcinoma, surgery is indicated. Of 138 cases

Richard H. Marshak; Frieda Feldman



Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

HANNES MÖHRING. Saladin: The Sultan and His Times, 1138–1193, trans. David S. Bachrach. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. Pp. xxiii, 113. $20.00 (us), paper. Reviewed by Konrad HlrschlerSIMON PHILLIPS. The Prior of the Knights Hospitaller in Late Medieval England. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2009. Pp. xii, 210. $95.00 (US). Reviewed by Jonathan Riley-SmithFERNANDO GONZÁLEZ DE LEÓN. The Road

Konrad Hirschler; Jonathan Riley Smith; Jonathan Israel; Eric Van Young; N. A. M. Rodger; Stanley G. Payne; Philip G. Dwyer; Mark A. Burkholder; Anthony Adamthwaite; Andrew Preston; Bob Harris; H. W. Brands; H. V. Nelles; F. R. Bridge; Michael Adas; Donald Malcolm Reid; Michael A. Obst; Bettina Beer; Reinhard Wendt; Alan Dobson; Akira Iriye; Michael Geyer; Patrick H. rennan; Peter Simkins; Peter Krüger; Edward B. Westermann; Patrice Higonnet; Timothy Snyder; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Norman J. W. Goda; Philip Murphy; Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht; Anders Stephanson; David Mclean; Jorge I. Domínguez; Jens Gieseke; Beverly Lemire; Bart Dessein; Roland Popp; Alan Nadel; John Kent; Robert Holland; George H. Quester; Ronald D. Asmus; Stephen P. Waring; Jeremy Adelman; Scott A. Silverstone; Richard Matthew; Thorsten B. Olesen; Daniel H. Nexon; John Baylis; James J. Wirtz; James Lee Ray



Uexküll, Peirce, and Other Affinities Between Biosemiotics and Biolinguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe some parallels and theoretical affinities between biosemiotics and biolinguistics.\\u000a In particular, this paper examines the importance of Uexküll's Umwelt and Peircean abduction as foundational concepts for Sebeok's biosemiotics and Chomsky's biolinguistic program. Other affinities touched upon in\\u000a this paper include references to concepts articulated by Immanuel Kant, Konrad Lorenz, Marcel Florkin, François

Prisca Augustyn



The development of ornithology in central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first ornithologist since Aristotle was the emperor Friedrich II of Hohenstaufen whose work on falconry (written before\\u000a 1248) includes a general account of birds based largely on his personal observations. Other medieval workers on birds were\\u000a Albertus Magnus, Thomas di Cantimpré and Konrad von Megenberg. Gybertus Longolius (1544) and William Turner (1544) reported\\u000a on some birds of the Rhine

J. Haffer




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

Walther-Klaus, Ellen


Historical Perspectives on the Human-Animal Bond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term human-animal bond (HAB) was used prominently in 1979 in Scotland, but the concept had been articulated by Konrad Lorenz and Boris Levinson earlier. International and national conferences in the 1970s and 1980s and their published proceedings brought wide attention to the HAB, as did media coverage of community animal-assisted activity and therapy programs and service dog training programs.

Linda M. Hines



Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 104 K to greater than 106 K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the photosphere at x-ray wavelengths when observing the disk of the Sun, this part of the solar atmosphere emits so little that far from the peak of its Planck curve it appears dark in x-ray images. This impression of hot plasma following the magnetic field direction is further strengthened by quantitative studies that calculate coronal magnetic field strength and direction based on photospheric measurements and compare them with the observed brightness and location of the x-ray emitting structures. Such comparisons make it clear that, for the most part, the hot plasma conforms to the geometry of the magnetic field and that the coronal brightness is strongly linked to the strength of the magnetic fields which have erupted to the solar surface from the interior. It is also the case that the larger-scale, fainter corona, as well as coronal holes, are strongly influenced by the large-scale solar magnetic field. We may get a small hint of the reason that the coronal plasma outlines the direction of B by examining the thermal conductivity of a hot plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. This quantity has enormously different values in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the field for a coronal temperature of 106 K, a particle density of 109/cu cm and a magnetic field strength of 100 G, the conductivity along the field is approximately 13 orders of magnitude greater than that perpendicular to the field. It is therefore not surprising that a parcel of plasma which is locally heated would conduct that heat preferentially in the direction of the field. We also note that the thermal conductivity parallel to the magnetic field increases with temperature T, while the perpendicular conductivity decreases. To the extent that the loop aspect ratio, i.e., the ratio of loop length to loop width, is determined by the thermal conductivity, we would expect that higher temperature loops are longer and thinner than cooler ones. However, if the loop width becomes smaller than the spatial resolution of the observing instrument, this effect will not be directly observable. For organizational

Golub, Leon



Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.



Retention time of rays around small lunar craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh lunar impact craters have rays which are bright features radially expanding from host craters. It has been suggested that the rays are erased by space weathering that modify surface materials by exposure to solar wind and micrometeorite bombardments, and by impact gardening that mixes surface materials and subsurface materials by meteorite bombardments (Wilhelms, 1987). Werner and Medvedev (2010) surveyed

S. Suzuki; C. Honda; N. Hirata; N. Asada; H. Demura; K. Kitazato; Y. Ogawa; J. Terazono; T. Moroda; M. Ohtake; J. Haruyama; T. Matsunaga



Discussion of “empathic character analysis”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, josephs takes up the theoretical and technical problem of incorporating empathy in the analysis of character. He takes as his starting point the seminal work of Wilhelm Reich (1928), which still informs our conceptions of character today. Reich constructed a model in which character was understood primarily in terms of its defensive function, as a hardened and

Kenneth Winarick



“Spectral, Dancing Hosts of War”: German-language Research on Sword Dancing before World War I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on four major German and Austrian figures, from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in the study of the history of sword dancing, and their key approaches to the field: Karl Müllenhoff, Wilhelm Mannhardt, Heinrich Schurtz, and Leopold von Schroeder. Their work drew on classical studies (Tacitus's the Germania has an apparent reference), comparative ethnography, the

Stephen D. Corrsin



Learning to Play the Literacy and Learning Games--A Question of Enculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding that learning must be relevant and purposeful to be effective and engaging, Wilhelm emphasizes the value of teaching students "how to participate in meaningful activity in ways that make them increasingly expert in creating culture and . . . cultural meanings." He offers bullet points that suggest starting with students' experiences,…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.



Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.



Literary Origins of the Term "School Psychologist" Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on the literary origins of the term "school psychologist" is revisited, and conclusions are revised in light of new evidence. It appears that the origin of the term in the American literature occurred as early as 1898 in an article by Hugo Munsterberg, predating the usage by Wilhelm Stern in 1911. The early references to the…

Fagan, Thomas K.



Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.



Microsoft Academic Search

Wilhelm Wundt’s influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt’s own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in

Brigitte Nerlich; David D. Clarke



The limits of education: Siegfried Bernfeld on psychology, political theory, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the emergence of a new postwar generation of psychoanalysts like Wilhelm Reich, Erich Fromm, and Siegfried Bernfeld, we can discern a profound tendency, originating in the concrete problems they encountered in their clinical work with psychically ill individuals, to rediscover the radical implications of Freud's original conception of psychoanalysis' mission, while simultaneously attempting to free it from the ahistorical

Robin Holloway



Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.  


Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977952

Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T



New Advances Toward a Kilovolt X-ray Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1895 Wilhelm C. Rontgen published his famous article entitled Eine Neue Art von Strahien, the work carrying the important news of the discovery of X-rays. This advance, which preceded by five years the concept of the quantum of radiation introduced by ...

C. K. Rhodes



Charles Davenport and Eugen Fischer, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchCharles Davenport, 1925, and Eugen Fischer, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, the German equivalent of the Eugenics Record Office, about 1938.



Spatio-temporal distribution of gap junctions in zebra fish embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of gap junctions in zebra fish embryo is a dynamic process. They appear during cleavage stages and are uniformly distributed between deep cells in early blastula. By mid-blastula stage their density increases all over the embryo. At this stage lightly stained L cells and densely stained D cells (Dasgupta and Singh 1981; Wilhelm Roux's Arch Dev Biol 190:358)

J. D. Dasgupta; Udai N. Singh



Determiner Syntax in Middle Low German: Evidence from the "Luebecker Ratsurteile"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this dissertation, I take a look at Middle Low German nominal phrases as evidenced in the Lubecker Ratsurteile, a collection of court proceedings published by Wilhelm Ebel in 1955, which cover the years 1421-1550. By digitizing the corpus, I was able to perform a corpus analysis on noun phrases, where I concentrated on determiner use and form,…

Gougeon, Elliott E.



What makes us believe a conditional? The roles of covariation and causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of covariation and of causality in people's readiness to believe a conditional. The experiments used a probabilistic truth-table task (Oberauer & Wilhelm, 2003) in which people estimated the probability of a conditional given information about the frequency distribution of truth-table cases. For one group of people, belief in the conditional was determined

Klaus Oberauer; Andrea Weidenfeld; Katrin Fischer



Next Steps in the Journey: Teaching with "Urgency:" A Call for Immediate Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a staggering number of students dropping out of school, widespread below-grade reading proficiency, and PISA results showing a demoralizing lag internationally in math, science, and general problem solving, teachers need to exercise all the control available to them to engage students in meaningful learning. Wilhelm suggests six steps…

Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.



Die Daumensattelgelenksarthrose oder Rhizarthrose und Ergebnisse ihrer operativen Behandlung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the importance, etiology, symptoms and therapy of the osteoarthritis of the first carpo-metacarpaljoint of the thumb on the base of their own experience and the literature. They mention the operative possibilities and analyse in detail the results of the resection of the greater multangular bone. In the years 1965–1969 in the orthopedic Clinic Wilhelm Schulthess 24 patients

A. Pfiffner



The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra



[Sigmund Freud--portrait of writer].  


As physician and writer Freud held an ambivalent attitude towards poets. Jens clarifies this by reference to Wilhelm Stekel's address and the subsequent discussion in Freud's Wednesday evening society, both concerned with the world première of Gerhart Hauptmann's stage play Griselda (1909). PMID:1754689

Jens, W



Returning to the Scene of the Crime: The Brothers Grimm and the Yearning for Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost two hundred years ago, in 1812, two German brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, collected folk stories, and revised and published them in a book of fairy tales. The publication, Grimm's Fairy Tales, remains amongst the best sellers in contemporary western children's literature despite increasing feminist concerns that the tales deliver outdated and inappropriate patriarchal messages. This thesis seeks to

Maureen Clack



Issues in Reasoning about Iffy Propositions: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that a vast majority of people judge the probability of a conditional as to the conditional probability of (Evans, Handley, & Over, 2003; Oberauer &Wilhelm, 2003). This means that in evaluating the applicability of a conditional people do not seem to take count of situations in which the antecedent event

Henry Dunantlaan


Centennial of R?ntgen's discovery of x-rays.  

PubMed Central

November 8, 1995, marked the 100th anniversary of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of x-rays. This remarkable scientific achievement has had an effect on medicine and science that has been matched by few other advances. I will briefly review the events leading up to Röntgen's discovery and the subsequent development of radiology as a discipline.

Frankel, R I



Proactivity vs Reactivity: Preparing Students for Success with CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wilhelm has studied the Common Core State Standards and come away with a generally positive opinion. His concern is that now that the Standards are written, we let professional teachers mold them into the best possible practices for teaching their students. With specific advice for working with students--developing background knowledge, making…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.



The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando



Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

Tolin, David F.



Anniversaries in 1968 of Interest to Physicists  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the year 1968 there are major anniversaries of the birth or death of eleven men whose accomplishments and influence have been of importance to the development of physics. They are: David Brewster, Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, James Prescott Joule, John LeConte, Robert Andrews Millikan, Gaspard Monge, Wallace Clement Ware Sabine, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, John

E. Scott Barr



Evil in Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

early 200 years ago, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel wrote that the highest and purest expression of a culture's values and world-view are embodied in its philoso- phy, its religion, and its art. A corollary of this view is that much as the world's civilizations have offered different answers to enduring existential questions, so too have these civilizations'

Lyon D. Evans


Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.


History 300 Germany in the 19th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course will investigate major themes of nineteenth-century German history. Against the background of political and social developments such as the Napoleonic Wars, the Restoration, the Revolution of 1848, the unification of Germany, the German Empire under Bismarck and Wilhelm II, and events leading to the First World War, we will more arefully consider responses to these issues by leaders

David B. Dennis


Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

Günther Oestmann



Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on the…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.



"The Lengthened Shadow of One Man": The Public Intellectual and the Founding of Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies five intellectuals who made distinctive contributions to the founding of new universities in England, Germany, and the United States. Institutional and individual biographies profile: Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia); Wilhelm von Humboldt (University of Berlin); Lord Brougham (University College, University of London); A.D.…

Wyatt, John



The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)|

Baggett, Blaine; And Others



Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

American Journal of Distance Education, 2011



Freud's Struggle With Misogyny: Homosexuality and Guilt in the Dream of Irma's Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly condensed dream element trimethylamin is central to the dream of Irma's injection. After a brief review of the medical literature on timethylamine (TMA), it is suggested that two important meanings of this chemical and its properties lie in its disguised reference to disparaging views of women, as well as to Freud's homosexual connection to Wilhelm Fliess. Freud's misogynistic

David Lotto



Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were “not nonsense” but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis — Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic

Gina R. Poe; Douglas A. Nitz; Bruce L. McNaughton; Carol A. Barnes



Preferential States of Longitudinal Tension in the Outer Tissues of Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) Peduncles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested Wilhelm Hofmeister's hypothesis that the outer layers of herbaceous stem tissues are held in a preferential state of longitudinal tension by more internal stem tissues that are held in a reciprocal state of compression. We measured (1) the biaxial stiffness of dandelion peduncles that were barometrically inflated with a Scholander pressure bomb, and (2) the stiffness and mechanical

Karl J. Niklas; Dominick J. Paolillo




EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...


Empathic character analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To speak of empathic character analysis could seem like an oxymoron to those who associate the term character analysis with the approach of Wilhelm Reich (1928). Reich's seminal work could be seen as the prototype of active and confrontational approaches to the analysis of defense and resistance. Such approaches by virtue of fostering an adversarial relationship with the patient have

Lawrence Josephs



Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.



Anniversaries in 1964 of Interest to Physicists  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the year 1964 there are major anniversaries of the birth or death of eleven men whose accomplishments and influence have been of importance to the development of physics. They are: Joseph Sweetman Ames; Anders Jonas A˚ngström Galileo Galilei; Julius Robert von Mayer; Hermann Walther Nernst; Nicolaus de Cusa; Denis Papin; Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford; Benjamin Silliman, Sr.; Wilhelm C.

E. Scott Barr



Using Irony in Teaching the History of Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines historical ironies and stories with surprise endings about Rene Descartes and Wilhelm Wundt that can enliven history of psychology lectures and make certain concepts more memorable. Explains that this approach does not trivialize psychology's history but adds humor to a subject that students sometimes find dull. (CMK)|

Thorne, B. Michael



Hardware: Door Furniture Product Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Selection guide--General principles, chart; Application; and Ranges--(1) G and S Allgood Ltd - 'MODRIC'; (2) Wilhelm Engstfeld GmbH - 'WEHAG'; (3) Hans Grinberg - 'HAGRI'; (4) Laidlaw and Thomson Ltd - British 'PENNINE'; (5) Newman-Tonks Ltd - S...



The Kaiser's tooth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of DNA from teeth is usually associated with the destruction of the evidential tooth using, for instance a special grinding mill. In some cases, however, a minimal invasive method of DNA retrieval with a high recovery is required particularly when historical material has to be investigated. A tooth attributed to the German Emperor Wilhelm II was the only

H. Pfeiffer; S. Benthaus; B. Rolf; B. Brinkmann



Digital Renovation of the Geologic Map of the Near Side of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have digitally renovated the 1971 Wilhelms and MacCauley lunar near side geologic map. The digital version is in simple cylindrical with the geology and contact locations updated based on the Lunar Orbiter mosaic and a preliminary Kaguya DEM.

Fortezzo, C. M.; Hare, T. M.



B iochemical mechanisms of hibernation and stunning in the human  

Microsoft Academic Search

a ¨¨ ¨ Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology , Hospital of the Westf alische Wilhelms -Universitat, Domagkstraße 12, D-48149 Munster, Germany b Abstract Background: Myocardial hibernation and stunning are characterized by depressed cardiac function in the presence of reduced or normal coronary blood flow. The underlying biochemical mechanisms are widely unknown and only limited data are available in human hearts.

Hartmut Luss; Michael Schafers; Joachim Neumann; Dieter Hammel; Christian Vahlhaus; Hideo A. Baba; Frauke Janssen; Hans H. Scheld; Otmar Schober; Gunter Breithardt; Wilhelm Schmitz; Thomas Wichter


The International Relations of the Struves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least 10 astronomers in 5 generations belonged to the Struve dynasty, a family having its origin in Holstein and living in Germany, Russia, the USA and other countries. The best known astronomers among them were Wilhelm (1793-1864), Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), Hermann (1854-1920), Ludwig (1858-1920), Georg (1886-1933) and Otto Ludwig Struve (1897-1963). After a short account of the family's history, its international relations will be regarded, with emphasis on the following aspects: Nationality/citizenship, places of living and work, personal relations to other astronomers including correspondence and cooperation, travels, languages of publications. Although a comparison of the different members of the family is possible only to a certain degree due to their different role and importance in astronomy, some changes which developed over 150 years can be traced: E.g., Wilhelm Struve published in German, Latin, French, Russian and English, whereas his grandsons and great-grandsons wrote their papers mainly in one language -- German or English. Wilhelm had relatively close relations with French astronomers, whereas his great-grandson Georg was the author of verbal assaults on French scientists. Georg published also heavy criticism of the International Astronomical Union, whereas his cousin Otto Luwig later became IAU's President.

Dick, W. R.


Endoscopic Minimally Invasive Thyroidectomy: A Prospective Proof-of-Concept Study in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doctors Wilhelm and Metzig describe a transoral endoscopic sublingual bivestibular approach for removal of the thyroid gland that they first trialed in animals to ensure that no vascular or neural structures were affected [1]. The authors report their initial results in eight patients, four of whom had a total thyroidectomy and the other four had a partial thyroidectomy. In contrast

Christopher R. McHenry



NLO (Norman Lockyer Observatory) News.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: Happy 160th birthday Norman! Lockyer's famous telescope opened. The NLO is on the Web. International communications. E. F. Wilhelm Klinkerfues. The Norman Lockyer Observatory restores Lockyer's famous six-inch telescope and the Mond dome. Pity about Neptune. Who first observed sunspots? Hyakutake.



The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

Reyes, G. Mitchell



The Politics of Comparison: Connecting Cultures Outside of and in Spite of the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilhelm Halbfass, in his landmark study India and Europe (1988), explores the history of intellectual encounters between India and Europe from classical antiquity to the twentieth century. He concludes his study with a discussion of the “global predicament of Westernization” in the contemporary period, reflecting more specifically on the problems that the so-called “Europeanization of the earth” presents for both

Barbara A. Holdrege



[Virchow and the cancer of Frederick III].  


Friedrich Wilhelm, born 1831, was the eldest son of Wilhelm I, king of Prussia 1861 and the first German emperor 1871. He was educated in European culture and decided liberal in his political way of thinking and came in opposition to his father, the soldier-king and to the "iron-chancellor" Bismarck, who had the dominant influence over his father and over German politics. One of Friedrich Wilhelms political sympathizer was Rudolf Virchow, the great pathologist, who was also a liberal member of parliament in Prussia and later in Germany. He opposed Bismarcks war-policy, argued in favour of a peaceful unifying of Germany and fought for parliamentary influence on politics and the responsibility of ministers to parliament. Friedrich Wilhelm was doomed to remain crown prince without influence for most of his life, since his father lived unto 91 years of age. The year before he succeeded his father as emperor Friedrich III, he became hoarse and the doctors i.e., the English laryngologist Mackenzie inspected his vocal cords and took a biopsy, which Virchow diagnosed as a benignant inflammatory reaction. Later on it became apparent that the crown prince suffered from cancer. He declined a radical operation as too risky but was soon compelled to have a tracheotomy performed, when he was on the point of being choked by the cancer. During his 99 days as emperor he could only communicate by writing, and he had not power enough left to fulfill his intention to dismiss Bismarck and initiate a liberal policy, including friendship with England - his beloved wife was the eldest daughter of queen Victoria. After his death his son, emperor Wilhelm II, took a quite different course, that led to World War I. If Friedrich III had been a less intensive smoker and not developed cancer, world history might have taken a different course. PMID:11824411

Nordlander, N B



Teleradiotherapy of joints in rheumatoid arthritis: lack of efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine if the local application of x rays to inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects the signs and symptoms of inflammation. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, double blind study, roentgen irradiation was administered in a total dose of 20 Gy during 2 weeks to single joints in six patients with RA who were receiving constant and stable pharmacological treatment with DMARDs and NSAIDs. Single inflamed joints on the contralateral side of the body were used as controls and received sham irradiation. Swelling and tenderness was assessed by blinded investigators before and until 3 months after the irradiation; general disease activity and pain scales were included in the assessment. Results: No change in the scores for tenderness, swelling, pain, or disease activity was seen. The trial was stopped for ethical reasons. Conclusion: Local roentgen treatment of RA at a substantial dose of 20 Gy was ineffective in this pilot trial.

Graninger, M; Handl-Zeller, L; Hohenberg, G; Staudenherz, A; Kainberger, F; Graninger, W



The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.




Effect of glutaurine and its derivatives and their combinations with radiation protective substances upon irradiated mice.  


The radiation protective effects of glutaurine (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine, Litoralon), and of some of its derivatives, as well as of their combinations with substances of the amino-alkyl-thiol group, have been investigated in mice. The results suggest that glutaurine possesses a radiation protective effect in animals irradiated with LD50/30 of roentgen rays and 60Co gamma rays. The compound has a favourable effect also when administered after irradiation. Its protective effect is especially marked in case of prolonged irradiation. Among the combinations best results were obtained by its simultaneous administration with subminimal doses of AET or cystamine. Some of its derivatives also exhibited considerable protection against irradiation with roentgen rays. PMID:6278851

Feuer, L; Benkó, G



Interferon Synthesis in X-Irradiated Animals, IV. Donor-Type Serum Interferons in Rat-to-Mouse Radiation Chimeras Injected with Newcastle Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

C3H\\/He mice were exposed to total-body X-irradiation of 1000 roentgens and received thereafter 107 xenogeneic Wistar rat marrow cells intravenously. In these rat-to-mouse chimeras, serum interferon-producing capacity upon injection of Newcastle disease virus was examined four weeks after grafting. Normal levels of circulating interferon were produced. The interferon, however, had the species specificity of rat interferon, being 20 times more

Jaqueline de Maeyer-Guignard; Edward de Maeyer; Pierre Jullien



Overview of Cancer Molecular Radiobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded use of X-rays for the treatment of cancer occurred within about 1 year of their discovery in the late 1800s\\u000a by Roentgen. The study of X-rays and other ionizing radiations, and their clinical application to cancer treatment, has become\\u000a increasingly sophisticated. This chapter will provide an overview of the molecular responses induced in cells by ionizing\\u000a radiation

Jann N. Sarkaria; Robert G. Bristow


An adjustable short-focal length, high-gradient PMQ electron-beam final-focus system for the PLEIADES ultra-fast x-ray Thomson source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the span of a 100 year since the discovery of first x-rays by Roentgen that won him the first Nobel prize in physics, several types of radiation sources have been developed. Currently, radiations at extremely short wavelengths have only been accessed at synchrotron radiation sources. However, the current 3rd generation synchrotron sources can only produce x-rays of energy up

Jae-Ku Lim



Handling modular hip implants in model-based RSA: Combined stem–head models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration measurements of hip prostheses using marker-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) require the attachment of markers to the prostheses. The model-based approach, which does not require these markers, is, however, less precise. One of the reasons may be the fact that the spherical head has not been modelled. Therefore, we added a 3D surface model of the spherical head and

A. H. Prins; B. L. Kaptein; B. C. Stoel; R. G. H. H. Nelissen; J. H. C. Reiber; E. R. Valstar



Flash x-ray radiography of argon jets in ambient air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of a soft x-ray flash radiography technique. A very compact soft x-ray flash source has been specially designed for these studies. The table-top x-ray source developed in this work emits strong doses, up to one roentgen at the output window, of x-ray photons, with most of them in the characteristic lines of the

J. Geiswiller; E. Robert; L. Huré; C. Cachoncinlle; R. Viladrosa; J. M. Pouvesle



Energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In agreement with the experiment [G. K. Campbell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 170403 (2005)] variations of the Minkowski momentum are imprinted onto the phase, whereas the Abraham tensor drives the flow of the dielectric. Our analysis indicates that the Abraham-Minkowski controversy has its root in the Roentgen interaction of the electromagnetic field in dielectric media.

Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)



Posterolateral lumbar fusion using facet joint fixation with biodegradable rods: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was used to assess whether there is a potential for biodegradable rods crossing the denuded facet joints to increase the stability and healing rate of lumbar posterolateral fusions. Eleven consecutive patients with lumbosacral disc\\/facet joint degeneration had a posterolateral fusion augmented with 2- or 3.2-mm biodegradable rods passing perpendicularly through the center of the denuded facet

R. Johnsson; P. Axelsson; B. Strömgvist



Spectral and dosimetric measurements of photon fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in photon dosimetry in the range 40 to 200 keV has increased in recent years because of potential requirements to use improved exposure-to-dose conversion factors (C\\/sub x\\/) specified in ANSI N13.11 and included in proposed modifications to 10 CFR 20. These C\\/sub x\\/ factors imply that differences between surveys performed in terms of exposure (Roentgen) and dose (rad) can




Use of radionuclides in cancer research and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer occurs as a result of misregulation of cell growth, which appears to be a consequence of alteration in the function\\u000a of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Ionising radiation has been used, since the discovery of X-rays in 1896 by Roentgen,\\u000a both in cancer research and treatment of the disease. The main purpose of cancer research is to understand the

M. Teresa Macías



Carcinogenic Effects of Ionising Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within less than a decade after the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen, in1895, cancer was recognized to be a late complication\\u000a of injury by ionizing radiation, and for decades thereafter it was assumed that cancer would result only from doses large\\u000a enough to cause severe damage of tissue. In the interim, the carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation have been

Arthur C. Upton


Kinematics of successful knee prostheses during weight-bearing: Three-dimensional movements and positions of screw axes in the Tricon-M and Miller-Galante designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis we recorded the three-dimensional movements in six knees with implanted Tricon-M prostheses and ten knees with Miller-Galante prostheses as the patients ascended a platform. Fourteen patients with normal knees were used as controls. The two prosthetic designs displayed decreased internal tibial rotation and the Tricon-M increased valgus rotation. A central point on the tibial articular surface

J. Kfirrholm; H. Jonsson; K. G. Nilsson; I. Söderqvist



Electrodynamics of a compound system with relativistic corrections  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic interaction of a moving compound charged system with leading relativistic corrections is studied. An effective Hamiltonian is obtained by using a set of canonical transformations, and it is demonstrated that the coupling of the total motion to internal degrees of freedom is uniquely determined by Lorentz covariance. Several known results such as the Roentgen term and the interaction of the spin with the electric field are recovered, and new results for various relativistic and recoil corrections are obtained.

Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)





1. The theory which Crowther has advanced to account for the variation of the lethal dose of roentgen rays among the individuals of a group of Colpidium colpoda is reviewed. 2. It is shown that the use of his small-body theory to explain the small value of lambda(e) leads to certain further assumptions about the nature of the destructive effect. 3. An alternative hypothesis is discussed. PMID:19872349

Clark, H



X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging Methods for Biological Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Different from the conventional method based on the attenuation contrast mechanism, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) is proposed for the study of biological tissues and structures. This technique

Fu Jian; Li Jian; Zhu Jian; Zhou Xingyu; Zhou Zhenggan; Wei Dongbo



Physical activity, calcium intake, and bone mineral content in children in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between physical activity, calcium intake, and bone mineral content in children. DESIGN--Population based, cross sectional study. SETTING--Primary schools in Zoetermeer, The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 1359 Dutch boys and girls, aged 7 to 11 years (response rate 88%). MEASUREMENTS--Bone mineral content was measured by quantitative roentgen microdensitometry of the midphalanx of the second digit at the diaphyseal

M F VandenBergh; S A DeMan; J C Witteman; A Hofman; W T Trouerbach; D E Grobbee



Evaluation of flow with dynamic x-ray imaging for aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this thesis is to evaluate blood flow inside cerebrovascular aneurysms using dynamic x-ray imaging. X-ray contrast substance (dye) was auto injected in elastomer aneurysm models placed in a flow loop (for in-vitro studies) to trace flow passing through aneurysms. More specifically, an improved Time-Density Curves (TDC) Roentgen-videodensitometric tracking technique, that included looking to designated regions (R)

Andreea Cristina Dohatcu



Overexposure of Patients to Ionizing Radiation: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation is very useful in both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895 and it\\u000a was very quickly realised that they could be used to see inside the human body. Clinics opened and used the ‘magic rays’ before\\u000a the harmful effects were realised. Today ionizing radiation is widely used in diagnosis and treatment across the

Philip Clewer


Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

Walker, Mark



Did Ludwig's angina kill Ludwig?  


Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig first described in 1836 a potentially fatal, rapidly spreading soft tissue infection of the neck and floor of the mouth. The condition was later named 'Ludwig's angina', a term which persists in medicine to this day. A gold medallist at 19 and professor at 25, Ludwig also served as president of the Württemberg Medical Association and chief physician to the royal family. His outstanding contribution to medicine was rewarded with the title Excellence upon retiring in 1855. Ludwig died at the age of 75, ironically, days after developing an inflammation of the neck. Could it be that Ludwig died of his own condition? This article combines a biography of Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig with an overview of his eponymous condition and its management. PMID:16696873

Wasson, J; Hopkins, C; Bowdler, D



The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Gardner, A.L.



Georgians Died on Titanic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardly anyone remembers the Dona Paz or the Wilhelm Gustloff, but almost everyone knows about the Titanic. However, few know that four Georgians--three men and a woman--were aboard the doomed Titanic, and that the three men died in the catastrophe. The oldest of the men was a 67-year old philanthropist who many years earlier had lived in Georgia for almost

Wilkes Donald E. Jr



Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.



Rebuttal to the comment by Malhotra and Strom on "Constraints on the source of lunar cataclysm impactors"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?uk et al. (?uk, M. Gladman, B.J., Stewart, S.T. [2010]. Icarus 207 590-594) concluded that the the lunar cataclysm (late heavy bombardment) was recorded in lunar Imbrian era craters, and that their size distribution is different from that of main belt asteroids (which may have been the dominant pre-Imbrian impactors). This result would likely preclude the asteroid belt as the direct source of lunar cataclysm impactors. Malhotra and Strom (Malhotra, R., Strom, R.G. [2011]. Icarus) maintain that the lunar impactor population in the Imbrian era was the same as in Nectarian and pre-Nectarian periods, and this population had a size distribution identical to that of main belt asteroids. In support of this claim, they present an Imbrian size distribution made from two data sets published by Wilhelms et al. (Wilhelms, D.E., Oberbeck, V.R., Aggarwal, H.R. [1978]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 9, 3735-3762). However, these two data sets cannot be simply combined as they represent areas of different ages and therefore crater densities. Malhotra and Strom (Malhotra, R., Strom, R.G. [2011]. Icarus) differ with the main conclusion of Wilhelms et al. (Wilhelms, D.E., Oberbeck, V.R., Aggarwal, H.R. [1978]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 9, 3735-3762) that the Nectarian and Imbrian crater size distributions were different. We conclude that the available data indicate that the lunar Imbrian-era impactors had a different size distribution from the older ones, with the Imbrian impactor distribution being significantly richer in small impactors than that of older lunar impactors or current main-belt asteroids.

?uk, Matija; Gladman, Brett J.; Stewart, Sarah T.



Otmar von Verschuer collects fingerprints, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solutionIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.



Otmar von Verschuer examines twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solutionIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.



Otmar von Verschuer examines eye color of twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.



Otmar von Verschuer performing lung volume tests, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solution In November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.



Jewish gynecologists in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century.  


The political changes in Germany of 1933 led to discrimination, expulsion and emigration of Jewish doctors. This article addresses the memory of gynecologists who were eminent physicians or made fundamental discoveries. Short biographies of Ludwig Fraenkel, Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek, Ludwig Adler, Robert Meyer and Paul Ferdinand Strassmann highlight their work and their links to the Gynecological Society in Berlin and to the German Society of Gynecology, the foundation of the latter being inspired by Wilhelm Alexander Freund from Strasbourg. PMID:16086229

Rudloff, Udo; Ludwig, Hans



The Manic-Depressive Spectrum and Mood Stabilization: Kraepelin’s Ghost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century ago, Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) divided most severe mental illnesses into two classes of disorders: manic-depressive insanity (MDI) and dementia præcox[1, 2]. He emphasized longitudinal course and outcome to differentiate these conditions, following Karl Kahlbaum’s (1828–1899) lead in separating discrete syndromes with different courses from Wilhelm Griesinger’s (1817–1868) formerly dominant unitary insanity (Einheitpsychose) concept. Kraepelin was driven by a

S. Nassir Ghaemi; Ross J. Baldessarini



On the early history of Dorpat Observatory and its instrumental equipment (German Title: Zur frühen Geschichte der Dorpater Sternwarte und ihrer instrumentellen Ausstattung )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorpat Observatory became famous in the first place through the scientific work of Wilhelm Struve, but this article deals with its little-known early history. The first astronomer appointed at Dorpat University, founded in 1802, was J.W.A. Pfaff, who had to make his first astronomical observations from an attic. From 1807 onward he could use an interim building. The instruments acquired

Günther Oestmann



A Structuralist Reconstruction of Wundt's Three-Dimensional Theory of Emotion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structuralist reconstruction of Wilhelm Wundt's three-dimensional theory ot emotion ana a sketch of its theoretical environment are presented. Wundt's theory, a quantitative theory of the structure of emotional experience, is reconstructed as a small theory-net consisting of the basic theory-element TE(WUNDT) and several specializations. The main substantive axiom of TE(WUNDT) postulates that each emotional quality, unless itself basic, results

Rainer Reisenzein


Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gavriel Rosenfeld is a contributing author, Biographical essays on Wilhelm Bacher, Adolf Buechler, David Kaufmann, and Moritz Lazarus, pp. 95, 142, 394.\\u000aBook description: This comprehensive dictionary of the Jewish religion contains nearly 2,400 alphabetically arranged entries ranging from short definitions to lengthy essays on major topics. It is the most accessible and complete one-volume resource available for information on

R. J. Zwi Werblowsky; Geoffrey Wigoder; Gavriel D. Rosenfeld



Josef jadassohn-an appreciation on the occasion of his 150th birthday.  


: Josef Jadassohn was a pioneering dermatologist who influenced the development of his specialty in many ways. He introduced the patch test for detection of hypersensitivity reactions, gave original descriptions of several entities, such as nevus sebaceous, granulosis rubra nasi, and pachyonychia congenita, and edited the Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, the most comprehensive textbook of dermatology ever published. Moreover, Jadassohn left a phalanx of distinguished students, including Felix Lewandowsky, Wilhelm Lutz, Max Jessner, Hans Biberstein, Hermann Pinkus, and Marion B. Sulzberger. PMID:23928455

Weyers, Wolfgang



History of blood gas analysis. II. pH and acid-base balance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrometric measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration was discovered by Wilhelm Ostwald in Leipzig about 1890 and described\\u000a thermodynamically by his student Walther Nernst, using the van’t Hoff concept of osmotic pressure as a kind of gas pressure,\\u000a and the Arrhenius concept of ionization of acids, both of which had been formalized in 1887. Hasselbalch, after adapting the\\u000a pH nomenclature

John W. Severinghaus; Poul B. Astrup



History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.  


The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

Castro-Núñez, Jaime


The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.1

Timmberlake, Todd



Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne



The farmer, the hunter, and the census taker: three distinct views of animal behavior.  


The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between evolutionary theory and ethology in the work of Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen and V.C. Wynne-Edwards, the farmer, hunter, and census taker of the title respectively. I am especially interested in the idea of the ethologists Lorenz and Tinbergen that animal behavior and human behavior were equally appropriated subjects of biological analysis. Their approach is contrasted with Wynne-Edwards's group selective account of the evolution of social behavior. Finally, I argue that Wynne-Edwards's dogged commitment to group selection theory helped create the theoretical space within which subsequent researchers could develop more careful analyses. PMID:20848803

Borrello, Mark E



The cosmic Era and the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THe book describes the main directions of development of cosmic research in the USA, USSR, Europe, Japan and China. The main inventors and creators of cosmic technics are designed : Tsiolkovskii, Tsander, Korolev, Oberth, Verner von Braun, Goddard and the most important cosmic flies by Sputnik, Gagarin, Tereshkova, Leonov, Armstrong. The main program of cosmic research are outlined in such areas as maps, geological research, meteorolgy, television, radio and military. The Romanian contributions are described: Ioan Vitez, Konrad Haas, Traian Vuia, Aurel Vlaicu, Hermann Oberth and Dumnitru Prunariu.

Closca-Grigore, Carmen


The first accurate description of an aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

Schröder, Wilfried



Cluster of genes in Escherichia coli for ribosomal proteins, ribosomal RNA, and RNA polymerase subunits.  

PubMed Central

The transducing phage lambdarifd18 isolated by Kirschbaum and Konrad [(1973 J. Bacteriol. 116, 517-526] was found to carry structural genes for several 50S ribosomal proteins and 16S and 23S rRNA. It has previously been demonstrated [Kirschbaum & Scaife (1974) Mol. Gen. Genet. 132, 193-201] that this phage carries genes for the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase; EC subunits beta and beta'. Thus, the region of the E. coli chromosome carried by lambdarifd18 contains a cluster of genes essential for transcription and translation. Images

Lindahl, L; Jaskunas, S R; Dennis, P P; Nomura, M



OmegaCAM: The VST Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OmegaCAM is the large-format CCD pixels imaging camera that has been designed to exploit the square degree field of view of the VST while sampling the excellent seeing of Paranal (Kuijken et al. 2002, The Messenger 110, 15). The instrument is built by a consortium which comprises institutes in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy, and is headed by PI Konrad Kuijken (Groningen and Leiden University) with co-PI's Ralf Bender (Munich USM/MPE) and Enrico Cappellaro (INAF Naples), and project management by Bernhard Muschielok and Reinhold Häfner (USM). The Optical Detector Team at ESO has designed and built the detector system.

Cappellarao, E.



Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preacher-alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel made an oil by the destructive distillation of bones about 1700. He proclaimed it to be a universal remedy. Much later Ferdinand Runge detected the presence of pyrrole, but not in bone oil. He observed the red color of the pine splint wet with hydrochloric acid in the vapor of coal tar distillate, and called the responsible substance pyrrole. He suggested that it might also occur in bone oil. In the mid-1880's, Thomas Anderson finally isolated pyrrole by repeated distillation of about 250 gallons of ivory oil. About the middle of this century Du Pont began to make it synthetically.

Anderson, Hugh J.



["How it all came about". On the beginnings of current neurosurgery in Germany up to the beginning of the "Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie"].  


Till the thirties of our century surgery of brain and spinal cord was done by general surgeons. At that time the activities of Ernst von Bergmann, Fedor Krause and the operative autodidact and Neurologist Otfried Foerster met with great response. These achievements, however, had no influence on the development and dissemination of Neurosurgery in Germany. The revolutionary work of Cushing concerning Neurosurgery had no effect on surgeons either. The results of the operative treatment of intracerebral tumors in Germany continued to be depressing. It's entirely the credit of Fritz König (Würzburg) having caused the decisive change of this situation. He enabled his resident Wilhelm Tönnis to be educated by Herbert Olivecrona in his Department of Neurosurgery in Stockholm. After his return from Sweden the first independent Department of Neurosurgery was founded for Wilhelm Tönnis in Würzburg. Wilhelm Tönnis tried to overcome the still existing opposition against the independence of Neurosurgery by the foundation of an own scientific journal. The "Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie" was founded in 1936 at the newspaper Publisher Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig. This "Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie" was the only scientific journal of the world till 1943. The consequences of war stopped its distribution abroad. This was the reason for the foundation of "The Journal of Neurosurgery" in 1944. Corresponding to its tradition the new beginning shall consolidate the scientific bond between all neurosurgeons of the world. PMID:1862677

Bushe, K A



Sterne, Mond, Kometen. Bremen und die Astronomie. Zum 75. Jahrestag der Gründung der Olbers-Gesellschaft Bremen e.V.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: I. Klassische Astronomie. Newton und die vielen Bewegungen des Mondes (M. C. Gutzwiller). Ueber die Möglichkeit, dass ein Comet mit der Erde zusammenstossen könne (Wilhelm Olbers). Wilhelm Olbers und die Kometen (V. Kasten). Himmel so hell wie 90000 Sonnen - Das Olbersche Paradoxon (P. H. Richter). II. Die Gründer der Olbers-Gesellschaft. Die Gründerjahre der Olbers-Gesellschaft (H.-J. Leue). Max Völkel - Erster Präsident der Olbers-Gesellschaft (A. Müller). Wilhelm Finke - Pädagoge und Physiker (D. Wattenberg). Der Grungedanke der Lösung war... - Ursprung der Stern-Projektion in Planetarien (F. Finke). III. Arbeit und Leben in der Olbers-Gesellschaft. >Stein-Zeit< (E. P. Sixt). Himmlische Zeiten - 40 Jahre Amateur-Astronomie in der Olbers-Gesellschaft (H.-J. Leue). Spiegelschleifen als Hobby - damals und heute (W. Jaeckel). Philipp Fauths Mondatlas (H. Dierks). IV. Mensch, Zeit und Kosmos. Das Spronser Bergheiligtum bei Meran. Die älteste Sternwarte der Menschheit in situ? (A. Egen). Die kosmische Funktion des Goldenen Schnitts (T. Landscheidt). Bremer Sonnenuhren - Eine Einführung in die Messung der Sonnenzeit (D. Vornholz). Olbers und die Zeit auf Besuch bei Carl Schütte (Ein Singspiel von Malvina Elisabeth Schütte, geb. Focke).

Richter, P. H.


Disposal of LLW and ILW in Germany - Characterisation and Documentation of Waste Packages with Respect to the Change of Requirements  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1998 termination of LLW and ILW emplacement in the Morsleben repository (ERAM), Germany, the treatment, conditioning and documentation of radioactive waste products and packages have been continued on the basis of the waste acceptance requirements as of 1995, prepared for the Konrad repository near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, Germany. The resulting waste products and packages are stored in interim storage facilities. Due to the Konrad license issued in 2002 the waste acceptance requirements have to be completed by additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, e. g. for the declaration of chemical waste package constituents. Therefore, documentation of waste products and packages which are checked by independent experts and are in parts approved by the responsible authority (Office for Radiation Protection, BfS) up to now will have to be checked again for fulfilling the final waste acceptance requirements prior to disposal. In order to simplify these additional checks, databases are used to ensure an easy access to all known facts about the waste packages. A short balance of the existing waste products and packages which are already checked and partly approved by BfS as well as an overview on the established databases ensuring a fast access to the known facts about the conditioning processes is presented. (authors)

Bandt, G.; Spicher, G. [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Steyer, St.; Brennecke, P. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection Germany, Salzgitter (Germany)



NOTE: Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods.

Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J.; Nill, Simeon; Ludwig, Thomas; Oelfke, Uwe



Soft x-ray windows for position-sensitive proportional counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods have been developed to make ultrathin low-leak x-ray entrance windows which can withstand atmospheric pressures. The first prototypes have been 6 mm or 20 mm diameter windows with film thicknesses 0.5 micrometers - 2.5 micrometers of polyimide and 40 nm - 100 nm of aluminum. Also 0.5 micrometers - 1 micrometers thick beryllium windows with diameter of 6 mm have been fabricated. The goal is to fabricate 140 mm and 70 mm diameter windows for Danish-Finnish position sensitive proportional counters to be flown on the Soviet SPECTRUM-ROENTGEN-GAMMA satellite.

Viitanen, Veli-Pekka; Nenonen, Seppo A.; Sipila, Heikki; Mutikainen, Risto



A large aperture imaging gas scintillation proportional counter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A driftless imaging gas scintillation proportional counter intended as a focal plane detector for one of the two high-throughput XSPECT concentrator aboard the Soviet-Danish Spectr-Roentgen-Gamma satellite has been built. In this paper, energy and position resolution measurements obtained with this detector at several X-ray energies are reported. For example, values of 16.0 percent and 1.9 mm FWHM energy and position resolution have been measured at an energy of 1487 eV. Some present limitations of the counter are discussed, and future devlopments are outlined.

Heppener, Marc; Simons, Dirk G.



In search of venous thromboembolism: the first 2913 years.  


OBJECTIVE. Venous thromboembolism was first described in India around 600-900 BC. It was not until the 17th through 19th centuries that Western researchers began to understand the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Roentgen's discovery of x-rays in 1895 led to the first objective imaging. CONCLUSION. Currently, scintigraphy, helical CT, MRI, and sonography provide accurate in vivo images. These high-quality images have forced clinicians to reevaluate many preimaging assumptions about and treatments for venous thromboembolism. PMID:24059395

Goodman, Lawrence R



Exploring the brain, looking for thoughts: on Asimov's second Fantastic Voyage.  


The aim of this paper is to investigate various concerns which appear in Isaac Asimov's Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain. I will disregard his first voyage inside a human body in Fantastic Voyage I, which the author disavows as not being his own work. In contrast, the second voyage is intricate, suggesting problems drawn from a variety of sources. In a nutshell, Asimov's explorers enter the body of a comatose man in order to read his thoughts. The story can be related both to philosophical thought-experiments, such as those of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and of Herbert Feigl, as well as to personal anxieties peculiar to Asimov. PMID:21936209

Cassou-Noguès, Pierre



Christoph Rothmann and the dispersal of the celestial spheres. The letters to the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel of 1585. (German Title: Christoph Rothmann und die Auflösung der himmlischen Sphären)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prepared by the new star of 1572 and the comet of 1577, the comet of 1585 led to the explicit and definitive elimination of the concept of the solid heavenly spheres. On the basis of precise observations of the comet, Christoph Rothmann in Kassel developed the concept of a fluid heaven consisting of pure air. This combination of experience and theory, together with his Copernicanism, illustrates Rothmann's importance in the history of cosmology. An appendix contains five previously unpublished letters from Rothmann to the landgrave Wilhelm IV on the subject of the comet, and also the imperial privilege granted to Rothmann to publish several astronomical studies.

Granada, Miguel A.


Vienna University Observatory and Bruno Thüring (German Title: Die Wiener Universitätssternwarte und Bruno Thüring )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate Bruno Thüring's political attitude during the time of National Socialism, based on material from the Vienna Observatory archive, and on statements by his contemporaries. The contribution focuses on the filling of astronomy positions in Vienna, and also on the expulsion of Kasimir Graff. A central role is played by Wilhelm Führer, Obersturmführer der Waffen-SS (Senior Storm Leader of the Armed Protection Squad) and chief civil servant in the Reich science ministry. The transcription of an original letter of 1939 by Führer, addressed to Thüring, is given.

Kerschbaum, Franz; Posch, Thomas; Lackner, Karin


Investigating at the Moon With new Eyes: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC) H. Hiesinger (1,2), M.S. Robinson (3), A.S. McEwen (4), E.P. Turtle (4), E.M. Eliason (4), B.L. Jolliff (5), M.C. Malin (6), and P.C. Thomas (7) (1) Brown Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Providence RI 02912,, (2) Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, (3) Northwestern Univ., (4) LPL, Univ. of Arizona, (5) Washington Univ., (6) Malin Space

H. Hiesinger; M. S. Robinson; A. S. McEwen; E. P. Turtle; E. M. Eliason; B. L. Jolliff; M. C. Malin; P. C. Thomas



Geologic Map of Part of the Western Hellas Planitia, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Rock units were deposited on Mars by meteorite impact, volcanism, wind, flowing water, standing water, and ice, acting separately or in concert. Hellas Planitia, the deepest tract on Mars, is a broad depression lying within the high-rimmed, approximately 2,300-km-wide Hellas impact basin. The basin and the planitia are centered about 250 km east of the southeast corner of the map area. Like other stratigraphy-based planetary mapping (Wilhelms, 1990), we suggest the most likely origins for age relations and morphologies visible in the map area.

Moore, Jeffrey, M.; Wilhelms, Don, E.



Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements  

PubMed Central

A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A.

Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.



LSWAVE 2000: Lasers and short-wavelength applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LSWAVE 2000 was organized as a Satellite Workshop to the Seventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI 2000. It was held on Saturday, August 26, 2000, at the Technische Universität Berlin, and was jointly organized by the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Technical University Berlin (TUB). The organizing committee consisted of Wilhelm Raith (chairman), Wolfgang Sandner, Ingolf Hertel, Manfred Wick, Bernd Winter, Tatjana Gießel, Holger Stiel, Ingo Will, Ursula Bayr (secretary) and Silvia Szlapka (secretary). Continuing information on the Workshop and its proceedings may be found under

Sandner, W.



The photographers of the Venus transit of 1874 (German Title: Die Photographen des Venusdurchgangs von 1874)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apart from the photo-pioneer Hermann Krone from Dresden, little is known about the photographers who took part in the German expeditions for the observation of the Venus transit of 1874. We give a short overview of the photographic methods and instruments employed at that time, present biographic details about O. Eschke, G. Fritsch, C. Kardaetz. F. Stolze, Th. Studer and G. Wolfram, give some details on the expeditions and their final destinations, and show a few rare photographic documents. We also give a transcription of the letters of G. Fritsch written to Wilhelm Foerster in the course of the Persian expedition.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.


[Jewish urologists in Hamburg: eight biographies from Imperial Germany to Nazi Germany].  


Before the Nazis seized power in 1933, eight Jewish urologists practiced in the city of Hamburg: Otto Einzig, Moritz Fürst, Ernst Fränkel, Wilhelm Haas, Friedrich Lührse, Paul Rosenberg, Sigmund Wertheim and Erich Wohlauer. This contribution traces their lives and careers. One of them was murdered at the Theresienstadt concentration camp and seven emigrated to the USA, Sweden and South Africa. One emigrant committed suicide shortly after arriving in the USA and while the other six continued to practice medicine, they did so under precarious conditions. PMID:21725646

Bellmann, J



Correspondence between Tycho Brahe and Thaddeus Hagecius - the beginnings. (German Title: Briefwechsel zwischen Tycho Brahe und Thaddaeus Hagecius - Anfänge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voluminous correspondence of Tycho is one of the most interesting sources of the history of astronomy. Nevertheless, it is until today poorly known and rarely cited (Thoren being a counter-example), and a modern critical edition is lacking. Among Tycho Brahe's most frequent correspondents are Wilhelm, the landgrave of Hesse, and his court astronomer Ch. Rothmann. At third place - regarding the number of letters - we find the court physician and astronomer Thaddaeus Hagecius from Prague. Their correspondence lasted from 1575 tpo 1597. This article presents and analyses the most important letters of the Hagecius - Brahe correspondence.

Smolka, Josef


Evaluation of Incident Risks in a Repository for Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

A probabilistic safety assessment of the operation phase of a repository for radioactive waste requires the knowledge of incident risks. These are evaluated from generic observations. The present method accounts for the uncertainty (1) of whether an incident occurs, (2) of the incident rate, (3) of the duration of generic observation, and (4) of the duration of operation phase of the repository. It yields a mean risk and its standard deviation from a minimum of generic data, comprising only the number of observed incidents and the duration of the observation, as more comprehensive generic data are seldom available. It was shown that incidents sharing a common generic observation must be either merged together to a total incident or the generic observation must be split up in sub-observations, one for each such incident. The method was tested on the example of the German Konrad repository for low-level waste in a deep geological formation. (authors)

Grundler, D.; Mariae, D.; Muller, W.; Boetsch, W. [Institut fur Sicherheitstechnologie (ISTec), Koln (Germany); Thiel, J. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)



Evolution and symmetry of multipartite entanglement.  


We discover a simple factorization law describing how multipartite entanglement of a composite quantum system evolves when one of the subsystems undergoes an arbitrary physical process. This multipartite entanglement decay is determined uniquely by a single factor we call the entanglement resilience factor. Since the entanglement resilience factor is a function of the quantum channel alone, we find that multipartite entanglement evolves in exactly the same way as bipartite (two qudits) entanglement. For the two qubits case, our factorization law reduces to the main result of [T. Konrad, Nature Phys. 4, 99 (2008)10.1038/nphys885]. In addition, for a permutation P, we provide an operational definition of P asymmetry of entanglement, and find the conditions when a permuted version of a state can be achieved by local means. PMID:21231157

Gour, Gilad



Alois Alzheimer: a hundred years after the discovery of the eponymous disorder.  


The familiar term "Alzheimer's disease" was coined by Emil Kraepelin to honour his pupil, Alois Alzheimer. However, little is known about the life of the man after whom this important and well-known disease was termed. On the centennial of the discovery of Alzheimer's disease, it is appropriate to report some aspects of the life and scientific work of Alois Alzheimer. The authors contacted all the libraries of the Universities where Alzheimer studied and/or worked to receive any original material regarding Alois Alzheimer. This review is based for a most part on an original biography written by Konrad and Urlike Maurer after the interviews to Alzheimer's nieces, Hildegard Koeppen, Ilse Lieblein, Bärbel Lippert, Karin Wei?, and his nephew, Rupert Finsterwalder. The authors obtained this biography from the Central Library of Medicine in Koeln. PMID:23674983

Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo



Adult preferences for infantile facial features: an ethological approach.  


In 1943 Konrad Lorenz postulated that certain infantile cues served as releasers for caretaking behaviour in human adults. This study is an attempt to confirm this hypothesis and to identify relevant cues. The stimuli studied were variations in facial features, and the responses were ratings of the attractiveness of the resultant infant faces. Parametric variations of eye height, eye width, eye height and width, iris size, and vertical variations in feature position (all presented in full-face drawings) were tested for their effect on the ratings, and highly significant preferences for particular stimuli were found. In general these preferences are consistent across a wide variety of environmental factors such as social class and experience with children. These findings are consistent with an ethological interpretation of the data. PMID:855947

Sternglanz, S H; Gray, J L; Murakami, M




SciTech Connect

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is scheduled for launch in late 2012. eROSITA is fully approved and funded by the German Space Agency DLR and the Max-Planck-Society.The design driving science is the detection of 50-100 thousands Clusters of Galaxies up to redshift z{approx}1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models, especially Dark Energy. This will be accomplished by an all-sky survey lasting for four years plus a phase of pointed observations. eROSITA consists of seven Wolter-I telescope modules, each equipped with 54 Wolter-I shells having an outer diameter of 360 mm. This would provide and effective area at 1.5 keV of {approx}1500 cm{sup 2} and an on axis PSF HEW of 15'' which would provide an effective angular resolution of 25''-30''. In the focus of each mirror module, a fast frame-store pn-CCD will provide a field of view of 1 deg. in diameter for an active FOV of {approx}0.83 deg{sup 2}. At the time of writing the instrument development is currently in phase C/D.

Predehl, Peter; Boehringer, Hans; Brunner, Hermann; Brusa, Marcella; Burwitz, Vadim; Cappelluti, Nico; Dennerl, Konrad; Freyberg, Michael; Friedrich, Peter; Meidinger, Norbert; Muehlegger, Martin; Strueder, Lothar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Churazov, Evgeniy; Sunyaev, Rashid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Hasinger, Guenther [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Schmid, Christian; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Abteilung Astronomie, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)



Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.  


The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n. PMID:8804226

Lääperi, A L



The moral responsibility of scientists in Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>epilogue What the eugenicists knew The eugenicists at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute had to know that their knowledge was used for murder. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.



Fallout Dosages at Washington, D.C.  


It has been assumed that the fission product conglomerate emits one gamma ray per beta particle throughout its lifetime. The fallout velocities are not accurately known, and in some cases the detonation and response times have been approximated. For these reasons, the dosages reported in this paper can be accurate in order of magnitude only. With these reservations, an infinity dose of 0.2 roentgen or less due to all explosions between January 1951 and May 1955 is reported for Washington, D.C. Therefore, it is probable that the total fallout from all weapons tests that have so far been conducted will produce only a fraction of the lifetime dosage due to natural radioactivity and cosmic radiation (6). Most of the dosage comes from the Nevada tests, and only a small part from the Pacific thermonuclear tests (7). Fission products contained in that part of the cloud of a thermonuclear explosion which extends above the level of precipitation is found to contribute only very slightly to the dosage at great distances. No analysis was carried out for air activity data taken at other locations, but their qualitative similarity to those taken in Washington suggests that infinity doses in most other locations in the northern hemisphere will not be greatly different. Present results are in essential agreement with two other measurements that have been reported. Eisenbud and Harley (8) have measured fallout deposited on gummed papers (9) at various locations in the United States and have found an average dose of 0.001 roentgen per year. Stewart, Crooks, and Fisher (10) have measured the activity of air, rainwater, and ground deposits in England and report an infinity dose of 0.055 roentgen. This somewhat lower figure may result from their greater distance from Nevada, which appears to be the source of most of the fallout in the United States. The authors wish to thank Dr. H. Friedman and Dr. L. B. Lockhart for their continued support and for many helpful discussions. PMID:17740433

Blifford, I H; Rosenstock, H B



New Crater Counts for Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar mare basalts cover about 17% of the lunar surface, occur preferentially on the lunar nearside, and often fill the low-lying inner depressions of large impact basins and craters. Basalts in Mare Frigoris are special in that they occur in an area that is not clearly related to any unambiguously accepted impact structure. Mare Frigoris may be part of the large and very old Procellarum basin, but the existence of this basin is still debated. Mare basalts in Mare Frigoris are relatively homogeneous, low in titanium, have a bright albedo, and strong 1 µm- and prominent 2 µm-absorption bands. The thickness of these basalts has been estimated to be less than 500 m. Wilhelms found the basalts of eastern Mare Frigoris to be of Imbrian age and the basalts of central and western Frigoris (west of ~10deg E) to be Eratosthenian in age. Whitford-Stark proposed that the basalts in Mare Frigoris were emplaced by flood-style eruptions 3.2-3.6 b.y. ago. We report on crater counts for Mare Frigoris, Mare Nectaris, Mare Smythii, Mare Marginis, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii, and Palus Putredinis. We also determined ages for basalts exposed in the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion. Our crater counts let us conclude that (1) Mare Frigoris is mostly filled with Imbrian basalts but there are a few areas that are covered with Eratosthenian basalts, (2) these Eratosthenian basalts occur in few small-sized areas north of the crater Plato but are not connected with each other as shown by Wilhelms, (3) basalts in Mare Nectaris, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii and Palus Putredinis are Imbrian in age, (4) basalts in Mare Smythii are younger than in Mare Marginis, contrary to the geologic map of Wilhelms and El-Baz, (5) basaltic fills of the craters Goddard, Hubble, and Joliot are of Imbrian age, (6) there are no Eratosthenian basalts in the crater Schickard but basalts in the crater Grimaldi are Eratosthenian in age as mapped by McCauley, (7) lava ponds in the craters Crüger, Rocca A and between these two craters were formed during the Imbrian Period, (8) lava ponds south of the crater Endymion are of Late Imbrian age, (9) none of the areas mapped as Eratosthenian dark mantle deposits is Eratosthenian but all are Imbrian in age and often older than adjacent mare basalts.

Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.



One hundred years of the Fritz Haber Institute.  


We outline the institutional history and highlight aspects of the scientific history of the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, from its founding in 1911 until about the turn of the 21st century. Established as one of the first two Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, the Institute began as a much-awaited remedy for what prominent German chemists warned was the waning of Germany's scientific and technological superiority relative to the United States and to other European nations. The history of the Institute has largely paralleled that of 20th century Germany. It spearheaded the research and development of chemical weapons during World War I, then experienced a "golden era" during the 1920s and early 1930s, in spite of financial hardships. Under the National Socialists it suffered a purge of its scientific staff and a diversion of its research into the service of the new regime, accompanied by a breakdown in its international relations. In the immediate aftermath of World War II it suffered crippling material losses, from which it recovered slowly in the postwar era. In 1952, the Institute took the name of its founding director and the following year joined the fledgling Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Institute supported diverse research into the structure of matter and electron microscopy in its geographically isolated and politically precarious location in West Berlin. In subsequent decades, as Berlin benefited from the policies of détente and later glasnost and the Max Planck Society continued to reassess its preferred model of a research institute, the FHI reorganized around a board of coequal scientific directors and renewed its focus on the investigation of elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces, topics of research that had been central to the work of Fritz Haber and the first "golden era" of the Institute. Throughout its one-hundred-year history, the Institute's pace-setting research has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel laureates. Here we highlight the contributions made at the Institute to the fields of gas-phase kinetics and dynamics, early quantum physics, colloid chemistry, electron microscopy, and surface chemistry, and we give an account of the key role the Institute played in implementing the Berlin Electron Synchrotron (BESSY I and II). Current research at the Institute in surface science and catalysis as well as molecular physics and spectroscopy is exemplified in this issue [Angew. Chem. 2011, 123, 10242; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 10064]. PMID:21957069

Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; James, Jeremiah



Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.



Biochemistry of late effects in rat lung after hemithoracic irradiation.  


The right hemithorax of rats was exposed to 1 kR of roentgen rays, the animals were killed at different times, and various physiologic and biochemic parameters (DNA, protein, collagen, sialic acid, lysosomal enzymes, fibrinolytic activity, peroxides and blood flow ratio between irradiated and non irradiated lung) were determined from 1 day until 11 months after irradiation. A decrease in relative blood flow was observed from 2 weeks until 11 months, a decrease in phospholipids from one to 3 months and a decrease in fibrinolytic activity from 1 day to 11 months after irradiation. At several times a decrease in sialic acid and cathepsin D was also noted. The changes are discussed with respect to the pathogenetic mechanisms of late lung damage. PMID:602813

Gerber, G B; Dancewicz, A M; Bessemans, B; Casale, G



[Alterations to the lumbar spine in rheumatoid arthritis].  


In rheumatoid arthritis the anatomical structures of the lumbar spine are affected by the same mechanisms of destruction as are known from other skeletal regions. Although spinal symptoms do not become apparent until the later stages of rheumatoid arthritis, patients do sometimes complain of typical symptoms. We present data recorded in 19 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who underwent hospital treatment directed exclusively at isolated low-back pain. The patients were questioned in some detail with the aid of instruments including the Oswestry, TypE, HAQ and RADAI questionnaires and a visual-analogue-pain scale. Roentgen exposures were also evaluated. A comparison was drawn between patients treated surgically with decompression and various spondylodeses (n=13) and those who received conservative treatment (n=6). Better results were obtained in the group of patients treated surgically, though a statistical evaluation was not possible. No histological evidence of rheumatoid alterations was found in the intervertebral disc tissue samples available. PMID:17657475

Rehart, S; Pfister, A; Kerschbaumer, F



Pediatric advanced imaging and informatics: state of the art.  


Pediatric imaging has been at the forefront of radiology innovation since the days of Roentgen. In the past 2 decades, evolving computer technology and sophisticated software algorithms have rapidly advanced how pediatric radiologic examinations are acquired and displayed, interpreted and communicated, and stored and retrieved. Cost-effective use of this state of the art technology requires fundamental knowledge of the modalities, workstations, and informatics that guide advanced pediatric imaging in the current digital era. Equally important is an understanding of the advanced clinical applications and evidence supporting this use. In the first part of this review article, after a brief introduction and historical overview, technical principles are discussed. This is followed by a review of advanced clinical applications for fetal, cardiovascular, central nervous system, neck, thoracic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and virtual-autopsy imaging. PMID:20304324

Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Medina, L Santiago; Epelman, Monica



Cup anteversion in hip resurfacing: validation of EBRA and the presentation of a simple clinical grading system.  


The use of large metal on metal bearings has led to a reduction in the risk of dislocation post hip arthroplasty. Because of this, and also because of the technical difficulties associated with resurfacing surgery in particular, it could be argued that a less meticulous approach to acetabular cup placement has developed in comparison with conventional metal on polyethylene arthroplasty. Resurfacing cups may produce significant clinical problems when placed at the extremes of version, including increased production of metal debris and psoas tendonitis. Presented in this article is evidence that EBRA software (Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analysis, University of Innsbruck, Austria) can be used to reliably assess the version of resurfacing cups, when radiographs are of sufficient quality. The cups have characteristic appearances when placed at the extremes of version. These characteristics can allow the surgeon to identify poorly positioned cups without the use of software. PMID:20022454

Langton, David J; Sprowson, Andrew P; Mahadeva, Dhirendra; Bhatnagar, Sharad; Holland, James P; Nargol, Antoni V F



Nuclear hostages  

SciTech Connect

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the rationale for limited nuclear war, first strike, massive retaliation, non-proliferation, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties. He argues that the concepts of mobile MX weapons, fratricide, and population dispersal for civil defense are unworkable, suggesting a program of unilaterally withdrawing tactical nuclear weapons from Europe and strengthening intelligence and law-enforcement powers to withstand terrorist activity. Economic cooperation and political reconciliation may take a generation to achieve, but should be our national goal.

O'Keefe, B.J.



Nuclear reactions in deuterium-saturated palladium under irradiation by 10?MeV ?-quanta, in dense molecular deuterium at 1.2?kbar pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-pressure chamber with a Pd-rod inside was filled up with 1.2 kbar molecular deuterium (DHPC). Then the saturated by deuterium palladium rod was irradiated during 18 hours by 11 MeV braking ?-quanta at 11-13 ?A electron beam using the MT-25 electron accelerator. The element compositions of all the DHPC surfaces which had been in contact with dense deuterium gas were studied using scanning electronic microscopes with Roentgen microprobe analysis. It was determined that all the surfaces, including surfaces of the high-purity Pd-rod (99.995%), were covered either by a partially homogeneous layer or large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements as C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and heavy metals as Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Pb were observed on the chambers inner surfaces.

Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R. S.



The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency doubling of laser light was one of the first new phenomena observed following the invention of the laser over 50 years ago. Since then, the quest to extend nonlinear optical upconversion to ever-shorter wavelengths has been a grand challenge in laser science. Two decades of research into high-order harmonic generation has recently uncovered several feasible routes for generating bright coherent X-ray beams using small-scale femtosecond lasers. The physics of this technique combines the microscopic attosecond science of atoms driven by intense laser fields with the macroscopic extreme nonlinear optics of phase matching, thus essentially realizing a coherent, tabletop version of the Roentgen X-ray tube.

Popmintchev, Tenio; Chen, Ming-Chang; Arpin, Paul; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.



Food Irradiation Is Done in Grays, not Rads  

SciTech Connect

One federal agency has chosen to use exclusively modern SI units of radiation dose in its regulations: the FDA. While not exactly hot news, this bold move by a U.S. government agency on November 26, 1997, should be noted by those who wish to encourage the switch from curies, working level months, rads, rems, and roentgens to becquerels, joule hours per cubic meter, grays, sieverts, and coulombs per kilogram. The regulation is 21 CFR 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food. Specifically, 21 CFR 179.26 (b) 8. permits meat irradiation up to 4.5 kGy for refrigerated meat and 7.0 kGy for frozen meat. Prior to the 1997 addition, radiation doses had been quoted in grays (kGy) with rad (Mrad) values in parentheses. In the 1997 addition, the Mrads disappeared.

Strom, Daniel J.




PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice



Movement patterns of the C-stem femoral component: an RSA study of 33 primary total hip arthroplasties followed for two years.  


We used roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis to follow 33 C-stem femoral components for two years after primary total hip arthroplasty. All components migrated distally and posteriorly within the cement mantle. The mean distal migration was 1.35 mm (sd 0.62) at two years and the mean posterior migration was 1.35 mm (sd 0.69) at two years. All the femoral components rotated into retroversion with a mean rotation at two years of 1.9 degrees (sd 1.1). For all other directions, the prosthesis was stable up to two years. Compared with other tapered prostheses, the distal migration of the C-stem is the same, but posterior rotation and posterior migration are greater. PMID:16189306

Sundberg, M; Besjakov, J; von Schewelow, T; Carlsson, A



[Value of small bowel double contrast enema in clinical interventions].  


The double contrast enema is the most effective morphological screening method for the evaluation of the whole small bowel. Its sensitivity is 85%, its specifity 96.7%. In specific clinical problems the number of pathological roentgen findings rises: from 34.4% when all indications are taken into consideration to 58% in indications specific to the small intestine such as Morbus Crohn or the malabsorption syndrome. Search for tumours and the double contrast of the small bowel in unclear gastro-intestinal bleeding are unproductive. The weak point of this screening method is the lower part of the small intestine. Therefore, the selective peroral or retrograde analysis of the terminal ileum supplement the contrast method. A precondition for good results is an adequate technical standard. Besides the clinical results some technical results are therefore discussed such as contrast medium quantities, examination and X-ray time, radiation exposure and influences on the image quality. PMID:3083480

Rödl, W; Possel, H M; Prull, A; Wunderlich, L





The treatment of polymeric esters of methacrylic acid having a softening polnt above 40 icient laborato C to form an expanded cellular mass with a smooth skin is discussed. The disclosed method comprises the steps of subjecting the body at a temperature below the softenpoint to a dose of at least 5 x lO/sup 6/ roentgen of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 source until its average molecular weight is reduced to a value within the range of 3 x lO/sup 5/ to 10/sup 4/, and heating at a temperature within the range of 0 to lO icient laborato C above its softening point to effect expansion.

Charlesby, A.; Ross, M.



[Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Report of a clinical case].  


Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is an hereditary disorder characterized by cutaneo-mucous telangiectasis and vascular abnormalities in several organs. Bleeding, especially epistaxis, represents the most important clinical feature. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae can cause hypoxaemia, haemoptysis, polycythaemia and clubbing. Diagnosis is based on family and personal history, teleangiectasis, laboratory (haemochrome, fibrinogen, PT, PTT) and instrumental findings (endoscopy and/or roentgen). Therapy depends on symptoms. Embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae and laser treatment of intestinal vascular abnormalities have been successful. Danazol treatment yielded controversial results. We report the case of a patient admitted for arterial hypertension and recurrent epistaxis. Rendu-Osler-Weber disease diagnosis was made based on positivity at family and personal history, clinical examination, laboratory and instrumental findings. In conclusion we underline the pivotal role of anamnesis and clinical examination in the differential diagnosis of hereditary bleeding disorders and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis for the correct therapeutic approach. PMID:8992409

Staffa, F; Bartone, M; Mancuso, G; Mattioli, P L; Pujia, A; Gnasso, A



Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations.  


Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm. PMID:6642942

Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S; Wong, R


Spectrum-RG astrophysical project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission will be launched in the 2012 year into a L2 orbit with Soyuz launcher and Fregat buster from Baikonur. The mission will conduct all-sky survey with X-ray mirror telescopes eROSITA and ART-XC up to 11 keV. It will allow detection of about 100 thousand clusters of galaxies and discovery large scale Universe structure. It will also discover all obscured accreting Black Holes in nearby galaxies and many (about 3 millions) new distant AGN. Then it is planned to observe dedicated sky regions with high sensitivity and thereafter to perform follow-up pointed observations of selected sources.

Pavlinsky, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Vikhlinin, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Arefiev, V.; Lapshov, I.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Buntov, M.; Semena, N.; Grigorovich, S.; Babyshkin, V.; Predehl, P.; Hasinger, G.; Böhringer, H.; Schmitt, J.; Santangelo, A.; Schwope, A.; Wilms, J.



The pioneering steps of radiology in Turkey (1896-1923).  


The discovery of X-rays (1895) by W.C. Roentgen has been a very important step of the modern civilization as a revolutionary technique for scientists all around the world and it has immediately been applied in medical field. The aim of this study is to search the start of radiology in Turkey on the basis of archival and first hand sources. This study shows that Roentgen apparatus was first installed in Turkey by an intern doctor Esad Feyzi who took the first radiographies at the Imperial Medical School (Istanbul) in 1896. He made use of X-ray method for medical diagnosis later on when Turkish-Greek war broke out in 1897. Esad Feyzi worked in the clinical team led by professor Salih Effendi, MD, at the Yildiz Temporary Military Hospital in Istanbul to take radiographies of soldiers wounded at war in cooperation with the German Red Cross medical delegation. This event is most probably the earliest examples of the application of X-ray technique into military surgery all over the world. Researches have also proven that medical radiography technique was also applied in Greece by Greek and English doctors during that war. This war gave the opportunity to German and British medical teams to use X-ray as a radiographic imaging technique at the two confronting sides that was used in consequent wars in other parts of the world, later on. The paper deals with the progress of clinical radiology in Turkey until the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. PMID:16129242

Ulman, Yesim Isil; Livadas, Gerry; Yildirim, Nuran



Ludwig: the physiologist.  


The thought reproduced in the above epigraph is taken from an article by Thurau et al. [1], who attribute it to Arthur Schopenhauer (17881860), an outstanding philosopher and author of the far-reaching piece Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation). In German, it would perhaps read as etwas denken, das niemand vorher gedacht hat, während etwas sehen, was jeder sieht. We could not assert whether Schopenhauer really said that, but it should not be at all surprising if it were, because it sounds simple, perhaps even naïve, and very deep, indeed. It fits perfectly to Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwigs personality (18161895), whom we will look at as physiologist in this second note. Yes, second note-because in the first one [2], we looked at him as bioengineer. A third and last Retrospectroscope column completing this series will deal with his wonderful and always humble and generous activities as teacher. PMID:23014707

Valentinuzzi, Max; Beneke, Klaus; Gonzalez, German


Die Verlegung der Berliner Sternwarte nach Babelsberg - ein konservativer Neubeginn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1913 the Berlin Observatory was moved from the center of the city to Babelsberg on the outskirts of Berlin, now part of Potsdam. The new observatory was considerably larger in size and with respect to its staff, and it had got a completely new equipment. At that time it was the most modern astronomical observatory in Germany and possibly even in Europe. However, the scientific results achieved afterward were not comparable to that of other institutions, especially in the USA. A main reason was the conservative concept for the observatory, drawn up by Wilhelm Foerster and his colleagues, and restricting the work to classical fields of astronomy. Foerster's successor Hermann Struve tried to follow rather strictly this concept as well as the traditions of his family of astronomers. This led to conflicts with his collaborators Eugen Goldstein, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and Paul Guthnick, who were interested rather in astrophysics than in the classical problems.

Dick, W. R.


The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.  


In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (? = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (? = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed. PMID:23682651

Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W



Letter to the Editor: Recent Advances in Research on Cognition and Emotion in OCD: A Review.  


Cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) ascertain that catastrophic (mis)interpretations of normally occurring intrusive thoughts are causal to the onset and maintenance of OCD. Recently, Calkins, Berman and Wilhelm have highlighted research validating the cognitive model. However, the current comment article stresses various findings that challenge basic premises of the cognitive theory. Moreover, a review of clinical studies investigating cognitive and behavioral therapies for OCD questions the added value of cognitive interventions over and above behavior therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention for this disorder. We suggest an alternative, potentially more useful route of investigation, stressing executive (dis)functions as the cause of OCD patients to (automatically) act on internal and external stimuli. We further suggest that dysfunctional beliefs proposed as paramount in the pathogenesis of OCD according to the cognitive model may be less important and specific than formerly believed. PMID:24146274

Anholt, Gideon E; Kalanthroff, Eyal



Neurosurgery in Würzburg until World War II.  


The institution of German neurosurgery as an autonomous surgical specialty, starting in Würzburg in 1934, is closely linked to the names of Fritz König and Wilhelm Tönnis. They were acting at a time when the global economic crisis and a consolidating Nazi dictatorship caused a cascade of alarming changes in political and social life. On the one hand it is fascinating to see how the restless work and energy of Tönnis managed to build up the first independent neurosurgical unit in Germany and to tighten efficient international connections all over the world within a few years. On the other hand - from a present-day perspective - it is difficult to understand how his strive towards a specialist's success, in contrast to that of Otfrid Foerster, was barely affected by the threatening political development, until the Second World War stopped his plans and ideas for many years. PMID:21786222

Arnold, H; Collmann, H



X-rays for medical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

Hessenbruch, A.



"Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

Adam, Adolf


The discovery of chemical neurotransmitters.  


Neurotransmitters have become such an intrinsic part of our theories about brain function that many today are unaware of how difficult it was to prove their existence or the protracted dispute over the nature of synaptic transmission. The story is important not only because it is fascinating science history, but also because it exemplifies much of what is best in science and deserving to be emulated. The friendships formed among such major figures in this history as Henry Dale, Otto Loewi, Wilhelm Feldberg, Walter Cannon, and others extended over two world wars, enriching their lives and facilitating their research. Even the dispute-the "war of the sparks and the soups"--between neurophysiologists and pharmacologists over whether synaptic transmission is electrical or chemical played a positive role in stimulating the research needed to provide convincing proof. PMID:12027394

Valenstein, Elliot S



Hermann von Helmholtz and his students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the years 1871-1888, when Hermann von Helmholtz was professor of physics at the University of Berlin, physicists from all over the world flocked to Berlin to study and do research with him. Among these were the German physicists Max Planck, Heinrich Kayser, Eugen Goldstein, Wilhelm Wien, and Heinrich Hertz, and Americans Henry Rowland, A. A. Michelson, and Michael Pupin. Examples of Helmholtz's scientific and personal interactions with these students and research associates show why he is justly considered the outstanding physics mentor of the 19th century. Both his ideas and his students played a major role in the development of physics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Mulligan, Joseph F.



Production and properties of the heaviest elements. Status and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the following topics which were discussed at the 375th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus-Seminar Workshop on the Atomic Properties of the Heaviest Elements held from September 25 27, 2006 at the Abtei Frauenwörth im Chiemsee, Germany: (i) the recent progress in the production of the heaviest elements, the investigation of their nuclear structure, and prospects for direct mass measurements in Penning traps. (ii) Recent studies of their chemical properties with the aid of volatile species and single-atom aqueous-phase chemistry; (iii) the current status and future prospects for the investigation of atomic and ionic properties such as optical spectroscopy in gas cells and ion traps, including fully relativistic calculations of the atomic level structure with predictions for the element nobelium; and (iv) ionic charge radii measurements in buffer gas filled drift cells, and ion chemical reactions in the gas phase.

Backe, H.; Heßberger, F. P.; Sewtz, M.; Türler, A.



How Einstein made asymmetry disappear: symmetry and relativity in 1905  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: I. Introduction II. Einstein's usages of the term symmetry in 1905 1. The dissertation (April 1905) Case 1: isotropy Case 2: analogy Case 3: geometrical usage 2. "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (June 1905) Case 1: indifference Case 2: two algebraic usages Case 3: physical usage Case 4: algebraic usage Case 5: rejecting asymmetry 3. The central claim: making asymmetry disappear by appealing to a physical argument 4. Conclusion III. Background. The term symmetry and its "relatives": duality, parallelism, and reciprocity 1. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) 2. Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) 3. August Föppl (1854-1924) 4. Emil Wiechert (1861-1928) 5. Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) 6. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) 7. Summary

Hon, Giora; Goldstein, Bernard R.



Carbon nanotube - molecular resonant tunneling diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Rapid Research Letter [1] carbon nanotube (CNT) molecular resonant tunnel diodes (RTD) are proposed to complement bio-assembled CNT field effect transistors. The cover figure is a schematic representation of a model CNT-pseudopeptide-CNT device in its relaxed structure with hydrogen passivation at the CNT ends. The device has been shown to exhibit the typical current-voltage response of an RTD.The first author, Rajeev Pandey, works as a post-doctoral researcher in the Laboratory for Terascale and Terahertz Electronics, headed by Roger Lake, at Riverside.The current issue of physica status solidi (a) also contains the Feature Article On the growth mechanisms of nanocrystalline diamond films by Wilhelm Kulisch and Cyril Popov [2].

Pandey, Rajeev R.; Bruque, Nicolas; Alam, Khairul; Lake, Roger K.



["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].  


This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper. PMID:23155759

Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf



Social Science Between Neo-Kantianism and Philosophy of Life: The Cases of Weber, Simmel, and Mannheim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a group of social scientists have credited Wilhelm Dilthey with the status of a "classical sociological theorist" (Bakker 1999) and a key figure with regard to the establishment of the social sciences since the last decades of the nineteenth century.1 Such evaluations stand in distinct contrast to Dilthey's reputation as a firm critic of sociology on the one hand and his dubious standing within his proper field, philosophy, on the other, where he is perceived as a failed epistemologist. Generally, his influence on social and cultural science is associated with his notion of Erleben and understanding as fundamental categories for the interpretive sciences and their unique relatedness to their particular subject. On the basis of this starting point, he eventually established a division between Verstehen and Erklären and, correspondingly, human and natural sciences.

Šuber, Daniel


Results from the intercalibration of optical low-light calibration sources 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 38th Annual Meeting on Atmospheric studies by Optical methods at Siuntio in Finland, an intercalibration workshop for optical low-light calibration sources was held in Sodankylä, Finland. The main purpose of this workshop was to provide a comparable scale for absolute measurements of aurora and airglow. All sources brought to the intercalibration workshop were compared to an international standard source (Fritz-Peak) using the Lindau Calibration Photometer built by Wilhelm Barke and Hans Lauche in 1984. The international standard source is on loan from Michael Gadsden, Aberdeen. The results were compared to several earlier intercalibration workshops. It was found that most sources were fairly stable over time with errors in the range of 5-20%. To further validate the results, two sources were also intercalibrated at UNIS, Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Preliminary analysis indicate good agreement with the intercalibration in Sodankylä.

Brändström, B. U. E.; Enell, C.-F.; Widell, O.; Hansson, T.; Whiter, D.; Mäkinen, S.; Mikhaylova, D.; Axelsson, K.; Sigernes, F.; Gulbrandsen, N.; Schlatter, N. M.; Gjendem, A. G.; Cai, L.; Reistad, J. P.; Daae, M.; Demissie, T. D.; Andalsvik, Y. L.; Roberts, O.; Poluyanov, S.; Chernouss, S.



Aerodynamics and mathematics in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy: a comparison of research institutes.  


The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research. PMID:20503761

Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R



[The shipwreck of "Der Brandtaucher" in the then territory of the Danish monarchy - in Kiel's harbor - February 1, 1851].  


This article describes the first German submarine - "Der Brandtaucher" - constructed in Schleswig-Holstein by Wilhelm V. Bauer in 1850. The submarine was built as a special weapon to attack the Danish blokading warships of the harbour of Kiel during the First Danish-German War 1848-51. The military-medical aspects are dealing with the shipwreck of a submarine because of an overpressure during submerge, and the rescue of its crew of 3 men through a "free ascent" of 52 feet - followed by comments of today. As for the description of the construction of "Der Brandtaucher", the shipwreck and the "free ascent", it was originally retold in German by Gerd Stolz in his book: "Die Schleswig-Holsteinische Marine 1848-1852". (1987). PMID:11625286

Brorson, I



[Development of cardiovascular surgery].  


On the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the journal "Der Chirurg" (The Surgeon) this article summarizes the development of cardiac surgery. Beginning from the first cardiac suture in 1897 by Ludwig Wilhelm Carl Rehn, through the first catheter investigation of the heart by Werner Forssmann in 1923 to the year 2008 when nearly 100,000 cardiac interventions were carried out in Germany and of these some 90,000 using a heart-lung machine. The article describes the founding of the German Society for Thorax, Heart and Vascular Surgery in the year 1971 and the reintegration in the German Society for Surgery, stemming from efforts for the unification of the structure of further education (common trunk). The motto for this process, which was actively supported by both societies, was "Independence when necessary, cooperation when possible". PMID:19997791

Haverich, A; Khaladj, N



[Schelling and experiential science].  


Schelling's philosophy of nature is shown to be part of the scientific discussions of his day, not set apart from it. His terminology describing the potentialities and polarities of nature was formed during Schelling's collaboration with the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter. This scientist adopted the schema Schelling had developed for the categorization of natural phenomena to describe the peculiar facts that interested him in his area of research. Thus Ritter was able to develop a classification of the various phenomena of animal galvanism. Thus it can be shown that the idealistic "Naturphilosophie" was part of the scientific culture of about 1800. It is to be interpreted as philosophy of science and has to be evaluated not only in a philosophically systematic way but in particular in its influence on the way scientific categories were ordered at the time. Thereby it can be shown that the idealistic vocabulary had close correspondence to French morphology and English Natural Theology. PMID:15730143

Breidbach, Olaf



High pressure study on Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-? single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport measurements to 2.5 GPa on electron-doped cuprates revealed modest changes in physical properties, if any [1]. Room temperature synchrotron diffraction on powder samples show that the non-superconducting parent Pr2CuO4 exhibits a gradual structural transition from T' to T phase when subject to pressures greater than 15 GPa [2]. Pr2-xCexCuO4 (PCCO) is superconducting for a Ce doping range 0.12 -- 0.2 (T' structure). Both pressure and Ce doping have the same shrinkage effect on the lattice constants. Here, we report high pressure ac susceptibility, resistivity and Raman shift data on x = 0.15 single crystals to 30 GPa. References: [1] C. Murayama et al., Nature, 339, 293 (1989) [2] H. Wilhelm et al., Science and Technology of High Pressure, Proceedings of AIRAPT-17, pp. 740-743, Universities Press, Hyderabad, India (2000)

Rotundu, Costel R.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Goncharov, Alexander; Greene, Richard L.



Uhthoff's phenomena in MS-clinical features and pathophysiology.  


In the late 19(th) century, Wilhelm Uhthoff reported on a series of patients with acute optic neuritis who manifested similar recurrent, stereotyped visual symptoms that were of paroxysmal onset, short in duration, and reversible. These 'Uhthoff's phenomena', which are a feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases, can be triggered by factors including the perimenstrual period, exercise, infection, fever, exposure to high ambient temperatures, and psychological stress. Here, we characterize the clinical, pathophysiological and neurotherapeutic challenges associated with Uhthoff's phenomena, and discuss the differentiation of these events from other paroxysmal, acute or subacute changes in functional capabilities and neurological symptoms in MS. For instance, whereas MS exacerbations are contingent on immune dysregulation, Uhthoff's phenomena are predicated on ion channel modifications, in conjunction with thermoregulatory derangements that transiently alter the conduction properties of demyelinated axons. An understanding of these pathophysiological underpinnings of Uhthoff's phenomena is germane to their recognition and timely treatment. PMID:23732530

Frohman, Teresa C; Davis, Scott L; Beh, Shin; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Remington, Gina; Frohman, Elliot M



Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany.  


As a side-product of industrial research, new chemical nerve agents (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) superior to those available to the Allied Forces were discovered in Nazi Germany. These agents were never used by Germany, even though they were produced at a large scale. This article explores the toxicological and physiological research into the mechanisms of action of these novel nerve agents, and the emergence of military research objectives in neurophysiological and neurotoxicological research. Recently declassified Allied military intelligence files document secret nerve agent research, leading to intensified research on anticholinesterase agents in the peripheral and the central nervous system. The article discusses the involvement of IG Farben scientists, educational, medical and military institutions, and of Nobel Prize laureate Richard Kuhn, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. PMID:16887760

Schmaltz, Florian



[The nuclear physicist, Rudolf Fleischmann and medicine at the University of Strassburg].  


Under German occupation in World War II,Alsace-Lorraine was subjected to politically enforced Germanization. One means was science policy. The newly founded research institute of the medical school of the University of Strasbourg for instance was modeled on the Heidelberg Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research of Ludolf von Krehl, incorporating institutes for internal medicine, physics and chemistry, and housing very modern research facilities. The expansion created tremendous professional opportunities for young German scientists like Rudolf Fleischmann, who worked in Strasbourg until the liberation, when he was taken as prisoner by the allied intelligence mission "Alsos." Released in 1946, Fleischmann started a second career in Hamburg and Erlangen, where he died in 2002. In one of his last interviews, which he gave to the author of this paper, he called the Strasbourg period a prerequisite for establishing his own scientific reputation. PMID:17152580

Weiss, Burghard



Seeing our world through a different light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cool Cosmos team has made its main occupation to communicate and explain the world of infrared astronomy to students and the public at large. We have created websites that explain Infrared Astronomy, its timeline, as well as the many benefits and uses of Infrared in the different aspects of our lives. We have created award-winning web activities where students perform a version of the experiment in which the famous astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel discovered infrared light. We have created tutorials about multi-wavelength astronomy and created a multi-wavelength gallery that shows celestial objects observed in different wavelengths and also explains the benefits of each wavelength. One of our new websites additions is the Ritter experiment which leads students to perform a version of the experiment in which Johann Wilhelm Ritter first discovered the ultraviolet light.

Hermans-Killam, Linda



[The brain anatomy reflected in the first 50 volumes of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (author's transl)].  


On the occasion of the edition of the 150th volume of the Anatomischer Anzeiger a survey is given on some important papers in neuroanatomy and especially brain research, published in the first 50 volumes of this journal. Such excellent workers in neuroscience as Albert Koelliker, Wilhelm His, Camillo Golgi, Carl Weigert, Aleksander Dogiel,Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Ludwig Edinger, Ferdinand Hochstetter, Fridtjof Nansen, Adolf Wallenberg, Theodor Ziehen, Stephan von Apáthy, Michael von Lenhossék, Gheorghe Marinesco, Korbinian Brodmann, Max Bielschowsky, Oskar Vogt, Grafton Elliot Smith, Giuseppe Levi, Cornelius Ariëns Kappers and many others are contributors to the Anatomischer Anzeiger during the first 32 years of its existence (1886-1918). In particular the long-lasting struggle for a general acceptance of the "neurone doctrine" (Neurohenlehre) is reflected by the Anatomischer Anzeiger before and after the turn of century. PMID:7030138

Schierhorn, H



[On natural history museums and their purpose. A lecture given by Leopold von Buch (1774-1853) in April 1838].  


A manuscript of a lecture by the Prussian geologist Leopold von Buch given at the Berlin Society of the Friends of the Humanity was discovered at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The text is a raw version of a passionate plea for the formation of natural history collections as science places, with a partly biting humor. Based on until now unknown anecdotes about naturalists like Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg (1761-1838) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hoeninghaus (1771-1854) Leopold von Buch argues with von Sternberg for the scientific value of natural history collections. The repeating references to the works of Goethe and an extensive addendum of various Dante translations into German are striking. The lecture manuscript complements our knowledge about the thinking of this important geologist, and provides new insights into the science policy of his time. PMID:22332295

Kröger, Björn



The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart



Jung, Evans-Wentz and various other gurus.  


How did Jung become deeply concerned with Asian religions and particularly with the Tibetan Buddhism of a Welshman from Trenton, New Jersey? Could that man be considered one of Jung's gurus? This essay begins six years after Jung, at twenty, was admitted to the medical school of Basel University and became a member of the Zofingiaverein, a student society. The next year he gave the first of a series of lectures on the interpretation of Christ as the model of the 'god-man', like the Apostle Paul, Confucius, Zoroaster and the Buddha, who was 'drummed into the Hindu boy'. (Jung's Zofingia Lectures were discovered only after his death, in 1961, and were published in English in 1983). The present essay discusses Jung's early Buddhist interest as displayed in The Psychology of the Unconscious (finally, in a revision, entitled Symbols of Transformation), in Psychological Types and later in his foreword of the Wilhelm translation of the I Ching. Jung was influenced by the gurus Richard Wilhelm and his son Hellmut, the scholar J. W. Hauer (with whom he later broke off relations because of Hauer's Nazi politics), the indologist Heinrich Zimmer, and the Zen master D. T. Suzuki. Walter Yeeling Wentz was born in Trenton in 1878 and brought up in his family's theosophist faith. The Wentzes moved to San Diego in 1900, and Walter added his mother's Celtic surname, Evans, to the German Wentz. He was educated at Stanford University and travelled in Europe, studying Celtic folklore, and widely in the Near East, Tibet, India, and Oxford--studying religions everywhere and editing Tibetan books. He lived his last decades in San Diego and conducted a correspondence with Jung, while living in a cheap hotel, or in an ashram. PMID:14513477

McGuire, William



The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.  


Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically. PMID:15817045

Ma, Shirley S Y



[Conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski].  


In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of culture and technology, and sources of scientific progress. PMID:21675045

Lietz, Natalia



Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air humidity was probably rather high, up to 77%. The combined results of the three selected plant taxa indicate values for atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration between 700 and 1100 ppm (probably about 900 ppm). Reference: Konrad, W., Roth-Nebelsick, A., Grein, M. (2008). Modelling of stomatal density response to atmospheric CO2. Journal of Theoretical Biology 253(4): 638-658.

Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten



Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage  

SciTech Connect

The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology and inorganic additives produce volume reduced glasses. Organic polymers evaluated are polysiloxane compounds with additives like barium sulfate, lead dioxide or others, depending on the specific requirements. As a counterpart to organic polymers, mineral polymers are based on silica and alumina, exhibiting better mechanical and thermal properties, as well as higher durability, compared with concrete. Thus QSA Global uses mineral polymers for packing radioactive waste containers, if high safety requirements have to be fulfilled like the waste acceptance criteria for the KONRAD repository. (Plasma products so far generated in experiments resemble natural obsidian, a highly inert and stable volcanic glass). (authors)

Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R. [Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W. [QSA Global GmbH, D-38001 Braunschweig (Germany)



The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen



Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany  

SciTech Connect

In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

Koenig, Werner [TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Baumann, Roland [Siemens AG, Power Generation (Germany)



[An image of Saint Ottilia with reading stones].  


Reading stones to facilitate reading in cases of presbyopia are mentioned in the literature, for example in the works of the Middle High German poet Albrecht and of Konrad of Würzburg. Most representations of the abbess, Saint Ottilia, show her holding a book with a pair of eyes in her hands. A gothic altarpiece (1485-1490), kept in the museum of the Premonstratensian Canons of Wilten in Innsbruck, Tyrol, shows a triune representation of St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, with Mary and Jesus and St. Ursula with her companions. St. Ottilia is depicted on the edge of the painting. Two lenses, one on either side of the open book in her hand, magnify the letters underneath. As the two lenses are not held together by bows or similar devices, they are probably a rare representation of reading stones. The alter showing scenes of the life of St. Mary and St. Ursula was done by Ludwig Konraiter. A panel on the same alter, depicting the death of the Virgin, shows an apostle with rivet spectacles. PMID:8851062

Daxecker, F; Broucek, A



Baby Schema in Infant Faces Induces Cuteness Perception and Motivation for Caretaking in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that baby schema (‘Kindchenschema’) is a set of infantile physical features such as the large head, round face and big eyes that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in other individuals, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. Previous work on this fundamental concept was restricted to schematic baby representations or correlative approaches. Here, we experimentally tested the effects of baby schema on the perception of cuteness and the motivation for caretaking using photographs of infant faces. Employing quantitative techniques, we parametrically manipulated the baby schema content to produce infant faces with high (e.g. round face and high forehead), and low (e. g. narrow face and low forehead) baby schema features that retained all the characteristics of a photographic portrait. Undergraduate students (n = 122) rated these infants’ cuteness and their motivation to take care of them. The high baby schema infants were rated as more cute and elicited stronger motivation for caretaking than the unmanipulated and the low baby schema infants. This is the first experimental proof of the baby schema effects in actual infant faces. Our findings indicate that the baby schema response is a critical function of human social cognition that may be the basis of caregiving and have implications for infant–caretaker interactions.

Glocker, Melanie L.; Langleben, Daniel D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W.; Gur, Ruben C.; Sachser, Norbert



"Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities.  


Jean Hamburger (1909-1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz.Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a "golden" book, "Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service" ("Advice to the Medical Students in my Service"), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice. PMID:23497662

Barbara, Piccoli Giorgina



An evaluation of expert reports with regard to adherence to current quality standards.  


In early 2008 the penal system of Lower Saxony established a specialised department responsible for risk assessment regarding all prison inmates in that state. The department generates approximately 200 risk assessment expert reports per year, mainly on questions such as the inmates' aptitude for social therapy, relaxation of imprisonment conditions, and transfer to an open prison. Prof. Dr. Konrad and Dr. Heering (from the Charité's Institute for Forensic Psychiatry) have been accompanying the work of this department scientifically for at least 2 years by offering a scientific exchange and by reviewing random samples of the risk assessments and verifying the application of current standards. It is of particular interest to examine which methods are used and which topics are discussed with the inmates during the exploration for risk assessment expert reports, whether or not standardised risk scales are applied, and finally which conclusions are drawn from the results of the exploration and the information which could be gathered from court and prison files. PMID:22482465

Heering, Eberhard; Konrad, Norbert



An approach for the limitation of fissile material resulting from criticality safety analysis of a waste repository  

SciTech Connect

The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Germany's Federal Office of Radiation Protection, intends to dispose of non-heat-generating radioactive waste, which may contain residual quantities of fissile materials like U 235 or Pu 239 in solid form, in the planned German Konrad repository. Within the framework of a comprehensive safety analysis, criticality safety for both the operational phase and the post-operational phase of the repository has been investigated. The performed analysis and the investigated scenarios as well as the calculation methods are described. As a result of the criticality safety considerations, limitations of fissionable materials are derived. These limitations restrict on the one hand the admissible mass concentration of fissile materials in the waste form and--on the other hand--the admissible mass of these materials in the cross section of an emplacement room, leading at the end to admissible masses per waste package. The mass limitations are determined separately for four radionuclides. In practice, a mixture of these radionuclides in a waste package has to be taken into account. Therefore, a summation criterion has been derived in order to ensure a high flexibility for the conditioning of the waste. This flexibility option does not result in a lower safety level of the repository.

Berg, H.P. (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)); Gmal, B. (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Muenchen (Germany))



"Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities  

PubMed Central

Jean Hamburger (1909–1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz. Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a “golden” book, “Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service” (“Advice to the Medical Students in my Service”), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice.



Ages of Lunar Light Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light plains are characterized by their relative smoothness and lower crater densities (compared to the highlands), and their occurrence as crater fills. They also exhibit highland-like characteristics, such as high albedos (in comparison to mare basalts) and their geological and stratigraphic setting. Despite the long history of investigating light plains, there are still numerous open questions concerning their mode of emplacement, their mineralogical composition, their ages, and their origin. We dated 16 light plains with crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. All dated regions were previously identified as light plains in the geologic maps [1-5] and either mapped as smooth light plains (Ip) or light plains with undulatory surfaces (INp). The studied light plains occur both inside and outside the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin within a latitudinal band between ~-36° and ~-75°. In particular, we investigated the following smooth light plains: Janssen (40.82°E, -44.96°; Ip [1]), Nishina (-170.8°E, -44.57°; Ip [2]), South of Nishina (Ip [2]), Obruchev (162.43°E, -38.67°; Ip [2]), Oresme (169.22°E, -42.61°, Ip [2]), Schrödinger (132.93°E, -74.73°; Ip [3]), Nearch (39.01°E, -58.58°; Ip [3]), Nasmyth (-56.39°E, -50.49°; Ip [3]), Manzinus (26.37°E, -67.51°; Ip [3]), Klaproth (-26.26°E, -69.85°; Ip [3]), Phocylides (-57.31°E, -52.79°, Ip [3]), Buffon (-133.53°E, -40.64°; Ip [4]), Roche (136.54°E, -42.37°; Ip [5]). We also dated the following light plains with undulatory surfaces: Koch (150.33°E, -42.13°; INp [2]), Garavito (156.78°E, -47.21°; INp [2]), Eötvös (134.43°E, -35.61°; INp [5]). Our CSFD measurements resulted in absolute model ages of 3.71 to 4.02 Ga for all investigated light plains, thus confirming the Imbrian and/or Nectarian ages of the geologic maps [1-5]. We only dated three INp light plains, but they appear to have ages that are close to the upper limit, i.e., 3.96-4.02 Ga. However, further CSFDs of INp light plains are necessary to corroborate this preliminary observation. In general, our new absolute model ages are similar to model ages derived for light plains north of Mare Frigoris (3.65-4.0 Ga) [6], light plains within the SPA basin (3.43-3.81 Ga) [7], and light plains in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basins (3.8-4.3 Ga) [8]. The ages are not only similar, but also show similar ranges. While our model ages vary by about 300 Ma, model ages of [6,7] exhibit ranges of ~350 Ma and ~380 Ma, respectively. Ages of [8] show a somewhat wider range of ~500 Ma. From this wide range in ages it has been concluded that a formation of the light plains by a single event (i.e., Orientale or Imbrium) is unlikely [6-8]. References: [1] Wilhelms and McCauley (1971), USGS I-703; [2] Stuart-Alexander (1978), USGS I-1047; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979), USGS I-1162; [4] Scott et al. (1977), USGS I-1034; [5] Wilhelms and El-Baz (1977), USGS I-948; [6] Köhler et al. (2000), LPSC 31, #1822; [7] Thiessen et al. (2012), LPSC 43, #2060; [8] Neukum (1977b), Moon 17, 383-393.

Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photograph of Participants Many magnetic phenomena in nanoscale structures are strongly influenced by the interaction of orbital magnetic moments and spin moments. For example, anisotropic magnetoresistance, magnetostriction, the magnitude and anisotropy of magnetic moments, and the overall magnetic anisotropy energy of ferromagnets are intrinsically related to this interaction. In today's low dimensional magnetic structures, spin-orbit influenced phenomena become even more important, since the well known quenching of the orbital magnetic momentum encountered in bulk systems is lifted. Furthermore, magnetic systems may be prepared with highly strained crystallographic structures in phases that do not occur naturally in the bulk. In order to characterize the real space and magnetic structure of such novel low dimensional magnets, x-ray, neutron and electron based techniques are commonly used. Very often discrepancies are found in the results not only with theory but also between various experimental probes, highlighting the difficulty of the problem and the need for a comprehensive dialogue between experimentalists and theoreticians. The purpose of this 281 Wilhelm und Else Heraeus Seminar was the gathering of leading experts from different fields of solid state physics to discuss the different approaches of calculating and measuring spin-orbit influenced phenomena in magnetic low dimensional systems and nanostructures. 70 participants from Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Ukraine and the USA attended the four day workshop and heard 24 invited lectures and saw 35 poster presentations. The results of the lectures and lively discussions which ended often late at night are summarized in the contributions to this special volume. We feel that the authors have accomplished the difficult task of combining a tutorial type of introduction to their specific research area with an excellent presentation of their latest results. The interested reader will find contributions discussing the results obtained by a rich variety of experimental techniques such as photoemission, magnetic and natural x-ray dichroism, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance, neutron scattering and reflectometry, magneto-optics and femtosecond spectroscopy. The numerous experimental results covering aspects of the g-tensor analysis in magnetic monolayers, exchange-coupling, spin-orbit splitting in electronic band structure and excited crystal field states were complemented by state of the art theoretical presentations of, for example, the magnetic susceptibility and orbital and spin magnetic moments obtained from ab-initio calculations. We would like to thank the authors for their excellent contributions and the chairpersons and participants for making the 281 Wilhelm und Else Heraeus Seminar such a high-level event in terms of scientific output and lively interactions.

Farle, Michael; Wende, Heiko; Arvanitis, Dimitri



Paperless or vanishing society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as severe as ASTM D 4303, which is used to rate the lightfastness of artists's paint.

Turner Luke, Joy



Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.  


In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure. After some 120 years the BNA is alive and flourishing. Now retitled Terminologia Anatomica, it has been amended and added to many times, is still in Latin but now with synonyms in English, the new lingua franca of science, for every anatomical, histological and embryological term. May our successors be equally effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123982

Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni



Development of a method for in situ measurement of denitrification in aquifers using 15N tracer tests and membrane inlet mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In NO3- contaminated aquifers containing reduced compounds like organic carbon or sulfides, denitrification is an intense process. Its characterization is of interest because NO3- consump-tion improves water quality and N2O production can cause emission of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Spatial distribution of NO3- and N2 produced by denitrification in groundwa-ter (excess N2) reflects the NO3- input as well as cumulative denitrification during aquifer pas-sage. Reaction progress (RP) at a given location, i.e. the relative consumption by denitrifica-tion of the NO3- that had been leached to the aquifers, characterizes the stage of the denitrifi-cation process. RP can be derived from the ratio between accumulated gaseous denitrification products and initial NO3- concentrations. The amount and spatial distribution of reduced com-pounds within denitrifying aquifers is not well known. Recent findings from parallel investi-gations on in situ denitrification and reactive compounds suggests that single-well 15N tracer tests might be suitable to characterize the stock of reduced compounds in aquifers (Konrad 2007). The overall objective of our studies is measure the spatial dynamics of denitrification within two sandy aquifers in northern Germany. This includes measurement of the actually occurring denitrification process. Moreover we want to determine the long-term denitrification potential which is governed by the stock of reactive material. Here we present a new approach for in situ-measurement of denitrification at monitoring wells using a combination of 15N-tracer push-pull experiments with in situ analysis of 15N-labled N2 and N2O using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS). We will present first results from a laboratory test with aquifer mesocosms using the MIMS method. In this test we supplemented aquifer material of two depths (2 and 7 m below surface) of a drinking water catchment in Northwest Germany with K15NO3 solution. After tracer application we took wa-ter samples at regular intervals with an automated sampling device over 5 days. A small part of the sample was directly conducted in the membrane inlet of our mass spectrometer and the other part was collected in serum bottles which were immediately sealed with rubber septa and stored for later measurement by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Results available up to now showed for both types of measurement a linear increase of deni-trification products (15(N2O+N2)) over time. At the end of our laboratory test we measured up to 270 and 2400 µg/L 15(N2O+N2) in the water samples from the supplemented aquifer mate-rial of 3 and 7 m depth respectively. Because of the online measurement with MIMS we were able to see during the experiment if and when the production of the labeled denitrification products started. Later-on this approach will be used in the field. Here, the MIMS-technique will be especially advantageous, because the success of tracer test can be immediately seen during in situ sampling. Results of excess-N2 measurements at the monitoring wells within the two aquifers showed a range of 0 to 30 mg L-1 excess-N2 and a RP between 0 and 100%. References: Konrad, C. (2007): Methoden zur Bestimmung des Umsatzes von Stickstoff, dargestellt für drei Pleistozäne Grundwasserleiter Norddeutschlands, PhD thesis, Dresden Univ. of Techn., Germany, 157 pp.

Eschenbach, W.; Well, R.; Flessa, H.; Walther, W.; Duijnisveld, W. H. M.



Is pre-conditioning required for the measurement of in situ denitrification rates with push-pull 15N-tracer tests?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse NO3 emissions derived from agricultural N surpluses are the main cause of NO3 pollution of aquifers and open water bodies. Denitrification is the key process for the attenuation of this anthropogenic NO3 in groundwater. Knowledge about the spatial variability denitrification rates in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. However, the spatial distribution and intensity of denitrification in aquifers is difficult to predict. But precisely this knowledge is important for an effective implementation of measures for the reduction of agricultural N-surpluses to gain a good chemical status of groundwater bodies. Push-pull tests have proven to be a relatively low-cost instrument to obtain quantitative information about aquifer properties and microbial activities in aquifers. These tests have been already successfully used for the measurement of in situ denitrification rates (Dr(in situ); Well and Myrold, 2002;Konrad, 2007). We conducted 28 push-pull tracer tests in the Großen Kneten (GKA) and the Furberger Feld aquifer (FFA), two Pleistocene sandy aquifers in Lower Saxony (Germany) to measure Dr(in situ) and to derive an estimate on the stock of reactive compounds. In the deeper NO3-free zone of the aquifer, Dr(in situ) was relatively low despite the high abundance of reductants. Our aim was to check whether pre-conditioning by repeated NO3-injections would stimulate indigenous denitrifiers and thus lead to increased reduction rates of NO3 corresponding to the stock of reductants. Pre-conditioning by the injection of the electron acceptor NO3 prior to subsequent push-pull tracer tests with 15N labelled NO3 was performed at 4 depths in the NO3-free groundwater zone in the Fuhrberger Feld aquifer. We compared unconditioned and pre-conditioned in situ denitrification rates with laboratory denitrification rates measured during one year laboratory incubations with corresponding aquifer material (Dr(365)). Our results show that Dr(in situ) measured after pre-conditioning of push-pull injection points (67.83 to 152.70 µg N kg1 d1) were 30 to 65 times higher than Dr(in situ) measured without pre-conditioning (2.76 and 2.28 µg N kg1 d1). In situ denitrification rates measured in the NO3-free zone were only comparable with laboratory denitrification rates after pre-conditioning, otherwise Dr(in situ) strongly underestimated Dr(365). Without pre-conditioning, push-pull tests in the NO3-free zone of the FFA exhibited an exponential increase of denitrification rates during the tests. We interpret this as microbial adaptation processes. After pre-conditioning an exponential increase of denitrification rates was not observed. We propose that pre-conditioning prior to subsequent push-pull tests is a prerequisite for estimating the stock or reactive compounds from Dr(in situ) in the NO3-free zone of aquifers. But further research is needed to evaluate microbial adaptation processes during push-pull tests. References: Konrad, C.: Methoden zur Bestimmung des Umsatzes von Stickstoff für drei pleistozäne Grundwasserleiter Norddeutschlands, 161, 2007. Well, R., and Myrold, D. D.: A proposed method for measuring subsoil denitrification in situ, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 66, 507-518, 2002.

Eschenbach, Wolfram; Well, Reinhard



Chandra Captures Venus In A Whole New Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have captured the first X-ray view of Venus using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observations provide new information about the atmosphere of Venus and open a new window for examining Earth's sister planet. Venus in X-rays looks similar to Venus in visible light, but there are important differences. The optically visible Venus is due to the reflection of sunlight and, for the relative positions of Venus, Earth and Sun during these observations, shows a uniform half-crescent that is brightest toward the middle. The X-ray Venus is slightly less than a half-crescent and brighter on the limbs. The differences are due to the processes by which Venus shines in visible and X-ray light. The X-rays from Venus are produced by fluorescence, rather than reflection. Solar X-rays bombard the atmosphere of Venus, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, and excite the atoms to a higher energy level. The atoms almost immediately return to their lower energy state with the emission of a fluorescent X-ray. A similar process involving ultraviolet light produces the visible light from fluorescent lamps. For Venus, most of the fluorescent X-rays come from oxygen and carbon atoms between 120 and 140 kilometers (74 to 87 miles) above the planet's surface. In contrast, the optical light is reflected from clouds at a height of 50 to 70 kilometers (31 to 43 miles). As a result, Venus' Sun-lit hemisphere appears surrounded by an almost-transparent luminous shell in X-rays. Venus looks brightest at the limb since more luminous material is there. Venus X-ray/Optical Composite of Venus Credit: Xray: NASA/CXC/MPE/K.Dennerl et al., Optical: Konrad Dennerl "This opens up the exciting possibility of using X-ray observations to study regions of the atmosphere of Venus that are difficult to investigate by other means," said Konrad Dennerl of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, leader of an international team of scientists that conducted the research. The Chandra observation of Venus was also a technological tour de force. The angular separation of Venus from the Sun, as seen from Earth, never exceeds 48 degrees. This relative proximity has prevented star trackers and cameras on other X-ray astronomy satellites from locking onto guide stars and pointing steadily in the direction of Venus to perform such an observation. Venus was observed on Jan. 10, 2001, with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector plus the Low Energy Transmission Grating and on Jan. 13, 2001, with the ACIS alone. Other members of the team were Vadim Burwitz and Jakob Engelhauser, Max Planck Institute; Carey Lisse, University of Maryland, College Park; and Scott Wolk, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. These results were presented at this week's "New Visions of X-ray universe in the XMM-Newton and Chandra Era" symposium in Noordwijk, Netherlands. The Low Energy Transmission Grating was built by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands and the Max Planck Institute, and the ACIS instrument was developed for NASA by The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.



[Usefulness of epidural nerve stimulation to confirm epidural catheter placement].  


An epidural catheter must be placed in epidural space correctly to give sufficient epidural anesthesia for patients. Recently, as a technique to confirm the catheter placement, electrical stimulation of epidural nerve using an inserted epidural catheter was introduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of this simple technique in 13 patients. Immediately after an epidural catheter (19 G Arrow Flextip Plus) was placed, an adapter with electrode (Arrow-Johans ECG Adapter) was attached to its connector and nerve stimulation was performed using a peripheral nerve stimulator (1 Hz, 10 mA). Catheter placement was judged to be correct by both presence of muscle contraction in response to stimulation and occurrence of analgesia after the administration of a local anesthetic. In 5 patients, additional roentgen examinations were performed to identify the positions of catheters. In all patients except one, muscle contraction was observed by stimulation, and analgesia was confirmed in all patients after the injection of an anesthetic. X-ray examinations revealed that the tip of catheter placed at the vertebral level corresponded with the spinal segmental level where muscle movement occurred. Our study demonstrates that nerve stimulation can be a reliable method to confirm epidural catheter placement. Our results also suggest that the position of catheter tip can be estimated easily using this technique. PMID:11995348

Ozawa, Takehisa; Kaneko, Hideki; Nomura, Takeshi; Asano, Makoto



The x-ray fovea, a device for reducing x-ray dose in fluoroscopy.  


The x-ray fovea (U.S. patents pending) is a device for reducing x-ray dose to patients and operations during x-ray fluoroscopy. It consists of a semitransparent collimator with an open, circular, central hole. The fovea collimator is placed at the exit of the x-ray tube, and the attenuation of the peripheral x-ray beam reduces x-ray exposure to patients and operators. The shadow caused by the x-ray fovea can be compensated using real-time image processing hardware. Accurate compensation is demonstrated for both linearly and logarithmically acquired images using a model that accounts for beam hardening in the fovea collimator. The central fovea region has improved image quality due to reduced scatter and veiling glare from the periphery. From beam-stop measurements, a 40% reduction in scatter plus veiling glare is measured using the fovea. A contrast improvement ratio of 1.5 is measured throughout the central region. In the compensated periphery, noise is increased by a factor of 1.66 because fewer photons are detected, but a small amount of temporal filtering compensates this degradation. The Roentgen area product (RAP) exposure to patients is reduced by approximately 70%, while scattered exposure to operators is reduced by approximately 60%. PMID:8208223

Labbe, M S; Chiu, M Y; Rzeszotarski, M S; Bani-Hashemi, A R; Wilson, D L



Diagnostics in athletes with long-standing groin pain.  


Chronic adductor dysfunction, osteitis pubis and abdominal wall deficiency are mentioned as pathologies explaining long-standing groin pain (LGP) in athletes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of diagnostic tests used to identify these pathologies in athletic OKE. Additionally, starting points for intervention were searched for. A systematic literature search was performed to retrieve all relevant diagnostic studies and studies describing risk factors. The methodological quality of the identified studies was evaluated. Seventeen studies provided an insight into pathologies; eight provided relevant information for intervention. Adduction provocation tests are moderately valid for osteitis pubis. A pelvic belt might provide some insight into the role of the pubic symphysis during adduction provocation. Palpation can be used for provocation of adductors and symphysis. Roentgen, bone scan and herniography show poor validity. Bilateral abdominal abnormalities on ultrasound appear to be a valid marker for LGP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can visualize edema and other abnormalities, although the relation to groin pain is not unambiguous. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from poor to good. MRI and ultrasound should be the primary diagnostic tools after clinical examination. PMID:18980608

Jansen, J A C G; Mens, J M A; Backx, F J G; Stam, H J



The role of renal biopsy in a patient with multiple synchronous cancers: a case report  

PubMed Central

A 51-year-old male with a long history of tobacco smoking presented to the outpatient clinic with left renal colic. A renal ultrasound revealed a mass in the left kidney. The patient was admitted to surgical clinic of Russian Scientific Center of Roentgen-Radiology of Rosmedtechnology. A renal biopsy and subsequent histopathological tests revealed adenocarcinoma of the right kidney of most likely metastatic origin. This discovery has lead to vigorous diagnostics search for the primary tumor. Finally, the following diagnosis was established: Primarily-multiple synchronous cancer: cancer of the left kidney T1N0M0, cancer of the thyroid gland T2N0M1, metastasis to the right kidney and lungs. The patient had left kidney and thyroid gland removed and was successfully treated with radioiodine therapy. The patient remains alive and well 7 months since his admission to our clinic. We report this case to emphasize the importance of the renal biopsy and thorough histological analysis, which made it possible to diagnose thyroid cancer in this patient.



The role of renal biopsy in a patient with multiple synchronous cancers: a case report.  


A 51-year-old male with a long history of tobacco smoking presented to the outpatient clinic with left renal colic. A renal ultrasound revealed a mass in the left kidney. The patient was admitted to surgical clinic of Russian Scientific Center of Roentgen-Radiology of Rosmedtechnology. A renal biopsy and subsequent histopathological tests revealed adenocarcinoma of the right kidney of most likely metastatic origin. This discovery has lead to vigorous diagnostics search for the primary tumor. Finally, the following diagnosis was established: Primarily-multiple synchronous cancer: cancer of the left kidney T1N0M0, cancer of the thyroid gland T2N0M1, metastasis to the right kidney and lungs. The patient had left kidney and thyroid gland removed and was successfully treated with radioiodine therapy. The patient remains alive and well 7 months since his admission to our clinic. We report this case to emphasize the importance of the renal biopsy and thorough histological analysis, which made it possible to diagnose thyroid cancer in this patient. PMID:20130791

Kaprin, Andrey; Nesterov, Pavel; Fadeev, Andrey



Increased chromosome damage in pediatric heart catheterization patients after diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome damage (CD) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels were studied in lymphocytes from 30 pediatric heart catheterization patients receiving radiation during diagnostic fluoroscopy and cineangiography procedures. Forty-eight-hour CD and 72-hr SCE cultures were prepared from sequential samples taken from each patient: samples 1-3 via the catheter the same day (1) before exposure, (2) after fluoroscopy, and (3) after cineangiography; and sample 4 by venipuncture the next morning. Significant increases in CD (dicentrics, rings, and fragments), but not SCE, were observed. From a mean base level of 0.4% cells with CD, the CD levels increased 2-3-fold in samples 3 and 4 (p = .001). Rings only occurred in samples 3 and 4. While increased CD levels also correlated with increasing age, body surface area, and weight, partial correlations controlling for these factors clearly indicate that the CD effects are principally attributable to the radiological procedures (p = .001). Increased CD levels correlated with both the roentgen dose of cineangiography exposure (p = .002) and the volume of contrast medium (p = .000); however, partial correlations, controlling for either factor, indicate that the contrast medium was the principal factor (p = .006).

Shafer, D.A.; Raviele, A.A.; Dunbar, V.G.; Click, L.A.



Radiation applications: An overview  

SciTech Connect

Radiation has been successfully utilized for medical, industrial, and research applications since Roentgen first discovered X rays in the late 19th century. Today, intense fields of electron, photon, and neutron radiation are used for defense applications, and industrial processing, and both radiation sources and focused beams of radiation are routinely used in medicine for therapy and imaging. These advances in radiation technology have been coupled with the development of high-power reactors and high-power accelerators as well as continued improvements in the dosimetry of the delivered radiation. Radiation also can be a problem that must be dealt with. Aside from the obvious need to shield people and critical apparatus from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, there are cases where the system must be designed to operate successfully in a radiation field. Reactor components such as fuel, internals, and pressure vessels must operate in neutron fields; fusion systems must operate in intense high-energy neutron fields; microelectronics used in space must operate in electron, proton, and cosmic ray fields; and accelerator components must operate in proton, neutron, and photon fields. Frequently, these components cannot be tested directly in the radiation fields to which they will be subjected, so simulation of the radiation fields with reactors, accelerators, or radiation sources has been developed to cope with this problem. This paper focuses on current applications of radiation processing, radiation effects in electronics, and radiation imaging.

Block, R.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States))



Model-based RSA of a femoral hip stem using surface and geometrical shape models.  


Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) is a highly accurate three-dimensional measuring technique for assessing micromotion of orthopaedic implants. A drawback is that markers have to be attached to the implant. Model-based techniques have been developed to prevent using special marked implants. We compared two model-based RSA methods with standard marker-based RSA techniques. The first model-based RSA method used surface models, and the second method used elementary geometrical shape (EGS) models. We used a commercially available stem to perform experiments with a phantom as well as reanalysis of patient RSA radiographs. The data from the phantom experiment indicated the accuracy and precision of the elementary geometrical shape model-based RSA method is equal to marker-based RSA. For model-based RSA using surface models, the accuracy is equal to the accuracy of marker-based RSA, but its precision is worse. We found no difference in accuracy and precision between the two model-based RSA techniques in clinical data. For this particular hip stem, EGS model-based RSA is a good alternative for marker-based RSA. PMID:16826102

Kaptein, Bart L; Valstar, Edward R; Spoor, Cees W; Stoel, Berend C; Rozing, Piet M



Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 6. 8. cloud radiation field  

SciTech Connect

The object of this study was to measure the relationship between the spatial distribution of the radioactive fission products and the resultant radioactive field in an atomic-bomb cloud. Data obtained by the high-intensity rate meters and the jet impactors lead to the following conclusions: (1) There is a definite correlation between the particulate fission-particle density and the gamma-radiation intensity measured within the cloud; (2) The effective energy of the gamma radiation within the atomic bomb cloud is quite low, being of the order of 200 keV; (3) The structure of the atomic bomb cloud resembles a chimney with puffs of radioactive matter in the flue of the chimney; (4) The average roentgen dose accumulated by a plane passing through a cloud of the type tested in the Dog and Easy Shots 210 sec after bomb detonation is approximately 125 r. The average contamination on a plane after passing through a cloud is between 10 and 20 r/hr; no contamination could be detected within the plane; (5) The gamma-radiation effects extend beyond the limits of the particulate radioactive fission products; and, (6) The visible cloud adn the fission-product particulate cloud from the bomb do not coincide exactly; the visible cloud extended beyond the fission-product-cloud in those instances where data were obtained.

Koch, G.E.



X-ray-induced changes in growth of Mozambique tilapia  

SciTech Connect

Early fry (30 d postfertilization) and 7-8-week-old Mozambique tilapias (Tilapia mossambica) were exposed to X rays in dosages of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 roentgens and reared in outdoor culture tanks between May 1981 and October 1988. Fish of either sex that were irradiated as fry grew faster than controls at all test X-ray doses. Among fish irradiated at 7-8 weeks, males grew significantly faster, but females grew significantly slower, than controls at all test doses. X-ray-induced changes in growth were dose-dependent: growth rates of fry (both sexes) and of juvenile males rose relative to those of controls with increased radiation dose. The growth increase per unit of radiation dose was higher for fry than for older juveniles. The length-weight regression was steeper for irradiated males than for controls. The average weights of F{sub 1} offspring of irradiated fish were greatly reduced as compared with controls, which suggests the transfer of the detrimental effects of X rays from irradiated parents to their offspring. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Jana, B.B. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India); Basu, M. [Univ. of Maiduguri (Nigeria)



[The physical problems in medicine].  


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the basic sciences to support the human health are chemistry, physics and informatics. Chemistry is the base of pharmacy. Physics is the base of medical instruments and equipments (MIE). The diagnosis and therapy of diseases are relying on informatics. Therefore, as the fusion results of physics and medicine, medical physics is the creative source science of MIE. Among all diagnosis tools, medical imaging devices are the fastest-developed and the most-complicated MIE since Roentgen discovered X-ray which was quickly used in medical diagnosis in 1895. Among all treatment tools, the radiotherapeutical devices are the most-widely used and the most effective MIE for tumor treatments since Mrs. Courier found the nature radiation isotope Radium at the end of 19th century and began to use it in tumor therapy. Although the research and development (R&D) of so-complicated MIE need many subjects of science and engineering, the kernel science is medical physics. With the results of more than 50 years' development in developed countries, medical physics has defined its own field, which is the medical imaging physics and the radiotherapeutical physics. But, the definition has been expanded to be wider and wider. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the establishment of Medical Physics in China. In order to develop medical physics in china, the bases of R&D and clinical practice should be also built. PMID:17672357

Bao, Shang-lian; Wang, Wei-dong; Fan, Tie-shuan



Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography  

SciTech Connect

For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.



Intrinsic spatial resolution of semiconductor X-ray detectors: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the intrinsic limitation of the spatial resolution of a directly absorbing semiconductor detector. The primary interaction of an incident X-ray quantum is followed by a series of processes that generate Compton or fluorescence photons and subsequent electrons. Their ranges determine the spatial resolution of the detector, expressed in terms of the modulation transfer function. The effects of carrier transport have been neglected in this work. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out in the 10-100keV energy range with the program, ROSI (Roentgen Simulation), which is based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. On a fine grid, the lateral distribution of deposited energy has been calculated in typical materials such as Se, CdTe, HgI2 and PbI2. The results can be used to either determine the point spread function of an energy-integrating detector, or to study multiple registration in adjacent pixels of photon-counting detectors. The results show that the complex absorption process determines the spatial resolution of the detector considerably. If a very high spatial resolution is required, a well-adapted semiconductor should be applied. Dependent on the energy range used, lists of favorable materials are given. At energies above 50keV, Compton scattering reduces spatial resolution in the high frequency range.

Hoheisel, M.; Giersch, J.; Bernhardt, P.



Fast neutron flux spectrum aboard Mars Odyssey during cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy spectrum of fast neutrons generated by interactions between galactic cosmic rays and the Mars Odyssey spacecraft during quiet interplanetary conditions is determined. It is given by ?n(En) = (0.071 +/- 0.0044) En-(0.28+/-0.055) cm-2 s-1 MeV-1 for energies between 0.7 and 6 MeV. The estimated ratio of this component of spacecraft neutron background to the Martian leakage flux in Mars orbit is expected to amount to between 0.30 and 0.34. This fraction is sufficiently small so that the total background in orbit about Mars is expected to be dominated by Martian leakage neutrons reprocessed by the spacecraft. Nevertheless, the measured asymmetry properties of the Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer response function should allow separation of foreground and background neutron fluxes when in Mars orbit. The fast neutron flux between 0.7 and 6 MeV should only contribute 0.40 Roentgen Equivalent Man (rem) per year to the total radiation dose aboard a Mars Odyssey class spacecraft at solar maximum.

Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Tokar, R. L.; Byrd, R. C.; Fuller, K. R.; Gasnault, O.; Longmire, J. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Storms, S. A.; Thornton, G. W.; Boynton, W. V.



Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800{degree}F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection.

Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.



Effects of Auroral Ion Precipitation at Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral emissions from Jupiter have been observed across the photon spectrum including ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths. UV observations suggest an input flux power of 1013 - 1014 W for the aurora in each hemisphere. The Einstein Observatory, the Roentgen satellite, the Chandra x-ray Observatory (CXO), and XMM-Newton have observed x-ray emissions with a total power of about 1 GW. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed x-rays. This study focuses on the ion precipitation of the polar region and its effects in the ionosphere. We present the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo model of oxygen ion precipitation at high latitudes that calculates the secondary electron production due to the oxygen ion precipitation for the first time. We analyze the secondary electron fluxes due to the ion aurora, estimate their effects on the ionosphere, calculate the downward current carried by ions and electrons, and estimate airglow emissions due to these secondary electrons. We find that the secondary electrons originating from energetic ion aurora affect the ionosphere similarly to auroral electrons responsible for the diffuse UV aurora and are therefore important for the magnetospheric dynamics and our better understanding of the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

Ozak, N.; Schultz, D. R.; Cravens, T. E.; Hui, Y.



Auroral X-ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation at high latitudes, looks at differences with the continuous slow-down model, and compares the results to synthetic spectra fitted to observations. We concentrate on the effects of altitude on the observed spectrum. The opacity of the atmosphere to the outgoing X-ray photons is found to be important for incident ion energies greater than about 1.2 MeV per nucleon for both sulfur and oxygen. Model spectra are calculated for intensities with and without any opacity effects. These synthetic spectra were compared with the results shown by Hui et al. (2010) which fit Chandra X-ray Observatory observations for the north and south Jovian auroral emissions. Quenching of long-lived excited states of the oxygen ions is found to be important. Opacity considerably diminishes the outgoing X-ray intensity calculated, particularly when the viewing geometry is not favorable.

Ozak, N.; Schultz, D. R.; Cravens, T. E.; Kharchenko, V.; Hui, Y.-W.



Cellular basis for genetically determined enhanced resistance of certain mouse strains to listeriosis.  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of the mononuclear phagocytes mediating resistance to infection with Listeria during the early phase (0 to 48 h) of the response have been investigated in genetically determined susceptible (A/J) and resistant (C57BL/6, B10.A/SgSn) strains of mice. Irradiation immediately before infection profoundly enhanced the bacterial growth in the resistant strain, while having no effect in the susceptible strain, over a wide range (3 x 10(3) to 10(5)) of infective doses. This effect of irradiation is demonstrable at low-dose radiation (200 roentgens) and can be reversed by repopulation with 20 x 10(6) syngeneic nucleated bone marrow cells. Administration of dextran sulfate 500 24 h before infection profoundly enhanced the bacterial growth in the susceptible strain, while having much less effect in the resistant strain. Thus, the genetic advantage of the resistant mouse strains to listerial infection, at least during the early phase of the response, appears to be due to a cellular mechanism that is highly radiosensitive and relatively insensitive to dextran sulfate 500. In the susceptible strain, the early protective cellular mechanism is radioresistant and highly dextran sulfate 500 sensitive.

Sadarangani, C; Skamene, E; Kongshavn, P A



Learning Radiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Learning Radiology website was conceived and created by Professor William Herring of the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. The site was started in June 2002, and now receives upwards of 12,000 visitors a day. Since the time the site was started, it has grown to include video podcasts, lectures from medical professionals, and interactive tutorials. The materials on the site are divided into seven topical areas, including Lectures, Notes, Images, Case of the Week Archive, and Quick Quizzes. In the Lectures area visitors can find talks on everything from bone tumors to the "ABCs of Heart Disease." Many of the talks are available in a variety of formats, including as pdf files and PowerPoint presentations. In the Notes area, visitors can read clear and concise summaries of over 45 topics, including Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Paget's Disease. Also, visitors can follow Learning Radiology via Twitter and take advantage of their interactive Museum of Modern Imaging, which includes fun and informative areas like the Hall of Hype and Roentgen's Room.

Herring, William



Scintillation Counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

Bell, Zane W.


Radiological evaluation of the metal-bone interface of a porous tantalum monoblock acetabular component.  


Between January 1998 and December 1998, 82 consecutive patients (86 hips) underwent total hip arthroplasty using a trabecular metal monoblock acetabular component. All patients had a clinical and radiological follow-up evaluation at six, 12 and 24 weeks, 12 months, and then annually thereafter. On the initial post-operative radiograph 25 hips had a gap between the outer surface of the component and the acetabular host bed which ranged from 1 to 5 mm. All patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for a mean of 7.3 years (7 to 7.5). The 25 hips with the 1 to 5 mm gaps were studied for component migration at two years using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) digital measurement method. At 24 weeks all the post-operative gaps were filled with bone and no acetabular component had migrated. The radiographic outcome of all 86 components showed no radiolucent lines and no evidence of lysis. No acetabular implant was revised. There were no dislocations or other complications. The bridging of the interface gaps (up to 5 mm) by the trabecular metal monoblock acetabular component indicates the strong osteoconductive, and possibly osteoinductive, properties of trabecular metal. PMID:16498001

Macheras, G A; Papagelopoulos, P J; Kateros, K; Kostakos, A T; Baltas, D; Karachalios, T S



Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR  

SciTech Connect

The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.



Multi-scale visual words for hierarchical medical image categorisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomedical literature published regularly has increased strongly in past years and keeping updated even in narrow domains is difficult. Images represent essential information of their articles and can help to quicker browse through large volumes of articles in connection with keyword search. Content-based image retrieval is helping the retrieval of visual content. To facilitate retrieval of visual information, image categorisation can be an important first step. To represent scientific articles visually, medical images need to be separated from general images such as flowcharts or graphs to facilitate browsing, as graphs contain little information. Medical modality classification is a second step to focus search. The techniques described in this article first classify images into broad categories. In a second step the images are further classified into the exact medical modalities. The system combines the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and density-based clustering (DENCLUE). Visual words are first created globally to differentiate broad categories and then within each category a new visual vocabulary is created for modality classification. The results show the difficulties to differentiate between some modalities by visual means alone. On the other hand the improvement of the accuracy of the two-step approach shows the usefulness of the method. The system is currently being integrated into the Goldminer image search engine of the ARRS (American Roentgen Ray Society) as a web service, allowing concentrating image search onto clinically relevant images automatically.

Markonis, Dimitrios; Seco de Herrera, Alba G.; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning



Use of radionuclides in cancer research and treatment.  


Cancer occurs as a result of misregulation of cell growth, which appears to be a consequence of alteration in the function of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Ionising radiation has been used, since the discovery of X-rays in 1896 by Roentgen, both in cancer research and treatment of the disease. The main purpose of cancer research is to understand the molecular alterations involved in the development and progression of the disease in order to improve diagnosis and develop personalised therapies, by focusing on the features of the tumoral cell and the biological events associated to carcinogenesis. Radioisotopic techniques have been used routinely for in vitro research in the molecular and cellular biology of cancer for more than 20 years and are in the process of being substituted by alternative non-radioactive techniques. However in vivo techniques such as irradiation of cells in culture and/or experimental animal models and radioactive labelling are in development, due in part to advances in molecular imaging technologies. The objective of this review is to analyse in an integrative way the applications of ionising radiation in cancer research and therapy. It had been divided into two parts. The first one will approach the techniques applied to cancer research and the second will summarise how ionising radiation is applied to the treatment of neoplastic disease. PMID:19293051

Macías, M T



Evolution of urological imaging.  


The evolution of urological imaging has had a major impact on the diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases since the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen in 1895. Early developments included plain films of the abdomen, retrograde urographic techniques, development of contrast media, excretory urography, renal mass puncture, renal angiography, cystography and nuclear medicine procedures. These procedures led to the maturation of the specialties of diagnostic radiology and urology, and the development of the subspecialties of pediatric urology and urological radiology during the first seven decades of the 20th century. Subsequently, many imaging advances have occurred leading to changes in diagnosis and management of urological patients. Ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging technologies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are increasingly applied in urological evaluation, treatment and surveillance. Current developments include dual energy computed tomography, positron emission tomography computed tomography, renal donor and renal transplant imaging, prostate magnetic resonance imaging, and microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound. Imaging advances will continue. It is the responsibility of all physicians to assess the advantages of new developments while weighing those advantages against the additional radiation exposure and the costs associated with new procedures. PMID:21114686

Bueschen, Anton J; Lockhart, Mark E



Influence of cement viscosity and cement mantle thickness on migration of the Exeter total hip prosthesis.  


The effect of bone cement viscosity and cement mantle thickness on the migration of the Exeter total hip prosthesis was studied in a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis study. Forty-one cemented total hip arthroplasty in 39 patients were included and randomized into a low/medium Simplex P cement group and a high-viscosity Simplex AF cement group. At time of stem introduction, 5 minutes after mixing, the Simplex AF was more viscous than Simplex P. No statistical difference existed between the 2 cement groups, for neither translation nor rotation migration data. Subsidence of the stem at 2-year follow-up was 1.1 +/- 0.56 mm for Simplex AF cement and 1.5 +/- 1.00 mm for Simplex P cement. The mean rotation of the acetabular components about the sagittal axis was 1.7 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees in the Simplex AF group and 0.7 degrees +/- 2.1 degrees for the Simplex P group. No effect of cement mantle thickness on migration of neither the acetabular cups nor the femoral stems was found. Although there were no differences in migration data for the cups and the stems, 2 acetabular cups in the Simplex AF group (almost 10%) were revised because of mechanical loosening. Because of these findings, we suggest caution before using this new high-viscosity bone cement for fixation of acetabular components. PMID:16124971

Nelissen, Rob G H H; Garling, Eric H; Valstar, Edward R



[The first century of radiotherapy in France].  


The first X-ray treatment ever given to a patient was done by Victor Despeignes of Lyon, five months after Roentgen's discovery. The first brachytherapies with radium emanation (radon) were performed a few years after the discovery (March 1st, 1896) of natural radioactivity by Becquerel and that of radium by the Curies (December 28, 1898). Marie Curie organised the Radium Institute and personally calibrated more than five thousand sources of radium disseminated in various French cancer departments. Bergonie and Tribondeau discovered (1906) the basic laws of tissular radiosensitivity. Since the work of Regaud and Coutard, published in 1925, fractionation has become the widely accepted mode of external radiation therapy. Mallet discovered the Cerenkov effect in 1926 and the Joliot-Curies artificial radioactivity in 1934. After the golden age of 200 kV X-rays and radium applications, the megavoltage era with imported telecobaltherapy units and betatrons began in 1954. Then the first french linear accelerator was manufactured. Recently the national manufacturer of linear accelerators (CGR-MeV) became a branch of General Electric Medical Systems. The French Atomic Energy Commission produces radioactive cobalt, cesium and iridium sources. In France, one century after the discovery of X rays, 326 megavoltage units are operating in 185 cancer centers, 18 university hospital radiotherapy departments, 20 comprehensive cancer centers including the Curie and the Gustave Roussy Institutes, 51 general public hospitals and 96 private clinics for a population of 58 millions inhabitants. PMID:8696872

Laugier, A



Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Zabanov, S.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)



The Isochoric Temperature Differential of the Pair Correlation Function of Liquid Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water has been a serious subject of scientific endeavor for over a century, from the time that Roentgen studied its properties prior to his serendipitous discovery of x-rays. The interest in this so-called liquid is, of course, a result of the fact that it is so essential to life. Water's anomalous properties, however, are the main reason it has caught the attention of reaserchers the world over. To a close approximation the structure of liquid water at any instant in time may be considered to be comprised of a weighted fraction of ice I and ice II bonding type structures. The work reported here was carried out to lend validity to this new mixture model concept by attempting to reproduce the experimental pair correlation function of liquid water. Following the ideas of Bosio et al.(Phys. Rev. A; 27,3,1468), subtraction of the two pair correlation functions which share a common isochore helps to elucidate the local structure of the liquid. Rearangement of the first and second neighbor shells occurs with increased temperature differential. This rearangement is interpreted in terms of varying weighted fractions of two bonding types present in the liquid.

Urquidi, Jacob; Singh, Surjit; Wilse Robinson, G.



Neutron whispering gallery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The `whispering gallery' effect has been known since ancient times for sound waves in air, later in water and more recently for a broad range of electromagnetic waves: radio, optics, Roentgen and so on. It consists of wave localization near a curved reflecting surface and is expected for waves of various natures, for instance, for atoms and neutrons. For matter waves, it would include a new feature: a massive particle would be settled in quantum states, with parameters depending on its mass. Here, we present for the first time the quantum whispering-gallery effect for cold neutrons. This phenomenon provides an example of an exactly solvable problem analogous to the `quantum bouncer'; it is complementary to the recently discovered gravitationally bound quantum states of neutrons . These two phenomena provide a direct demonstration of the weak equivalence principle for a massive particle in a pure quantum state. Deeply bound whispering-gallery states are long-living and weakly sensitive to surface potential; highly excited states are short-living and very sensitive to the wall potential shape. Therefore, they are a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects.

Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.; Voronin, Alexei Yu.; Cubitt, Robert; Protasov, Konstantin V.



[A comparison of various methods of x-ray sensitometry].  


Three methods of roentgen sensimetry have been compared: the wedge method based on using the stepped wedge, the Moscow Radiation and Roentgenology Research Institute method consisting in the time-modulation of the exposure by means of a lead diaphragm and revolving cassette with screens and film, and the method, according to which the dose is modulated by changing the distance from the source of irradiation to the cassette. The exposure conditions have been selected in order to achieve the best coordination of the results obtained by all the three methods. The minimal sensitivity of the combination of the medium amplification screens of ZY-B2A type with film PM-1 is about 1000P-1. For a more complete characteristic of the important properties of the roentgenographic films it is necessary in addition to determining the sensitivity, gamma and medium gradient to measure the parameters determining the graininess of the film and the transmission of the screen light by its emulsion layer. PMID:3200152

Maslov, L A; Gurvich, A M; Chikirdin, E G; Il'ina, M A; Popova, T A


100-DR-1 radiological surveys  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted over the surface of the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 100-DR-1 radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the operable unit-specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the operable unit surface area. The survey methodology was based on utilization of USRADS for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near 6 in. and at 3 ft from the surface soil. The purpose of the survey is to identify the location of unidentified subsurface radioactive material areas and any surface contamination associated with these areas. The radiological surveys were conducted using both a digital count rate meter with a NaI detector reporting in counts per minute (CPM) and a dose rate meter reporting micro-Roentgen per hour (uR) connected to a CHEMRAD Tennessee Corp. Series 2000 USRADS. The count rate meter was set for gross counting, i.e., Window ``out``. The window setting allows detection of low, intermediate, and high energy photons. The USRADS equipment is used to record the detector readings verses the location of the readings, generate a map of the survey area, and save the data on computer storage media.

Naiknimbalkar, N.M.



The Evolution of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) from a Technological Perspective.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895 ionizing radiations have been used as a treatment for cancer. Such treatments have been based on either implantation of radioactive materials at the site of disease or by aiming external radiation beams at the diseased site. This later method is referred to as teletherapy because the beams originate from a location outside of the body distant from the disease site itself. A brief review of the basic radiation biology will be given to illustrate the rationale for therapeutic use of ionizing radiations and the effects of beam energy and beam type- particulate or photon. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the technological teletherapy developments supported by the required physical properties of the beams and their associated characteristics that make them suitable for patient treatments. Chronological highlights will include the following sources or devices: superficial x-rays, orthovaltage x-rays, megavoltage x-rays and Cobalt 60 photons, electron beams, neutron beams, negative pi mesons, protons, and heavy ions. The presentation will illustrate how the physical beam properties have been incorporated into modern radiation treatment devices, many of which are equipped with radiation imaging capability. Such devices include: linacs equipped with multileaf collimators for beam shaping and intensity modulation, the Gamma Knife for precise and accurate irradiation of brain tumors or arterial-venous malformations (AVM), the robotic arm based Cyber Knife, and the Helical Tomotherapy unit.

Detorie, Nicholas



Radiation protection: the NCRP guidelines and some considerations for the future.  


The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the USA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), worldwide, were formed about 1928 and have since made recommendations on appropriate levels of protection from ionizing radiation for workers and for the public. These recommendations and much of the guidance provided by these organizations have usually been adopted by regulatory bodies around the world. In the case of the NCRP, the levels have fallen from 0.1 roentgen per day in 1934 to the current 5 rem per year (a factor of about 5). The present levels recommended by both the ICRP and the NCRP correspond to reasonable levels of risk where the risks of harm from ionizing radiation are compared with the hazards of other, commonly regarded, as safe, industries. Some considerations for the future in radiation protection include trends in exposure levels (generally downward for the average exposure to workers) and improvements in risk estimation; questions of lifetime limits, de minimis levels, and partial body exposures; plus problems of high LET radiations, acceptability of risk, synergisms, and risk systems for protection. PMID:7342492

Sinclair, W K


ROSAT Detections of Symbiotic Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster reports on the results of survey and pointed observations of symbiotic binaries made with the Roentgen Satellite [ROSAT] during the sky-survey phase and AOs 2 and 3. Among the goals of the study were to determine the frequency of xray emission among symbiotics as a class of astronomical objects, and to determine, insofar as possible, their high energy variability and spectral characteristics. The symbiotic star, AG Draconis, known to exhibit optical flare-like events every few years, was re-observed several times. The initial analysis of the pointed observations suggests that only a minority of all known symbiotics were detected at the level of the ROSAT sky survey limit (f_x \\le 10(-12) erg cm(-2) s(-1) ). Further, among those objects detected, a majority showed evidence in the ROSAT observations for xray variability. Relatively few showed evidence for photons harder than about 1 keV. AG Dra may have exhibited a small flare-like event between 1992 June and September. We are pleased to acknowledge assistance by Tom Fleming and Jurgen Schmitt, as well as partial support for this effort through NASA ROSAT grant NAG5-2094 to the University of Denver.

Bickert, K.; Stencel, R. E.



The ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1', a field of view of ~30' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Babyshkin, V.; Lomakin, I.; Menderov, A.; Moskvinov, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.



The ART-XC Instrument on board the SRG Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2013 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmiumtelluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of 1 arcmin, a field of view of ~30 arcmin and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Arefiev, V.; Glushenko, A.; Yaskovich, A.; Burenin, R.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Buntov, M.; Grebenev, S.; Lutovinov, A.; Kudelin, M.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.



Diagenetic history of the Korallenoolith (Malm) of northwestern Germany: Implications from in-situ trace element and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have collected rock samples from the abandoned Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter/Germany, to elucidate the diagenetic history of the Korallenoolith formation in northwestern Germany. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence investigations showed that the rocks contain a wide range of particles, from primary biogenic material to various generations of interparticle cements and cements in fissures and fractures. The diagenetic environment of cement precipitation was reconstructed using in-situ trace element microanalyses with PIXE, using the Bochum proton microprobe. Furthermore, the different components were analysed for their radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures. ‘Rim cements’ around echinoid fragments display several stages of cement precipitation. Early cement generations show high Sr concentrations and low 87Sr/86Sr values. In contrast, later generations have relatively low Sr values, around 300 ppm, and iron concentrations of up to 3%. Fissure cements represent an even later stage of diagenetic history. They consist of calcite, anhydrite and celestite and are characterised by significantly higher 87Sr/86Sr values. The results of combined trace element and isotopic measurements indicate that the biogenic material was deposited in a shallow marine environment with normal salinity and a relatively high primary availability of iron. The early generations of diagenetic cements have similar, marine, signatures and were therefore precipitated in a closed system, where the trace element and isotopic properties were inherited from the dissolved precursor phases. In contrast, the later generations of rim cements and particularly the fissure cements show completely different and variable chemical signatures. They were precipitated in an open system from formation waters.

Bruhn, Frank; Veizer, Ján; Buhl, Dieter; Meijer, Jan



On the performances of different IMRT treatment planning systems for selected paediatric cases  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the performance of seven different TPS (Treatment Planning Systems: Corvus, Eclipse, Hyperion, KonRad, Oncentra Masterplan, Pinnacle and PrecisePLAN) when intensity modulated (IMRT) plans are designed for paediatric tumours. Methods Datasets (CT images and volumes of interest) of four patients were used to design IMRT plans. The tumour types were: one extraosseous, intrathoracic Ewing Sarcoma; one mediastinal Rhabdomyosarcoma; one metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma of the anus; one Wilm's tumour of the left kidney with multiple liver metastases. Prescribed doses ranged from 18 to 54.4 Gy. To minimise variability, the same beam geometry and clinical goals were imposed on all systems for every patient. Results were analysed in terms of dose distributions and dose volume histograms. Results For all patients, IMRT plans lead to acceptable treatments in terms of conformal avoidance since most of the dose objectives for Organs At Risk (OARs) were met, and the Conformity Index (averaged over all TPS and patients) ranged from 1.14 to 1.58 on primary target volumes and from 1.07 to 1.37 on boost volumes. The healthy tissue involvement was measured in terms of several parameters, and the average mean dose ranged from 4.6 to 13.7 Gy. A global scoring method was developed to evaluate plans according to their degree of success in meeting dose objectives (lower scores are better than higher ones). For OARs the range of scores was between 0.75 ± 0.15 (Eclipse) to 0.92 ± 0.18 (Pinnacle3 with physical optimisation). For target volumes, the score ranged from 0.05 ± 0.05 (Pinnacle3 with physical optimisation) to 0.16 ± 0.07 (Corvus). Conclusion A set of complex paediatric cases presented a variety of individual treatment planning challenges. Despite the large spread of results, inverse planning systems offer promising results for IMRT delivery, hence widening the treatment strategies for this very sensitive class of patients.

Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Alber, Markus; Asell, Mats; Clivio, Alessandro; Dobler, Barbara; Larsson, Malin; Lohr, Frank; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Muzik, Jan; Polednik, Martin; Vanetti, Eugenio; Wolff, Dirk; Wyttenbach, Rolf; Cozzi, Luca



Walter Thiel—Short life of a rocket scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch that reached a height of 84.5 km and had a speed of 4.824 km/h (5x sonic speed). This rocket flew 190 km to the target location. One of the masterminds of this launch was Walter Thiel, a German chemist and rocket engineer. Thiel was highly talented, during his education from primary school until diploma exams he always received a grade of A in his exams. He was called "the student with the 7 A grades". In 1934 Thiel became Dr.-Ing. (chem.), with the highest possible honor (summa cum laude), when he was only 24 years old. He started to work for the rocket development department at Humboldt University, Berlin. Walter Dornberger asked him to leave the university research department and become head of rocket propulsion development in his team in Kummersdorf, near Berlin. Thiel's groundbreaking ideas for the rocket engine would lead to a significant reduction in material, weight and work processes, as well as a shortening in the length of the engine itself. Thiel and his team also defined the fuel itself and the best ratio of mixture between ethanol and liquid oxygen for the engine. In 1940 the propulsion team moved from Kummersdorf to Peenemünde after the launch sites were completed there. Thiel became deputy of Wernher von Braun at the R&D units. One of Thiel's team members was Konrad Dannenberg, who later became famous in the development of the Saturn program. On the night from August 17 to August 18, 1943, Thiel and his family (wife and two children) were killed during a Royal Air Force bombing raid (Operation Hydra). The Moon crater "Thiel" on the far side of the Moon is named after Walter Thiel. The research results of Walter Thiel had a strong impact on the United States' rocket program as well as the Russian rocket development program.

Thiel, Karen; Przybilski, Olaf



Applying Mean-Shift - Clustering for 3D object detection in remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timely warning and forecasting of high-impact weather events is crucial for life, safety and economy. Therefore, the development and improvement of methods for detection and nowcasting / short-term forecasting of these events is an ongoing research question. A new 3D object detection and tracking algorithm is presented. Within the project "object-based analysis and seamless predictin (OASE)" we address a better understanding and forecasting of convective events based on the synergetic use of remotely sensed data and new methods for detection, nowcasting, validation and assimilation. In order to gain advanced insight into the lifecycle of convective cells, we perform an object-detection on a new high-resolution 3D radar- and satellite based composite and plan to track the detected objects over time, providing us with a model of the lifecycle. The insights in the lifecycle will be used in order to improve prediction of convective events in the nowcasting time scale, as well as a new type of data to be assimilated into numerical weather models, thus seamlessly bridging the gap between nowcasting and NWP.. The object identification (or clustering) is performed using a technique borrowed from computer vision, called mean-shift clustering. Mean-Shift clustering works without many of the parameterizations or rigid threshold schemes employed by many existing schemes (e. g. KONRAD, TITAN, Trace-3D), which limit the tracking to fully matured, convective cells of significant size and/or strength. Mean-Shift performs without such limiting definitions, providing a wider scope for studying larger classes of phenomena and providing a vehicle for research into the object definition itself. Since the mean-shift clustering technique could be applied on many types of remote-sensing and model data for object detection, it is of general interest to the remote sensing and modeling community. The focus of the presentation is the introduction of this technique and the results of its application on our remote-sensing composite.

Simon, Jürgen-Lorenz; Diederich, Malte; Troemel, Silke



3D computation of the demagnetizing field in a magnetic material of arbitrary shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fourier Transform technique is used to compute the demagnetizing field in a magnetic material of arbitrary shape. This technique, also known as the "0-padding" algorithm, has already been utilized for cubic or parallelepipedic material (Yuan and Neal, 1992; Yuan, 1992; Berkov et al., 1993; Patterson, 1993; Fabian et al., 1996). It offers preciseness, efficiency and can be parallelized effectively. We have adapted it to materials of arbitrary geometry. The material is placed in a parallelepipedic box containing air called the fictitious domain. The new algorithm has the main quality of the initial one: its efficiency (the number of computations is of order O( N log N ) for N mesh elements in the fictitious domain instead of O( N 2 ) for the direct convolution product), with some flexibility in the choice of the material geometry. In this paper, we prove that the algorithm gives the expected result. We present results obtained on the Cray T3E parallel computer for a cube surrounded by air, for reference, and a piece of a magnetic recording head. They are compared to the field computed with the Flux3D software (Imhoff et al., 1990; Brunotte et al., 1992; Chen and Konrad, 1997). They compare qualitatively well everywhere for the cube. For the head, they also compare well except in a thin region including the interface between material and air where the field undergoes a big variation. The field was also calculated in a sphere magnetized uniformly and compared to its analytical value. For a mesh with 32×32×32 elements, the results agree within 0.055% in average over the mesh elements completely inside the sphere. We have noted the presence of peaks near the border inside the sphere.

Bagnérés, Anne; Durbiano, Sophie



Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenland ice core from NorthGRIP (NGRIP) contains a proxy climate record across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary of unprecedented clarity and resolution. Analysis of an array of physical and chemical parameters within the ice enables the base of the Holocene, as reflected in the first signs of climatic warming at the end of the Younger Dryas/Greenland Stadial 1 cold phase, to be located with a high degree of precision. This climatic event is most clearly reflected in an abrupt shift in deuterium excess values, accompanied by more gradual changes in ^18O, dust concentration, a range of chemical species, and annual layer thickness. A timescale based on multi-parameter annual layer counting provides an age of 11,700 calendar yr b2k (before AD 2000) for the base of the Holocene, with a maximum counting error of 99 yr. A proposal that an archived core from this unique sequence should constitute the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period) has been ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences. The results have been published in Journal of Quaternary Science vol. 24(1), pp. 3-17, 2009 by an author team consisting of Mike Walker, Sigfus Johnsen, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Trevor Popp, Jørgen-Peder Steffensen, Phil Gibbard, Wim Hoek, John Lowe, John Andrews, Svante Björck, Les C. Cwynar, Konrad Hughen, Peter Kershaw, Bernd Kromer, Thomas Litt, David J. Lowe, Takeshi Nakagawa, Rewi Newnham, and Jakob Schwander. The poster presents the definition and the underlying data.

Rasmussen, S. O.



The Implementation of Policies Regulating Institutional Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data management in geosciences, especially at university and other research institutes commonly isn't very well coordinated. Due to changing staff and limited funding this topic has no priority in general. The process to implement policies regulating data management in an university institute is complex. First of all existing structures and workflows had to be reviewed. That means an inventory of different data sets, reviewing quality tests, but also data requirements of scientists as well as their willingness to follow rules simplifying their work. Awareness of complying with regulations is essential for the acceptance of policies. A leading team, formed by several scientists, will bring together different points of view to control the development of institutional policies. Determining the actual state of personal data management using a questionary was one of the activities in the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences). The intention of the project is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives and in using documented data from these archives. Project partners are Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Other activities were to discuss existing problems and approved solutions with many institutions and tried to find out, where are the gaps in already realized workflows and which structures could be an ideal model to be generalized. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. University lectures were started to teach future scientific generations from the beginning on how to deal with all sorts of different data in a transparent way. Their feedback will be used to improve data documentations and data curation, so that the re-use of archived research data will be encouraged. The whole process of different approaches in the project EWIG, funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, is open to be discussed on the web:

Gebauer, Petra; Kirchner, Ingo; Hirt, Mirjam



Visual Recognition of Age Class and Preference for Infantile Features: Implications for Species-Specific vs Universal Cognitive Traits in Primates  

PubMed Central

Despite not knowing the exact age of individuals, humans can estimate their rough age using age-related physical features. Nonhuman primates show some age-related physical features; however, the cognitive traits underlying their recognition of age class have not been revealed. Here, we tested the ability of two species of Old World monkey, Japanese macaques (JM) and Campbell's monkeys (CM), to spontaneously discriminate age classes using visual paired comparison (VPC) tasks based on the two distinct categories of infant and adult images. First, VPCs were conducted in JM subjects using conspecific JM stimuli. When analyzing the side of the first look, JM subjects significantly looked more often at novel images. Based on analyses of total looking durations, JM subjects looked at a novel infant image longer than they looked at a familiar adult image, suggesting the ability to spontaneously discriminate between the two age classes and a preference for infant over adult images. Next, VPCs were tested in CM subjects using heterospecific JM stimuli. CM subjects showed no difference in the side of their first look, but looked at infant JM images longer than they looked at adult images; the fact that CMs were totally naïve to JMs suggested that the attractiveness of infant images transcends species differences. This is the first report of visual age class recognition and a preference for infant over adult images in nonhuman primates. Our results suggest not only species-specific processing for age class recognition but also the evolutionary origins of the instinctive human perception of baby cuteness schema, proposed by the ethologist Konrad Lorenz.

Lemasson, Alban; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Masataka, Nobuo



Calculation of the 3D density model of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Earth's crust is a part of investigation aimed at extension of the Russian Federation continental shelf in the Sea of Okhotsk Gathered data allow to consider the Sea of Okhotsk' area located outside the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation as the natural continuation of Russian territory. The Sea of Okhotsk is an Epi-Mesozoic platform with Pre-Cenozoic heterogeneous folded basement of polycyclic development and sediment cover mainly composed of Paleocene - Neocene - Quaternary deposits. Results of processing and complex interpretation of seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data along profile 2-DV-M, as well as analysis of available geological and geophysical information on the Sea of Okhotsk region, allowed to calculate of the Earth crust model. 4 layers stand out (bottom-up) in structure of the Earth crust: granulite-basic (density 2.90 g/cm3), granite-gneiss (limits of density 2.60-2.76 g/cm3), volcanogenic-sedimentary (2.45 g/cm3) and sedimentary (density 2.10 g/cm3). The last one is absent on the continent; it is observed only on the water area. Density of the upper mantle is taken as 3.30 g/cm3. The observed gravity anomalies are mostly related to the surface relief of the above mentioned layers or to the density variations of the granite-metamorphic basement. So outlining of the basement blocks of different constitution preceded to the modeling. This operation is executed after Double Fourier Spectrum analysis of the gravity and magnetic anomalies and following compilation of the synthetic anomaly maps, related to the basement density and magnetic heterogeneity. According to bathymetry data, the Sea of Okhotsk can be subdivided at three mega-blocks. Taking in consideration that central Sea of Okhotsk area is aseismatic, i.e. isostatic compensated, it is obvious that Earth crust structure of these three blocks is different. The South-Okhotsk depression is characteristics by 3200-3300 m of sea depths. Moho surface in this area is at the depth 15-17 km and intracrustal Konrad surface - at the depth 8-9 km. Thickness of sediment cover in the South-Okhotsk depression is up to 4-6 km. Type of the Earth's crust in the South-Okhotsk depression has to be defined as suboceanic. Steep slope with the more than 1.5 km depth difference separates South-Okhotsk depression from mega-block including Academy of Sciences and Institute of Oceanology Uplifts and Central Okhotsk and Deryugin Depression. Sea depths in this area are alterating mostly between 1000 and 1500 m. Moho surface in this mega-block is at the depth 23-25 km and intracrustal Konrad surface - at the depth 13-14 km with the exception of Deryugin Depression (10 km). Thickness of sediment cover varies up to 2-4 km and only in the Deryugin Depression reaches 9 km. Type of the Earth's crust in this mega-block has to be defined as continental. Northern and north-eastern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk is characteristics by 200-300 m sea depths (with the exclusion of the Tinro depression). Moho surface in this area is at the depth 28-32 km and intracrustal Konrad surface - at the depth 13-18 km with the exception of Tinro Depression (10 km). Thickness of sediment cover is minimal and only in the Tinro Depression reaches 8-9 km. Complete similarity of the potential field anomaly distribution in this region and in the western Kamchatka region is remarkable. The distribution of the potential field anomalies and features of the constructed Earth's crust density model give us evidences of Pre-Late Cretaceous consolidation of basement in northern and north-eastern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk as well as in the Russian territory of western Kamchatka peninsula.

Piskarev, A.; Butsenko, V.; Poselov, V.; Savin, V.



The history of veterinary medicine in Namibia.  


Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today. PMID:23327121

Schneider, Herbert P



Resonant Two-Qubit Gates and Mesoscopic Shelving Qubit Readout in Circuit QED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the implementation of universal sets of resonant one-qubit and two-qubit gates for superconducting qubits inside microwave resonators in Circuit QED, aiming at the speed-up of gate operations [1]. We study also the implementation of mesoscopic shelving readout of a superconducting qubit inside a microwave resonator, where a high-fidelity measurement may be achieved [2]. In both proposals we borrow from inspiring quantum-optical tools and concepts, exploiting the advantages of three-level physics and adapting electron-shelving readout in a novel manner in the context of multi-cavity physics [3], and in particular two-cavity Circuit QED [4]. [4pt] REFERENCES: [0pt] [1] G. Haack, F. Helmer, M. Mariantoni, J. von Delft, F. Marquardt, and E. Solano, ``Resonant toolbox of universal quantum gates in Circuit QED'', in preparation. [0pt] [2] B. Englert, G. Mangano, M. Mariantoni, R. Gross, J. Siewert, and E. Solano, ``Mesoscopic Shelving Qubit Readout in Circuit QED'', in preparation. [0pt] [3] F. Helmer, M. Mariantoni, A. G. Fowler, J. von Delft, E. Solano, and F. Marquardt, ``Two-dimensional cavity grid for scalable quantum computation with superconducting circuits'', arXiv:0706.3625. [0pt] [4] M. Mariantoni, F. Deppe, A. Marx, R. Gross, F. K. Wilhelm, and E. Solano, ``Two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics: A superconducting quantum switch'', Phys. Rev. B 78, 104508 (2008).

Solano, Enrique



[The background of the hardships of Moabit Hospital; an aspect of German medicine under the National-Socialistic rule].  


Under the National-Socialistic (Nazi) rule, Moabit Hospital (City Hospital of Berlin at Moabit) met various hardships. In the present communication, their sufferings and backgrounds are described as an aspect of German medicine during the Nazi regime. 1. Around April 1st, 1933, the day of an anti-Jewish boycott, the Jewish doctors, co-medical and non-medical personnel were banned from the hospital. 2. At the hospital, they were forced to perform involuntary sterilization on psychiatric patients and patients with hereditary disease, by an inhuman law. 3. Dr. Georg Groscurth, a chief physician of the hospital, was executed because of his anti-Nazi activity. His act came from his patriotism and righteous indignation against the cruelty of Nazism. 4. In comparison with the inhumanity of the Nazis and in relation to the origin of the name of the area, Moabit, the author comments on "the Prussian tolerance" realized by Elector Friedlich Wilhelm of Brandenburg. The author believes this tolerance was one of the important causes of the flourishing of German medicine in the ninteenth century. PMID:11618869

Izumi, H



[Temperament and affective disorders--historical basis of current discussion].  


The history of the temperament concept begins in ancient Greece. The humoral theory remained influential over the centuries. At the beginning of the 20 th century, both Wilhelm Wundt and his pupil Emil Kraepelin formulated new aspects. Wundt described two dimensions: "speed of variability of emotions" and "intensity of emotions". Kraepelin observed four fundamental states (depressive, manic, irritable and cyclothymic), which he linked to manic-depressive illness. Since then different lines of temperament research have evolved: (1) psychiatric-psychopathological theories (e. g. Ewald, Kretschmer and Sheldon), which tend to see temperament as a dilution of full-blown affective disorders; (2) neurobiological theories (e. g. Pavlov, Eysenck and Gray), which understand temperament as determined by underlying neurobiological processes - especially levels of arousal; and (3) developmental theories (e. g. Chess & Thomas, Rothbart and Kagan), which derived their temperament concept from early childhood observations. Recent theories (e. g. those of Cloninger or Akiskal) combine different aspects. After reviewing the historical temperament concepts we present underlying factors which are linked to affective disorders (such as emotional reactivity, cyclicity or trait affectivity). Finally, we illustrate the importance of temperament concepts for research in affective disorders. PMID:12796852

Ehrt, U; Brieger, P; Marneros, A



DASS-GUI: a user interface for identification and analysis of significant patterns in non-sequential data  

PubMed Central

Summary: Many large ‘omics’ datasets have been published and many more are expected in the near future. New analysis methods are needed for best exploitation. We have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) for easy data analysis. Our discovery of all significant substructures (DASS) approach elucidates the underlying modularity, a typical feature of complex biological data. It is related to biclustering and other data mining approaches. Importantly, DASS-GUI also allows handling of multi-sets and calculation of statistical significances. DASS-GUI contains tools for further analysis of the identified patterns: analysis of the pattern hierarchy, enrichment analysis, module validation, analysis of additional numerical data, easy handling of synonymous names, clustering, filtering and merging. Different export options allow easy usage of additional tools such as Cytoscape. Availability: Source code, pre-compiled binaries for different systems, a comprehensive tutorial, case studies and many additional datasets are freely available at DASS-GUI is implemented in Qt. Contact:; Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Hollunder, Jens; Friedel, Maik; Kuiper, Martin; Wilhelm, Thomas



[Humboldt as mediator: Schleiden and Mohl contra Liebig].  


Justus Liebig's book Die organische Chemic in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie aroused strong opposition from scientists who felt that they were being attacked. A polarization arose particularly between Hugo von Mohl (1805-1872) and Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1805-1881) on one side, and Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) and his followers on the other side. The debate did not have the character of a purely scientific controversy, however, because social aspects also played a role. Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who held the esteem of both parties, was able to intervene successfully to mediate this conflict. His task appeared at first difficult, but it turned out that both groups had a common enemy, the representatives and followers of the 'Romantic philosophy of nature'. Humboldt, who self-deprecatingly called himself a 'fossil', was forced to recognize that many of his friends and acquaintances, who stood nearer to, or even belonged among the founders of Naturphilosophie, for example, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854) and Johann Bernhard Wilbrand (1779-1846), were also under attack. Although he had earlier been inspired by the concerns and ideas of Schelling's Naturphilosophie, he now distanced himself from them in order to mediate between modern, experimental scientists. PMID:12557694

Werner, P



Determinism and probability in the development of the cell theory.  


A return to Claude Bernard's original use of the concept of 'determinism' displays the fact that natural laws were presumed to rule over all natural processes. In a more restricted sense, the term boiled down to a mere presupposition of constant determinant causes for those processes, leaving aside any particular ontological principle, even stochastic. The history of the cell theory until around 1900 was dominated by a twofold conception of determinant causes. Along a reductionist trend, cells' structures and processes were supposed to be accounted for through their analysis into detailed partial mechanisms. But a more holistic approach tended to subsume those analytic means and the mechanism involved under a program of global functional determinations. When mitotic and meiotic sequences in nuclear replication were being unveiled and that neo-Mendelian genetics was being grafted onto cytology and embryology, a conception of strict determinism at the nuclear level, principally represented by Wilhelm Roux and August Weismann, would seem to rule unilaterally over the mosaic interpretation of the cleavage of blastomeres. But, as shown by E.B. Wilson, in developmental processes there occur contingent outcomes of cell division which observations and experiments reveal. This induces the need to admit 'epigenetic' determinants and relativize the presumed 'preformation' of thedevelopmental phases by making room for an emergent order which the accidental circumstances of gene replication would trigger on. PMID:22542690

Duchesneau, François



Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.



Historicism and neo-Kantianism.  


This article treats the conflict between historicism and neo-Kantianism in the late nineteenth century by a careful examination of the writings of Wilhelm Windelband, the leader of the Southwestern neo-Kantians. Historicism was a profound challenge to the fundamental principles of Kant's philosophy because it seemed to imply that there are no universal and necessary principles of science, ethics or aesthetics. Since all such principles are determined by their social and historical context, they differ with each culture and epoch. Windelband attempted to respond to the challenge of this relativism by either broadening Kantian principles, so that they could accommodate the results of historicism, or by reformulating Kantian principles, so that they were impregnable to historical change. The article examines both aspects of Windelband's strategy in some detail, noting the many changes and different formulations in his views. A final section considers some of the difficulties of Windelband's strategy and concludes that, despite its heroic efforts, it was a failure. PMID:19391374

Beiser, Fred



Sleep to Implement an Intention  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Design: Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Conclusions: Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions. Citation: Diekelmann S; Wilhelm I; Wagner U; Born J. Sleep to implement an intention. SLEEP 2013;36(1):149-153.

Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan



Prediction of N-linked glycan branching patterns using artificial neural networks.  


A model was developed for novel prediction of N-linked glycan branching pattern classification for CHO-derived N-linked glycoproteins. The model consists of 30 independent recurrent neural networks and uses predicted quantities of secondary structure elements and residue solvent accessibility as an input vector. The model was designed to predict the major component of a heterogeneous mixture of CHO-derived glycoforms of a recombinant protein under normal growth conditions. Resulting glycosylation prediction is classified as either complex-type or high mannose. The incorporation of predicted quantities in the input vector allowed for theoretical mutant N-linked glycan branching predictions without initial experimental analysis of protein structures. Primary amino acid sequence data were effectively eliminated from the input vector space based on neural network prediction analyses. This provided further evidence that localized protein secondary structure elements and conformational structure may play more important roles in determining glycan branching patterns than does the primary sequence of a polypeptide. A confidence interval parameter was incorporated into the model to enable identification of false predictions. The model was further tested using published experimental results for mutants of the tissue-type plasminogen activator protein [J. Wilhelm, S.G. Lee, N.K. Kalyan, S.M. Cheng, F. Wiener, W. Pierzchala, P.P. Hung, Alterations in the domain structure of tissue-type plasminogen activator change the nature of asparagine glycosylation. Biotechnology (N.Y.) 8 (1990) 321-325]. PMID:18054050

Senger, Ryan S; Karim, M Nazmul



Hybrids, pure cultures, and pure lines: from nineteenth-century biology to twentieth-century genetics.  


Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by 'biology' when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution in nineteenth-century life sciences, I maintain, consisted in a fundamental shift in ontology, which eroded the boundaries between individual and species, and allowed biologists to move up and down the scale of organic complexity. Life became a property extending both 'downwards', to the parts that organisms were composed of, as well as 'upwards', to the collective entities constituted by the relations of exchange and interaction that organisms engage in to reproduce. This mode of thinking was crystallized by Gregor Mendel and consolidated in the late nineteenth-century conjunction of biochemistry, microbiology and breeding in agro-industrial settings. This conjunction and its implications are especially exemplified by Wilhelm Johannsen's and Martinus Beijerinck's work on pure lines and cultures. An understanding of the subsequent constraints imposed by the evolutionary synthesis of the twentieth century on models of genetic systems may require us to rethink the history of biology and displace Darwin's theory of natural selection from that history's centre. PMID:18053934

Müller-Wille, Staffan



'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.  


In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis. PMID:17324808

Feest, Uljana



The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.  


After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education. PMID:10650563

Danto, E A



The Kaiser's cancer revisited: was Virchow totally wrong?  


On 15 June 1888, the German Emperor, Kaiser Friedrich III, died of laryngeal cancer. Three biopsies of his laryngeal lesion had been taken by the British laryngologist, Morel Mackenzie, in 1887 and diagnosed by Rudolf Virchow as "pachydermia verrucosa laryngis", confirming Mackenzie's assessment that the Kaiser's disease was benign. A fourth specimen coughed up by the patient was considered by Virchow to be nondiagnostic. A further specimen expectorated by the patient 3 months before his death was diagnosed as carcinoma by Wilhelm Waldeyer. The autopsy revealed squamous carcinoma in the larynx with a cervical lymph node metastasis. The discrepancies between the initial diagnoses and the final outcome of the Kaiser's disease gave rise to a never-ending medical controversy. Our investigations on this historical case were limited to the official German documents and publications and their English translations and to subsequent literature sources of the time, after having received confirmation that the histological slides and Virchow's original reports had been lost. Based on current surgical pathology knowledge, we propose that the tumour that challenged the diagnostic skills of the founder of pathology was hybrid verrucous carcinoma (HVC), an extremely rare, metastasizing variant of verrucous carcinoma (VC) composed of pure VC mixed with clusters of conventional squamous cell carcinoma. As we see it now, Virchow was therefore not totally wrong. Our retrospective evaluation suggests that Virchow's detailed description of the Kaiser's cancer preceded the paper that contributed to the full understanding of HVC of the larynx by 110 years. PMID:21494762

Cardesa, Antonio; Zidar, Nina; Alos, Llucia; Nadal, Alfons; Gale, Nina; Klöppel, Günter



Aerosol Remote Sensing From Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of Atmospheric Aerosol Properties Using Satellite Measurements;Bad Honnef, Germany, 16-19 August 2009; Aerosol optical depth (AOD), a measure of how much light is attenuated by aerosol particles, provides scientists information about the amount and type of aerosols in the atmosphere. Recent developments in aerosol remote sensing was the theme of a workshop held in Germany. The workshop was sponsored by the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation and attracted 67 participants from 12 countries. The workshop focused on the determination (retrieval) of AOD and its spectral dependence using measurements of changes to the solar radiation back-scattered to space. The midvisible AOD is usually applied to define aerosol amount, while the size of aerosol particles is indicated by the AOD spectral dependence and is commonly expressed by the Angstrom parameter. Identical properties retrieved by different sensors, however, display significant diversity, especially over continents. A major reason for this is that the derivation of AOD requires more accurate determination of nonaerosol contributions to the sensed satellite signal than is usually available. In particular, surface reflectance data as a function of the viewing geometry and robust cloud-clearing methods are essential retrieval elements. In addition, the often needed assumptions about aerosol properties in terms of absorption and size are more reasons for the discrepancy between different AOD measurements.

Kokhanovsky, A.; Kinne, S.



Blandowski misses out: ichthyological etiquette in 19th-century Australia.  


Wilhelm Blandowski, a Prussian émigré, arrived in Australia in 1849 with hopes of exploring and documenting the natural history of this still relatively scientifically nai;ve colony. After several years travelling, surveying and mining gold, he became the first government zoologist at the infant National Museum of Victoria and was a key player in the burgeoning scientific establishment. Chosen to lead a collecting expedition to the junction of the Murray and Darling Rivers in 1856, Blandowski and his faithful companion Gerard Krefft brought back a wealth of new material, including many species of undescribed freshwater fishes. Unfortunately, Blandowski's attempts to 'honour' members of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria backfired and a scandal ensued. A disillusioned Blandowski left Australia just ten years after his arrival. A reanalysis of his descriptions of the fish and comparison with a contemporary work suggests that Blandowski deserves recognition as one of pioneers in the natural history of Australian freshwater fish. The loss of taxonomic authority for eight fish species by this energetic, imaginative, but stubborn scientist, left the way open for future workers to make their mark, whereas Blandowski's name and achievements remain obscure. PMID:14652039

Humphries, Paul



The history of tissue tension.  


In recent years the phenomenon of tissue tension and its functional connection to elongation growth has regained much interest. In the present study we reconstruct older models of mechanical inhomogenities in growing plant organs, in order to establish an accurate historical background for the current discussion. We focus on the iatromechanic model developed in Stephen Hales' Vegetable Staticks, Wilhelm Hofmeister's mechanical model of negative geotropism, Julius Sachs' explanation of the development of tissue tension, and the differential-auxin-response-hypothesis by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider. Each of these models is considered in the context of its respective historic and theoretical environment. In particular, the dependency of the biomechanical hypotheses on the cell theory and the hormone concept is discussed. We arrive at the conclusion that the historical development until the middle of our century is adequately described as a development towards more detailed explanations of how differential tensions are established during elongation growth in plant organs. Then we compare with the older models the structure of more recent criticism of hormonal theories of tropic curvature, and particularly the epidermal-growth-control hypothesis of Ulrich Kutschera. In contrast to the more elaborate of the older hypotheses, the recent models do not attempt an explanation of differential tensions, but instead focus on mechanical processes in organs, in which tissue tension already exists. Some conceptual implications of this discrepancy, which apparently were overlooked in the recent discussion, are briefly evaluated. PMID:11541099

Peters, W S; Tomos, A D



Physics & The Detection of Medical X-Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist were alive today, he would most likely heartily approve of this very informative and well-designed site dealing with the detection of medical x-rays. This site was created by the Physics Education Research Group at Kansas State University and it serves as a good introduction to the science behind the discovery and subsequent use of x-rays in a variety of medical settings. The site starts with a brief discussion of Röntgen's initial discovery of x-rays, and then goes on to offer a brief history of radiology. After that, visitors can learn about different detection methods, including the use of fluorescence film. One feature of the site that is most useful is the inclusion of links to other relevant sites that cover such topics as the concept of an x-ray dose and reduction measures. Overall, the site will be very welcome for beginning students of radiology and medical technology.


Freud's struggle with misogyny: homosexuality and guilt in the dream of Irma's injection.  


The highly condensed dream element trimethylamin is central to the dream of Irma's injection. After a brief review of the medical literature on timethylamine (TMA), it is suggested that two important meanings of this chemical and its properties lie in its disguised reference to disparaging views of women, as well as to Freud's homosexual connection to Wilhelm Fliess. Freud's misogynistic and homosexual impulses were stimulated by Fliess's recent surgical error committed while operating on Freud's patient Emma Eckstein. Evidence is presented that the collaboration between Freud and Fliess in performing an aggressive act toward a woman was for Freud an enactment of a childhood situation in which he and his nephew John had ganged up on John's sister Pauline. The later relationship between Freud, Jung, and Sabina Spielrein is seen as an additional reenactment of this childhood triangle. An examination of Freud's associations to and analysis of the Irma dream, as well as some of his later relationships with women, indicates that guilt and the wish to make reparation were also prominent themes in Freud's inner life. PMID:11809024

Lotto, D



Dynamics of the Spin Liquid Phase of Cs2CuCl4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a spin-liquid phase of an antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice and in a magnetic field are studied with a combination of Gutzwiller-projected wavefunctions and mean-field theory. Candidate ground states that support fermionic gapless spinon excitations include four different U(1) spin liquidsootnotetextY. Zhou, X. G. Wen, cond-mat/0210662 (2003).. The lattice and the states interpolate between limiting cases of 1D decoupled chains (J/J^' = 0) and the isotropic 2D square lattice (J/J^'= ?). Parameters of the mean field theory are chosen to minimize the ground state energy of the corresponding Gutzwiller-projected wavefunction. The spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1, calculated within the mean-field approximation, is compared to NMR measurementsootnotetextM. A. Vachon, O. Ma, J. B. Marston, V. F. Mitrovi'c, unpublished (2007). in the spin liquid phase of Cs2CuCl4ootnotetextY. Tokiwa, T. Radu, R. Coldea, H. Wilhelm, Z. Tylczynski, F. Steglich, PRB 73, 134414 (2006)..

Ma, Ookie; Vachon, Marc-Andre; Mitrovi{?}, Vesna F.; Marston, Brad



From Rational Numbers to Dirac's Bra and Ket: Symbolic Representation of Physical Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning at least in the nineteenth century, symbols used by physicists in their equations interacted with their physical concepts. In the 1850s, Wilhelm Eduard Weber introduced a more rational order into symbolization by adopting an absolute system of units, and thus expressing electrodynamic laws in the form of algebraic equations instead of proportionality relationships, the formerly accepted representation of physical laws. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell made a further advance by using dimensional quantities, and more complex symbolic forms such as gradient, convergence, rotor, and the like, in his electromagnetic and kinetic theories. In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced new symbols for complex numbers, operators, and matrices, thus passing from the representation of metrical properties of physical systems to higher-level mathematical objects. This process was enhanced in modern theoretical physics through the introduction of matrices, creation and destruction operators, Paul A. M. Dirac's q and c numbers, and so on. In the 1930s, Dirac radicalized this transformation of symbols, being aware of the profound modification in the method and scope of the mathematical-physical relationship it entailed.

D'Agostino, Salvo


About the specialized myocardial conducting tissue.  


The chronological succession of discoveries on the location and structure of the atrio-ventricular conducting system are described. The starting point of this system is located in the sinus atrial node, identified by the English scientists A. Keith and M. W. Flack in 1907. The atrioventricular conducting system was pointed out by the Swiss physician Wilhelm His Jr. in 1893. The atrioventricular node (AV) was first identified by the Japanese pathologist Sumao Tawara and his German professor Ludwig Aschoff in 1906. Likewise the structure and routes of the three internodal bundles are described. These bundles include: Bachmann's bundle (1916) connecting the right with the left atrium and the AV node; the middle Wenckebach's bundle (1910) and the posterior or Thörel's bundle (1910), extending from the region of the sinus atrial node towards the posterior margin of the AV node. Lastly, the ventricular left and right conduction systems are detailed. These include the main trunk and their peripheral subdivisions with respective networks. Regarding the controversial existence of the left middle subdivision, it can exist in animal and human hearts. Nevertheless, an intermediate left septal network of specialized fibers seems to act as a functional equivalent of this subdivision. PMID:23680040

de Micheli Serra, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro; Aranda Frausto, Alberto



Proper motions of field HB stars (Sakamoto+, 2003)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We set new limits on the mass of the Milky Way, making use of the latest kinematic information for Galactic satellites and halo objects. Our sample consists of 11 satellite galaxies, 137 globular clusters, and 413 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars up to distances of 10kpc from the Sun. Roughly half of the objects in this sample have measured proper motions, permitting the use of their full space motions in our analysis. The field horizontal branch stars presented in table1 was created from the list of Wilhelm 1999 (J/AJ/117/2329) as the source of magnitudes, radial velocities and [Fe/H]; the proper motions were extracted from one or more proper-motion catalogs: STARNET Catalog (Roeser 1996), Yale-San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog (SPM 2.0: Platais et al. 1998, Cat. I/283), Lick Northern Proper Motion Catalog (NPM1: Klemola et al. 1994, Cat. I/199), and TYCHO-2 Catalog (Hog et al. 2000, Cat. I/259). (1 data file).

Sakamoto, T.; Chiba, M.; Beers, T. C.



Moral lesson from American eugenics movement and Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>epilogue The lesson of eugenics The state shouldn't make genetic decisions. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.



Genetics of the Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas): A Study of Ancient Bone Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Georg Wilhelm Steller was born 100 years before Darwin in 1709 and he was part of a vast exploration fifty years before Lewis and Clark explored America. Steller was important to the study of marine mammals because he was the only naturalist to see and describe the great northern sea cow ( Hydrodamalis gigas). Knowledge of an extinct population can be used to aid the conservation of a current population. Extraction of DNA from this extinct animal was performed in order to determine the population structure of the Steller's sea cow. A test was also developed that can definitively state whether or not a random bone sample came from H. gigas. This test could be used by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to examine material distributed in the North Pacific to determine whether samples are legally traded extinct Steller's sea cow or illegally traded extant marine mammal species protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA).

Crerar, Lorelei D.


Dynamic Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword E. N. Parker; 1. Dynamic Sun: an introduction B. N. Dwivedi; 2. Solar models: structure, neutrinos and helioseismological properties J. N. Bahcall, S. Basu and M. H. Pinsonneault; 3. Seismic Sun S. M. Chitre and H. M. Antia; 4. Rotation of the solar interior J. Christensen-Dalsgaard and M. J. Thompson; 5. Helioseismic tomography A. G. Kosovichev; 6. The solar dynamo as a model of the solar cycle A. R. Choudhuri; 7. Spectro-polarimetry J. O. Stenflo; 8. Solar photosphere and convection Å. Nordlund; 9. The dynamics of the quiet solar chromosphere W. Kalkofen, S. S. Hasan and P. Ulmschneider; 10. Heating of the solar chromosphere P. Ulmschneider and W. Kalkofen; 11. The solar transition region O. Kjeldseth-Moe; 12. Solar magnetohydrodynamics E. R. Priest; 13. Solar activity Z. Švestka; 14. Particle acceleration A. G. Emslie and J. A. Miller; 15. Radio observations of explosive energy releases on the Sun M. R. Kundu and S. M. White; 16. Coronal oscillations V. M. Nakariakov; 17. Probing the Sun's hot corona K. J. H. Phillips and B. N. Dwivedi; 18. Vacuum-ultraviolet emission line diagnostics for solar plasmas B. N. Dwivedi, A. Mohan and K. Wilhelm; 19. Solar wind E. Marsch, W. I. Axford and J. F. McKenzie; 20. Solar observing facilities B. Fleck and C. U. Keller; Index.

Dwivedi, B. N.; Parker, Foreword by E. N.



Dynamic Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword E. N. Parker; 1. Dynamic Sun: an introduction B. N. Dwivedi; 2. Solar models: structure, neutrinos and helioseismological properties J. N. Bahcall, S. Basu and M. H. Pinsonneault; 3. Seismic Sun S. M. Chitre and H. M. Antia; 4. Rotation of the solar interior J. Christensen-Dalsgaard and M. J. Thompson; 5. Helioseismic tomography A. G. Kosovichev; 6. The solar dynamo as a model of the solar cycle A. R. Choudhuri; 7. Spectro-polarimetry J. O. Stenflo; 8. Solar photosphere and convection Å. Nordlund; 9. The dynamics of the quiet solar chromosphere W. Kalkofen, S. S. Hasan and P. Ulmschneider; 10. Heating of the solar chromosphere P. Ulmschneider and W. Kalkofen; 11. The solar transition region O. Kjeldseth-Moe; 12. Solar magnetohydrodynamics E. R. Priest; 13. Solar activity Z. Švestka; 14. Particle acceleration A. G. Emslie and J. A. Miller; 15. Radio observations of explosive energy releases on the Sun M. R. Kundu and S. M. White; 16. Coronal oscillations V. M. Nakariakov; 17. Probing the Sun's hot corona K. J. H. Phillips and B. N. Dwivedi; 18. Vacuum-ultraviolet emission line diagnostics for solar plasmas B. N. Dwivedi, A. Mohan and K. Wilhelm; 19. Solar wind E. Marsch, W. I. Axford and J. F. McKenzie; 20. Solar observing facilities B. Fleck and C. U. Keller; Index.

Dwivedi, B. N.; Parker, Foreword by E. N.



Auguste Forel on ants and neurology.  


Auguste Forel was born in 1848 in the French part of Switzerland. He developed a lifelong passion for myrmecology in his childhood, but chose medicine and neuropsychiatry to earn his living. He first undertook a comparative study of the thalamus under Theodor Meynert in Vienna and then, from 1872 to 1879, he worked as Assistant Physician to Bernhard von Gudden in Munich. This led in 1877 to his seminal work on the organization of the tegmental region in which he provides the first description of the zona incerta and the so-called H (Haubenfeld) fields that still bear his name. In 1879, Forel was appointed Professor of Psychiatry in Munich and Director of the Burghölzli cantonal asylum. He became interested in the therapeutic value of hypnotism, while continuing his work on brain anatomy and ants. His neuroanatomical studies with Gudden's method led him to formulate the neuron theory in 1887, four years before Wilhelm von Waldeyer, who received most of the credit for it. Forel then definitively turned his back on neuroscience. After his retirement from the Burghölzli asylum in 1898. and despite a stroke in 1911 that left him hemiplegic, Forel started to write extensively on various social issues, such as alcohol abstinence and sexual problems. Before his death in 1931 at the age of 83, Forel published a remarkable book on the social world of the ants in which he made insightful observations on the neural control of sensory and instinctive behavior common to both humans and insects. PMID:12945958

Parent, André



George A. Kolstad (1919-1996)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

George A. Kolstad, creator and leader of the U.S. Department of Energy's Geosciences Research Program, died of an aneurysm August 7, 1996, in Baltimore, Md. He is survived by Chris, his wife of 52 years, three children, Martha Rae Kolstad Wilhelm of Grinnell, Iowa, Charles D. Kolstad of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Peter K. Kolstad, of Los Angeles, Calif., and four grandchildren. George is also survived by three brothers and a sister.George was born in Elmira, N.Y., on December 10, 1919. Following high school graduation in 1937, he worked at Eastman Kodak while enrolled in night courses at the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester. He entered Bates College in 1939 and completed his B.S. in physics and mathematics in 1943. During World War II, he worked on piezo-electricity, radar countermeasures, and information flow from radar systems in combat environments. Following his Ph.D. in physics at Yale and brief service on the faculty there, he joined the Atomic Energy Commission in 1950. He began a career of fostering and nurturing basic research efforts, first in physics and mathematics, and then in the geosciences. He was a guest staff member at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen, in 1956-1957, and served as a trustee of Bates College from 1958 to 1964.

Luth, W.; Heiken, G.; Weill, D.; Wang, H.; Gilbert, C.; Mitterer, R.; Duba, A.; Goldstein, N.


A Marble Embryo: Meanings of a Portrait from 1900  

PubMed Central

Portraits of scientists use attributes of discovery to construct identities; portraits that include esoteric accessories may fashion identities for these too. A striking example is a marble bust of the anatomist Wilhelm His by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner. Made in 1900, it depicts the founder of modern human embryology looking down at a model embryo in his right hand. This essay reconstructs the design and viewing of this remarkable portrait in order to shed light on private and public relations between scientists, research objects and audiences. The bust came out of a collaboration to model the face of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach and embodies a shared commitment to anatomical exactitude in three dimensions. His’s research agendas and public character explain the contemplative pose and unprecedented embryo model, which he had laboriously constructed from material a midwife supplied. The early contexts of display in the His home and art exhibitions suggest interpretive resources for viewers and hence likely meanings. Seffner’s work remains exceptional, but has affinities to portraits of human embryologists and embryos produced since 1960. Embryo images have acquired such controversial prominence that the model may engage us more strongly now than it did exhibition visitors around 1900.

Hopwood, Nick



A new non-linear parameter Q from FT-Rheology under nonlinear dynamic oscillatory shear for polymer melts system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) is a test method for the characterization of complex fluids. Varying independently both strain amplitude (?0) and frequency (?) allows covering a broad spectrum of rheological responses with respect to time scales and involved non-linearity. Moreover, it is experimentally relatively simple to generate LAOS flow, because dynamic oscillatory shear does not involve any sudden jump in either strain or strain rate. There are several methods to analyze the resulting torque data received from the LAOS test protocol: (1) the G' and G? as a function of strain amplitude (2) Stress shape (stress vs. time) or Lissajous pattern (stress vs. strain or stress vs. strain rate) (3) Fourier transform (4) generalized "storage" and "loss" modulus when decomposing the nonlinear stress data (5) Chebyschev polynomials using decomposing stress data and further development of Chebyschev polynomials. The Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology is perhaps the most sensitive method of those discussed above. A new nonlinear parameter Q established from FT-Rheolgy under LAOS flow, i.e. Q( ?,? 0) ? I 3/1/ ? {0/2}, as well as the zero-strain nonlinearity or intrinsic nonlinearity Q_0 ( ? ) equiv lim _{? _0 to 0} Q( {? ,? _0 } ) by Hyun and Wilhelm (2009). In this study, therefore recent experiment and simulation results of nonlinear parameter Q from FT-Rheology for polymer melt and polymer composite systemsare reviewed.

Hyun, Kyu; Kim, Wonho



Nonequilibrium in Fluorescent Lamp Discharges.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical fluorescent lamps are low pressure discharge devices comprised of a few mTorr of Hg and a few Torr of rare gas such as Ar. It has long been customary to simulate fluorescent lamp behavior with computer models based on the concept of equilibrium, meaning that energy given to electrons by the axial electric field is exactly balanced by elastic and inelastic collisions with neutral atoms in each volume element of the discharge [1]. The purpose of this work is to examine conditions for which equilibrium is expected to prevail in fluorescent lamps. Qualitatively, the criterion for equilibrium to prevail is that electron energy relaxation length be small compared with characteristic dimension of the discharge [2]. Quantitatively, the criterion is that divergence of radial energy flow be small compared with Joule heating, so that Joule heating and collision loss are equal in each volume element of the discharge [3]. Based on application of this criterion to fluorescent lamp discharges, it is concluded that lamps of standard diameter are very likely not in equilibrium and lamps of smaller diameter are almost certainly not in equilibrium. [1]R. B. Winkler, J. Wilhelm, & R. Winkler, Annalen der Physik 40, 90 & 119 (1983); M. Yousfi, G. Zissis, A. Alkaa, & J. J. Damelincourt, Phys. Rev. A 42, 978 (1990). [2]J. L. Blank, Phys. Fluids 11, 1686 (1968). [3]J. H. Ingold, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5932 (1997).

Michael, J. D.; Ingold, J. H.



Skulls, brains, and memorial culture: on cerebral biographies of scientists in the nineteenth century.  


In this paper, I will argue that the scientific investigation of skulls and brains of geniuses went hand in hand with hagiographical celebrations of scientists. My analysis starts with late-eighteenth century anatomists and anthropologists who highlighted quantitative parameters such as the size and weight of the brain in order to explain intellectual differences between women and men and Europeans and non-Europeans, geniuses and ordinary persons. After 1800 these parameters were modified by phrenological inspections of the skull and brain. As the phrenological examination of the skulls of Immanuel Kant, Wilhelm Heinse, Arthur Schopenhauer and others shows, the anthropometrical data was interpreted in light of biographical circumstances. The same pattern of interpretation can be found in non-phrenological contexts: Reports about extraordinary brains were part of biographical sketches, mainly delivered in celebratory obituaries. It was only in this context that moral reservations about dissecting the brains of geniuses could be overcome, which led to a more systematic investigation of brains of geniuses after 1860. PMID:12940262

Hagner, Michael



Effective temperature of metal-poor A-type stars (Kinman+, 2002)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective temperatures (Teff) can be determined from (V- (V-H)0 and (V-K)0 colours that are derived from 2MASS magnitudes. This gives another way to estimate the Teff of faint blue halo stars (V<~15) whose temperatures are now usually deduced from (BV)0_. Transformations (adapted from Carpenter, 2001AJ....121.2851C) are used to change colours derived from the 2MASS data to the Johnson system. Teff is then derived from these colours using an updated Kurucz model. Tables are given to derive Teff as a function of (V-J)0, (V-H)0 and (V-K)0 for a variety of metallicities and suitable for blue horizontal branch and main sequence stars. The temperatures obtained in this way are compared with those in the recent literature for various stars with 5<=V<=15 and Teff in the range 6500 to 9500K; systematic differences are ~100K. An exception is the sample of BHB stars observed by Wilhelm et al. (1999, Cat. ) whose Teff are significantly cooler than those we derive by an amount that increases with increasing temperature. Description: (2 data files).

Kinman, T.; Castelli, F.



Microfluidic techniques for the analysis of bacterial chemotaxis.  


Anton van Leeuwenhoek first observed bacterial motility in the seventeenth century, and Wilhelm Pfeffer described bacterial chemotaxis in the late nineteenth century. A number of methods, briefly summarized here, have been developed over the years to quantify the motility and chemotaxis of bacteria, but none of them is totally satisfactory. In this chapter, we describe two new assays for chemotaxis that are based on microfabrication and microfluidic techniques. With easily culturable and manipulated bacteria like Escherichia coli, fluorescent labeling of the cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) provides a convenient method for visualizing cells and differentiating two strains in the same experiment. The methods can be extended to environmental samples and mixed bacterial populations with suitable modifications of the optical recording system. The methods are equally useful for studying random motility, attractant chemotaxis, or repellent chemotaxis. The microfluidic system also provides a straightforward way to enrich for mutants that lose or gain responses to individual chemicals. The same approaches can presumably be used to isolate bacteria from environmental samples that respond, or do not respond, to particular chemicals or mixtures of chemicals. PMID:19763956

Englert, Derek L; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D



NF-?B-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation (IR) began to be a powerful medical modality soon after Wilhelm Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays in 1895. Today, more than 50% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy at some time during the course of their disease. Recent technical developments have significantly increased the precision of dose delivery to the target tumor, making radiotherapy more efficient in cancer treatment. However, tumor cells have been shown to acquire a radioresistance that has been linked to increased recurrence and failure in many patients. The exact mechanisms by which tumor cells develop an adaptive resistance to therapeutic fractional irradiation are unknown, although low-dose IR has been well defined for radioadaptive protection of normal cells. This review will address the radioadaptive response, emphasizing recent studies of molecular-level reactions. A prosurvival signaling network initiated by the transcription factor NF-?B, DNA-damage sensor ATM, oncoprotein HER-2, cell cyclin elements (cyclin B1), and mitochondrial functions in radioadaptive resistance is discussed. Further elucidation of the key elements in this prosurvival network may generate novel targets for resensitizing the radioresistant tumor cells.

Ahmed, Kazi Mokim; Li, Jian Jian



Multipole analysis of {sup 2}H({gamma},p)n in the {Delta} resonance region  

SciTech Connect

An energy-dependent multipole analysis of the photodisintegration of deuterium has been performed for photon energies between 187 and 314 MeV using recent data taken with linearly polarized photons. A good fit is obtained with 11 free parameters determining eight multipoles. A wide variety of multipole solutions has been examined and in all cases the cross section with photon polarization parallel to the reaction plane is dominated by electric transitions, with E2{bold {center_dot}}E1 interference responsible for the observed forward-backward angular asymmetry. The cross sections observed in perpendicular kinematics are dominated by magnetic multipoles. Several recent N{Delta}/NN coupled-channel calculations have predicted a pronounced 90{degree} dip in the cross section that is absent from the data. This dip can be reproduced by changing the M2 strength distribution in our fit. A comparison is made with multipoles calculated by Wilhelm and Arenh{umlt o}vel at 300 MeV. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Whisnant, C.S.; Mize, W.K.; Pomarede, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Sandorfi, A.M. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)



Localization of Membrane Proteins in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 (Radial Asymmetry in the Photosynthetic Complexes).  

PubMed Central

Localization of membrane proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was determined by transmission electron microscopy utilizing immunocytochemistry with cells prepared by freeze-substitution. This preparation procedure maintained cellular morphology and permitted detection of cellular antigens with high sensitivity and low background. Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 is a unicellular cyanobacterium with thylakoids organized in concentric layers toward the periphery of the cell. Cytochrome oxidase was localized almost entirely in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas a carotenoprotein (P35) was shown to be a cell wall component. The major photosystem II (PSII) proteins (D1, D2 CP43, and CP47) were localized throughout the thylakoids. Proteins of the Cyt b6/f complex were found to have a similar distribution. Thylakoid luminal proteins, such as the Mn-stabilizing protein, were located primarily in the thylakoid, but a small, reproducible fraction was found in the outer compartment. The photosystem I (PSI) reaction center proteins and the ATP synthase proteins were found associated mostly with the outermost thylakoid and with the cytoplasmic membrane. These results indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus is not evenly distributed throughout the thylakoids. Rather, there is a radial asymmetry such that much of the PSI and the ATPase synthase is located in the outermost thylakoid. The relationship of this structure to the photosynthetic mechanism is discussed. It is suggested that the photosystems are separated because of kinetic differences between PSII and PSI, as hypothesized by H.-W. Trissl and C. Wilhelm (Trends Biochem Sci [1993] 18:415-419).

Sherman, D. M.; Troyan, T. A.; Sherman, L. A.



Analytical psychology and Daoist inner alchemy: a response to C.G. Jung's 'Commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower'.  


This paper provides a historical, religious-philosophical context for the study of the Daoist text known as The Secret of the Golden Flower. An updated study is conducted into the controversy over the source of the text including the editions translated by Richard Wilhelm and Thomas Cleary. The main teachings of the text and the basics of two major denominations of Daoism are introduced to ground later critiques of Jung's commentary. The psychodynamics of analytical psychology, especially those concerned with integration of unconscious contents and the realization of the self (individuation) are compared with the psycho-spiritual dynamics of integration in Eastern spirituality based on the Golden Flower text. The paper concludes that it was amiss for Jung to have equated the Western 'unconscious' with states of higher consciousness in Eastern meditation practices, although his claim that Eastern higher consciousness is characterized by a nebulous state of non-intentionality does raise questions about the appropriateness of calling Eastern meditative states 'consciousness'. A new concept is required to characterize the special qualities of this psychic state shared generally by Eastern spiritual traditions and a more meaningful comparison may be found in Jung's concept of the self. PMID:19765138

Zhu, Caifang Jeremy



Geodetic documents in the Gotha library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until 1800, there existed only rough maps in the dukedoms Gotha-Altenburg and Weimar based on a net of geographical positions measured by simple instruments. After Franz Xaver von Zach had made his first astronomical observations to determine geographical coordinates he realised that these old maps had an accuracy of at best some minutes of arc. The king of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm III (1797-1840), asked Zach in October 1802 to accept the direction of the measurement of the territories around Erfurt and the Eichsfeld. In this situation it was obvious for Zach to consider a survey of Thuringia and a great measurement of degree similar to the French model. His ideas were promoted by the duke of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Ernst II (1772-1804). Zach planned to perform his survey in four degrees of latitude and six degrees of longitude with respect to the Seeberg observatory. The measurements had to cross over the borderlines of several countries. The documents in the Forschungs- and Landesbibliothek prove that the diplomatic preparations for the survey got on until the end of 1803. Zach obtained passports and grants to pass and to survey some territories (Hessen-Kassel, Hannover, Coburg-Saalfeld, Braunschweig, Sachsen). Their governments had exchanged diplomatic notes on this topic. The death of Ernst II in 1804, the consequences of the war (battle of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806) and Zach's resignation as director of the Seeberg observatory led to the end of the survey.

Hopf, Cornelia; Schwarz, Oliver


Better prepared than synthesized: Adolf Butenandt, Schering Ag and the transformation of sex steroids into drugs (1930-1946).  


This paper follows the trajectory of sex steroids in 1930s Germany as a way to investigate the system of research which characterized the development of these drugs. Analyzing the changing relationship between the pharmaceutical company Schering and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute für Biochemie headed by Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt, the paper highlights the circulation of materials, information and money as much as the role of patents in shaping the study of sex steroids. Semi-synthetic analogs and metabolic pathways thus emerged as shared bio-industrial assets. This collaborative work participated in a more general 'internalization' of biology, which took place in pharmaceutical firms during the 1920s and 1930s as a strategy to standardize and develop biologicals. The construction of the hormone market was also based on Schering's collaboration with a selected group of clinicians who worked out the wide-range of indications associated with these 'natural' drugs. The paper finally shows how the wartime scientific and industrial mobilization in Nazi Germany marginalized the study of sex steroids and led to the dismantling of the KWIB-Schering network. PMID:16337554

Gaudillière, Jean-Paul



[Radiotherapy in the treatment of Merkel cell tumors].  


Merkel cell carcinomas are very rare (80 cases up to 1986) and very malignant; they have been known for 20 years only as "trabecular carcinomas". They do not rise from neural crests, and therefore are not apudomas, but from a staminal cell of the skin with neuroendocrine evolution. Merkel cell carcinomas must be distinguished from undifferentiated carcinomas of the skin, lymphomas, and oat cell carcinomas. Eight patients (46 to 86 years old) are presented, 4 males and 4 females, with 1 gluteal (the younger female patient), 3 head and 4 limb localizations of Merkel cell carcinoma. Radiotherapy was carried out after surgery in 7 patients and after biopsy in 1; local recurrences were already present in 3 cases, and lymph node metastases in 5; tumor doses were 36-65 Gy, administered with different techniques, i.e. roentgen therapy, telecobalt therapy, 192Ir curietherapy. Chemotherapy was used in 2 metastatic patients only. Four patients are alive and free of disease and 4 are dead; 3 of the living patients have been followed 3-26 months. The high risk of radiation damage (1 necrosis, 2 giant edemas, 1 severe fibrosis) recommends that large fields and high single and/or total radiation doses be avoided. In conclusion, surgery is diagnostic but not curative on account of the high risk of recurrence; radiotherapy is important because Merkel cell carcinomas are very radiosensitive. Due to easy lymphatic spread of this type of cancer, radiotherapy must include the regional lymph nodes (dose: 40-50 Gy). The role of chemotherapy is still to be assessed but many antiblastic drugs are effective. PMID:1509127

Cecchetti, E; Del Duca, M; Bardella, D; Geminiani, L


Large solar flare radiation shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions.  


As the 21st century approaches, there is an ever-increasing interest in launching manned missions to Mars. A major concern to mission planners is exposure of the flight crews to highly penetrating and damaging space radiations. Beyond the protective covering of the Earth's magnetosphere, the two main sources of these radiations are galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. Preliminary analyses of potential exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) were presented elsewhere. In this Note, estimates of shielding thicknesses required to protect astronauts on interplanetary missions from the effects of large solar flare events are presented. The calculations use integral proton fluences for the February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 solar particle events as inputs into the NASA Langley Research Center nucleon transport code BRYNTRN. This deterministic computer code transports primary protons and secondary protons and neutrons through any number of layers of target material of arbitrary thickness and composition. Contributions from target nucleus breakup (fragmentation) and recoil are also included. The results for each flare are presented as estimates of dose equivalent [in units of roentgen equivalent man (rem)] to the skin, eye, and bloodforming organs (BFO) behind various thicknesses of aluminum shielding. These results indicate that the February 1956 event was the most penetrating; however, the August 1972 event, the largest ever recorded, could have been mission- or life-threatening for thinly shielded (< or = 5 g/cm2) spacecraft. Also presented are estimates of the thicknesses of water shielding required to reduce the BFO dose equivalent to currently recommended astronaut exposure limits. These latter results suggest that organic polymers, similar to water, appear to be a much more desirable shielding material than aluminum. PMID:11537157

Townsend, L W; Nealy, J E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W



PubMed Central

In order to determine the effect of infection with influenza virus on bronchial cilia of the mouse, ciliary beat has been visualized directly by microscopic examination of the bronchi in slices of fresh lung. Cilia have been shown also in sections of fixed tissue by the use of special silver staining methods. The results have shown persistence of the cilia in spite of severe viral infection and indicate that the lowered resistance to secondary pneumococcal infection which occurs in influenzal pneumonia of the mouse is not due to interference with the ciliary mechanism. By a process of exclusion, the findings give further support to the theory that lowered resistance to pneumococcal infection in influenzal pneumonia is due to edema fluid in the viral lesion furnishing a culture medium for inhaled pneumococci. A widely used method for evaluation of ciliary activity on respiratory epithelia has been the microscopic observation of wave-like movements in reflected light. This activity was observed readily in the bronchi of mice but evidence was obtained showing that at this site it was due to something other than ciliary beat. Further histopathologic observations were made in order to define the lesion of the bronchial epithelium that would permit sparing of ciliated cells. In addition to usual techniques, mice were injected with colchicine for estimation of the rate of cellular proliferation and were exposed to a large dose of roentgen rays to eliminate polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Stains for mucous and for mitochondria were done also. The evidence obtained favors the theory that the viral infection does not destroy any of the cells of the bronchial epithelium. Inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm, making it seem likely instead that viral particles grow in colony-like aggregations and that liberation of virus into the lumen takes place not only by simple extrusion of inclusions but also by detachment of inclusion-laden globular portions of the cytoplasm.

Harford, Carl G.; Hamlin, Alice



Handling modular hip implants in model-based RSA: combined stem-head models.  


Migration measurements of hip prostheses using marker-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) require the attachment of markers to the prostheses. The model-based approach, which does not require these markers, is, however, less precise. One of the reasons may be the fact that the spherical head has not been modelled. Therefore, we added a 3D surface model of the spherical head and estimated the position and orientation of the combined stem-head model. The new method using a combined stem-head model was compared in a phantom study on five prostheses (of different types) and in a clinical study using double examinations of implanted hip prostheses, with two existing methods: a standard model-based approach and one using elementary geometrical shapes. The combined model showed the highest precision for the rotation about the longitudinal axis in the phantom experiments. With a standard deviation of 0.69 degrees it showed a significant improvement (p=0.02) over the model-based approach (0.96 degrees ) on the phantom data, but no improvement on the clinical data. Overall, the use of elementary geometrical shapes was worse with respect to the model-based approach, with a standard deviation of 1.02 degrees on the phantom data and 0.79 degrees on the clinical data. This decrease in precision was significant (p<0.01) on the clinical data. With relatively small differences in the other migration directions, these results demonstrate that the new method with a combined stem-head model can be a useful alternative to the standard model-based approach. PMID:18805532

Prins, A H; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Nelissen, R G H H; Reiber, J H C; Valstar, E R



A model-free feature-based bi-planar RSA method for kinematic analysis of total knee arthroplasty.  


Fluoroscopic imaging is commonly used for assessing relative motions of orthopaedic implants. One limiting factor to in vivo model-based roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of total knee arthroplasty is the need for 3D models of the implants.The 3D models of the implant components must be reverse-engineered, if not provided by the company, which makes this method impractical for a clinical study involving many types or sizes of implants. This study introduces a novel feature-based methodology that registers the features at the implant-bone or implant-cement interface of the components that have elementary shapes. These features include pegs with hemispherical heads, and straight, circular or curved edges located on flat faces of the box of the femoral component or the stem geometry of the tibial component. Software was developed to allow easy registration of these features through a graphical user interface. The accuracy and precision of registration for multiple flexion angles from 0 to 120 deg was determined with reference to registered poses of the implants through experiments on bone replica models and also on a cadaver specimen implanted with total knee prostheses. When compared to an equivalent bi-planar model-based registration, the results were comparable: The mean accuracy of this feature-based method was 1.45 deg and 1.03 mm (in comparison to 0.95 deg and 1.32 mm for the model-based approach), and the mean precision was 0.57 deg and 0.26 mm (in comparison to 0.42 deg and 0.44 mm for the model-based approach).The methodology and the developed software can easily accommodate different design of implants with various fixation features. This method can facilitate in vivo kinematic analysis of total knee arthroplasty by eliminating the need for 3D models of the implant components. PMID:22482689

Amiri, Shahram; Anglin, Carolyn; Agbanlog, Kenard; Masri, Bassam A; Wilson, David R



Absorbers for medical x-ray detectors with optimum spatial resolution: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for medical X-ray detectors tend towards higher spatial resolution, especially for mammography. Therefore, we have investigated common absorber materials with respect to the possible intrinsic limitations of their spatial resolution. Primary interaction of an incident X-ray quantum is followed by a series of processes: Rayleigh scattering, Compton effect, or the generation of fluorescence photons and subsequent electrons. Lateral diffusion of carriers relative to their drift towards the electrodes also broadens the point-spread function. One consequence is that the spatial resolution of the detector, expressed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), is reduced. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for spectra with tube voltages of 28-120 kV using the program ROSI (Roentgen Simulation) based on the well-established EGS4 algorithm. The lateral distribution of deposited energy has been calculated in typical materials such as Se, CdTe, HgI2, and PbI2 and used to determine the line spread function. The complex absorption process is found to determine the spatial resolution of the detector considerably. The spectrum at energies closely above the K-edge of the absorber material tends to result in a reduced MTF. At energies above 50 keV, electron energy loss increasingly reduces spatial resolution in the high frequency range. The influence of fluorescence is strongest in the 5-20 lp/mm range. If a very high spatial resolution is required, a well-adapted semiconductor should be applied.

Hoheisel, Martin; Giersch, Jurgen; Mitschke, Michaela; Bernhardt, Philipp



Modeling Atmospheric Depth Effects of the Jovian X-ray Auroras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral emissions from Jupiter have been observed across the photon spectrum including ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths. X-ray emissions with a total power of about 1 GW were observed by the Einstein Observatory, the Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies [Cravens et al. 1995, Kharchenko et al. 1998, Liu and Schultz 1999, Kharchenko et al. 2006, 2008, Hui et al. 2009 and Ozak et al. 2009] have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. Sulfur and oxygen ions in the outer magnetosphere are presumably accelerated by field-aligned potentials up to energies of about 1 MeV per nucleon, before they precipitate into the high latitude atmosphere [Cravens et al. 2003]. Most of the incident ions are stripped from their electrons in collisions with atmospheric neutrals and subsequent charge-transfer collisions of highly-charged ions emit X-ray photons as they de-excite to the ground state. This study presents the results of an ion precipitation Monte Carlo simulation, where X-ray luminosities are determined and atmospheric altitude effects as well as incident angle dependence are considered. Updated cross sections for ionization, charge transfer and stripping collisions are used in the model, as well as an empirical stopping power. The results of this simulation will be compared to the equilibrium charge model presented by Ozak et al. [2009], which found opacity of the atmosphere for the outgoing X-ray photons to be important for the simulated spectrum for incident ion energies greater than a 2 MeV per nucleon. The quenching of long-living metastable oxygen and sulfur ions and their effect for the spectrum will also be analyzed.

Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David; Cravens, Thomas; Kharchenko, Vasili; Hui, Yawei; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella



Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the skin of the face and neck  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 300,000 new cases of carcinomas of the skin are diagnosed each year in the Unied States. The great majority of these lesions are on the skin of the face and neck. The proximity of these neoplasms to important structures such as the eyes, nose, and ears has prompted this discussion of the role of radiation therapy in their management. Most carcinomas of the skin of the nose and eyelids are basal cell carcinomas, while most tumors arising on the pinna are squamous cell carcinomas. Despite the fact that cutaneous carcinomas of the face and neck are essentially totally curable, hundreds of patients in the United States annually die or become horribly disfigured through neglect or improper treatment. Radiotherapy of cutaneous carcinomas can be rewarding when the proper care and expertise are applied. The radiation therapist is afforded an unusual opportunity to deal with a highly curable malignant neoplasm, but at the same time he can model his means to obtain the best aesthetic results. Many carcinomas of the skin are expeditiously and effectively cured by simple excision, but others, regardless of size, may be treated best by radiotherapy because of better aesthetic results. The use of acids, caustics, or electrocoagulation offers no particular advantage and is seldom as satisfactory as a clean excision. The surgical procedure often may be an excisional biopsy, which offers the opportunity of adequate histopathologic study of the specimen. Various modalities of radiation therapy may be successfully utilized, but none has the elasticity and definite advantage of relatively low kilovoltage roentgen therapy.

Chahbazian, C.M.; Brown, G.S.



Videometric analysis of regional left ventricular function before and after aortocoronary artery bypass surgery: correlation of peak rate of myocardial wall thickening with late postoperative graft flows.  

PubMed Central

The peak rate of systolic wall thickening (pdTw/dt) in regions of the left ventricle was determined by biplane roentgen videometry in 60 patients before and a median of 14 mo after aorto-coronary bypass graft surgery. The left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, and end-diastolic volume and pressure did not change significantly after surgery in the presence of patent or occluded grafts (P greater than 0.05). Statistically significant increases occurred in the peak rate of systolic wall thickening regions supplied by patent bypass grafts, and significant decreases occurred in regions with occluded grafts (P less than 0.01). Of 42 preoperatively hypokinetic regions (pdTw/dt greater than 0 less than 5.0 cm/s) supplied by a patent graft, 30 improved by an average of 2.6 cm/s after operation; 18 returned to normal. Failure of 24 hypokinetic regions to improve to normal was associated with myocardial infarction in 11 or with late postoperative graft blood flows of less than 60 ml/min measured by videodensitometry, in 10. All seven preoperatively akinetic (pdTw/dt=0) or dyskinetic (pdTw/dt less than 0) regions did not improve after the operation despite the fact that, in five of the seven, coronary bypass flows were over 60 ml/min. All eight preoperatively hypokinetic regions supplied by coronary artery graft flows of less than or equal 40 ml/min failed to improve to normal after operation. All nine preoperatively hypokinetic regions supplied by coronary artery graft flows of over 60 ml/min improved to normal after surgery. Late postoperative coronary artery bypass graft flows, the functional status of the myocardium, the status and distribution of the native coronary circulation, and decreased regional function elsewhere in the ventricle must all be considered when regional left ventricular function is interpreted.

Chesebro, J H; Ritman, E L; Frye, R L; Smith, H C; Connolly, D C; Rutherford, B D; Davis, G D; Danielson, G K; Pluth, J R; Barnhorst, D A; Wallace, R B



The development of the ?ROSI X-ray telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?ROSI (Micro Roentgen Satellite Instrument) miniature X-ray telescope is the first X-ray telescope specifically designed for an amateur micro satellite. Its mission is to perform an all-sky survey in the soft X-ray band on board the Italian satellite Max-Valier. Due to the limitations imposed by the small size of the spacecraft, the instrument features a silicon drift detector (SDD) with very low power consumption and a focusing optics that consists of 12 nested mirror shells. With a field of view of 1°, ?ROSI will perform an all-sky survey flying in sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). As a secondary mission objective, the telescope will observe the Earth's upper atmosphere during the all-sky survey, potentially detecting the O2 absorption line. This paper describes the overall telescope design and gives an overview of the key components of the telescope: the mirror subsystem and the detector subsystem. All subsystems have been tested with flight-like engineering models. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. The silicon drift detector (SDD) of the ?ROSI telescope has been tested with a breadboard electronics and the engineering model of the electronics is currently being manufactured. The breadboard test proved that the SDD together with the specifically developed electronics is capable of measuring high resolution spectra in the soft X-ray bandwidth. One demonstrator mirror shell has been produced and tested in the PANTER X-ray test facility to verify the X-ray properties. The measurements suggest that the final ?ROSI mirror system fulfills all requirements for conducting its mission successfully.

Tiedemann, Lars; Breunig, Elias; Burwitz, Vadim; Fürmetz, Maria; Hartner, Gisela; Kink, Walter; Menz, Benedikt; Predehl, Peter; Röser, Hans-Peter; Schlecker, Martin; Valsecchi, Giuseppe



Validation of the in vivo volumetric wear measurement for total knee prostheses in model-based RSA.  


Implant failure related to polyethylene wear remains an important issue in total knee arthroplasty. Polyethylene wear is usually assessed in vivo by measuring the remaining insert thickness on X-ray images of the knee. To reflect the amount of wear debris more accurately, a 3-dimensional overlap measurement has been suggested, which is based on implant component models which are matched on calibrated stereo X-ray images using model-based roentgen stereophotogrammatic analysis. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of pose estimation, insert thickness deviation and variation in the femoral-tibial contact location on the accuracy and precision of the measurement using simulations and a phantom experiment. We found that the pose estimation was the largest source of variation. The 95% prediction interval varied between 111 and 283 mm(3), which is approximately 100-200% of the detected volumetric wear. Insert thickness variation resulted in prediction intervals of 74-174 mm(3). Variation of the femoral-tibial contact location in the phantom experiment gave a prediction interval of 40 mm(3). Large differences in the detected wear volume were found for different flexion angles. At most 56% of the true wear volume was detected (129 of 230 mm(3), 30° of flexion). In summary, both the accuracy and precision of the volumetric wear measurement were low. The prediction interval of the volumetric wear measurement is at least as large as the measurement outcome itself. This is an important limitation to the applicability of the volumetric wear measurement in clinical practice and further clinical validation is required. PMID:23540721

van Ijsseldijk, E A; Lebel, B; Stoel, B C; Valstar, E R; Gouzy, S; Vielpeau, C; Kaptein, B L



AGN and QSOs in the eROSITA All-Sky Survey. II. The large-scale structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four-year X-ray all-sky survey (eRASS) of the eROSITA telescope aboard the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite will detect about 3 million active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of z ? 1 and a typical luminosity of L0.5-2.0 keV ~ 1044 ergs-1. We show that this unprecedented AGN sample, complemented with redshift information, will supply us with outstanding opportunities for large-scale structure research. For the first time, detailed redshift- and luminosity-resolved studies of the bias factor for X-ray selected AGN will become possible. The eRASS AGN sample will not only improve the redshift- and luminosity resolution of these studies, but will also expand their luminosity range beyond L0.5-2.0 keV ~ 1044 ergs-1, thus enabling a direct comparison of the clustering properties of luminous X-ray AGN and optical quasars. These studies will dramatically improve our understanding of the AGN environment, triggering mechanisms, the growth of supermassive black holes and their co-evolution with dark matter halos. The eRASS AGN sample will become a powerful cosmological probe. It will enable detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) for the first time with X-ray selected AGN. With the data from the entire extragalactic sky, BAO will be detected at a ?10? confidence level in the full redshift range and with ~8? confidence in the 0.8 < z < 2.0 range, which is currently not covered by any existing BAO surveys. To exploit the full potential of the eRASS AGN sample, photometric and spectroscopic surveys of large areas and a sufficient depth will be needed.

Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid



Design and performance of the eROSITA focal plane instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and tested X-ray PNCCD focal plane detectors for the eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) space telescope. General scientific goal of the eROSITA project is the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from about 0.2 keV up to 10 keV with excellent energy, time, and spatial resolution in combination with large effective telescope areas. The observational program divides into an all-sky survey and pointed observations. The mission duration is scheduled for 7.5 years. The German instrument will be launched in near future to the Lagrange point L2 on the Russian satellite SRG. The detection of single X-ray photons with precise information about their energy, angle of incidence and time is accomplished for eROSITA by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 ?m thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. This chip is a further development of the sensor type that is in operation as focal plane detector on the XMMNewton satellite since launch in 1999 to date. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed by the MPI Halbleiterlabor, as already in the past for the XMM-Newton project. According to the status of the project, a complete design of the seven flight cameras including the camera electronics and the filter wheel has been developed. Various functional and performance tests have been accomplished for a detailed characterization of the eROSITA camera system. We focus here especially on the focal plane detector design and the performance of the detectors, which are essential for the success of the X-ray astronomy space project.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Aschauer, Florian; Elbs, Johannes; Eraerds, Tanja; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Mießner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Strüder, Lothar; von Kienlin, Andreas; Walther, Sabine



The History and Role of Accelerators in Radiation Oncology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over one million people are diagnosed with cancer (excluding skin cancer) each year in the United States - about half of those patients will receive radiation as part of their treatment. Radiation Oncology is the field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of cancer with radiation. The evolution of Radiation Oncology, and its success as a cancer treatment modality, has generally paralleled developments in imaging and accelerator technologies. Accelerators, the topic of this paper, have proven to be highly reliable, safe and efficient sources of radiation for cancer treatment. Advances in accelerator technology, especially those that have provided higher energies and dose rates, and more localized (to the tumor volume) dose distributions, have enabled significant improvements in the outcomes of cancer treatments. The use of Cobalt 60 beams has greatly declined in the past decade. Radiation beams used in cancer treatment include x-rays, electrons, protons, negative pions, neutrons, and ions of helium, carbon, neon and silicon. X-rays and electrons, produced by linear electron accelerators, have been the most widely used. The history of medical accelerators can be traced from Roentgen's discovery of x-rays in 1895. The evolution of medical electron accelerators will be discussed and the use of x-ray tubes, electrostatic accelerators, betatrons, and linear accelerators will be described. Heavy particle cancer treatments began in 1955 using proton beams from the Berkeley 184-inch cyclotron. Accelerators that have been used for heavy particle therapy include the Berkeley Bevalac, Los Alamos Pion Facility, Fermi Laboratory, and various research and medical cyclotrons and synchrotrons. Heavy particle accelerators and their application for cancer treatment will be discussed.

Smith, Alfred



Spin-off from particle detectors in the field of medicine and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 physicists have played a major role in the development of medical imaging instrumentation. More recently, the technological developments in several areas of applied physics, the new generation of particle physics detectors and the development of an information-based society all combine to enhance the performance of presently available imaging devices. This paper describes the critical parameters of modern medical imaging in the context of the spectacular development of in-vivo molecular imaging, which will soon allow to bridge post-genomics research activities with new diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for major diseases. In particular, the molecular profiling of tumors and gene expression open the way to tailored therapies and therapeutic monitoring of major diseases like cancer, degenerative and genetic disorders. Moreover, the repeatability of non-invasive approaches allows an evaluation of drug targeting and pharmacokinetics studies on small animals, as well as a precise screening and treatment follow-up of patients. The technical requirements on imaging devices are very challenging but are rather similar in many respects to the ones of modern particle detectors on high-luminosity accelerators. Examples will be given of active technology transfer areas from high-energy physics detectors, which can significantly improve the performance of future medical imaging devices. Special emphasis will be put on the need for a globalization of technology research and development as modern instrumentation in a vast range of applications has similar requirements and spin-off should be more and more understood as cross-fertilization between different disciplines.

Lecoq, P.



Phase Contrast Imaging  

SciTech Connect

All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1,000-10,000 in the energy range suitable for medical imaging) phase based imaging techniques are inherently extremely sensitive.

Menk, Ralf Hendrik [Sincrotrone Trieste and INFN Trieste (Italy)




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) will be one out of three main instruments on the Russian new Spectrum-RG mission which will be launched in the timeframe 2010-2011 into an equatorial Low Earth Orbit. The other two instruments are the wide field X-ray monitor Lobster (Leicester University, UK) and ART (IKI, Russia), an X-ray concentrator based on a Kumakhov optics. eROSITA consists of seven Wolter-I telescope modules similar to the German mission ABRIXAS which failed in 1999 and ROSITA, a telescope which was planned to be installed on the International Space Station ISS. Unlike these, the eROSITA telescope modules will be extended by adding another 27 mirror shells to the already existing ABRIXAS design. This will increase the effective area by a factor of ~5 at low energies. The additional shells do not contribute to the area at higher energies ( > 5 keV) due to the relative large grazing angles. Here we stay with the old ABRIXAS/ROSITA effective area. However, the primary scientific goal has changed since ABRIXAS: we are now aiming primarily for the detection of 50-100 thousands Clusters of Galaxies up to redshifts z > 1 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including the Dark Energy, which was not yet known at ABRIXAS times. For the detection of clusters, a large effective area is needed at low (< 2 kev) energies. The mission scenario comprises a wide survey of the complete extragalactic area and a deep survey in the neighborhood of the Galactic Poles. Both are accomplished by an all-sky survey with a tilt of the rotation axis in order to shift the deepest exposures away from the ecliptic poles towards the galactic poles.

Predehl, P.; Hasinger, G.; Böhringer, H.; Briel, U.; Brunner, H.; Churazov, E.; Freyberg, M.; Friedrich, P.; Kendziorra, E.; Lutz, D.; Meidinger, N.; Pavlinsky, M.; Pfeffermann, E.; Santangelo, A.; Schmitt, J.; Schuecker, P.; Schwope, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Strüder, L.; Sunyaev, R.; Wilms, J.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) will be one of three main instruments on the Russian new Spectrum-RG mission which is planned to be launched in 2011. The other two instruments are the wide field X-ray monitor Lobster (Leicester University, UK) and ART-XC (IKI, Russia), an X-ray telescope working at higher energies up to 30 keV. A fourth instrument, a micro-calorimeter built by a Dutch-Japanese-US collaboration is also in discussion. eROSITA is aiming primarily for the detection of 50-100 thousands Clusters of Galaxies up to redshifts z > 1 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and to test cosmological models including the Dark Energy. For the detection of clusters, a large effective area is needed at low energies (< 2 keV). Therefore, eROSITA consists of seven Wolter-I telescope modules. Each mirror module contains 54 Wolter-I shells with an outer diameter of 360 mm. In the focus of each mirror module, a framestore pn-CCD with a size of 3cm × 3cm provides a field of view of 1° in diameter. The mission scenario comprises a wide survey of the complete extragalactic area and a deep survey in the neighborhood of the galactic poles. Both are accomplished by an all-sky survey with an appropriate orientation of the rotation axis of the satellite in order to achieve the deepest exposures in the neighborhood of the galactic poles. A critical issue is the cooling of the cameras which need a working temperature of -80°C. This will be achieved passively by a system of two radiators connected to the cameras by variable conductance heat pipes.

Predehl, P.; Andritschke, R.; Bornemann, W.; Bräuninger, H.; Briel, U.; Brunner, H.; Burkert, W.; Dennerl, K.; Eder, J.; Freyberg, M.; Friedrich, P.; Fürmetz, M.; Hartmann, R.; Hartner, G.; Hasinger, G.; Herrmann, S.; Holl, P.; Huber, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Kink, W.; Meidinger, N.; Müller, S.; Pavlinsky, M.; Pfeffermann, E.; Rohé, C.; Santangelo, A.; Schmitt, J.; Schwope, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Strüder, L.; Sunyaev, R.; Tiedemann, L.; Vongehr, M.; Wilms, J.; Erhard, M.; Gutruf, S.; Jugler, D.; Kampf, D.; Graue, R.; Citterio, O.; Valsecci, G.; Vernani, D.; Zimmerman, M.



Spectrum-RG/eROSITA/Lobster astrophysical mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A medium size satellite will be launched in the 2010-2011 timeframe into a 600 km equatorial (less than or equal to 5 deg.) orbit from Kourou or into a less than or equal to 30 deg. orbit from Baikonur as a fallback option. The payload includes eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array, MPE, Germany) with 7 Wolter-type telescopes, the wide field X-ray monitor Lobster (LU, UK), the X-ray concentrator based on Kumakhov optics ART or coded-mask X-ray telescopes as a fallbac