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1

Konrad Bajer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These Proceedings are dedicated to our co-editor Konrad Bajer, who carried the lion's share of the work involved until his sudden and untimely death from cancer on 29th August 2014. Konrad was one of the key Organisers of the program "Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences" held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from July to December 2012. During that time, he was on leave from the University of Warsaw, and held a Visiting Fellow Commonership at Trinity College, Cambridge. He had particular responsibility for the satellite workshop Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, held at ICMS, Edinburgh, in October 2012. Konrad graduated in Physics from the University of Warsaw in 1980, and took his PhD in Fluid Dynamics at DAMTP, Cambridge, 1984-89. He was active in EUROMECH, having been a principal organiser of the European Turbulence Conference (ETC13) in Warsaw 2011, and the meeting Turbulence: the Historical Perspective that followed it. He has been equally active in IUTAM; his distinction was recognised by his very recent election to the Congress Committee of IUTAM. Konrad's research interests were in magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics in classical and quantum systems; also in problems of gasifcation, in which he played a coordinating role at the University of Warsaw. He impressed all with his exceptionally warm and friendly personality, and will be greatly missed in the whole scientifc community.

2014-10-01

2

Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

1975-01-01

3

Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Konrad Walus  

E-print Network

Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) Konrad Walus UBC Electrical and Computer Engineering #12;QCA full advantage of molecular scales Where is the benefit of small? #12;Fabricated QCA Devices "dot" = metal island electrometers 70-300 mK Al/AlOx on SiO2 Metal-dot QCA implementation #12;QCA · Nonlinear

Plotkin, Steven S.

4

Roentgen term makes dipole approximation more divergent  

E-print Network

The Roentgen correction to the dipole interaction term leads to an additional divergency which can be eliminated for infinitely heavy atoms. For M < infinity a probability of emission in a given direction is represented by a divergent integral.

M. Czachor; K. Rzazewski

1995-02-08

5

Roentgen's Discovery of the x-ray  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The text in this site describes how Roentgen's discovered x-rays, how he created the first x-ray image, and how he investigated x-ray properties. Early medical applications are explained. Also, the site contains a link to a small gallery of historical x-ray images.

2013-06-26

6

KONRAD: Wide band digital HF receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic support measures (ESM) and spread spectrum techniques, i.e. direct sequence (DS) or frequency hopping (FH), in the HF band require a high dynamic range as well as a large instantaneous bandwidth in the receiver. This report describes an experimental digital receiver utilizing digitally implemented quadrature splitting and baseband translation. It is shown that the use of digital quadrature splitting improves the image rejection and that oversampling and digital filtering improves the dynamic range. The receiver is built of standard components which give a beneficial cost/performance ratio. The focus is on the analog hardware of the experimental digital receiver named KONRAD. The report also serves as the manual for this receiver.

Oscarsson, F.

1994-01-01

7

License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository  

SciTech Connect

Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben repository (1971-1998) in Germany as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the USA (1999 to present). Recently, the licensing procedure for the fourth such facility, the German Konrad repository, ended with a positive ''Planfeststellung'' (plan approval). With its plan approval decision, the licensing authority, the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Lower Saxony, approved the single license needed pursuant to German law to construct, operate, and later close down this facility.

Biurrun, E.; Hartje, B.

2003-02-24

8

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. —  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. — TOXICITÃ? AIGUÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A CHEZ LE RAT aiguë de l'ochratoxine A est mesurée chez le Rat et la Souris adultes par les voies orale, intraveineuse importante transformation en ochratoxine ce. Par contre, on enregistre les pertes de poids les plus sensibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Dietrich Burde Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn (1992)  

E-print Network

Wilhelm Leibniz Académie royale des sciences de Paris (1676) Nicolas Malebranche (1672) Jacob Bernoulli Breslau / Universität Helmstedt (1582) Cornelius Martini Universität Helmstedt (1592) Gilbert Jacchaeus

Burde, Dietrich

10

Wilhelm Weinberg's Early Contribution to Segregation Analysis  

PubMed Central

Wilhelm Weinberg (1862–1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy–Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg’s signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel’s segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861–1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=14. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878–1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg’s article. PMID:24018765

Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

2013-01-01

11

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Health Disparities Research CRCHD Research Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research

12

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. Home Disparities Research Programs CRCHD Ongoing Research PACHE PACHE Partnership Listing Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, M.D., Ph.D. CRCHD Research

13

The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034  

SciTech Connect

Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

Kunze, V. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Postfach 10 01 49, 38201 Salzgitter (Germany)] [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Postfach 10 01 49, 38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2013-07-01

14

The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

Blamires, David

2002-01-01

15

Goethe’s Educational Theories in Wilhelm Meister  

E-print Network

poetry - - - - - - - - - - - - 48 Plastic arts - - - - - - - - - - - - 4^ The Genius - - - - - - - - - - - - - 50 Public decorations - - - - - - - - - - - 5(D Epic poetry - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 Mining - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 53... from the exacting rule of the order. We do not follow Wilhelm into his new work, but we find from what he later relates that he spent sometime at a medical school in learning surgery which is his chosen handicraft. He is not a physcian merely...

Clarke, Ethel Ermine

1912-06-01

16

Melatonin and roentgen irradiation-induced acute radiation enteritis in Albino rats: An animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRoentgen irradiation can affect normal cells, especially the rapidly growing ones such as the mucosal epithelial cells of the small intestine. The small intestine is the most radiosensitive gastrointestinal organ and patients receiving radiotherapy directed to the abdomen or pelvis may develop radiation enteritis. Although roentgen rays are widely used for both imaging and therapeutic purposes, our knowledge about the

Mahmoud R. Hussein; Eman E. Abu-Dief; Esam Kamel; Amal T. Abou El-Ghait; Saad Rezk Abdulwahed; Mohamed H. Ahmad

2008-01-01

17

Genetically Significant Dose to the Population of Turkey from Roentgen Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years attentions has been focussed on the genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation. Studies in various countries indicated that at present medical uses of roentgen rays, and especially diagnostic radiology, are responsible for the major...

G. Yulek

1980-01-01

18

AUTOGENOUS RECOVERY OF MARROW FUNCTION. Recovery After General Exposure to 1082 Roentgens of Co⁶° Radiation at 36 Roentgens Per Hour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of an infant with acute leukemia following a tissue dose of 864 ; r of whole-body irradiation, midline air dose 1082 roentgens (36 r per hr), is ; described. The patient was kept in good clinical condition by isolation, ; supportive therapy, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions. Multiple infusions ; of fetal hematopoietic tissue and one infusion of adult

E. D. Thomas; E. C. Herman; J. H. Cannon; O. D. Sahler; J. W. Ferrebee; H. E. M. Kay; M. Constantoulakis

1961-01-01

19

Local rheological probes for complex fluids: Application to Laponite suspensions C. Wilhelm,1,2  

E-print Network

Local rheological probes for complex fluids: Application to Laponite suspensions C. Wilhelm,1,2 F the experimental methodol- ogy. We then use the local probes to investigate a Laponite colloidal suspension, which

Weeks, Eric R.

20

The X-ray Shoe Fitter - An Early Application of Roentgen's `New Kind of Ray'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides some history of Roentgen's famous discovery of x-rays, a technical review of radiation exposure units, and a history and overview of the risk associated from using or being near one of the earliest of x-ray applications, the x-ray shoe fitter.

Lapp, David R.

2004-09-01

21

Stranded in Vienna: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) (German Title: Gestrandet in Wien: Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Ebert, born 1871 in Leipzig, did study astronomy for a short time in Geneva and afterwards in Munich where he finished his PhD. He spent most of his scientific life in France, working on problems of latitude determination and celestial mechanics, mostly at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. He was member of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Probably he used some of the regular meetings of the AG to introduce his work to German astronomers - for a rather short time he worked at the observatories of Kiel, Straßburg and Greifswald. In Greifswald he qualified for giving university lectures and he started to collect astronomical instruments to establish an observatory. M. Loewy, at that time director of Paris observatory, asked him to come back to France, first he had a position at Nice Observatory and shortly afterwards in Paris again. In 1909 he decided to live in Vienna, once more he applied for the qualification of giving university lectures; this time the procedure was easy going. He announced quite a lot of courses but nobody knows if they really took place. From February 1915 until his death in November 1916 he stayed in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna suffering from a disease which was uncurable at that time. His wife tried to get some information about his death in 1937. Already at that time he was unknown to the members of Vienna Observatory.

Schnell, Anneliese

2011-08-01

22

APS News Online: This Month in Physics History â November 8, 1895: Roentgen's Discovery of X-rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the American Physical Societyâs APS News Online provides an explanation of the discovery of X-rays and the revolutionary impact it has had on physics and astronomy. Roentgen's scientific career is described along with the announcement of his discovery and the applications of X-rays for diagnosis and therapy that followed. Also included is the famous first X-ray photograph from Roentgen's experiments of his wife's hand.

2007-02-15

23

Security in TINA S. Staamann 1 L. Butty'an 2 U. Wilhelm 1  

E-print Network

Security in TINA S. Staamann 1 L. Butty'an 2 U. Wilhelm 1 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and information era. Its characteristics most relevant for security are a variety of services, a multitude and provision, and the assumption of advanced costumer premises equipment. Concepts for its security

Bencsáth, Boldizsár

24

Some Thoughts on Migration Intelligence for Mobile Agents Christian Erfurth; Peter Braun; Wilhelm Rossak  

E-print Network

and the complete execution state with it. We can define three aspects of the migration pro- cessSome Thoughts on Migration Intelligence for Mobile Agents Christian Erfurth; Peter Braun; Wilhelm move "fast enough" through the network. Can "migration intelligence" help to solve these problems? 1

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

25

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM TOXICIT DE L'OCHRATOXINE A  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM IV. - TOXICITÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A PAR ADMINISTRATION ORALEILHEI,M TOXINS. IV. - TOXICITY IN RAT BY PROLONGED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF OCHRATOXIN A Adult male and female rats are given oral doses of 0.25 to 8 mg/kg of ochratoxin A daily for 10 days. This study confirms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>prologueThe equilibrium model of G.N. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg showed that sterilization of affected individuals themselves would never appreciably reduce the incidence of mental disorders, which were thought to be inherited in a recessive manner. Only a hideously massive program ÃÂ sterilizing or segregating the vast reservoir of heterozygous carriers predicted by the model ÃÂ would have any hope of reducing the incidence of mental illness.

2008-10-06

27

Science deified: Wilhelm Osstwald's energeticist world-view and the history of scientism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life and work of the German chemist and philosopher Wilhelm Ostwald (1853–1932) is studied from the angle of scientism. In Ostwald's case scientism amounted to: (i) the construction of a unified science of nature (energetics); (ii) its use as the ‘scientific’ basis for an all-embracing philosophy or world-view (energeticism); (iii) the programme to realize this philosophy in practice, as

C. Hakfoort

1992-01-01

28

A biplane roentgen videometry system for dynamic /60 per second/ studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A roentgen-television digital-computer technique and a display system developed for dynamic circulatory structure studies are described. Details are given for a videoroentgenographic setup which is used for obtaining biplane roentgen silhouettes of a left ventricle. A 60 per sec measurement of the shape and volume of angiographically outlined cardiac chambers can be made by this technique along with simultaneous ECG, pressure, and flow measurements accessible for real-time digital computer processing and analysis.

Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, E.; Wood, E. H.; Heintzen, P. H.

1971-01-01

29

CodeBlue: Wireless Sensor Networks for Medical Care Victor Shnayder, Konrad Lorincz, Borrong Chen, Thaddeus R. F. FulfordJones, Mervin John, and Matt Welsh  

E-print Network

electrocardiograph (EKG) based on Telos mote Specialpurpose motion analysis sensor board with accelerometerCodeBlue: Wireless Sensor Networks for Medical Care Victor Shnayder, Konrad Lorincz, Borrong Chen: Measures blood oxygen saturation and heart rate with a noninvasive finger sensor Twolead

Chen, Yiling

30

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the Astronomical Roengen Telescope- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission. ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module provides an effective area of 65 sq cm at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Pavlinskiy, Mikhail N.; Tkachenko, Alexey V.; Lapshov, Igor Y.

2013-01-01

31

Histrionicotoxins: Roentgen-Ray Analysis of the Novel Allenic and Acetylenic Spiroalkaloids Isolated from a Colombian Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus  

PubMed Central

The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs. Images PMID:5288773

Daly, John W.; Karle, Isabella; Myers, Charles W.; Tokuyama, Takashi; Waters, James A.; Witkop, Bernhard

1971-01-01

32

Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Wundt (1832 1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures, to better understand the role of introspection and the complexity of the metronome task for experimenters and observers. The results of the replication were mixed, but the replication helped provide insights into Wundt’s procedures and their relationship to his theories.

Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

2008-05-01

33

The Marshall Space Flight Center Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Ins1rument Aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-German X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned and complementary X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Russian-led Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV (with limited sensitivity above 12 keV).

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2012-01-01

34

Computer processing of text and image: EDYRO PRESS PUBLISHER EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Wilhelm W. KECS, University of Petr~ni, Romania  

E-print Network

Computer processing of text and image: EDYRO PRESS PUBLISHER EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Wilhelm W. KECS Infra-Infra and the concavity opposite -Trigonometry-Trigonometry O:5k=l (QT) 1.(QT) 1. "para-trigonometric mirrors") Trans- Rhombuses with curved Extra -Trigonometry sides

Baica, Malvina

35

Development of mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

2013-09-01

36

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen Gamma Mission. Four of those modules are being fabricated under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) An additional three flight modules and one spare for the ART-XC Instrument are produced under a Cooperative Agreement between NASA and IKI. The instrument will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Each module consists of 28 nested thin Ni/Co shells giving an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. Delivery of the first four modules is scheduled for November 2013, while the remaining three modules will be delivered to IKI in January 2014. We present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.; Atkins, C.; Zavlin, V.

2013-01-01

37

"A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

Schwemin, Friedhelm

38

James Watson at the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torch In the late 1920s, eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ÃÂ with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg.

2008-10-06

39

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and plaque, still image with detailSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torch Eugenics was gathering steam in Germany ÃÂ with help from America. In 1927, the Rockefeller Foundation provided funds for the constructon of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics in Berlin. The director, appropriately named Eugen Fischer, collaborated with Charles Davenport in the management of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations. On the occasion of the International Eugenics Congress in Rome, in 1929, they drafted a memo to Mussolini encouraging him to move ahead on eugenics with "maximum speed." In 1936, Harry Laughlin's contributions to race hygiene in Germany were recognized with an honorary degree from the University of Heidelberg.

2008-10-06

40

Human Genetics and Politics as Mutually Beneficial Resources: The Case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics During the Third Reich  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes one of Germany’s former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute\\u000a for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served\\u000a as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering

Sheila Faith Weiss

2006-01-01

41

ROENTGEN RAY INTOXICATION  

PubMed Central

These experiments show that the common laboratory animals are about equally sensitive to the x-ray given over the abdomen. The clinical reaction following a M.L.D. is very similar and the intestinal pathology almost identical. The rat and guinea pig are slightly more sensitive to the x-ray than are the dog, cat, and rabbit. By contrast birds, frogs, and reptiles are very resistant to the x-ray and may tolerate two or three doses of radiation lethal for dogs. We can offer no convincing explanation for this fact which is discussed above. These data strengthen our belief in the scattered and incomplete observations on human cases which indicate that the human intestinal tract is likewise sensitive to radiation. This fact must be given careful consideration in conditions where abdominal or pelvic radiation is being used because such injury done to intestinal epithelium is always serious and in some cases irreparable. PMID:19868825

Warren, S. L.; Whipple, G. H.

1923-01-01

42

Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Objectives of NASA's participation in the ROSAT mission are to: a) measure the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of discrete cosmic sources including normal stars, collapsed stellar objects, and active galactic nuclei; b) perform spectroscopic mapping of extended X-ray sources including supernova remnants, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies; and c) conduct the above observations of cosmic sources with unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution over the 0.1 - 2.0 keV energy band.

1990-01-01

43

Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As result of the Challenger accident, the alternative possibility for launch of the ROSAT mission with an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is being considered. An overview of the problems involved in having the ROSAT flight ready for either a Shuttle or Atlas/Centaur launch is presented.

1986-01-01

44

Biplane roentgen videometric system for dynamic, 60/sec, studies of the shape and size of circulatory structures, particularly the left ventricle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An operator interactive video system for the measurement of roentgen angiographically outlined structures is described. Left ventricular volume and three-dimensional shapes are calculated from up to 200 pairs of diameters measured from ventriculograms at the rate of 60 pairs of biplane images per second. The accuracy and reproducibility of volumes calculated by the system were established by analysis of roentgenograms of inanimate objects of known volume and by comparison of left ventricular stroke volumes calculated by the system with the stroke volumes calculated by an indicator-dilution technique and an aortic root electromagnetic flowmeter. Computer-generated display of the large amounts of data obtained by the videometry system is described.

Ritman, E. L.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood, E. H.

1973-01-01

45

Predicting 3D pose in partially overlapped X-ray images of knee prostheses using model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).  

PubMed

After total knee replacement, the model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) technique has been used to monitor the status of prosthetic wear, misalignment, and even failure. However, the overlap of the prosthetic outlines inevitably increases errors in the estimation of prosthetic poses due to the limited amount of available outlines. In the literature, quite a few studies have investigated the problems induced by the overlapped outlines, and manual adjustment is still the mainstream. This study proposes two methods to automate the image processing of overlapped outlines prior to the pose registration of prosthetic models. The outline-separated method defines the intersected points and segments the overlapped outlines. The feature-recognized method uses the point and line features of the remaining outlines to initiate registration. Overlap percentage is defined as the ratio of overlapped to non-overlapped outlines. The simulated images with five overlapping percentages are used to evaluate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed methods. Compared with non-overlapped images, overlapped images reduce the number of outlines available for model-based RSA calculation. The maximum and root mean square errors for a prosthetic outline are 0.35 and 0.04 mm, respectively. The mean translation and rotation errors are 0.11 mm and 0.18°, respectively. The errors of the model-based RSA results are increased when the overlap percentage is beyond about 9 %. In conclusion, both outline-separated and feature-recognized methods can be seamlessly integrated to automate the calculation of rough registration. This can significantly increase the clinical practicability of the model-based RSA technique. PMID:25293422

Hsu, Chi-Pin; Lin, Shang-Chih; Shih, Kao-Shang; Huang, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chian-Her

2014-12-01

46

A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.  

PubMed

Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

Jones, Cynthia G

2005-06-01

47

A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.  

PubMed

Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

Jones, Cynthia Gillian

2005-02-01

48

[The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].  

PubMed

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

Gierl, Martin

2010-01-01

49

Wer war Heinrich Wilhelm Dove? [Who was Heinrich Wilhelm Dove?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heinrich W. Dove was born in Liegnitz (Legnica) in 1803 and died in 1879 in Berlin. In the early 1820s, he studied in Breslau (Wroclaw) and Berlin. He also studied with the famous philosopher G. W. F. Hegel. In 1845, Dove became full professor of physics in Berlin. Dove was one of the founders of meteorology and weather forecast. The present article presents a summary of his life and his works.

Posch, Thomas

2005-09-01

50

A reappraisal of Wilhelm Wundt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reexamines the psychology of Wundt on the occasion of the centenary of his influence in founding experimental psychology. Historical accounts of Wundt that arose in the early 20th century are considered as heavily in error, particularly concerning the issues of mind-body dualism, elementalism, and associationism. The central theme in Wundt's psychology is selective volitional attention. Modern cognitive psychology and research

Arthur L. Blumenthal

1975-01-01

51

Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn  

E-print Network

Convolutional Neural Networks and SPNs for image classification. To this end, we proposed a SPN implementation.66% and 46.71% respectively. #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Basics 3 2.1 Convolutional Neural Networks Discriminative Convolutional Sum-Product Networks on GPU Author: Tobias Hartmann First Examiner: Prof. Dr. Sven

Eckmiller, Rolf

52

Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fr Informationstechnik Berlin  

E-print Network

computer models of individual anatomy 3D geometry models of human anatomy are becoming increasingly of individual anatomy from medical image data: Segmentation and geometry processing #12;Prepared for submission reconstruction of individual anatomy from medical image data: Segmentation and geometry processing Stefan Zachow

Andrzejak, Artur

53

GlaeserPolthier Georg Glaeser Konrad Polthier  

E-print Network

is the projective plane? What does four-dimensional space look like? Can soap bubbles exist that are not spherical and Limits · Curves and Knots · Geometry and Topology of Surfaces · Minimal Surfaces and Soap Bubbles

Stachel, Hellmuth

54

JavaServer Pages Konrad Kurdej  

E-print Network

i modyfikacj projektu #12;MVC - koszmar poprzedniego roku powraca :) Poraz pierwszy opisal wzorzec odmian z poczatków lat 90.. W listopadzie 2002 W3C uznalo struktur MVC za cz ich architektury XForms dla si MVC na czci odpowiedzialne za: model danych interfejs uytkownika logik sterowania #12;#12;Model 2

Wojna, Arkadiusz

55

The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner  

PubMed Central

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

2010-01-01

56

Various Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) related studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first six months was spent obtaining ROSAT Survey data for as many Slew Survey sources as possible. ROSAT Survey (RASS) counterparts for 605 of the 819 Slew sources (or 75 percent). were found at MPE, providing RASS positions, fluxes, and hardness ratios. The positions were used immediately to confirm or reject proposed catalog identifications from SIMBAD and NED, and to begin a program of identifying new BL Lac objects with high efficiency. In the final six months of the award, extensive analysis were preformed on the RASS counterpart data at Cambridge screening Slew sources with multiple RASS counterparts (up to 23); extended sources and sources with large discrepancies between the RASS and Slew positions. The possibly highly absorbed sources were also studied. Finally, the RASS data has helped to identify optical counterparts to Slew Survey sources - BL Lacs stars, and 'blank fields'.

Stauffer, John R.; Schachter, Jonathan; Gorenstein, Paul; Hughes, John P.; Seward, Frederick D.

1994-01-01

57

Investigation relative to the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports include: High Resolution Observations of the Central Region of M31; The X-ray Emission of Low-X-ray-Luminosity Early-Type Galaxies: Gas Versus Compact Sources; Interaction Between Cluster Gas and Radio Features of Cygnus A; Hot Gas and Dark Halos in Early-Type Galaxies; A Gravitational Lens in X-rays - 0957+461; How Massive are Early-Type Galaxies?; Three Crab-Like SNR in the Large Magellanic Cloud; and Soft X-ray Emission from Boundary Layers in Cataclysmic Variables. Papers submitted to the Astrophysical Journal are attached.

Elvis, Martin S.; Primini, Francis A.; Fabbiano, Guiseppina; Harris, Daniel E.; Jones-Foreman, Christine; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Golub, Leon; Bookbinder, Jay; Seward, Frederick D.; Zombeck, Martin V.

1994-01-01

58

Making filmless radiology work  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESPITE 2 DECADES of optimistic and confident predictions that filmless radiology was imminent, the centennial commemoration of Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray will come and go this year with only a small number of radiology departments interpreting more than a small fraction of imaging studies using a computer workstation. The reasons for this undoubtedly representa combination of economic constraints,

Eliot L. Siegel; John N. Diaconis; Stephen Pomerantz; Robert Allman; Brian Briscoe

1995-01-01

59

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn Description  

E-print Network

, a castle built in the Baroque style during the mid 1700s. If the kids are in tow, hit up Phantasialand cathedral in the Gothic tradition. For those with royal desires, hit up the Schloss Augustusburg in Bruhl

Bristol, University of

60

Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about an early German embryologist who used experimental investigation to advance the field of developmental biology/experimental embryology. He founded the first journal in this field, dedicated to understanding causal relationships in development.

Megan Kearl (Arizona State University)

2012-07-08

61

Wilhelm His (1831-1904): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a Swiss embryologist who proposed the first causal-mechanical (rather than preformationist) explanation of embryogenesis, and constructed the first microtome for studying sectioned embryos.

Kimberly A Buettner (Arizona State University Embryo Project Encyclopedia)

2012-07-08

62

Westflische Wilhelms-Universitt University of Twente  

E-print Network

.1 GEOGRAPHY 2 2.2 HISTORY 3 2.3 POLITICS 6 2.4 ECONOMY 7 3. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 10 3.1 BODIES 10 3-Marie Ridder Bachelor Thesis SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES IN GLOBALIZED TRADE SYSTEMS: TONGA AND THE WTO 18.2 POLICY TOOLS AND ACTIONS 11 3.2.1 DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 11 3.2.2 TRADE POLICY REVIEW 12 3.3 ACCESSION

Vellekoop, Michel

63

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM II. —  

E-print Network

DE L'OCHRATOXINE A OBTENUE A PARTIR DE MILIEUX LIQUIDES FAIBLEMENT CONCENTR�S EN TOXINE P. GALTIER C, 31300 Toulouse R�SUM� En vue d'isoler l'ochratoxine A à partir d'extraits de cultures liquides d sur milieu solide. Les cristaux obtenus sont identifiés à l'ochratoxine A au moyen de tests physico

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Bayesian Integration in Force Estimation Konrad P. Kording,1  

E-print Network

interact with objects in the world, the forces we exert are finely tuned to the dynamics of the situation prior knowledge, how probable each possible weight is, and knowledge of the uncertainty inherent

Körding, Konrad Paul

65

Piecewise Rigid Scene Flow Christoph Vogel Konrad Schindler  

E-print Network

- ularizers. Optimization proceeds in two stages: Starting from an initial superpixelization, we estimate include motion analysis and mo- tion capture, driver assistance and autonomous navigation, and virtual base the initial estimation not on individual pixels, but on a superpixel segmentation of the reference

Schindler, Konrad

66

Gesture + Play Konrad Tollmar, David Demirdjian and Trevor Darrell  

E-print Network

interfaces to games and virtual environments are an exciting new interface paradigm. Recent advances of several different interface regimes for exploring virtual game worlds. Our demonstration platform serves-of-the-art perceptual interfaces. Keywords gaming, virtual environments, perceptual interface INTRODUCTION Perceptual

Tollmar, Konrad

67

[Quality criteria for intra-oral roentgen images].  

PubMed

The apical and marginal parodontium are the main targets in dental roentgenology. The most important structural details are of 0.1 to 1.0 mm size. Their imaging is determined by - among other parameters - The X-ray film technique. This article presents quality criteria for a number of standard projections, that appear suitable for assessing the image quality. Other factors determining the characteristics of an x-ray film have been neglected, the only exception being a short treatise on the importance of contrast. PMID:2315636

Jung, T

1990-01-01

68

[Prof. Carl Wilhelm von Zehender (1819-1916)--first professor of ophthalmology and co-founder of the ophthalmological clinic at the University of Rostock--commemorative lecture at the 100th DOG meeting in Berlin from 26.9 to 29.9.2002].  

PubMed

The Grand-ducal University Eye Department in Rostock was solemnly inaugurated 16 May 1892. According to many years of studies in Europe and on efforts to build this clinic, construction was outlined by Professor Carl Wilhelm v. Zehender, but the drafts were executed by the "Grossherzoglich-Mecklenburgisch-Schwerinschen Medicinalcommission" and Landbaumeister Schlosser in winter 1888/89. Professor v. Zehender, who originated from a very ancient Swiss family, was born in Bremen, 21 May 1819. He studied medicine in Goettingen, Jena, Prague, Paris and Vienna. During this time he developed a lifelong friendship with Albrecht v. Graefe. 1856 he took over the medical care for the hereditary duke Georg von Mecklenburg-Strelitz and published the "Correspondenzblatt für Aerzte im Grossherzoglichen Mecklenburg-Strelitz". 1857, during a conference in Heidelberg, his initiative led in the long run to the establishment of the "Heidelberger Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft", the forerunner of the "Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft", which was founded in 1920. In 1863 the first edition of "Klinische Monatsblaetter für Augenheilkunde" was published as a periodical; the cover page bore its name as the founder of the magazine. In 1866, after the death of the hereditary duke and a professorship in his hometown Berne, he became honorary professor of the Rostock University, and from 1869 onwards he chaired the clinic as a regular professor. After all his efforts to build his own hospital had failed, he demonstratively and finally resigned from his professorship in 1889. He went to Munich and became editor of the " Klinische Monatsblaetter für Augenheilkunde". In 1907 he moved with his wife via Eutin to Warnemuende. There the nestor of world ophthalmologists died at the age of 98. His burial place without gravestone is situated in today's landscape park "Stephan Jantzen". So far all efforts of the author and of the Rostock University Eye Department taken after 1980 to create a worthy note to this exceptional ophthalmologist in the Baltic Sea resort Warnemuende were unsuccessful, also for financial reasons. But on 2.9.2002 with the help of the Lighthouse Club of Warnemuende a memorial plaque to Prof. C. W. v. Zehender was mounted on the guest house "Margarete". This plaque commemorates Professor Zehender's merits in establishing the DOG, planning and building the eye clinic of the university of Rostock. PMID:12612842

Stave, Joachim; Guthoff, Rudolf

2003-01-01

69

Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

2006-11-01

70

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften  

E-print Network

Preisverleihung bot der von der Fachschaft VWL veranstaltete Feuerzangenbowlen- abend. Prof. Dr. Lorens Imhof Wirtschaftswissenschaften, die Gewinner und Gewinne- rinnen. Unter Applaus der Gäste wurden die Urkunden von Prof. Dr. Imhof

Huber, Bernhard A.

71

Karl Wilhelm Theodor Richard von Hertwig (1850-1937): Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a pioneer in the area of embryonic germ layers, who conceptualized the coelom still used in classification and phylogeny. He was also an influential teacher of zoology.

Katherine Brind'Amour (Arizona State University Embryo Project)

2012-04-19

72

Geographisches Institut Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn  

E-print Network

for Land Use Changes in the Hill Zone of Western Tajikistan The Impact of New Actors in the Loess Hills years drastic environmental changes have been observed in the hill zone of western Tajikistan. An empirical study was conducted in two areas in the loess hills of western Tajikistan. The exploratory nature

Richner, Heinz

73

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn Seminar fr Politische Wissenschaft  

E-print Network

beset by conflicts and economic problems. Africa has the highest illiteracy rate in the world was put away! Globalisation must contribute to poverty eradication, job creation, enhancement of economic Maybe this harsh judgement should be softened a little bit for ICT has penetrated several economic

Franz, Sven Oliver

74

TEXT KLAUS WILHELM ones are associated with hard-  

E-print Network

of these 3-D copies of human bone structure, materials scientists study how the curvature of the surface biologically speaking, they are hives of activity on the inside. When we think about their mechanical is a real challenge for materials scientists, but one that really excites us," says Peter Fratzl, Director

75

Occupancy Detection from Electricity Consumption Data Wilhelm Kleiminger,  

E-print Network

to control buildings' temperature and air-flow [14, 21]. Sim- ilarly, many lighting systems rely detection usually require the installation of dedicated sensors, like passive in- frared sensors, magnetic is permitted. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior

76

Wilhelm Schickard Institute of Computer Science Theoretical Computer Science  

E-print Network

7.1.1 Malware on PC 55 7.1.2 Malware on Phone 56 7.1.3 Theft 57 7.1.4 Communication Interfaces 57 i generator 32 Figure 23 Smartcard readers. Left ReinerSCT cyberJack RFID komfort and right gemalto PC USB

Borchert, Bernd

77

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn Institut fur Informatik VI  

E-print Network

-layered convolutional neural networks like LeNet-5 are considered the state of the art solution for this problem. Up been exploited to accelerate a huge convolutional neural network for this diploma thesis by optimizing the memory accesses and using the full capacity of the multiprocessors. The convolutional neural

Behnke, Sven

78

Guidelines for the granting of the Konrad Zuse Scholarship Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fr Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) as a non-university research  

E-print Network

.00 � Child care allowance EUR 80.00 per child The child care allowance is granted if the sponsorship holder, it is not a regular wage according to � 14 Buch IV Sozialgesetzbuch (German Social Welfare Act) and is not subject is entitled to receive child benefit pursuant to Bundes-Kindergeldgesetz (Federal Child Benefit Act) or would

Andrzejak, Artur

79

SMPTE Test Pattern For Certification Of Medical Diagnostic Display Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the invention of x-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, rapid advances have been made in the radiological detection of body abnormalities. This was very evident in the 1960's and 70's when the marriage of computers to radiology gave birth to a new generation of imaging modalities such as computerized tomography, ultrasound, digital radiographic imaging, nuclear medicine, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Many of these devices employ digital computer techniques for signal manipulation, and the resultant analog diagnostic images are displayed on television monitors for viewing and on imaging cathode-ray tubes for a photographic hard copy.

Lisk, Kenneth G.

1984-08-01

80

Vision, Modeling, and Visualization (2011) Peter Eisert, Konrad Polthier, and Joachim Hornegger (Eds.)  

E-print Network

the segmentation of impact craters, and the detection of small scale breaking waves. The classification and potentially enhance the exchange of heat and gas between ocean and atmosphere [ZAJ 04, SLR 01, SLAJ04

Hamprecht, Fred A.

81

Vision, Modeling, and Visualization (2011) Peter Eisert, Konrad Polthier, and Joachim Hornegger (Eds.)  

E-print Network

example for this type of problem occurs in a branch of forensic science, called blood pattern analysis (Eds.) Probabilistic Inverse Dynamics for Blood Pattern Reconstruction B. Cecchetto1 and W. Heidrich1 1 total initial energy prior. We apply our algorithm to the case of forensic blood pattern reconstruction

Heidrich, Wolfgang

82

Vision, Modeling, and Visualization (2011) Peter Eisert, Konrad Polthier, and Joachim Hornegger (Eds.)  

E-print Network

(Eds.) Markerless Motion Capture using multiple Color-Depth Sensors Kai Berger , Kai Ruhl , Yannic of the sensor, no more than one device has been used for motion capturing so far. In effect, any pose estimation the detrimental effects of multiple active light emitters, thereby allowing motion capture from all angles. We

Magnor, Marcus

83

An Algorithm for Discrete Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces Bernd Oberknapp \\Lambda Konrad Polthier y  

E-print Network

curvature (cmc surfaces) are the mathematical abstrac­ tion of physical soap films and soap bubbles a class of surfaces which covers more than the set of physically existing soap bubbles. In general surfaces the difference is zero. The simplest cmc surface is the sphere, the typical example of a soap

Polthier, Konrad

84

Your article is protected by copyright and all rights are held exclusively by Konrad  

E-print Network

(EGT henceforth) applied to the solution of some particular economic problems. In both cases, natural IS EVOLUTIONARY ECONOMICS? Economic Natural Selection: What Concept of Selection? Jean Gayon Received: 4 October ways of thinking by modern economists: Nelson and Winter's (Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Eurographics Symposium on Geometry Processing (2006) Konrad Polthier, Alla Sheffer (Editors)  

E-print Network

not require any hierarchical data structure, being based just on color codes and level numbers assigned to elements of a mesh, which can be encoded in a standard topological data structure with a small overhead, the popular Loop [Loo87] and butter- fly [DLG90] schemes are based on recursive triangle quadri- section

Puppo, Enrico

86

Vision, Modeling, and Visualization (2011) Peter Eisert, Konrad Polthier, and Joachim Hornegger (Eds.)  

E-print Network

the refractive index dependence of the Fresnel reflection and transmission factors, as are used in most physics reflection and refraction at material boundaries in Section 3. We show that the Fresnel term is the governing¶ Abstract We investigate the effect of immersing real-world materials into media of different refractive

Magnor, Marcus

87

Object Detection by Global Contour Shape Konrad Schindler a,, David Suter b  

E-print Network

. A distance measure for elastic shape matching is derived, which is invariant to scale and rotation deformable template matching techniques are local optimisers, and thus require either good initial positions to a disc), but nevertheless can be interpreted as a deformable template matching method. Fig. 1. Some

Schindler, Konrad

88

Vision Based Navigation with an Experimental Satellite Konrad Makowka, Alvar Saenz-Otero, David W. Miller  

E-print Network

to as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and constitutes a complex task, since the determination of one are the travelled trajectory and the map of the surroundings. The simultaneous estimation of both is referred, is a possible application of this technology. The advantage of vision sensors is the richness in information

89

The capability of fluoroscopic systems to determine differential Roentgen-ray absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A clinical fluoroscopic unit used in conjunction with a TV image digitization system was investigated to determine its capability to evaluate differential absorption between two areas in the same field. Fractional contrasts and minimum detectability for air, several concentrations of Renografin-60, and aluminum were studied using phantoms of various thicknesses. Results showed that the videometric response, when treated as contrast, shows a linear response with absorber thickness up to considerable thicknesses.

Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

1975-01-01

90

The Teaching of Roentgen Anatomy to Medical Students: A Self-Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multidisciplinary approach necessitates the involvement of radiology that is suited for inclusion in an anatomy course since it is an ideal instrument for teaching anatomic principles. (Author/PG)

Tegtmeyer, Charles J.; And Others

1974-01-01

91

[The value of conventional roentgen imaging and computerized tomography in diagnosis of frontobasal fractures].  

PubMed

The classical x-ray diagnosis and the computer tomography (CT) examination depends mainly on clinical examination. The purpose of our study was to compare the value of conventional x-ray diagnosis and CT in detecting rhinobasal fractures. We examined 133 patients retrospectively who had a fracture. Altogether we considered with the classical x-ray diagnosis 111 and with the CT 250 regions of the frontobasis. In all, one third of fractures in the regions could not be detected preoperatively by CT and not the half by classical x-ray-diagnosis. CT allows a direct detection of brain hernias and far better imaging of osseous lesions, also of fine structures, such as a better appraisal of paranasal sinus pathology. Classical radiology is, however, still indispensable for imaging certain fracture types and localization of a pneumocranium. Except in case of special demands, conventional x-ray diagnosis is important for the routine diagnostics of the facial skull as a primary method supplying an answer to the most important questions at a lower cost and in a shorter time. Altogether, CT allows an improvement of postoperative results, influencing indication, timing of operation, such as surgical approach. PMID:11021181

Reiss, M; Reiss, G

2000-08-10

92

Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: Roentgen diagnosis of a rare cause of coronary artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile arterial calcification is a rare disorder of unknown etiology which is usually generalized and leads to death from coronary artery occlusion. The involved arteries show calcification of the internal elastic lamina and marked intimal proliferation. Vascular calcifications were demonstrated radiographically in 9 previously recorded cases. Three new patients are reported who presented with congestive heart failure. The visualization of

J. Lussier-Lazaroff; B. D. Fletcher

1973-01-01

93

AJR 2007; 188:A75-A78 American Roentgen Ray Society  

E-print Network

real-time US images into the body. Looking through the mirror, the virtual US image appears to float/Interventional (Vascular Imaging and Nonvascular Interventions) Scientific Session 25--Vascular/Interventional (Vascular Imaging and Nonvascular Interventions) Thursday, May 10, 1:30 PM­3:30 PM 25. Vascular

Stetten, George

94

In 1896, only one year after German physicist Wilhem Conrad Roentgen dis-  

E-print Network

director of the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Program at the College, where use of CBCT systems the Graduate Program in Diagnostic Sciences and Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and was on the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology faculty at UMKC until moving to Columbia. A Diplomate CDM'S NEW CBCT explores inner

Grishok, Alla

95

THEORY AND EXPERIMENTS IN ALGORITHMIC SELF-ASSEMBLY Paul Wilhelm Karl Rothemund  

E-print Network

Mills, Deborah Fygenson, Anthony Leonardo, Roian Egnor, Hideo Mabuchi, Matt Cook, Andrea Foegler, Joe, Christine Frank, Sanjoy Mahajan, Sam Roweis, Andreas Guazelli, John Petruska, Joe Kirschvink, Robert is the DNA computing community: Grzegorz Rozen- berg, Lila Kari, Harvey Rubin, David Wood, David Gi#11;ord

Winfree, Erik

96

Wilhelm Krull Governance for Integrity and Quality in Universities Towards a Culture of Creativity  

E-print Network

global competition by establishing its own culture of creativity and quality assurance. Trying to achieve of Creativity and Quality Assurance Dear President Beisiegel, Distinguished Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen, and last but not least to achieving breakthroughs in frontier research and technological development

Grabowski, Jens

97

Bridging Reality and Virtuality in Vocational Training Kai Schmudlach, Eva Hornecker, Hauke Ernst, F. Wilhelm Bruns  

E-print Network

Bridging Reality and Virtuality in Vocational Training Kai Schmudlach, Eva Hornecker, Hauke Ernst of envi- ronment for vocational training in pneumatics. It is based on the concept of graspable interfaces User Interfaces, Tangible Interfaces, CSCW, Vocational Training, Pneumatics INTRODUCTION BREVIE

Hornecker, Eva

98

Analysis of structural robustness of metabolic T. Wilhelm, J. Behre and S. Schuster  

E-print Network

number of elementary modes remaining after the knockout of enzymes. We discuss the relevance part of glycolysis. Phos- phoglycerate kinase in human erythrocytes can be bypassed via the Rapoport. In biotechnology, specific enzymes can be knocked out to suppress futile cycles. For example, Rohwer and Botha [9

Hinze, Thomas

99

Integrating an Expert System And a Neural Network for Process Planning Mark Wilhelm, Alice E. Smith  

E-print Network

for metal furniture assembly, welding and painting using a rule based expert system integrated for metal furniture assembly, welding and painting using a rule based expert system integrated. 4 Corresponding author. #12;3 standard plans can be retrieved automatically and annotated to conform

Smith, Alice E.

100

[Wilhelm Reich--Arthur Janov--a comparison of their work].  

PubMed

Although he does not always mention it, A. Janov agrees with many of W. Reich's opinions on theoretical-philosophical foundations and the theory of neurosis and other illnesses; from their criticism of society both of them develop the demand for prophylaxis of neurosis as a prerequisit for their common utopia of a selfregulated society. Primal therapy and Orgon therapy are two different forms of the "New Body Therapies" group. The authors disagree with their views of the physiological nature of Pain (A. Janov) and blokked orgon, the "function of the orgasm" and "orgastic potency", concepts that were considered by Reich to be his most important. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are given. PMID:6523964

Sprengler, M

1984-01-01

101

The Pursuit of Art and Pleasure in the Secret Grotto of Wilhelm V of Bavaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grottenhof is a small garden surrounded by painted loggias in the Munich Residence, a palace that served as the seat of the Wittelsbach Dukes of Bavaria beginning in the sixteenth century. Completed between 1582 and 1589, the garden contains an elaborate grottoed fountain, sculpture, and paintings based on Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The pictorial program of the painted loggias combines images

Susan Maxwell

2008-01-01

102

Immersive Simulation for Computer Vision Wilhelm Burger,1 Matthew J. Barth2  

E-print Network

@cast.uni-linz.ac.at 2 University of California, College of Engineering, Riverside, CA 92521-0425, U.S.A. 3 Johannes and ground truth information is a severe bottleneck. Extensive testing in a simulated environment should are quite complex, formal veri cation methods usually do not exist and extensive testing provides the only

Stürzlinger, Wolfgang

103

Update in podocyte biology Karlhans Endlich, Wilhelm Kriz and Ralph Witzgall  

E-print Network

as of its role in the development of glomerular diseases. Hereditary podocyte diseases Unlike the Alport to the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular ®ltration barrier. Alport syndrome As several excellent reviews on Alport syndrome have appeared recently (e.g.Ref. [1]), only certain features of this disease

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

104

Wilhelm Cauer: His Life and the Reception of his Work An der Sternwarte 19  

E-print Network

interdisciplinary field of research and work as a scientist at a time marked by the rise of Nazism, the forced no results on the question what filter characteristics are realizable and, if so, how to find a physical the potentialities of Foster's result. In his doctorate thesis (1926) on The realization of impedances of specified

Allen, Jont

105

Engineering Self-Coordinating Software Intensive Systems Wilhelm Schfer1,2  

E-print Network

University of Paderborn Warburger Str. 100 Paderborn, Germany 3 Department of Control Engineering Descriptors D.2.2 [Software Engineering]: General General Terms Algorithms, Design, Languages, Security interacting directly with the physical world. The design space of such systems also, therefore, includes

Libre de Bruxelles, Université

106

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM PRODUCTION D'OCHPATOXINES PAR DES SOUCHES ISOLES  

E-print Network

; deux sécrètent à la fois l'ochratoxine A et l'ochratoxine B ; par contre, ni la melléine, ni l ochratoxines A et B. #12;Isolées et identifiées par VAN DER MERWE (1965), les ochratoxines A et B ont fait l'objet de travaux portant sur leur étude physico-chimique, biochimique et toxi- cologique. L'ochratoxine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Tip Cleaning and Sample Design for High Resolution MOSCAP x-KPFM Wilhelm Melitz1, 2  

E-print Network

vapor deposition (PVD) is employed to deposit a few nanometers of metal onto sharp silicon cantilever) cleaved III-V MOSCAPs. Two tip preparation methods: field emission and Cr coating show reproducible high coated over the silicon based cantilever. One of the simplest but less consistent ways of forming sharp

Kummel, Andrew C.

108

GEOMETRIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF MSG-SEVIRI LEVEL 1.5 Sultan Kocaman Aksakal, Emmanuel Baltsavias, Konrad Schindler  

E-print Network

GEOMETRIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF MSG-SEVIRI LEVEL 1.5 IMAGERY Sultan Kocaman Aksakal, Emmanuel- Red Imager) instrument aboard the European geostationary satellites Meteosat-8 (formerly MSG-1) and Meteosat-9 (formerly MSG-2) has been investigated in this study. Level 1.5 image data of the High

Schindler, Konrad

109

Towards the Exact Value of the Ramsey Number R(3; 3; 4) Konrad Piwakowski Stanis law P. Radziszowski  

E-print Network

if there exists a (3; 3; 4; 30) coloring C such that every triangle T #26; C[3] has a vertex x 2 T with deg C[3] (x) = 13. Furthermore, C has at least 14 vertices v such that deg C[1] (v) = deg C[2] (v) = 8 and deg

Radziszowski, Stanislaw P.

110

Irradiation Investigations for TESLA and X-FEL experiments Dominik Konrad Rybkaa, Arkadiusz Kalickia, Krzysztof Pozniaka, Ryszard Romaniuka,  

E-print Network

· predict performance and life-time in TESLA and X-FEL tunnels 3. Counter measures: · develop radiationInstitute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw Univeristy of Technology bRadiation Protection Group, DESY cMachine RF Group for Proton Ring Accelerators, DESY ABSTRACT Electronic components during High Energy Physics experiments

111

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSFC is developing eight x-ray mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG Mission. The Engineering Unit tests are successful. MSFC is on schedule to deliver flight units in the November of 2013 and January 2014.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2013-01-01

112

These are the files which Roland Donninger and Wilhelm Schlag produced from April-July 2010 pertaining to numerical experiments  

E-print Network

be desirable to re-run all these examples on a cluster with, say, INCA,B=0.001 and DR=10^(-4). However, fine to be 10x larger than the one in the A-direction. This is found by trial and error, and it means that INCA to be as small as INCA, which increases computation time significantly. It remains to produce a satisfactory

Schlag, Wilhelm

113

Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China Joha W. Grobbelaar Z. Wilhelm de Beer  

E-print Network

FULL PAPER Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China Joha W. Grobbelaar · Z as economically important agents of wood degradation. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Ophiostoma isolates, resembling O. quercus, found on stained Euca- lyptus pulpwood chips in China. DNA

114

Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China Joha W. Grobbelaar Z. Wilhelm de Beer  

E-print Network

FULL PAPER Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China Joha W. Grobbelaar · Z degradation. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Ophiostoma isolates, resembling O. quercus, found on stained Euca- lyptus pulpwood chips in China. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer

115

Liebig, his university professor Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857) and his problematic relation with romantic natural philosophy.  

PubMed

The chemist and physicist K. W. G. Kastner is almost unknown today, even though during his lifetime he was among the most respected of German physical scientists. Only the fact that Justus Liebig studied and did his doctorate with him seems to be of (small enough) interest today. Kastner's life and career are shown to be extremely worth analyzing since, like Liebig himself, he succeeded in making his way from being a pharmacist to becoming a university professor. He published numerous textbooks as well as journals, he had a great number of students and he was a popular lecturer. In striking contrast to this are the negative statements of his student Liebig about Romantic Natural Philosophy and about Kastner himself, despite his being of crucial importance for Liebig's career as a teacher and mentor. These critical statements, for which a variety of explanations are known, markedly prejudiced Kastner's reputation for posterity. PMID:12921103

Kirschke, Martin

2003-03-01

116

Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Self-Assembly Wilhelm T. S. Huck, Joe Tien, and George M. Whitesides*  

E-print Network

. The photoresist was removed by rinsing with acetone. The Si layer was removed simultaneously, leaving Si only hydrophobic. To fabricate hexagons B, the photoresist was removed prior to evaporation of Si or Ti. The Si not interfere with the assembled spheres. The inside of the sphere was pink; this pattern of coloration

Tien, Joe

117

General Editor E. F. KONRAD KOERNER (University of Ottawa) Series III -STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS Advisory Editorial Board Ranko Bugarski (Belgrade); Jean-Claude  

E-print Network

Linguistics FIRST PERSON SINGULAR Papers from the Conference on an Oral Archive for the History of American to undertake here a survey of the rising interest in the history of linguistics, or an analysis of its roots propose to outline yet another approach to the history and historiography of linguistics. In one sense

Goldsmith, John A.

118

Lorenz, Konrad (Zacharias) (b. November 7, 1903; d. February 27, 1989), Austrian psychologist. Lorenz's research laid the foundations for a new scientific discipline called  

E-print Network

on the mother's behavior, the relationship between mother and child, and the child's psychological and social affected observational studies of child behavior conducted by anthropologists across the globe observation, recording, and analysis of animal behavior. Ethology emphasizes the role of objective

Maestripieri, Dario

119

A review of "Unity and Discontinuity: Architectural Relations between the Southern and Northern Low Countries" edited by Krista De Jonge and Konrad Ottenheym  

E-print Network

and stone masonry, steep slated roofs, and tall windows of Philip II?s Pardo Hunting Lodge outside Madrid and in his commission for the Alc?zar in Madrid. The discussion of slate and other new materials being introduced into Spain is a particularly... and stone masonry, steep slated roofs, and tall windows of Philip II?s Pardo Hunting Lodge outside Madrid and in his commission for the Alc?zar in Madrid. The discussion of slate and other new materials being introduced into Spain is a particularly...

Palmer, Allison Lee

2008-01-01

120

[Comparison of vascular width and accuracy in the subjective assessment of pulmonary circulation in the roentgen picture of children with left-right shunts].  

PubMed

The authors established a comparative relationship between accuracy of measurement of pulmonary flow and extent of vascular widening in 72 children with Left-Right shunt vitiae; this accuracy of pulmonary flow measurement had been subjectively estimated by 4 investigators without knowing the diagnosis and in comparison to the haemodynamic values (percentage of correct findings). The following procedure was adopted: In a control group of 143 healthy children, we first determined the vascular diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery, of the right upper lobal vein, and of the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields, at an accurately defined distance from the point of the hilus, and compared with the vascular diameters of the children with left-right shunt, employing the method of discrimination analysis. Comparison of the judgement by the 4 investigators with the degree of increase of the vascular diameters showed an accuracy of 65-100% if the right descending pulmonary artery became wider by 2.6 mm, and an accuracy of 79-95% if the mean vascular width in the right upper field increased by 0.7 mm. The accuracy was 83-94% if the mean vascular width in the right lower field increased by 0.6 mm. Statistical studies also showed that the judgement of the 4 investigators was influenced by different vessels. PMID:4001771

Hegenbarth, R; Török, M

1985-04-01

121

History of head and neck radiology: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Head and neck radiology has evolved during the century since the discovery of the x ray in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. In the first few decades, conventional radiography was the diagnostic modality for evaluation of head and neck diseases. Special radiographic projections were designed to demonstrate abnormal processes in the paranasal sinuses, temporal bones, base of the skull, and neck. Barium examination with fluoroscopy was used for assessment of the pharynx and esophagus. Linear tomography, introduced in 1932, allowed the acquisition of sections that depicted abnormalities that were not clearly defined at conventional radiography. Linear tomography was further enhanced with the introduction of thin-section polytomography, especially of the temporal bone, in 1954. Computed tomography in 1972 and magnetic resonance imaging in 1982 improved our diagnostic capabilities by enabling location and characterization of tumors, cysts, and inflammatory processes in the head and neck and aiding in earlier diagnosis and treatment. Teaching of residents and fellows by an expanding staff of head and neck radiologists developed. The formation of the American Society of Head and Neck Radiology in 1977 provided a forum for postgraduate education and scientific exchange. PMID:11152774

Weber, A L

2001-01-01

122

[Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine--Charles Theodore Dotter and colleagues: short historical review].  

PubMed

Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done.They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine. PMID:24684046

Kosti?, Jelena; Beleslin, Branko; Nedeljkovi?, Milan; Ostoji?, Miodrag

2014-01-01

123

The State of the Art of Medical Imaging Technology: from Creation to Archive and Back  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging has learnt itself well into modern medicine and revolutionized medical industry in the last 30 years. Stemming from the discovery of X-ray by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Roentgen, radiology was born, leading to the creation of large quantities of digital images as opposed to film-based medium. While this rich supply of images provides immeasurable information that would otherwise not be possible to obtain, medical images pose great challenges in archiving them safe from corrupted, lost and misuse, retrievable from databases of huge sizes with varying forms of metadata, and reusable when new tools for data mining and new media for data storing become available. This paper provides a summative account on the creation of medical imaging tomography, the development of image archiving systems and the innovation from the existing acquired image data pools. The focus of this paper is on content-based image retrieval (CBIR), in particular, for 3D images, which is exemplified by our developed online e-learning system, MIRAGE, home to a repository of medical images with variety of domains and different dimensions. In terms of novelties, the facilities of CBIR for 3D images coupled with image annotation in a fully automatic fashion have been developed and implemented in the system, resonating with future versatile, flexible and sustainable medical image databases that can reap new innovations. PMID:21915232

Gao, Xiaohong W; Qian, Yu; Hui, Rui

2011-01-01

124

DISS. ETH NO. 20964 Combination of Airborne Laser and Image Data for  

E-print Network

of April, 1980 citizen of Turkey accepted on the recommendation of Prof. Dr. Konrad Schindler, examiner and helpful supervision and invaluable contribution. I thank Prof. Dr. Konrad Schindler for giving me useful.........................................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES

Giger, Christine

125

ZnO -From Dilute Magnetic Doping to Spin Transport Matthias Opel, Sebastian T.B. Goennenwein, Stephan Geprgs, Matthias Althammer, Karl-Wilhelm Nielsen,  

E-print Network

Outline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) II-VI semiconductor wide bandgap: Eg = 3.4 eV dilute magnetic doping with transitionZnO - From Dilute Magnetic Doping to Spin Transport Matthias Opel, Sebastian T.B. Goennenwein detection via time-resolved Faraday rotation (TRFR) Kerr Ellipticity K Dilute Magnetic Doping

Gross, Rudolf

126

Dr. Melanie Grosse, CRC-PEG, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, 37073 Gttingen, Phone: +49 (0) 551 39 3845, mgrosse@gwdg.de CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

, evolution and adaption, nature conservation, economics of biodiversity, among others. 06/2010 ­ 12.F. Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, Animal Ecology, Georg-August-University, Göttingen

Krivobokova, Tatyana

127

Dynamics of a three-phase upflow fixed bed catalytic reactor C. Julcour, F. Stber, J. M. Le Lann, A. M. Wilhelm, H. Delmas*  

E-print Network

to describe the dynamic behavior of packed bed reactors. Wärna et al. (1996) performed dynamic models. EXPERIMENTAL The experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 1. The reactor unit consists of a jacketed packed bedDynamics of a three-phase upflow fixed bed catalytic reactor C. Julcour, F. Stüber, J. M. Le Lann

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Comment on 'Observations of Low-Latitude Electron Precipitation' by R. Lieu, J. Watermann, K. Wilhelm, J. J. Quenby, and W. I. Axford  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations made by an electron spectrometer aboard Spacelab 1 and presented by Lieu et al. (1988) are examined critically. The precipitation of electrons in the energy range of 0.1-12.5 keV was measured on December 6 and 7, 1983. Data for 16 passes near 240 km altitude, between + and - 30 deg geographic latitude, outside the South Atlantic Anomaly were included. It is argued that there is no geophysical confirmation of the large electron fluxes reported by Lieu et al. In their response, Lieu et al. discuss the sampling bias in the Spacelab 1 data and the magnetic shielding deficiencies of the calibration facility below about 500 eV.

Rassoul, H. K.; Hanson, W. B.

1989-01-01

129

Crying Threshold and Intensity in Major Depressive Disorder Jonathan Rottenberg, James J. Gross, Frank H. Wilhelm, Sadia Najmi, and Ian H. Gotlib  

E-print Network

or pleasure in daily activities and by a number of associated symptoms, such as weight loss or gain, loss­IV; American Psychiatric As- sociation, 1994), is characterized by persistent sad mood or a loss of interest of appetite, sleep disturbance, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and feelings of guilt. Given the range

Gross, James J.

130

To Have or Not to Have Sex in Critical Theory: Sexuality in the Early Writings of Wilhelm Reich and Erich Fromm  

E-print Network

, orgastically impotentindividual burdened with a psyche scarred by alienation, class-based exploitation and misery. In fact, such pressures produced neurosesin 60% of men and 90% of women (1974/1930:49). Psychic health required that the individual's psychic... manifestation of Occidental culture,and therefore, could bealleviated if children wereafforded thechance to rearrangethe relationsbetweendesire and its objects, that is, if they moved their desire from their parents and invested it withintheir peers. Character...

King, C. Richard

1992-04-01

131

‘On mind?blindness (optic agnosia)’, a classical clinico?pathological report, and its author Wilhelm von Stauffenberg (1879–1918)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two photographs from the beginning of our century still instructively illustrate the phenomenon of visual agnosia: the perplexed face of an old lady confronted with objects clears after touching them. This patient with bilateral posterior cerebral infarction was followed for seven years at the Munich Medicine Department of Friedrich von Müller (1858–1941) who had a strong interest in neurology. His

Adrian Danek

1996-01-01

132

Helping Hands Program A Classified Staff Council Initiative  

E-print Network

Postal Services, Union Robin Bruning Dining Services, Commons Diane Colyer Cont. Educ., College Park, Centrex Sharon Hupp* Dining Services, Temptations Laurie Konrad Dining Services, 200 Centrex Earl Lisk

Moore, Paul A.

133

Hull Remains from the Pabuç Burnu Shipwreck and Early Transition in Archaic Greek Shipbuilding  

E-print Network

and publish all throughout my years in the Program. Dr. Konrad?s lectures on ancient Greek and Roman history bring to life those events of so long ago like few others I have experienced, and provided some of the most entertaining moments of my graduate... and publish all throughout my years in the Program. Dr. Konrad?s lectures on ancient Greek and Roman history bring to life those events of so long ago like few others I have experienced, and provided some of the most entertaining moments of my graduate...

Polzer, Mark Edward

2010-10-12

134

A Mobile Vision System for Robust Multi-Person Tracking Andreas Ess1  

E-print Network

A Mobile Vision System for Robust Multi-Person Tracking Andreas Ess1 Bastian Leibe1 Konrad Schindler1 Luc Van Gool1,2 1 ETH Zurich, Switzerland 2 KU Leuven, Belgium {aess,leibe,konrads}@vision.ee.ethz.ch vangool@esat.kuleuven.be Abstract We present a mobile vision system for multi-person track- ing in busy

Giger, Christine

135

MoteTrack:MoteTrack: A Robust, Decentralized Approach toA Robust, Decentralized Approach to  

E-print Network

.g., EMTs, firefighters) 6 firefighters die in Worcester MA fire, [Boston Globe, Dec. 10, 1999] pulse of Engineering and Applied Sciences {konrad, mdw}@eecs.harvard.edu September 10, 2004 #12;Konrad Lorincz, Harvard Firefighters entering a burning building Often cannot see because of heavy smoke + are unfamiliar with building

Chen, Yiling

136

Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems (hundreds of degrees below zero Celsius) produce low energy radio and microwave photons, whereas cool bodies like our own (about 30 degrees Celsius) produce infrared radiation. Very high temperatures (millions of degrees Celsius) are one way of producing X-rays.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

137

eROSITA Science Book: Mapping the Structure of the Energetic  

E-print Network

, while in the hard band (2-10 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky at those ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the primary instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission. eROSITA is currently being built, assembled and tested under the leadership of the Max

Robrade, Jan

138

Professor: A. Robert Lauer OU-MLLL-Fall 2014  

E-print Network

Francis Bacon, Pierre Corneille, John Dryden, John Locke, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, Giambattista Coleridge, William Humboldt, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur

Oklahoma, University of

139

`Idols' in Exile: Making Senseof Prehistoric Human Pottery Figurines from  

E-print Network

of PhD Institute of Archaeology University College London London 2000 1 #12;to my Parents to Konrad figurines are traditionally approached as objects of ancient art or cult, or astypological devices. I reject

Guillas, Serge

140

Selection of the optimal microelectrode during DBS surgery in Parkinson's patients  

E-print Network

Selection of the optimal microelectrode during DBS surgery in Parkinson's patients Konrad Abstract. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective treatment of Parkinson: Parkinson's Disease, DBS, STN, Wavelet, Filtering, PCA, FFT, Spike detection, Spike discrimination, Spike

Ras, Zbigniew W.

141

SUBMISSION TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 1 Monocular Visual Scene Understanding  

E-print Network

, Konrad Schindler, Bernt Schiele Abstract--Following recent advances in detection, context modeling or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. Fig. 1: Example results

142

Schlossplatz 2 48149 Mnster  

E-print Network

Mitgliedern und Angehörigen der Universität nichtig sind: Dr. Karl Adler Dr. Konrad Ameln Prof. Dr. Friedrich. Richard-Hellmuth Goldschmidt Ref. Ernst Goose Prof. Dr. Emil Hannig Prof. Dr. Alfred Heilbronn Prof. Dr

Hinrichs, Klaus

143

Thunderstorm characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida: a study of lightning initiation signatures as indicated by Doppler radar  

E-print Network

the use of vertical profiles of radar reflectivities (VPRRs). The updraft velocities associated with thunderstorms will have an effect on the microphysical scale of convection that can be examined with reflectivity profiles. Konrad (1978) found... the use of vertical profiles of radar reflectivities (VPRRs). The updraft velocities associated with thunderstorms will have an effect on the microphysical scale of convection that can be examined with reflectivity profiles. Konrad (1978) found...

Gremillion, Michael Shane

2012-06-07

144

NEW ACQUISITIONS OCT-NOV.13 2009  

E-print Network

.E5 B76 2007 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1770-1831. Vorlesungen uber die Philosophie der Religion. English Lectures on the philosophy of religion B 3313 .G42 E55 2008 Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844 with the most remarkable memory known to science: a memoir BF 431 .S687 2009 Stanovich, Keith E., 1950- What

145

Clique-detection Models in Computational Biochemistry and Genomics  

E-print Network

Clique-detection Models in Computational Biochemistry and Genomics S. Butenko and W. E. Wilhelm,wilhelm}@tamu.edu Abstract Many important problems arising in computational biochemistry and genomics have been formulated and genomic aspects of the problems as well as to the graph-theoretic aspects of the solution approaches. Each

Butenko, Sergiy

146

Our Compulsory Goals: Effective Teaching and Meaningful Learning through Powerful Cultural Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm asks, "But are new literacies just fun?" Then he immediately answers, "Absolutely not--if we as teachers provide the right context and conditions of their use." Offering research-based advice on incorporating technology to increase motivation and deepen learning, Wilhelm boils it down to this bottom line: it's engaged, substantive,…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

2012-01-01

147

It is not just a job its a WINDTEST! Wind Energy with Power Plant Properties?WINDTEST  

E-print Network

-Wilhelm-Koog GmbH #12;1. Introduction 2. Active power control 3. Fault ride through 4. Reactive power control 5. Conclusion Structure (1)WINDTEST Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog GmbH #12;Dipl.-Ing. Erik Tüxen Main activity at WINDTEST of birth: 1978 Studies: Power Systems Engineering at the Technical University of Clausthal, Germany Diploma

148

BUPMC -UPD Nouvelles acquisitions  

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.5 LEI 12 Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe / Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz ; herausgegeben von der Berlin Göttingen ; beim Leibniz-Archiv der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek Hannover. Sechster Band 1673 in perforated domains / Vladimir Maz'ya, Alexander Movchan, Michael Nieves Sophie Germain 47.5 EDP 11 A Actes

Cordero-Erausquin , Dario

149

The Weak Base Method for Constraint Satisfaction  

E-print Network

Informatik der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at Hannover zur Erlangung des Grades einer DOKTORIN DER Referent: Heribert Vollmer, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at Hannover Korreferent: Martin Mundhenk geliefert und viele Formulare f¨ur mich ausgef¨ullt hat. Dann meine Kollegen Michael Bauland und Anca Vais

Vollmer, Heribert

150

Teaching Literacy for Love and Wisdom: Being the Book and Being the Change. Language and Literacy Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This powerful book lays out an inspiring new vision for the teaching of English, building on themes central to Wilhelm's influential "You Gotta BE The Book." With this new work, Wilhelm and Novak challenge business as usual in the language arts. They call for nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the aims and methods of the English…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Novak, Bruce

2011-01-01

151

(months) Journal Title Publisher eISSN ISSN 12 AAPS PharmSciTech American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 1530-9932  

E-print Network

of Roentgenology American Roentgen Ray Society 1546-3141 0361-803X 12 American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) 0002-9637 12 Anesthesia & Analgesia

Langendoen, Koen

152

Radioactive Material Equations and Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online calculator solves solutions in relationship to nuclei, nuclear reactions, half life time, disintegration constant, becquerels, curie, Avogadro's number, equivalent radiation dose, absorbed dose, radionuclide, ionizing activity, atomic weight, quality factor, roentgen equivalent man (rem), rad, sievert and gray.

Raymond, Jimmy

153

Boston University Medical Campus Office of the Associate Provost for Research  

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American Roentgen Ray Society American Tinnitus Society Autism Speaks Bayer Healthcare LLC BrightFocus Foundation Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Melanoma Research Alliance Pancreatic Cancer Action Network * Parkinson's Disease Foundation Progeria Research Foundation * Simons Foundation � SFARI Award

Spence, Harlan Ernest

154

10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), may be provided...

2011-01-01

155

10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), may be provided...

2010-01-01

156

10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

...roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), may be provided...

2014-01-01

157

10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), may be provided...

2013-01-01

158

10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units, or other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), may be provided...

2012-01-01

159

1122004 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 27, No. 1, p. 112119 February 2004  

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DOWNES GASTRICH1,2 *, JUSTINE A. LEIGH-BELL3 , CHRISTOPHER J. GOBLER4 , O. ROGER ANDERSON1 , STEVEN W. WILHELM3 , and MARTHA BRYAN1 1 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W

Wilhelm, Steven W.

160

arboretum.psu.edu Seasonal Display Plant List Fall 2012  

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- Chrysanthemum `Amiko Violet' (Belgian Mum® ) 011 - Zinnia marylandica 'Zahara Fire' (zinnia) 012 ­ Rudbeckia hirta 'Maya' (black-eyed-Susan) 013 - Pelargonium x hortorum 'Wilhelm Langguth' (fish geranium) 014

Yener, Aylin

161

Nicolas Mariot-CURAPP, Amiens Jay Rowell-GSPE, Strasbourg  

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of public celebrations including Wilhelm II's silver jubilee, the wedding of Princess Viktoria Luise to 1913 at a total cost of 6 million RM, was exclusively financed by private donations. 2 Wolfram Siemann

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools"  

E-print Network

are called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) 3/18/13 CAP5510 / CGS5166 10 #12;Hardy-Weinberg Principle" q G.H. Hardy & Wilhelm Weinberg (1908) " Allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant

Narasimhan, Giri

163

Monocular Pedestrian Recognition Using Motion Parallax M. Enzweiler1, P. Kanter2 and D. M. Gavrila2,3  

E-print Network

in pedestrian appearance (e.g. clothing, pose) and environmental condi- tions (e.g. lighting, background) make of Heidelberg, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany 2 Environment Perception, Group Research, Daimler AG, Wilhelm

Gavrila, Dariu M.

164

Black Scholars in Europe during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the accomplishments of Juan Latino (1516-1599), Jacobus Eliza Johannes Capitein (1717-1747), and Anton Wilhelm Amo (1703-1753), Blacks who were educated in Europe and became important intellectual and literary figures. (GC)

Fikes, Robert, Jr.

1980-01-01

165

The Complexity of Reasoning for Fragments of Default Logic  

E-print Network

The Complexity of Reasoning for Fragments of Default Logic Olaf Beyersdorff, Arne Meier, Michael Thomas, and Heribert Vollmer Institut f¨ur Theoretische Informatik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit

Vollmer, Heribert

166

The Complexity of Circumscriptive Inference in Post's Lattice  

E-print Network

The Complexity of Circumscriptive Inference in Post's Lattice Michael Thomas Institut f¨ur Theoretische Informatik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at Appelstr. 4, 30167 Hannover, Germany thomas

Vollmer, Heribert

167

Sean William Smith Carnegie Mellon University (1994)  

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Dartmouth College (2009) Justin Douglas Tygar Harvard University (1987) Michael Oser Rabin Princeton) Christiaan Huygens Universiteit Leiden / Université d'Angers (1647) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Académie royale

168

Boundary Conformal Field Theory Analysis Von der Fakultt fr Mathematik und Physik  

E-print Network

Physik der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover zur Erlangung des Grades Doktor der;Referent: PD. Dr. Michael Flohr Koreferent: Prof. Dr. Olaf Lechtenfeld Tag der Promotion: 30. Mai 2008 ITP

Flohr, Michael

169

Complexity Results for Boolean Constraint Satisfaction  

E-print Network

und Informatik der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover zur Erlangung des Grades Doktor der Naturwissenschaften Dr. rer. nat. genehmigte Dissertation von Dipl.-Inform. Michael Bauland geboren am 22. August 1977

Vollmer, Heribert

170

Institutsdaten und Geschichte Das Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam (AIP)  

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Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (WGL) Träger des AIP Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur. Michael Stix, Freiburg Prof. Dr. Harold W. Yorke, Pasadena (USA) Stiftungsvorstand Prof. Dr. Klaus G

171

Sets of Boolean Connectives that make Argumentation Easier  

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, Michael Thomas2 , and Stefan Woltran3 1 LIF, UMR CNRS 6166, Aix-Marseille Universit´e 163, Avenue de Institut f¨ur Theoretische Informatik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at Appelstr. 4, 30167 Hannover

Vollmer, Heribert

172

Fusion Algebras and Verlinde-Formula in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theories  

E-print Network

Institut f¨ur Theoretische Physik der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at Hannover vorgelegt der 2006 #12;Referent: Priv. Doz. Dr. Michael Flohr Koreferent: Prof. Dr. Sergio Albeverio Ich versichere

Flohr, Michael

173

Das Prsidium Abgabe von Gerten  

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direkt mit Herrn Michael Runge unter Tel. 01577-3324527 oder per E-Mail Mail to: runge@ids.uni-hannover.de in Verbindung. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Postfach 6009, 30060 Hannover Finanzen

Vollmer, Heribert

174

Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 523, No. 12, 1045 1070 (2011) / DOI 10.1002/andp.201100228 Historical Article  

E-print Network

¨odinger, Paul Dirac, Max Born, and Wolfgang Pauli on the theory side, and of Wilhelm Conrad R¨ontgen, Ernest Rutherford, Arthur Compton, and James Franck on the experimental side. However, the records in the Archive

Friedrich, Bretislav

175

The birth and postnatal development of purinergic signalling G. Burnstock,1  

E-print Network

. The history of purines and pyrimidines began in 1776 when the Swedish Pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele isolated (Levene & Jacobs 1908, Levene & Tipson 1931). In 1927, Gustav Embden and Margarete Zimmer- mann described

Burnstock, Geoffrey

176

Olfactory images and creation of meaning in Gogol's "The Nose" and Rushdie's Midnight's Children  

E-print Network

of the twentieth century in psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and Wilhelm Fliess. Freud ?saw a connection between the sublimation of the sense of smell and sexual repression? and Fliess articulated the idea... of the twentieth century in psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and Wilhelm Fliess. Freud ?saw a connection between the sublimation of the sense of smell and sexual repression? and Fliess articulated the idea...

Vintrova, Magdalena

2004-11-15

177

A review of "Enlightenment and Action from Descartes to Kant: Passionate Thought." by Michael Losonsky  

E-print Network

, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, conceived the mind as the creature of human activity, the answer to irresolu- tion is the exercise of the will in making informed judgments and adhering to them. REVIEWS 211 Descartes, of course..., Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, conceived the mind as the creature of human activity, the answer to irresolu- tion is the exercise of the will in making informed judgments and adhering to them. REVIEWS 211 Descartes, of course...

Mccarthy, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

178

Enduring Rents  

E-print Network

the survey by Nitzan (1994) and the overviews by Mueller (2003), Hillman (2008), and Congleton, Hillman, and Konrad (2008). On the other hand, countervailing behavior or resistance through sabotage in contests can increase rent dissipation (Konrad, 2000). 10... ). In each period in which a contest takes place, the contenders spend in total #25;1#0;#12;p ?the present value of the rent discounted by the probability of keeping 11 the rent in the future. The ex ante probability that a contest takes place in a given...

Aidt, Toke S; Hillman, A

179

A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning  

E-print Network

.scheiter@iwm-kmrc.de) Department of Applied Cognitive Psychology and Media Psychology, University of Tuebingen Konrad Berlin, Germany Richard Catrambone (rc7@prism.gatech.edu) School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0170, USA Abstract Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

GEORG-AUGUST-UNIVERSITT Computer Security  

E-print Network

GEORG-AUGUST-UNIVERSIT�T G�TTINGEN Computer Security Overview and Introduction Computer Security Security @ Göttingen » Research group for comuter security » Prof. Dr. Konrad Rieck » 4 PhD students (+ 2 security » Research on analysis, detection and prevention of threats » Development of intelligent security

Grabowski, Jens

181

PROXIMAL NESTING BY THE BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE AND TWO RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

proximity. Remarkable examples of raptors nesting near nonraptors include Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) nesting in Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) colonies (Knight and Erickson 1978, Johnson 1976) and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in European heron colonies (Makatsch 1950, cited by Welty 1962:260- 262). Some raptor\\/nonraptor nesting associations may be mutually beneficial. Konrad and Gilmer (1982) reported 30 Western Kingbird

DAVID H. ELLIS

1992-01-01

182

Aquatic Toxicology 74 (2005) 172192 Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in  

E-print Network

Animal Physiological Ecology, Zoological Institute, University of T¨ubingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-445X/$ ­ see front matter © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2005 responsible for acute pyrethroid toxicity in fish. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords

Hammock, Bruce D.

183

Complex Policy Choices about Agricultural Externalities: Efficiency, Equity and Acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of the research contribution of Konrad Hagedorn is his proposals for the integration of economic, social and political dimensions of agricultural policy. His wholistic approach involves, in part, an extension of new institutionalism to public policy. This article identifies a number of difficulties that arise in choosing public policies for regulating externalities generated by agricultural activity. First, it

Clement A. Tisdell

2008-01-01

184

DIVERSIDAD Y ADAPTACION: el caso de la angiospermas  

E-print Network

/evolutionary analyses! Subgenus Agave !Abies concolor! #12;Why we have so many species in Mexico? Cradle or cemetery... #12;Evolutionary Ecology of Tequila, Mezcal and other Agaves. Luis E. Eguiarte Instituto de Ecología, + attraction traits and rewards Agave! lechuguilla! #12;Christian Konrad Sprengel 1793 500 plant spp. What

185

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES Wilfried Hartmann.hartmann, sebastian.tilch, henri.eisenbeiss, konrad.schindler)@geod.baug.ethz.ch KEY WORDS: Thermal, UAV, Camera, Calibration, Bundle, Photogrammetry, GPS/INS ABSTRACT: If images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

Schindler, Konrad

186

Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

Ponton, Elizabeth

1986-01-01

187

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE Vol. 00, No. 0, Xxxxx 0000, pp. 000000  

E-print Network

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE Vol. 00, No. 0, Xxxxx 0000, pp. 000­000 issn 0025-1909|eissn 1526. Sebastian Heese EBS University, Institute for Supply Chain Management, Procurement and Logistics Konrad of the most important merchandising decisions a retailer needs to make is assortment selec- tion, that is

Aydin, Goker

188

Automatic detection and tracking of pedestrians from a moving stereo rig  

E-print Network

Automatic detection and tracking of pedestrians from a moving stereo rig Konrad Schindlera camera rig10 mounted on a moving camera platform.11 The described task requires a combination platforms used in this work. (a), (b) stereo rig mounted on child strollers. (c) stereo rig mounted on Smart

Schindler, Konrad

189

Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preacher-alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel made an oil by the destructive distillation of bones about 1700. He proclaimed it to be a universal remedy. Much later Ferdinand Runge detected the presence of pyrrole, but not in bone oil. He observed the red color of the pine splint wet with hydrochloric acid in the vapor of coal tar distillate, and called

Hugh J. Anderson

1995-01-01

190

Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

191

War on the Terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists, scientists and philosophers from Sigmund Freud to Konrad Lorenz and Bertrand Russell, concerned with the problem of war, have advanced the catharsis theory. Sport, they have argued, allows a cathartic discharge of the aggressive urge and provides a safety valve for war?like tendencies.Britain has a long history of adventurous aggression over the centuries when it was acquiring an empire.

Alfred Youngs

1986-01-01

192

The Impact of Durative State on Action Selection Joanna J. Bryson  

E-print Network

Behaviour of Animal & Computational Systems programme, grant number GR/S79299/01. Copyright c 2008The Impact of Durative State on Action Selection Joanna J. Bryson Konrad Lorenz Institute the ap- propriate decomposition of intelligent behaviour into three categories: · modules providing set

Bryson, Joanna J.

193

MILESTONE ANNIVERSARIES COMPLETED IN 2012/13 AND CELEBRATED IN 2013/14  

E-print Network

Wittenberg Dean's Office Lynn R. Coleman Plant Science Timothy John Michael Stem Soil Science 35-YEARS Terri Animal Science Donald Stanley Petkau Biosystems Engineering Michael Hearn Stringer Food Science Robert OF ARCHITECTURE 5-YEARS Kimberly Wiese Dean's Office Lancelot Yamali Coar Architecture Dietmar Konrad Straub

Major, Arkady

194

IntroductionIntroduction Mercury: Monitoring Patients with ParkinsonMercury: Monitoring Patients with Parkinson''s Diseases Disease  

E-print Network

IntroductionIntroduction Mercury: Monitoring Patients with ParkinsonMercury: Monitoring Patients with Parkinson''s Diseases Disease using Wearable Wireless Sensorsusing Wearable Wireless Sensors Konrad Lorincz1 Patel3, Paolo Bonato3,4, and Matt Welsh1 Application: Parkinson's DiseaseApplication: Parkinson

Chen, Yiling

195

Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal 12 (2014) 6382 63 DOI 10.3233/WIA-140286  

E-print Network

in Parkinson patients Konrad A. Ciecierski a,*, Zbigniew W. Ra´s a,b and Andrzej W. Przybyszewski c a Warsaw, USA Abstract. During deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of Parkinson disease, the target: Parkinson's disease, DBS, STN, FFT, DWT, RMS, LFB, HFB, hierarchical clustering 1. Introduction Parkinson

Ras, Zbigniew W.

196

Recognizing Emotions Expressed by Body Pose: a Biologically Inspired Neural Model  

E-print Network

that the same facial muscles are used to display emotions in widely different cultures. The categorical natureRecognizing Emotions Expressed by Body Pose: a Biologically Inspired Neural Model Konrad Schindler Lab, Tilburg University, Netherlands Abstract Research into the visual perception of human emotion has

Schindler, Konrad

197

FW4 water and humans Peter Rhines  

E-print Network

University of Washington image: Petermann Glacier, NW Greenland Konrad Steffen #12;Surface salinity of the world ocean ~ 1 Sept. 2011 The first composite image from the new Aquarius salinity satellite #12; water and green plants on land 1997-2003 #12;water quality and disease... cholera: a disease of dehydration, ocean

198

Background Paper -Research Workshop on Expectations in Science & Technology April 29 30, 2004, Ris, Denmark  

E-print Network

Background Paper - Research Workshop on Expectations in Science & Technology April 29 ­ 30, 2004, Risø, Denmark Expectations in Nanotechnology and in Energy ­ Foresight in the Sea of Expectations Mads Borup and Kornelia Konrad Introduction Expectations and visions about the future are increasingly

199

www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America Rivers provide numerous ecosystem services, including  

E-print Network

; a means of power generation and waste disposal; routes for navigation; and sites for recreation ecosystem services and threatens freshwater bio- diversity (Bunn and Arthington 2002; Richter et al. 2003 informing the science and management of freshwater ecosystems? Julian D Olden1* , Christopher P Konrad2

Gido, Keith B.

200

Sirococcus shoot blight on Picea spinulosa in Bhutan By T. Kirisits1,4,  

E-print Network

Sirococcus shoot blight on Picea spinulosa in Bhutan By T. Kirisits1,4, *, H. Konrad1, *, E Central Region, Council for RNR Research of Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, Bhutan. 4 E-mail: thomas.kirisits@boku.ac.at *These authors contributed equally to this work. Summary

201

How GRID could improve E-Learning in the environmental science domain  

E-print Network

How GRID could improve E-Learning in the environmental science domain Stefan Wesner, Konrad Wulf of the project is the development of learning modules for different disciplines in environmental science;How GRID could improve E-Learning in the environmental science domain The main objective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Evolution equation for quantum entanglement  

E-print Network

LETTERS Evolution equation for quantum entanglement THOMAS KONRAD1 , FERNANDO DE MELO2,3 , MARKUS of the time evolution of this resource under realistic conditions--that is, when corrupted by environment describes the time evolution of entanglement on passage of either component through an arbitrary noisy

Loss, Daniel

203

4th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage (2003), pp. 112  

E-print Network

and 3D data acquisi- tion methods in archaeology has recently gained much atten- tion. This is mainly4th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage (2003 archaeological sites Markus Grabner1 , Ralph Wozelka1 , Manish Mirchandani2 , Konrad Schindler1 1Computer

Schindler, Konrad

204

The Case for Young People and Nature: A Path to a Healthy, Natural, Prosperous Future James Hansen1  

E-print Network

1 The Case for Young People and Nature: A Path to a Healthy, Natural, Prosperous Future James Hansen1 , Pushker Kharecha1 , Makiko Sato1 , Paul Epstein2 , Paul J. Hearty3 , Ove Hoegh- Guldberg49 , Konrad Steffen10 , Karina von Schuckmann11 , James C. Zachos12 , Abstract. We describe scenarios

Hansen, James E.

205

Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15  

E-print Network

, Switzerland Prof. Dr. Konrad Schindler Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Tel.: +41 44 633 3004 Fax: +41 44 633 1101 e-mail: schindler@geod.baug.ethz.ch www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch Photogrammetry Lab 1: Projective transforms any list of 2D or 3D points (in matrix form) from euclidean to homogeneous coordinates and vice

Giger, Christine

206

Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15  

E-print Network

, Switzerland Prof. Dr. Konrad Schindler Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Tel.: +41 44 633 3004 Fax: +41 44 633 1101 e-mail: schindler@geod.baug.ethz.ch www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch Photogrammetry & 3D Vision Lab, HS-nehgbors and Lowe's ration test. Create a function match.m that outputs a list of corresponding image points

Giger, Christine

207

an der Universitt-Gesamthochschule Paderborn Stand: 14.08.2012  

E-print Network

wissenschaftlichen Mitarbeiter Vorstände: ? - 11/1976 Dr. Gerold Behrens (Wirtschaftswiss.) Dr. Michael Greven Dokter (Bibl.) [ab 11/84] Dr. Konrad Rögner (Geographie) [ab 11/84] 10/1985 - 10/1986 Dr. Gottfried Traudt (Masch.bau) [ab 5/86] 10/1986 - 6/1987 Dr. Gottfried Richenhagen (Mathematik), Sprecher [bis 12

Paderborn, Universität

208

With a Little Help from My Friends: Examining the Impact of Social Annotations in Sensemaking Tasks  

E-print Network

study aimed at evaluating the learning effect of social features in SparTag.us. We found significantWith a Little Help from My Friends: Examining the Impact of Social Annotations in Sensemaking Tasks, dschiano, echi}@parc.com 2 Knowledge Media Research Center Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 40 72072 Tübingen, Germany

Chi, Ed Huai-hsin

209

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 000 (2001) 000000 Non-contact eye-tracking on cats  

E-print Network

optical methods such as infrared limbus tracking or video based sys- tems. The latter methods shareJournal of Neuroscience Methods 000 (2001) 000­000 Non-contact eye-tracking on cats Konrad P. Ko; accepted 27 June 2001 Abstract The objective of visual systems neuroscience has shifted over the past few

Körding, Konrad Paul

210

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 110 (2001) 103111 Non-contact eye-tracking on cats  

E-print Network

optical methods such as infrared limbus tracking or video based sys- tems. The latter methods shareJournal of Neuroscience Methods 110 (2001) 103­111 Non-contact eye-tracking on cats Konrad P. Ko; accepted 27 June 2001 Abstract The objective of visual systems neuroscience has shifted over the past few

211

Mercury: A Wearable Sensor Network Platform for High-fidelity Motion Analysis  

E-print Network

Mercury: A Wearable Sensor Network Platform for High-fidelity Motion Analysis Konrad Lorincz, Bor This paper describes Mercury, a wearable, wireless sen- sor platform for motion analysis of patients being to previous systems intended for short-term use in a laboratory, Mercury is designed to sup- port long

Chen, Yiling

212

John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1950s, John Bowlby, one of the founders of attachment theory, was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology (e.g., Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially Robert Hinde). In constructing his new theory on the nature of the bond between children and their caregivers, Bowlby profited highly from their new approach to

Frank C. P. van der Horst; René van der Veer; Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn

2007-01-01

213

1 INTRODUCTION Creeping mountain permafrost, best represented by  

E-print Network

- based surveys use triangulation and laser ranging (e.g. Haeberli, 1985; Zick, 1996; Sloan & Dyke, 1998; Koning & Smith, 1999; Konrad et al., 1999; Krainer & Mostler, 2000) or satellite geodesy (e.g. GPS are seldom used (e.g. White, 1987). Terrestrial laser scanning pro- vides local digital terrain models (DTM

Kääb, Andreas

214

DESY Thesis 2006-007 and TESLA Report 2005-17 WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

of Electronics and Informational Technologies Institute of Electronic Systems ELHEP Laboratory Dominik Konrad Rybka M.Sc. Thesis Integrated Measurement Systems for Electronic Devices Operating in Radiation Environment Mentor: D.Sc. Ryszard Romaniuk Tutors: Ph.D. Bhaskar Mukherjee, DESY Ph.D. Stefan Simrock, DESY Ph

215

MoteTrack: A Robust, Decentralized Approach to RF-Based Location Tracking  

E-print Network

Welsh Harvard University Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Cambridge MA 02138, USA {konrad deployment of MoteTrack, consisting of 20 beacon nodes distributed across our Computer Science building, we of the location-tracking infrastructure is at stake. For example, firefighters entering a large building often

Chen, Yiling

216

!#"%$'&)()012 433"%5$6879@ ACBEDF$6@1HGIP$Q#(RTSC"%$6VUP()W  

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and Matt Welsh Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University {konrad, mdw, firefighters and rescuers entering a building can use a heads-up display to track their location and monitor across our Computer Science building, we achieve a 50th per- centile and 80th percentile location

Chen, Yiling

217

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology berlandstrasse 133  

E-print Network

.eawag.ch Speaker When Where Abstract Eawag Seminar Invitation Greenland Ice Sheet and dynamic response to global to 1 mm global sea level rise per year. Air temperatures on the Greenland ice sheet have increased by 4 warming Konrad Steffen Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf

Wehrli, Bernhard

218

ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2014-01-01

219

ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2014-01-01

220

ART-XC/SRG: status of the x-ray optics development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has ~65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2014-07-01

221

ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approx. 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Pavlinskiy, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2014-01-01

222

Development and Calibration of the ART-XC Mirror Modules for the Spectrum Rontgen Gamma Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission is a Russian-lead X-ray astrophysical observatory that carries two co-aligned X-ray telescope systems. The primary instrument is the German-led extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA), a 7-module X-ray telescope system that covers the energy range from 0.2-12 keV. The complementary instrument is the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope -- X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART), a 7-module Xray telescope system that provides higher energy coverage, up to 30 keV.

Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; Elsner, R.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Odell, S.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2013-01-01

223

Principles and fundamentals of x-ray absorption fine structure in actinides  

E-print Network

by W. Roentgen (Nobel 1901) 1907 "Characteristic" x-rays discovered by C. G. Barklin (Nobel 1917) 1912 much... #12;5 Discovery of x-ray absorption fine structure · First noticed before 1920 · Many hair-brained), by Compton and Allison, p. 663. The dawn of a new age... (k) N sin(2kr + ) Sayer, Stern and Lytle, Phys. Rev

Booth, Corwin H.

224

System design considerations for an x-ray phase-contrast imaging system based on in-line holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Roentgen discovered x-ray and performed the first x-ray imaging more than 100 years ago, x-ray imaging has always been based on the biological tissue's differences in x-ray attenuation. However, x-ray-tissue interaction causes x-ray phase changes as well, and the tissue\\

Xizeng Wu; Hong Liu; Aimin Yan

2005-01-01

225

Three-dimensional in vivo displacements of the shoulder complex from biplanar radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to adapt roentgen photogrammetry to in vivo studies of shoulder skeletal motion during arm elevation in the scapular plane. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been published describing shoulder bone movements. They involve plain radiographic measurements and utilize a three-dimensional (3D) approach. Measurements are either direct using pins implanted in bones, or

E. Berthonnaud; G. Herzberg; K. D. Zhao; K. N. An; J. Dimnet

2005-01-01

226

Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

227

Changes in optic glass-fibers due to x-ray irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between x-ray irradiation and changes in the functional properties of flexible fiberscopes. Scanning electron microscopy, electron spin resonance, and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques were used to determine the nature of the changes and their possible reversibility. Decreases in light transmission were observed at exposures above 5 roentgens (R), color changes were

H. Kato; T. Suzuki; A. Ito; M. Tanaka; S. Urahashi

1979-01-01

228

Rosenman's "Serendipity and Scientific Discovery" Revisited: Toward Defining Types of Chance Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of serendipity or "chance in all its forms" in scientific discovery is considered. The need to differentiate between purely accidental events and Rothenberg's "articulations of error" when discussing scientific discoveries is stressed. Examples of articulations of errors are noted, including Fleming (penicillin), Roentgen (X-ray effect),…

Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.; Yaber O., Guillermo E.

1994-01-01

229

Models of Jupiter's Polar Aurora  

E-print Network

power of about 1 GW were observed by the Einstein Observatory, the Roentgen satellite, Chandra x-ray Observatory (CXO), and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed x...

Ozak Munoz, Nataly

2012-08-31

230

Pediatric Advanced Imaging and Informatics: State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric imaging has been at the forefront of radiology innovation since the days of Roentgen. In the past 2 decades, evolving computer technology and sophisticated software algorithms have rapidly advanced how pediatric radiologic examinations are acquired and displayed, interpreted and communicated, and stored and retrieved. Cost-effective use of this state of the art technology requires fundamental knowledge of the modalities,

Jeffrey C. Hellinger; L. Santiago Medina; Monica Epelman

2010-01-01

231

CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA AND RADIATION THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia seen from ; 1922 through 1960 were analyzed. The average age of the males was 56 years and ; of the females 58.4 years, giving a general age of 56.7 years. The amount of ; roentgen radiation delivered and the various survival times were studied, and it ; is definitely shown

J. C. Cook; W. Romano

1962-01-01

232

Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the photosphere at x-ray wavelengths when observing the disk of the Sun, this part of the solar atmosphere emits so little that far from the peak of its Planck curve it appears dark in x-ray images. This impression of hot plasma following the magnetic field direction is further strengthened by quantitative studies that calculate coronal magnetic field strength and direction based on photospheric measurements and compare them with the observed brightness and location of the x-ray emitting structures. Such comparisons make it clear that, for the most part, the hot plasma conforms to the geometry of the magnetic field and that the coronal brightness is strongly linked to the strength of the magnetic fields which have erupted to the solar surface from the interior. It is also the case that the larger-scale, fainter corona, as well as coronal holes, are strongly influenced by the large-scale solar magnetic field. We may get a small hint of the reason that the coronal plasma outlines the direction of B by examining the thermal conductivity of a hot plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. This quantity has enormously different values in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the field for a coronal temperature of 10(exp 6) K, a particle density of 10(exp 9)/cu cm and a magnetic field strength of 100 G, the conductivity along the field is approximately 13 orders of magnitude greater than that perpendicular to the field. It is therefore not surprising that a parcel of plasma which is locally heated would conduct that heat preferentially in the direction of the field. We also note that the thermal conductivity parallel to the magnetic field increases with temperature T, while the perpendicular conductivity decreases. To the extent that the loop aspect ratio, i.e., the ratio of loop length to loop width, is determined by the thermal conductivity, we would expect that higher temperature loops are longer and thinner than cooler ones. However, if the loop width becomes smaller than the spatial resolution of the observing instrument, this effect will not be directly observ

Golub, Leon

1997-01-01

233

Uexküll, Peirce, and Other Affinities Between Biosemiotics and Biolinguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe some parallels and theoretical affinities between biosemiotics and biolinguistics.\\u000a In particular, this paper examines the importance of Uexküll's Umwelt and Peircean abduction as foundational concepts for Sebeok's biosemiotics and Chomsky's biolinguistic program. Other affinities touched upon in\\u000a this paper include references to concepts articulated by Immanuel Kant, Konrad Lorenz, Marcel Florkin, François

Prisca Augustyn

2009-01-01

234

Complex Policy Choices Regarding Agricultural Externalities: Efficiency, Equity and Acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of the research contribution of Konrad Hagedorn is his proposals for the integration of economic, social and political\\u000a dimensions of agricultural policy. His holistic approach involves, in part, an extension of new institutionalism to public\\u000a policy. This article identifies a number of difficulties that arise in choosing public policies for regulating externalities\\u000a generated by agricultural activity. Firstly, it

Clem Tisdell

235

The Brazos Valley Council of Governments Service Integration Report 2013-2014  

E-print Network

’ experience because it provides improved access to services through staff collaboration efforts. Service integration offers improved case management, which allows staff to increase knowledge and communication regarding the needs of the clients (Pindus 2000... five states shared two common threads: a client case management approach to service delivery and a state- conducted evaluation of its own programs (Konrad 1996). Service integration became more prevalent in the late 1980s as communities attempted...

Bakhtadze, Revaz; Ellison, Joel; Jumde, Anushree; Lee, Lexi; McCarty, Jordan; Pate, Aaron; See, Alexander; Xing, Ying

2014-01-01

236

N d'ordre : 552 GP prsente par  

E-print Network

PIJOLAT PINOLI STOLARZ SZAFNICKI THOMAS VALDIVIESO VAUTRIN VIRICELLE WOLSKI XIE Stéphane Mireille Patrick Didier Jean-Pierre Essaïd Olivier Xavier Marie-Reine Jacques Christian Patrick Philippe Michel Stéphane Jean-Michel Henry Jérôme Frank Laurent Christophe Michèle Jean-Charles Jacques Konrad Gérard François

Boyer, Edmond

237

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

HANNES MÖHRING. Saladin: The Sultan and His Times, 1138–1193, trans. David S. Bachrach. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. Pp. xxiii, 113. $20.00 (us), paper. Reviewed by Konrad HlrschlerSIMON PHILLIPS. The Prior of the Knights Hospitaller in Late Medieval England. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2009. Pp. xii, 210. $95.00 (US). Reviewed by Jonathan Riley-SmithFERNANDO GONZÁLEZ DE LEÓN. The Road

Konrad Hirschler; Jonathan Riley Smith; Jonathan Israel; Eric Van Young; N. A. M. Rodger; Stanley G. Payne; Philip G. Dwyer; Mark A. Burkholder; Anthony Adamthwaite; Andrew Preston; Bob Harris; H. W. Brands; H. V. Nelles; F. R. Bridge; Michael Adas; Donald Malcolm Reid; Michael A. Obst; Bettina Beer; Reinhard Wendt; Alan Dobson; Akira Iriye; Michael Geyer; Patrick H. rennan; Peter Simkins; Peter Krüger; Edward B. Westermann; Patrice Higonnet; Timothy Snyder; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Norman J. W. Goda; Philip Murphy; Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht; Anders Stephanson; David Mclean; Jorge I. Domínguez; Jens Gieseke; Beverly Lemire; Bart Dessein; Roland Popp; Alan Nadel; John Kent; Robert Holland; George H. Quester; Ronald D. Asmus; Stephen P. Waring; Jeremy Adelman; Scott A. Silverstone; Richard Matthew; Thorsten B. Olesen; Daniel H. Nexon; John Baylis; James J. Wirtz; James Lee Ray

2009-01-01

238

Expanding frontiers on one of the world's largest sand islands International Research Workshop on Ophiostamatoid fungi held on North  

E-print Network

Roux; Drs Bernard Slippers, Xhudong Zhou, Karin Jacobs, and Francois Roets; and post graduate students Marelize van Wyk, Gilbert Kamgan, Wilhelm de Beer and Joha Grobbelaar. Three days were filled with thought of this memorable, scientific event. (Written by Joha Grobbelaar and Gilbert Kamgan Nkuekam, MSc students) #12;

239

Technology in Our Schools: A Call for a Cost/Benefit Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm is a vocal advocate for the substantive integration of technology into language arts classes in ways that support the "critical" use of technologies and the learning of new concepts and procedures for reading and composing. He makes the case that no one can be considered fully literate without a familiarity with and appreciation for our…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

240

Places as Media of Containment Simon Scheider1  

E-print Network

in the environment with social consequences. Cresswell (2004), for instance, argued that homeless people are sensedPlaces as Media of Containment Simon Scheider1 , Krzysztof Janowicz2 1 Westfälische Wilhelms objects such as vessels, to point- like experiential spaces (Couclelis 1992), and social handles

Klippel, Alexander

241

Retention time of rays around small lunar craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh lunar impact craters have rays which are bright features radially expanding from host craters. It has been suggested that the rays are erased by space weathering that modify surface materials by exposure to solar wind and micrometeorite bombardments, and by impact gardening that mixes surface materials and subsurface materials by meteorite bombardments (Wilhelms, 1987). Werner and Medvedev (2010) surveyed

S. Suzuki; C. Honda; N. Hirata; N. Asada; H. Demura; K. Kitazato; Y. Ogawa; J. Terazono; T. Moroda; M. Ohtake; J. Haruyama; T. Matsunaga

2010-01-01

242

HAWAI`I MEDICAL JOURNAL, VOL 67, JANUARY 2008 Cancer Research Center Hotline  

E-print Network

the deadliest of all human cancers. Gliomas are primary tumors that originate in the brain, as opposedHAWAI`I MEDICAL JOURNAL, VOL 67, JANUARY 2008 20 Cancer Research Center Hotline Carl-Wilhelm Vogel Therapies Sandra Pastorino PhD and Joe W. Ramos PhD Natural Products and Cancer Biology, Cancer Research

Ramos, Joe W.

243

TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was born a noble being, a son of Otto Brahe, and a member of the Royal Danish Council. Very early he developed a great interest in science and especially astronomy. In 1575 Tycho visited the learned Prince Wilhelm II in Kassel. Here he was inspired by the famous instrument maker Burgi to build new precise astronomical instruments,

C. Thykier

1992-01-01

244

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEN ColloqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 111, Volume 3, novembre 1993  

E-print Network

ON THE MATERIALS Fig. 1shows the expectationsplaced on the automobileby customers and the social environment Consumption Emission Maximum Speed Recycling Technical Demands on Materials and Components Function Durabliity Materials used in automobile manufacture - current state and perspectives M. WILHELM Mercedes-BenzAG, ZWTIGA

Boyer, Edmond

245

Limnol. Oceanogr., 49(2), 2004, 588596 2004, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.  

E-print Network

588 Limnol. Oceanogr., 49(2), 2004, 588­596 2004, by the American Society of Limnology addition experiments Emma S. Kritzberg Department of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, S-223 62 Lund 12545 Wilhelm Grane´li Department of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden Darren L

246

The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

Baggett, Blaine; And Others

1996-01-01

247

How Principals Cultivate Shared Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do teacher leaders in your school mainly fill the traditional roles of department chair or grade-level representative? Or do they lead their peers in collaborative teams whose primary focus is improving student learning? Terry Wilhelm, director of the School Leadership Center for Riverside County Office of Education in California, says that…

Wilhelm, Terry

2013-01-01

248

Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

249

Brothers Grimm Bicentenntial: Blueprint for a Community Celebration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty at McNeese State University (Louisiana) and local civic, educational, and cultural groups encouraged their community to commemorate the anniversary of the births of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German scholars who recorded fairy tales, myths, legends, and folk songs that are now an important part of the western world's cultural heritage,…

Novak, Sigrid Scholtz

250

Dhanya Mary Abraham Reece Larson Adamson  

E-print Network

Curran Tapan Paresh Dalal Tara Lin D'Ambruoso Zachary James D'Amico David Clark Daniels Corey Danko Ian Wilhelm Bentley Janyu Jaimini Bhatt Siena Arcuri Biales Daniel John Bibisi James Alexander Bickerstaff James R Boivie John William Bojorquez Lindsey Elizabeth Bonitz Olivia Ann Bonner Dean's List Spring 2014

Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

251

USGS Open-File Report 00214 August 2000  

E-print Network

oxygen demand and total suspended solids by physical and biological pro- cesses but has little effect contribute considerable loads of chemical constituents that are not removed during infiltration (Wilhelm flows through the soil, undergoing biological and chemical pro- cesses as it travels to the water table

252

The #a = #b Pictures are Recognizable Klaus Reinhardt  

E-print Network

-deterministically) #12;nd a pre-image in the local pre-image language. According to [LS97b] L is recognizable if and onlyThe #a = #b Pictures are Recognizable Klaus Reinhardt Wilhelm-Schickhard Institut fur Informatik and width), where the number of a's is equal to the number of b's, is recognizable using a #12;nite tiling

Reinhardt, Klaus

253

Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

254

From Normative Discourse to Description and Explanation: A Recent Field Experiment in Consumer Exploitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of Quarterly articles representing the social science orientation of the business disciplines (consumer economics and marketing). Poverty, Minorities, and Consumer Exploitation" by Frederick D. Sturdivant and Walter T. Wilhelm, 1968, is reviewed and reprinted. A critique by Sturdivant is included. (SE)

Bruce, Grady D.; Jentz, Gaylord A.

1970-01-01

255

Journal of Vision (2003) 3, 808-816 http://journalofvision.org/3/11/14/ 808 The reentry hypothesis: linking eye movements to visual  

E-print Network

of vision have generally assumed that eye movements serve to select a scene for perception, so actionJournal of Vision (2003) 3, 808-816 http://journalofvision.org/3/11/14/ 808 The reentry hypothesis: linking eye movements to visual perception Fred H. Hamker Allgemeine Psychologie, Westf. Wilhelms

Koch, Christof

256

Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic theory of surgery  

E-print Network

Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic theory of surgery Tibor Macko Westf¨alische Wilhelms Macko (WWU M¨unster) Automorphisms of mfds & algebraic surgery 6th NRW 1 / 23 #12;Goal To present the surgery theory class. of top. mfds. Application to mfds SV / (j.w. with M. Weiss) A homotopy fibration

Macko, Tibor

257

Population geneticsPopulation genetics Breeding population a group of randomly mating  

E-print Network

be found from allele frequencies Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg Hardy-Weinberg theorem If fr(A) = p; fr Hardy-Weinberg theorem: applications 1. Knowing frequency of one allele/genotype, estimate frequencies of the other alleles and genotypes 2. Testing if a population is a Hardy-Weinberg population (randomly mating

Pechenkina, Ekaterina

258

Evolutionary Genetics: 15 Fundamental Figures 333 Science II  

E-print Network

and Wilhelm Weinberg [pp. 54-57] Hardy, G. H. 1908. Mendelian proportions in a mixed population. Science 28:49-50. Stern, C. 1943. The Hardy-Weinberg law. Science 97:137-138. 6 Thomas Hunt Morgan [pp. 349-352, 672-relations and their measurement, chiefly from anthropometric data. Proc. R. Soc. London 45:135-145. 5 Godfrey Harold Hardy

Janzen, Fredric

259

Understanding the Mind by Measuring the Brain  

E-print Network

Understanding the Mind by Measuring the Brain Lessons From Measuring Behavior (Commentary on Vul et al., 2009) Lisa Feldman Barrett Boston College, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical in a quest to understand the mind. Three lessons from psy- chometrics are discussed. In 1862, Wilhelm Wundt

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

260

The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

Reyes, G. Mitchell

2004-01-01

261

Learning to Play the Literacy and Learning Games--A Question of Enculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding that learning must be relevant and purposeful to be effective and engaging, Wilhelm emphasizes the value of teaching students "how to participate in meaningful activity in ways that make them increasingly expert in creating culture and . . . cultural meanings." He offers bullet points that suggest starting with students' experiences,…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

2007-01-01

262

Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

2012-01-01

263

Leonhard Euler, 1707 1783 Clifford Truesdell  

E-print Network

Bouyer de FontenelleGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 5 2 concretecontinuousdiscrete 3 Concrete Mathematics, "Euler and heuristic reasoning; mathematical thinking and history of mathematics", in Learn From. 337-379. #12; 1994 1983 Mathematics Magazine continuous discretecon-crete2 3 1960 -Edmonds 1970

Siu, M.K.

264

On the Complexity of SNP Block Partitioning Under the Perfect Phylogeny Model  

E-print Network

On the Complexity of SNP Block Partitioning Under the Perfect Phylogeny Model Jens Gramm Wilhelm for tens of thousands of SNP sites. The emergence of such large data sets underscores the importance affect drug response. The sequence of alleles in contiguous SNP positions along a chromosomal re- gion

Shamir, Ron

265

Simulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland  

E-print Network

a new methodology to prepare weather data for simulating the energy consumption of a heating system when is no lack of models to simulate the energy consumption of a building, few authors have compared their workSimulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland Wilhelm

266

Fungal Diversity DNA-based identification of Quambalaria pitereka causing  

E-print Network

of the disease is Q. pitereka. This study provides the first report of Quambalaria leaf blight from China of Corymbia citriodora in China XuDong Zhou1,3* , Z.Wilhelm de Beer2 , YaoJian Xie3 , Geoff S. Pegg4 Africa; 3 China Eucalypt Research Centre, Chinese Academy of Forestry, P. R. China; 4 Department

267

Universitt Bereich Ost  

E-print Network

erliner Ring Berliner Ring Wilhelm-Runge-Str. Albert-Einstein-Allee Albert-Einstein-Allee M ähringer Weg J Staudinger- stra�e Botanischer Garten, 3, 5, 14 Univ. Süd, 3, 5, 6, 13, 14 Studienberatung Albert-Einstein

Pfeifer, Holger

268

July 9, 2008 23:1 WSPC/INSTRUCTION FILE globalgummel A Globally Convergent Gummel Map for  

E-print Network

) is the device doping profile, which describes the (charge) density of ion impurities in the device. Typical Dopant Profiling Martin Burger Institut f¨ur Numerische und Angewandte Mathematik Westf¨alische Wilhelms. Keywords. Semiconductors, optimal design, dopant profiling, generalized Gummel iteration, convergence

Burger, Martin

269

Issues in Reasoning about Iffy Propositions: “The” Interpretation(s) of Conditionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Recent studies indicate that a vast majority of people judge the probability of a conditional (Evans, Handley, & Over, 2003; Oberauer &Wilhelm, 2003). This means that in evaluating the applicability of a conditional people do not,seem to take count ofsituations in which ,the antecedent event is false. This has been taken as evidence against the model theory (Johnson-Laird &Byrne,

Walter Schroyens

270

Early observations on optic neuritis and Uhthoff's sign.  

PubMed

For much of the 19th century, even after the discovery of the ophthalmoscope, the diagnostic clinical signs and the identity of primary optic nerve disease were confused and inaccurate. Amongst many contributions aimed at clarifying this muddle, those of Wilhelm Uhthoff and Edward Nettleship were of outstanding importance and are outlined here. PMID:20375511

Pearce, J M S

2010-01-01

271

Zeitungsausschnittsammlung Der Bestand S 11 ist eine Sammlung personenbezogener Zeitungsausschnitte, die ber  

E-print Network

Christoph Barthlott Wilhelm Bartholomeyczik Horst Bartling Hartwig Bartling Sonja Bartmann Hermann Bartsch Eckhard Bartsch Hans-Joachim Bary, de Elisabeth Basché Thomas Barzen Stefan Basché Thomas Baschnagel Jörg Bassler Annette Bassler Markus Bauer Friedrich Bauer Juergen Bauer Julia Bauer Karl-Heinrich Bauer Leopold

van Straten, Duco

272

-A Science Seryice Feature Released upon receipt  

E-print Network

? Mailed M8y 2, 1931 By Charles F it z h g h Talxnun, Authority on Meteorology. -RED RAIXBOVS Rainbows all of the rainbon i s formed. In a case recorded some years ago in Germany by Wilhelm Krebs, primary, secondary

273

MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

274

The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

2005-01-01

275

Next Steps in the Journey: Teaching with "Urgency:" A Call for Immediate Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a staggering number of students dropping out of school, widespread below-grade reading proficiency, and PISA results showing a demoralizing lag internationally in math, science, and general problem solving, teachers need to exercise all the control available to them to engage students in meaningful learning. Wilhelm suggests six steps…

Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

2008-01-01

276

The golden age of body psychotherapy in Oslo I: From gymnastics to psychoanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Second World War, Oslo became a crucial centre for those interested in how the body could be used in a psychotherapeutic setting. There, for a short while, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, psychologists, physiotherapists, dance therapists, and vegetotherapists discussed passionately with each other. The catalyst of these discussions was Wilhelm Reich, recognized as the founder of body psychotherapists. These discussions are

Michael Coster Heller

2007-01-01

277

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

are made of, the inks used in printers, the encoding of digital television sig- nals, the colors of signal problem to scientists and artists in the 19th and early 20th centuries, engag- ing scholars such as Germany's Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Wilhelm Os- twald, and the American printer and educational

Zanibbi, Richard

278

[A note on the technical debate between Reich/Fenichel and Theodor Reik (1932-1936)].  

PubMed

Wilhelm Reich's technical emphasis on the "systematic analysis of defenses" was controversial even before 1933. His main opponent in this field was Reik who expressed his criticism several times from 1932 to 1935. For Reik, the analytical process was essentially open, dependent on surprise. Fenichel, Reich's ally, defended a "scientific" approach, as opposed to "intuition", but later adopted a mediatory position. PMID:17152763

Schröter, Michael

2005-01-01

279

Mittagsmusik im Predigerchor Lunchkonzerte 20112012  

E-print Network

Nägeli, Othmar Schoeck, Hein- rich Sutermeister, Wladimir Vogel, Wilhelm Furtwängler und Paul Burkhard Viola, op. 74 6. Mittwoch, 14. März 2012 Klavierduo Adrienne Soós und Ivo Haag Klavier vierhändig Xaver

Zürich, Universität

280

Math PUrview - Winter 1999  

E-print Network

At the end of the brochure is the "List of Emigrants among all German-Speaking ... My first aim was my old alma mater, the Friedrich Wilhelm Universitat, now ... I went through the front entrance to the university and found the aula, which is still

281

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6293  

E-print Network

. and Wilhelm, Anne-Marie and Delmas, Henri Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation.jhazmat.2012.04.021 #12;1 Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6293  

E-print Network

. and Wilhelm, Anne-Marie and Delmas, Henri Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@listes.diff.inp-toulouse.fr #12;1 Degradation of paracetamol for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon

Mailhes, Corinne

283

Helmut H. Hergeth Candidate for Chair Elect of the Faculty  

E-print Network

a management background, by using both sides of my brain, I can bring the balance to this office that helps think there are also some important issues that we need to drive. Ongoing topics seem to be the balance Ph.D. in Business and Economics (Dr. rer. pol.), Westfälische Wilhelms- Universität, Münster, Germany

284

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

285

Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were “not nonsense” but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis — Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic

Gina R. Poe; Douglas A. Nitz; Bruce L. McNaughton; Carol A. Barnes

2000-01-01

286

The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

2008-01-01

287

A Poetic Journey: The Transfer and Transformation of German Strategies for Moral Education in Late Eighteenth-Century Dutch Poetry for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most popular Dutch educational enlightenment authors was Hieronymus van Alphen. His three volumes of "Little Poems for Children" published in 1778 and 1782 were extremely successful, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Inspired by the German poets Christian Felix Weisse and Gottlob Wilhelm Burmann, Van Alphen brought about an…

Parlevliet, Sanne; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

2013-01-01

288

Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany: Scholarly Approaches and Professional Practice. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph offers insight into the development of the conceptual basis, scholarly inquiry, and professional practice of adult education in West Germany from the end of World War II to the German reunification. Introductory materials are an "Introduction" (Wilhelm Mader) and "Translator's Note and Acknowledgements" (Martin Haindorff). Three…

Mader, Wilhelm, Ed.

289

Jahresbericht 2 Jahresbericht 2009  

E-print Network

Fortune 1467 Johannes Permeter 1468 Stanislaus P 1502 Johannes Honorius 1502 Peter Eisenberg 1503 Michael Bartholomaeus Gölnitz 1611 Wilhelm Schmuck 1612 Johann Philipp von S 1615 Johannes Friedrich 1616 Michael Wirth Ernst Noricus 1665 Gottfried Welsch 1665 Johannes Ittig 1666 Valentin Alberti 1666 El Johannes Ittig

Schüler, Axel

290

Michael Patrick Frank, 1999 Thomas Frederic Knight, Jr., 1983  

E-print Network

Michael Patrick Frank, 1999 Thomas Frederic Knight, Jr., 1983 Gerald Jay Sussman, 1973 Marvin Lee Minsky, 1954 Albert William Tucker, 1932 Solomon Lefshetz, 1911 William Edward Story, 1875 Carl Gottfried, 1796 Joseph Louis Lagrange Leonhard Euler Johann Bernoulli, 1694 Jacob Bernoulli Gottfried Wilhelm

Frank, Michael P.

291

On the Parameterized Complexity of Default Logic and Autoepistemic Logic  

E-print Network

Schmidt2 , Michael Thomas3, , and Heribert Vollmer1 1 Universit¨at Hannover {meier,vollmer}@thi.uni-hannover.de 2 Universit´e de la M´editerran´ee johannes.schmidt@lif.univ-mrs.fr 3 TWT GmbH michael performed while employed at the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universit¨at, Appelstr. 4, 30167 Hannover, Germany

Vollmer, Heribert

292

Masterarbeit Logics for Context-Free  

E-print Network

Masterarbeit Logics for Context-Free Languages Michael Thomas 14. Juli 2006 Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Heribert Vollmer Prof. Dr. Kurt Schneider Institut für Theoretische Informatik Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz selbstständig verfasst und keine anderen Quellen und Hilfsmittel als die angegebenen benutzt habe. Michael

Vollmer, Heribert

293

Public Relations Press Release  

E-print Network

include the 1993 Robert Koch Prize, the German Research Foundation's 1991 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize by Bayer CEO Dr. Marijn Dekkers in Berlin on March 6. Myriam H�nig Director Michael Seifert Press Relations and Research Reporting Phone +49 7071 29-76789 Fax +49 7071 29-5566 Michael.seifert@uni-tuebingen.de www

Tübingen, Universität

294

PERSONAL, BUDGET, PUBLIKATIONEN PERSONNEL, BUDGET, PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (WGL) Tr¨ager des AIP: Ministerium f¨ur Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur des) Prof. Dr. Erwin Sedlmayr, Berlin Prof. Dr. Michael Stix, Freiburg Prof. Dr. Gustav Tammann, Basel/00) Dr. Ziegler, Udo (ab 07/00) 2. Sonnenphysik Prof. Dr. Staude, J¨urgen Dr. Mann, Gottfried Arlt, Kurt

295

SEMINAR FR ALTE GESCHICHTE  

E-print Network

den Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Preis zu. Der Ruperto Carola hat er in mannigfachen Funktionen, der (Köln) »Géza Alföldy und das Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum« Prof. Dr. Michael Peachin (New York) »Géza

Heermann, Dieter W.

296

Preliminary Work and Proposed Continuation: Imaging of Speech  

E-print Network

Moon, Iowa Victor Schepkin, Illinois Reiner Wilhelms-Tricarico, MIT #12;Outline } History: Normative of structure & biomechanical properties. #12;Clinical Data: Surgical, Cadaver Samples Microscopic imaging of surgically excised tissue, Diffusion tensor imaging of muscle structure (goal: first DTI of human tongue

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

297

Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

Krewson, Margrit B.

298

Looking for One's Shadow at Noon: Vol. II. Finding the Self in School and Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains a collection of essays, reflections, and other writings (many of which originally appeared in several journals) on the relations among self and school and community. The first selection is an obituary of Fritz Perls, a leader of Gestalt therapy. The second essay, "A Social and Political Reassessment of the Work of Wilhelm…

Leue, Mary M.

299

How Shelterin Protects Mammalian Telomeres  

E-print Network

How Shelterin Protects Mammalian Telomeres Wilhelm Palm1 and Titia de Lange Laboratory for Cell navigate these problemswith the advent of telomeres, protective nucle- oprotein complexes at the ends telomeres contain a specific protein complex, shelterin, that functions to protect chromosome ends from all

de Lange, Titia

300

Telomere protection by mammalian Pot1 requires interaction with Tpp1  

E-print Network

Telomere protection by mammalian Pot1 requires interaction with Tpp1 Dirk Hockemeyer1, Wilhelm Palm de Lange1 & Gary D Hammer2 The shelterin complex at mammalian telomeres contains the single-stranded DNA­binding protein Pot1, which regulates telomere length and protects chromosome ends. Pot1 binds Tpp

de Lange, Titia

301

Central nervous system neurons acquire mast cell products via transgranulation  

E-print Network

Central nervous system neurons acquire mast cell products via transgranulation M. Wilhelm,1, * R-releasing hormone, mast cell activation, medial habenula, neuro­immune interactions Abstract Resting and actively degranulating mast cells are found on the brain side of the blood­brain barrier. In the periphery, exocytosis

Silver, Rae

302

Graph Theory and Statistical Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph theoretical methods are used in studying statistical physics. The objective is to try to understand the graph theoretical phenomenon that appears in the critical region of the Ising model. The Ising model was introduced in 1920 by Wilhelm Lentz as a model for ferromagnetism, and later studied by Ernst Ising. Ising could only solve it in one di- mension;

Roland Häggkvist; Daniel Andrén; Per Håkan Lundow; Klas Markström

303

Sisyphus at Work: The Leibniz Edition, The Kaiserreich and Divided Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite several attempts, the prolific writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz have not yet been brought together in a single edition. Efforts have been hampered by the sheer volume and diversity of the Leibniz estate, and also by changing political circumstances. This paper traces the history of the Leibniz edition as a long-term project of the…

Poser, Hans

2004-01-01

304

Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

Weisgerber, Leo

1972-01-01

305

Shakespeare Database Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shakespeare database project at Westf=8Alische Wilhelms-Universitat Munster, Germany posts project news and information on publications its own WWW Home-Page. There is also a preview on the Shakespeare Database CD-ROM to be presented at the 1994 Frankfurt Bookfair.

306

Logic and Sets 1.1. Logical connectives  

E-print Network

truth values of A and B. For example: · "Julius Caesar was the first Roman emperor, and Wilhelm II was the last German emperor" is true, because both parts are true. · "Julius Caesar was the first Roman emperor, and Peter the Great was the last German emperor" is false because the second part is false. · "Julius Caesar

Goodman, Fred

307

Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

308

Optimal Control Problems for Mathematical Models of Cancer  

E-print Network

Illinois University Edwardsville, Il, USA NetCO 2014 Conference on New Trends in Optimal Control, Tours, France July 23-27, 2014 Heinz Sch�ttler Washington University St. Louis, Mo, USA hal-01024610,version1-17Jul2014 #12;Collaborators and Support Helmut Maurer Rheinisch Westf�lische Wilhelms-Universit�t M

Boyer, Edmond

309

pre-acts -6th annual international conference of Territorial Intelligence -caENTI October 2008 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT METHODS IN HUNGARY  

E-print Network

with surface and groundwater management and protection. Sustainable water quality is a common interest 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT METHODS IN HUNGARY Dr. Zoltán Wilhelm Abstract: According to many a useful sustainable water management model based on the rainwater harvesting practices. Key words

Boyer, Edmond

310

Cultural identities in the flow -a theoretical reflection on the impact of technological globalization on intercultural communication  

E-print Network

but also global networks, connections and flows, what he elsewhere calls cultural complexity (Hannerz, 1993Cultural identities in the flow - a theoretical reflection on the impact of technological globalization on intercultural communication Carsten WILHELM University of Burgundy, Dijon CIMEOS-LIMSIC (EA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Freud's Struggle With Misogyny: Homosexuality and Guilt in the Dream of Irma's Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly condensed dream element trimethylamin is central to the dream of Irma's injection. After a brief review of the medical literature on timethylamine (TMA), it is suggested that two important meanings of this chemical and its properties lie in its disguised reference to disparaging views of women, as well as to Freud's homosexual connection to Wilhelm Fliess. Freud's misogynistic

David Lotto

2001-01-01

312

Completing the Compilation of SuchThat v0.7 H. Gast 1 S.Schupp R.Loos  

E-print Network

Completing the Compilation of SuchThat v0.7 H. Gast 1 S.Schupp R.Loos fgasth,loosg@informatik.uni­tuebingen.de Wilhelm­Schickard­Institut f¨ur Informatik Universit¨at T¨ubingen, Germany schupp@cs.rpi.edu Department

Bystroff, Chris

313

Completing the Compilation of SuchThat v0.7 H. Gast1 S.Schupp R.Loos  

E-print Network

Completing the Compilation of SuchThat v0.7 H. Gast1 S.Schupp R.Loos fgasth,loosg@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de Wilhelm-Schickard-Institut fur Informatik Universitat Tubingen, Germany schupp@cs.rpi.edu Department

Bystroff, Chris

314

Academic freedom: in justification of a universal ideal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the article examines the reasons why the various

Terence Karran

2009-01-01

315

The Origin of the Mole Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

Jensen, William B.

2004-01-01

316

Evil in Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

early 200 years ago, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel wrote that the highest and purest expression of a culture's values and world-view are embodied in its philoso- phy, its religion, and its art. A corollary of this view is that much as the world's civilizations have offered different answers to enduring existential questions, so too have these civilizations'

Lyon D. Evans

317

BRIEF REPORT Autonomic recovery and habituation in social anxiety  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Autonomic recovery and habituation in social anxiety IRIS B. MAUSS,a FRANK H. WILHELM impromptu speeches. Measures of anxiety experience as well as cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory, and vagal activation were obtained. Despite greater reports of anxiety experience in the HTSA versus

Gross, James J.

318

Vol. VII Issue I Fall 2004 The "hope" for the future was evident as the  

E-print Network

this semester­a jump of over 36%. Dr. Luther Wilhelm, Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, said the college campus welcomed record numbers of new students on August 19th. Approximately 4,436 freshmen were enrolled, a nearly 25% increase over the 3,568 figure in the fall of 2003. All of the in-state freshmen students

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

319

Environmental Health Perspectives volume 117 | number 8 | August 2009 1313 Research | Children's Health  

E-print Network

's Health Maternal exposure to air pollutants, and possibly traffic-related air pollutants dur- ingEnvironmental Health Perspectives · volume 117 | number 8 | August 2009 1313 Research | Children; Slama et al. 2008a; Wilhelm and Ritz 2003). Traffic-related air pollution is a mixture of thousands

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

321

22 Quest 3(3) 2007 umans began to practise  

E-print Network

and fungi is an impressive example of `mutualistic symbiosis', that is, of natural cooperation and dry grass, and the fungi grow on this substrate. In their turn, the fungi decompose carbon- rich intensive agriculture ­ they cultivate mushrooms inside their nests. Duur Aanen and Wilhelm de Beer describe

322

When a heart beats or the body is fighting a cold, one molecule that supplies the energy for these processes is always involved: adenosine triphosphate. Its central importance for metabolism  

E-print Network

about 80 years ago by biochemists Karl Lohmann and Otto Fritz Meyerhof at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in the body, and Lohmann and his superior, phys- iologist and Nobel laureate Otto Fritz Meyerhof, devoted them on the "Psychological Theory of Mental Disturbances." As an assistant at the Heidelberg Clinic, he worked with Otto

323

Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

2012-01-01

324

Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

1974-01-01

325

The calibration of flight mirror modules for the ART-XC instrument on board the SRG mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MSFC is fabricating x-ray optics for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope - X-Ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART for short) instrument under agreements with the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). ART-XC is one of two instruments that will be launched on the Russian-German Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Mission to be launched in 20161. Delivery of the flight optics for ART-XC (7 mirror modules) is currently scheduled for summer/fall of 20142. MSFC has to date completed assembly of four modules and has performed extensive calibration on two of these. These calibrations show that the modules meet effective area requirements and greatly exceed the angular resolution requirements. Details of the calibration procedure and an overview of the results obtained to date are presented here.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

2014-07-01

326

[Organization of an out-patient surgical aid and ways of it's improvement].  

PubMed

The organization of an out-patient surgical aid is analysed. The results of 2363 surgical operations performed in the outpatients clinics in 1990-1992 are analysed. 277 (11.7%) of these operations are usually done in hospital. 348 roentgen-contrast examinations (including iliacography, arteriography, retroe femoral and popliteal phlebography) were performed in the Roentgenological division of clinics for outpatients. PMID:9297028

Mikheev, N M; Miroshnikov, A M; Dudkin, B P; Gradusov, E G; Belan, L A; Buldakov, G P; Epanchintsev, F F; Stovba, S I; Kukes, A I; Trifonov, K V

1997-01-01

327

The novel combined x-ray image intensifier and its imaging performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The x-ray imaging technology has been improved greatly since Roentgen discovered x-ray in 1895 and it is very important in some fields such as medical treatment, nondestructive test and industrial detection. At present, there are many kinds of x-ray imaging technologies based on the different image detectors. To meet the requirement of real time observation, digital image processing and long-distance

Chunyu Yu; Benkang Chang; Rongguo Fu; Xiao Yao

2006-01-01

328

Auroral X-ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen

Nataly Ozak; David Robert Schultz; Thomas E. E. Cravens; V. Kharchenko; Yawei Hui

2010-01-01

329

Radiation physics and applications in therapeutic medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation therapy is an example of the successful application of advanced physics to the treatment of human disease leading to improved quality of life and even cure for many patients. The German physicist William Roentgen (1845-1923), who discovered x-rays in 1895 and pioneered early x-ray applications, would likely be astonished if he could see the breadth and depth of their

Mark Oldham

2001-01-01

330

Role of Imaging in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer therapy and cancer imaging are scientific and clinical companions. Most cancers are initially detected by an imaging\\u000a technique, either through the routine screening of at-risk populations or by the evaluation of patients presenting with symptoms.\\u000a Imaging the human body began as part of routine clinical care with the development of X-ray imaging by Roentgen. While X-rays\\u000a still play an

Anthony F. Shields; P. Price

331

Past and present of ESP in radiation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In just the 100 yr after W.C. Roentgen's discovery of the X-ray, applications of ionizing radiation have become more and more widespread. Electron spin resonance, whose 50th anniversary we celebrated last year, provides a powerful tool for the detection of centers and radicals created in various radiation fields. That arrives at the reason for the 10th birthday of this series

A. Scharmann

1996-01-01

332

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis) Caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum from the Water Reservoir of a Steam Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman presented with a dry cough, thorax constriction, and overall weakness. During the preceding 5 months, she had experienced these dry cough episodes twice a week. On examination, the patient was febrile (39°C), but a clinical lung examination showed no striking diagnostic find- ings. The high-resolution computer tomography-Roentgen im- age was normal; however, a lung function

Peter Kampfer; S. Engelhart; M. Rolke; J. Sennekamp

2005-01-01

333

Star identification techniques used for attitude determination and control of the X-ray satellite Rosat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rosat spacecraft (ROentgen SATellite) will carry a large X-ray telescope and a smaller XUV telescope. The main goal of the mission is to perform the first all-sky survey with an imaging X-ray telescope. Also, pointing to selected celestial targets will be accomplished. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized using reaction wheels, gyros and imaging star trackers as main attitude devices.

M. Bollner

1987-01-01

334

Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

Walker, Mark

2006-05-01

335

The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2006-03-01

336

A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.  

PubMed

This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

Hashimoto, Akira

2013-06-01

337

Friedrich Zoellner's correspondence with W. Foerster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty one letters by Karl Friedrich Zoellner to Wilhelm Foerster have survived, being probably nearly all that have been written by Zoellner. Most of Foerster's letters have been lost, with the exception of one preserved in original and some published (at least in parts) in 1899. An overview of the relations of Zoellner and Foerster and of their correspondence is given, and some quotes from Zoellner's letters are presented. These give new insights into Zoellner's scientific and private life.

Dick, Wolfgang R.; Muenzel, Gisela

338

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

339

Marc Miller - The Judaization of Wilhem Busch - Monatshefte 99:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance, it may seem surprising to note the inclusion of Wilhelm Busch in the canon of modern Yiddish literature. Busch, the well-known nineteenth-century satirist of German life, was considered not only iconoclastic, but also anti-semitic by many of his readers. Known for his negative portrayals of Jews—as well as numerous other groups—Busch was, in fact, a writer who

Marc Miller

2007-01-01

340

Otmar von Verschuer collects fingerprints, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>applying the solutionIn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

341

Otmar von Verschuer examines eye color of twin boys, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>In the Third Reich>taking the torchn November 1942, Otmar von Verschuer succeeded Eugen Fischer as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. von Verschuer had been the Director of the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Race Biology at the University of Frankfurt, where he had become famous for his studies of genetic vs. environmental influences in twins. His assistant at the University of Frankfurt was Josef Mengele.

2008-10-06

342

[Vincent Priessnitz and the Vienna Medical School].  

PubMed

Vinzenz Priessnitz, a small-scale farmer from Gräfenberg (Austrian Silesia), from the 1820's on aroused worldwide interest in hydrotherapy, on the basis of purely empirical observations on his regimen of compresses, head, eye and foot baths, hip baths and full baths, showers and cold-water cures. The new hydrotherapeutic impulse from Gräfenberg also influenced the Vienna Medical School. Wilhelm Winternitz, who became a lecturer in hydrotherapy in 1864, is referred to as the "father of scientific hydrotherapy". PMID:1949807

Skopec, M

1991-01-01

343

On fake lens spaces Tibor Macko  

E-print Network

| polarized homotopy types of polarized fake lens spaces L() of dimension 2n - 1. For any polarized fake lensOn fake lens spaces Tibor Macko Westf¨alische Wilhelms Universit¨at M¨unster www.math.uni-muenster.de/u/macko Bonn, 06/11/2007 Tibor Macko (WWU M¨unster) On fake lens spaces Oberseminar Topologie 1 / 25 #12

Macko, Tibor

344

The origin of pharmacopsychology: Emil Kraepelin’s experiments in Leipzig, Dorpat and Heidelberg (1882–1892)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical review shows that the early history of cognitive psychopharmacology, originally labelled as “pharmacopsychology”,\\u000a is closely linked to developments in experimental psychology and academic psychiatry. At the beginning of his scientific career,\\u000a the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) joined Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory of experimental psychology at the University\\u000a of Leipzig. Although Kraepelin was fired from his clinical position at

Ulrich Müller; Paul C. Fletcher; Holger Steinberg

2006-01-01

345

Einladung zum 46. Jahrestag am 19. Juli 2013  

E-print Network

21:00 Uhr Innenhöfe Universität West Albert-Einstein-Allee 47 Mittwoch, 10. Juli 2013 20:00 Uhr Garten Berliner Ring Berliner Ring Wilhelm-Runge-Str. Albert-Einstein-Allee Albert-Einstein-Allee M Parkhaus Helmholtzstra�e Parkhaus Albert-Einstein-Allee P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP PP P P P P P P H H H

Pfeifer, Holger

346

Universitat Ulm University of Ulm Institut fur Mikrowellentechnik Institute of Microwave Techniques  

E-print Network

Techniques Albert-Einstein-Allee 41 Albert-Einstein-Allee 41 89069 Ulm D-89069 Ulm, Germany Tel. (0731) 50¨at/Oberer Eselsberg · Exit at " Universit¨at/Oberer Eselsberg" #12;N W O S Albert-Einstein-Allee Uni-Ost Allee Albert-Einstein Halle MRM Bushaltestelle Wilhelm-Runge-Str. Linien 3, 5, 14 P H45.2 Albert-Einstein-Allee H45.1 MRM

Ulm, Universität

347

Imagining a New World: Henriette Frölich's Virginia oder die Kolonie von Kentucky (1820)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The title of Henriette Frölich’s Virginia oder die Kolonie von Kentucky (1820) voices the nineteenth-century imagination of America as the locus of a new civilization in the wake of post-Revolutionary disillusionment. The novel’s subtitle, Mehr Wahrheit als Dichtung, echoes the title of the autobiography of Goethe, author of the German Bildungsroman par excellence, Wilhelm Meister. Frölich’s title establishes a correlation

Pieter Vermeulen; Ortwin de Graef; Stephanie M. Hilger

2012-01-01

348

A clash of traditions: the history of comparative and experimental embryology in Sweden as exemplified by the research of Gösta Jägersten and Sven Hörstadius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the 1940s research traditions were often imported from Germany to Sweden, and young scientists went to German universities\\u000a to learn new techniques and get in touch with the latest ideas. In developmental biology, the comparative, phylogenetic embryology\\u000a advocated most forcefully by Ernst Haeckel co-existed with the “Entwickelungsmechanik” tradition developed by Wilhelm His,\\u000a Wilheln Roux and others partly as a

Lennart Olsson

2007-01-01

349

Landolt-Börnstein. Numerical data and functional relationships inscience and technology. New Series. Group V: Geophysics and space research. Volume 2: Geophysics of the solid earth, the moon and the planets. Subvolume a.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: The earth in the planetary system (H. Wänke, E. Groten). Properties of the solidearth (G. Schneider, G. Müller, W. Zürn, A. M. Dziewonski, D. L. Anderson, C. Prodehl, R. von Herzen, L. Rybach, I. Jackson, H. Wilhelm, P. Brosche, J. Sündermann). Gravity field and figure of the earth (H.-G. Kahle). Transport of the masses in the earth's interior (H. Mälzer, F. H. Busse). Planetologyof terrestrial planets (R. Meissner, P. Janle).

Hellwege, K.-H.; Madelung, O.; Fuchs, K.; Soffel, H.; Wänke, H.; Groten, E.; Schneider, G.; Müller, G.; Zürn, W.; Dziewonski, A. M.; Anderson, D. L.; Prodehl, C.; von Herzen, R.; Rybach, L.; Jackson, I.; Wilhelm, H.; Brosche, P.; Sündermann, J.; Kahle, H.-G.; Mälzer, H.; Busse, F. H.; Meissner, R.; Janle, P.

350

History of blood gas analysis. II. pH and acid-base balance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrometric measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration was discovered by Wilhelm Ostwald in Leipzig about 1890 and described\\u000a thermodynamically by his student Walther Nernst, using the van’t Hoff concept of osmotic pressure as a kind of gas pressure,\\u000a and the Arrhenius concept of ionization of acids, both of which had been formalized in 1887. Hasselbalch, after adapting the\\u000a pH nomenclature

John W. Severinghaus; Poul B. Astrup

1985-01-01

351

Enzyme-assisted physicochemical enantioseparation processes—Part II: Solid–liquid equilibria, preferential crystallization, chromatography and racemization reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution addresses the design and investigation of two hybrid enantioseparation processes including an enzymatic racemization step in order to enhance the overall performance. Complementary to part I where the manufacturing and the characterization of an amino acid racemase (EC 5.1.1.10) was emphasized [Würges, K., Petrusevska, K., Serci, S., Wilhelm, S., Wandrey, C., Seidel-Morgenstern, A., Elsner, M.P., Lütz, S., 2009.

Katerina Petruševska-Seebach; Kerstin Würges; Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern; Stephan Lütz; Martin P. Elsner

2009-01-01

352

History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.  

PubMed

The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

Castro-Núñez, Jaime

2012-01-01

353

Universitt Hamburg 1966 Klaus Pohlmeyer  

E-print Network

1810 Justus-Liebig-Universität Gie�en 1682 Michael Förtsch Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Karls-Universität Tübingen 1663 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Altdorf 1666 Emmanuel Stupanus Universität Basel 1613 Johann Andreas Quenstedt Universität Helmstedt / Universität Halle-Wittenberg 1643, 1644 Michael Walther

Bosma, Wieb

354

David Clark Marshall 2000 University of Arizona  

E-print Network

Gottfried Neumann 1856 Universität Königsberg Michel Chasles 1814 �cole Polytechnique Julius Plücker 1823-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg / Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1666 Universität-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg Michael Förtsch 1682 Justus-Liebig-Universität Gie�en Michael Walther, Jr. 1661, 1687

Marshall, David

355

The nuclear genome of the phytoseiid Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is among the smallest known in arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome size of the phytoseiid Metaseiulus (=Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Nesbitt) needs to be estimated before the whole nuclear genome can be sequenced. Two different procedures were used to estimate\\u000a the genome size of M. occidentalis; (1) flow cytometry (Marescalchi et al. in Genome 33:789–793, 1990) and (2) quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) (Wilhelm et al. in Nucleic Acids Res 31:e56, 2003).

Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash; Marjorie A. Hoy

2009-01-01

356

Bachelorarbeit Man-Loon Yu  

E-print Network

Bachelorarbeit Man-Loon Yu Eberhardt-Karls Universität Tübingen Wilhelm-Schickard Institut für Regio-Geld #12;Man-Loon Yu Bezahlen via Smartphone für ein Regiogeld 2/39 Gliederung Einleitung-Demonstration Fazit und Ausblick #12;Man-Loon Yu Bezahlen via Smartphone für ein Regiogeld 3/39 Einleitung Einleitung

Borchert, Bernd

357

Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preacher-alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel made an oil by the destructive distillation of bones about 1700. He proclaimed it to be a universal remedy. Much later Ferdinand Runge detected the presence of pyrrole, but not in bone oil. He observed the red color of the pine splint wet with hydrochloric acid in the vapor of coal tar distillate, and called the responsible substance pyrrole. He suggested that it might also occur in bone oil. In the mid-1880's, Thomas Anderson finally isolated pyrrole by repeated distillation of about 250 gallons of ivory oil. About the middle of this century Du Pont began to make it synthetically.

Anderson, Hugh J.

1995-10-01

358

PREFACE: Preface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS, Edinburgh. Konrad fell seriously ill in June 2014, having completed much of the editorial work for these Proceedings. Following an operation at the end of July, he remained optimistic of a complete recovery, but sadly this was not to be, and he died from a particularly malignant form of cancer on 29th August. The funeral was held in Warsaw on 5th September. Konrad's warmth of personality and generosity of spirit will be remembered by all who participated in these workshops and in the wider Newton Institute program. The Isaac Newton Institute provided an ideal environment for informal interactions before and after both these workshops. We wish to express our thanks to the Director and staff of the Institute for their tireless efforts to ensure the success of the whole program; also to the staff of ICMS, Edinburgh, for their expert hosting of the satellite workshop.

Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas

2014-10-01

359

Effect of varying ventricular function by extrasystolic potentiation on closure of the mitral valve.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mitral regurgitant indexes were measured by roentgen videodensitometry in anesthetized dogs without thoracotomy before, during and after extrasystolic potentiation of ventricular contraction while the atria and ventricles were driven in normal temporal sequence simultaneously or in such a way as to induce atrial fibrillation. Small amounts of mitral reflux were observed with simultaneous atrial and ventricular driving and with atrial fibrillation in the control measurements before initiation of extrasystolic potentiation. Reflux became negligible during extrasystolic potentiation and increased beyond control levels after termination of extrasystolic potentiation.

Vandenberg, R. A.; Williams, J. C. P.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood , E. H.

1971-01-01

360

Electron accelerator and target with collimator  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a radio therapy apparatus comprising an electron accelerator having a target and a collimator for limiting the x-ray cone. In the use of such electron accelerators , the radiation load of the patient is increased in an undesirable manner by neutrons in addition to the therapeutically desired roentgen quanta. To reduce the neutron level the invention provides that the edge zone of the collimator facing the target is made of a material of low effective cross-section for (Gamma, n) processes. The dimension of this edge zone material approximately corresponds to the half-value depth of the X radiation in this material.

Taumann, L.

1982-04-27

361

The linea aspera-pilaster complex as a possible cause of confusion with the 'flame sign': a case report.  

PubMed

The linea aspera is an important osteological feature onto which many muscles insert. Evolutionary as well as individual lifestyle changes can lead to the radiographic appearance of the linea aspera-pilaster complex as the track sign. This rare feature is known to radiologists and anthropologists as a normal roentgen and anatomical variant. However, its knowledge is less common even amongst experienced senior orthopedic surgeons. The track sign can be readily confused with the pathological 'flame sign' of Paget's disease leading to unnecessary investigations. This case report intends to increase awareness amongst experienced and trainee orthopedic surgeons alike, of the physiological existence of the track sign. PMID:21088469

Gheorghiu, Daniel; Leinenkugel, Andrea

2010-01-01

362

The effects of ionizing radiations on the chromosomes of Tradescantia bracteata . A comparison between neutrons and X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. Neutrons produce qualitatively the same types of chromosome aberrations as X-rays, but more of all types of aberration\\u000a are produced, per ionization, by neutrons.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The ratios of the dose of X-rays to the dose of neutrons both measured in roentgens, required to produce equal numbers\\u000a of aberrations are 2-4 for chromatid breaks, 3-6 for isochromatid rejoins, 4-5 for

J. M. Thoday; D. E. Lea

1942-01-01

363

Chisinau 1983-1986. Recollections about Chisinau Politechinc Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

%B The recollections include a journal of the events and people from 1983 till 1986 at the Department of Physics of the Chisinau Technical University in the Republic of Moldova (former USSR). The main scientific areas were semiconductors,low temperature physics, cristalophysics and roentgen rays, but astrophysics and gravity were also represented at the Department. The teaching of physics at the University is overviewed briefly also. The recollections are written in a literary form without formula.Other scientific, cultural and political events during 1983-1988 are mentioned.

Gaina, Alex

2010-10-01

364

[Surgical treatment of hepatic hemangioma].  

PubMed

Experience of treatment of 86 patients with hemangioma of the liver was summarized. New in the main tactics of treatment, envisaging the preoperative selective or superselective roentgen endovascular occlusion of the hepatic artery branches, ultrasonic surgical aspirator "SUS-101" ("Aloka" firm) application and the wound surface treatment with hot air stream (500 degrees C temperature), was offered. The mentioned method application permitted to prevent severe complications beginning, promoted the hepatic mass restoration even after vast resection of the organ in 3-4 months, functional indexes normalization and restoration of the patients' capacity to work. PMID:7658657

Vishnevski?, V A

1994-01-01

365

eROSITA .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is currently scheduled for launch in 2014. eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters out to redshifts z > 1 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of a few million AGN, including obscured objects. The survey will also provide new insights into a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including X-ray binaries, active stars and diffuse emission within the Galaxy. eROSITA is currently in its qualification phase. The first of seven flight mirror modules (+ 1 spare) has been delivered.

Predehl, P.; eROSITA Team

366

eROSITA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is current scheduled for launch in 2014. eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters to redshifts z > 1 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of around 3 million AGN, including obscured objects, revolutionizing our view of the evolution of supermassive black holes. The survey will also provide new insights into a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including X-ray binaries, active stars and diffuse emission within the Galaxy.

Predehl, Peter; Nandra, Kirpal; eRosita Collaboration

2012-09-01

367

Long-term history of chemosynthetic molluscan assemblages at Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbons seep sites  

E-print Network

of the continental slope (Wilhelm and Ewing, 1972; Bourns et al. , 1980; Behrens, 1988). The faults provide conduits for oil and gas migration from deep reservoirs (2-3 km deep) to the sediment-water interface, even forming visible slicks on the sea surface... of sediments. However, in sites of active hydrocarbon seepage, the mounds and burrows are much less common (Callender et al. , 1990; Callender and Powell, in press). Authigenic carbonates are frequently found, either at the sediment-water interface or below...

Warren, Kenneth Anderson

2012-06-07

368

[The medical staff of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in World War I].  

PubMed

The development of the Imperial and Royal Navy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire begun in 1868 being based on the structure established by Admiral Wilhelm Tegetthoff. The number of staff-doctors of the Navy did not prove enough for the needed sanitary measures. The permanent lack of doctors however was compensated by the expertise of the medical staff During the WWI, three land hospitals and one hospital-ship operated in addition to the doctors working on the single units of the fleet In spite of the constant problems, caused by the lack of trained doctors the health service of the Imperial and Royal Navy proved to be sufficient. PMID:19580124

Kiss, Gábor

2008-01-01

369

A physically based approach to modeling and animating a sailboat  

E-print Network

like to thank Tom Moore for his insight on the physics world, and yacht designer German Frers and his staff for their helpful hints in understanding how a boat sails. Finally I would like to thank my parents Massimo and Zoraida Miniati, and my... and response methods have been defined in order to simulate the effects of real objects colliding with each other. Mathew Moore and Jane Wilhelms [8], discussed this problem and presented several algorithms to solve it, David R. Haumann and Richard E. Parent...

Miniati, Maria Pia

2012-06-07

370

Correspondence between Tycho Brahe and Thaddeus Hagecius - the beginnings. (German Title: Briefwechsel zwischen Tycho Brahe und Thaddaeus Hagecius - Anfänge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voluminous correspondence of Tycho is one of the most interesting sources of the history of astronomy. Nevertheless, it is until today poorly known and rarely cited (Thoren being a counter-example), and a modern critical edition is lacking. Among Tycho Brahe's most frequent correspondents are Wilhelm, the landgrave of Hesse, and his court astronomer Ch. Rothmann. At third place - regarding the number of letters - we find the court physician and astronomer Thaddaeus Hagecius from Prague. Their correspondence lasted from 1575 tpo 1597. This article presents and analyses the most important letters of the Hagecius - Brahe correspondence.

Smolka, Josef

371

Recent notes on Tycho Brahe's library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilhelm Norlind lists 216 books presumed to have been in Tycho's library, but the actual count must have been much higher. The largest block of surviving books are in the Clementinum in Prague, just over 50 volumes but nearly 100 titles. Tycho tried to acquire books in many ways, and particularly by buying the library of Paul Wittich after the death of this one-time visitor to Hven. This talk will also describe two annotated volumes from Tycho's library that have recently come onto the antiquarian market: Apianus' Astronomicum Caesareum (Ingolstadt, 1540) and Cornelius Gemma's De naturae divinis characterismis (Antwerp, 1575).

Gingerich, Owen

372

Functional interdependence between septin and actin cytoskeleton  

E-print Network

a role in stabilisation of actin stress fibres thus preventing actin turnover. Methods Antibodies and constructs Anti-Septin2 polyclonal antibody was a gift from M. Kinoshita. Anti-human vinculin monoclonal antibody (clone hVIN-1), anti... barrier to lateral diffusion in the cleav- age furrow of dividing Mammalian cells. Curr Biol 2004, 14:1002-1006. 13. Takizawa PA, DeRisi JL, Wilhelm JE, Vale RD: Plasma membrane compartmentalization in yeast by messenger RNA trans- port and a septin...

Schmidt, Katja; Nichols, Benjamin J

2004-11-12

373

A reservoir management strategy for multilayered reservoirs in eastern Venezuela  

E-print Network

. Iscander Diyashev and Dr. Dwane McVay from Holditch and Associates, for his help and advice. I would like to thank Fr. Michael Sis, Fr. Dean Wilhelm, Fr. David Konder}a, and all the Saint Mary's Catholic Church Community for their support, spiritual... . 4. 8 Permeability vs. Porosity Correlation for N-1 . 4. 9 Fracture Length in N-5 Formation. Well P-1 49 . 66 4. 10 Reservoir Grid Block . 69 4. 11 Cretaceous Cumulative Production - Well P-4. . 69 4. 12 Pressures Comparison - N-3. 70 5. 1 Core...

Espinel Diaz, Arnaldo Leopoldo

2012-06-07

374

Mathographies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These biographical sketches, created by Bellevue Community College of mathematicians were composed by BCC faculty for use in theirs classes. A wide range of people and eras are represented. The persons include: Maria Agnesi, Archimedes, Babylonian and Muslim algebra, David Blackwell, Jerome Cardano, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Rene Descartes, Perci Diaconis, Paul Erdos, Leonard Euler, Charles Fefferman, Evariste Galois, Paul Halmos, Edwin Hewitt, John Kemeny, Sonya Kovalevsky, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Issac Newton, Emmy Noether, Julia Robinson, Mary Ellen Rudin, Jean Tayor, John von Neumann and Karl Weiserstrass. This is a nice resource for those looking for more information on these important figures in the mathematics.

2009-05-01

375

Helmholtz and Zoellner: nineteenth-century empiricism, spiritism, and the theory of space perception.  

PubMed

J. K. F. Zoellner began writing on "experimental proofs" of a fourth spatial dimension, and of the existence of spirits, in 1878. His arguments caused strong controversy, with rebuttal essays by Wilhelm Wundt and others. The author argues that Zoellner's case that these matters are experimental questions rested on arguments which Hermann von Helmholtz, inveighing against rationalist views of space and space perception, had recently published. Zoellner's use of Helmholtz's arguments to advance and defend his spiritist views occasioned strong criticism of Helmholtz, affected careers and reputations of scholars in Berlin and Leipzig, and caused enduring controversy over the credibility of Helmholtz's empiricist theory of space perception. PMID:2677130

Stromberg, W H

1989-10-01

376

Geologic Map of Part of the Western Hellas Planitia, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Rock units were deposited on Mars by meteorite impact, volcanism, wind, flowing water, standing water, and ice, acting separately or in concert. Hellas Planitia, the deepest tract on Mars, is a broad depression lying within the high-rimmed, approximately 2,300-km-wide Hellas impact basin. The basin and the planitia are centered about 250 km east of the southeast corner of the map area. Like other stratigraphy-based planetary mapping (Wilhelms, 1990), we suggest the most likely origins for age relations and morphologies visible in the map area.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Wilhelms, Don E.

2007-01-01

377

[Reactualization of the concept of unitary psychosis introduced by Joseph Guislain].  

PubMed

This paper reminds the concept of a unitary nosological and pathogenic process that may be traced back to Joseph Guislain (1797-1860). The "phrénalgie initiale" was regarded as the initial stage of psychic illness by Guislain (Leçons orales, Ghent, 1852). That vision inspired the work of Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1869) who further elaborated the concept of "Einheitspsychose" (Psychose unique--Unitary psychosis). That concept partially inspired Emil Kräpelin (1856-1926). Current classification systems like ICD-10 and DSM-III-R attempt to synthesize different views and the concept of unitary psychosis is actualized in the contemporary transnosography. PMID:8036939

van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

1993-01-01

378

The production-assembly-distribution system design problem: modeling and solution approaches  

E-print Network

-linearities (Wilhelm et al., 2005). Although many papers on the international supply chain design problem have used mixed integer programming models; each addressed only a subset of relevant fac- tors. Bartmess and Cerny (1993) presented a model with exchange rates... Locations P Components e P Components in the BOM for e f P Components processed at facility alternative f T Time periods Decision variables e ft b Number of backorders for end product e at facility f during period t 2 e pp ft h Sub...

Liang, Dong

2009-05-15

379

Eugen von Gothard and His X-Ray Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eugen von Gothard (1857-1909) made significant contributions to astrophysics and founded the Astrophysical Observatory in Herény, Hungary, in 1881. He also was a gifted instrument maker who designed and produced the apparatus and equipment he needed to carry out his researches, which enabled him to respond immediately to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s astonishing discovery of X rays. Von Gothard took his first X-ray photograph on January 23, 1896, thus inaugurating his first series of experiments, which ended on May 26, 1896. He carried out a second series of experiments on June 21-22, 1905, four years before his premature death at age 51.

Vincze, Ildikó J.; Jankovics, István

2010-03-01

380

Veterinary Anatomical Illustrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These remarkable illustrations were taken from the classic works of German veterinary anatomists, Wilhelm Ellenberger and Hermann Baum, along with medical illustrator, Hermann Dittrich. Originally published in texts from 1898 and 1911 through 1925, these works remain seminal for those studying various animals today. Animals covered here include the horse, cow, dog, lion, goat, and deer. Crafted as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections initiative, these works will be of special interest to veterinarians, anatomists, comparative anatomists, and anyone else with an interest in the musculoskeletal systems of animals. All told there are eighty plates here, rendered in exquisite detail.

381

The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love.  

PubMed

Harlow deserves a place in the early history of evolutionary psychiatry but not, as he is commonly presented, because of his belief in the instinctual nature of the mother-infant dyad. Harlow's work on the significance of peer relationships led him to appreciate the evolutionary significance of separate affectional systems. Over time, Harlow distanced himself from the ideas of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from Konrad Lorenz's views about imprinting and instincts. Harlow's work did not lend support to Bowlby's belief in an innate need for mother love and his thesis that the mother was the child's psychic organizer. Nor did Harlow agree with Lorenz's view of instincts as biological, unmodifiable innate needs, unaffected by learning. PMID:21877372

Vicedo, Marga

2010-06-01

382

[From the "Rothenfelser Denkschrift" to book IX of the German social code - Milestones of governmental responsibility for integrating people with chronic illness and disabilities in occupation and society].  

PubMed

After World War II, further development of the social protection schemes in place seemed an urgent requirement given a rapidly unfolding industrial society. At the request of Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, four renowned social scientists drafted the "Rothenfelser Denkschrift" published in 1955, which, on the basis of thorough analysis, presented concrete proposals for reshaping the field of social protection. Quite a few of these suggestions have since been incorporated in various books of the German social code, and some of their ideas are quite topical also in the context of the statutory health insurance reform to come. So, curative treatment and rehabilitation might both be considered indispensable constituents of health and social provision, with seamless transitions required in the interest of those affected as well as of meaningful utilization of resources. PMID:11742426

Jochheim, K A

2001-12-01

383

[Integration through university studies--experiences and prospects for the future (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The experiences gained over a twelve year period with wheelchair-users attending Marburg university are reviewed. The technical pre-requisites gradually developed at the university and the Konrad-Biesalski-Haus, a residential home providing accommodation for both, disabled and non-disabled students, have proven good and served as a model for similar facilities in Regensburg, Darmstadt, Hannover, Bonn, Bochum and Bielefeld. Up to 1977, 25 severely handicapped students had successfully completed their studies at Marburg university. Of these, 19 are employed according to their qualification or are taking post-graduate courses. According to the graduates' experiences, personal contacts with the appropriate authorities and private employers were very important for their vocational integration. The general public's understanding of the disabled has improved. What remains to be done is the amelioration of vocational and study counselling services for physically disabled secondary school pupils. Preparatory measures for job placement following study completion should be initiated early on. PMID:151316

Exner, G

1978-08-01

384

Alois Alzheimer: A Hundred Years after the Discovery of the Eponymous Disorder  

PubMed Central

The familiar term “Alzheimer’s disease” was coined by Emil Kraepelin to honour his pupil, Alois Alzheimer. However, little is known about the life of the man after whom this important and well-known disease was termed. On the centennial of the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease, it is appropriate to report some aspects of the life and scientific work of Alois Alzheimer. The authors contacted all the libraries of the Universities where Alzheimer studied and/or worked to receive any original material regarding Alois Alzheimer. This review is based for a most part on an original biography written by Konrad and Urlike Maurer after the interviews to Alzheimer’s nieces, Hildegard Koeppen, Ilse Lieblein, Bärbel Lippert, Karin Wei?, and his nephew, Rupert Finsterwalder. The authors obtained this biography from the Central Library of Medicine in Koeln. PMID:23674983

Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

2006-01-01

385

Understanding and Explanation in France: From Maine de Biran's Méthode Psychologique to Durkheim's Les Formes Élémentaires de la vie Religieuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My task here is to compare the ways in which the relations between the human and the natural sciences were conceived in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France and Germany. Historical generalization may be a mug's game. But if I had to generalize, I would say that the French distinguished the human or cultural sciences from the natural sciences only in terms of their subject matters, while the Germans were more likely to try to distinguish them in terms of their goals, methods, foundations, and normative content as well. Although we may be able to find many philosophical positions among the French that resemble certain aspects of the thought of Wilhelm Dilthey, Wilhelm Windelband, or Heinrich Rickert, no one in France held exactly the same combination of philosophical views concerning the human sciences as that held by any of these German thinkers. In particular, no one in France tried to distinguish the human from the natural sciences in terms of understanding versus explanation in the way that Dilthey did. Thus, although there were other disputes in France in regard to the human sciences, such as that between Émile Durkheim and Gabriel Tarde over the role of psychology in sociological explanation, or that between sociologists and philosophers over the methods of ethics, there was no controversy analogous to the conflict among Dilthey, Windelband, and Rickert over the best way to distinguish the human from the natural sciences.

Schmaus, Warren

386

Laboratory x-ray spectroscopy experiments in support of NASA`s x-ray satellite missions  

SciTech Connect

With support from NASA, we are performing a series of laboratory astrophysics investigations designed to address fundamental uncertainties in basic atomic physics processes relevant to the interpretation of discrete X-ray spectra of cosmic plasmas. Moderate resolution spectra acquired by the ASCA Observatory already demonstrate the inadequacy of currently available spectral modelling codes for this wavelength band. With the upcoming launches of AXAF, XMM, ASTRO E, and Spektrum Roentgen-Gamma, the demand for significant advances in this field will increase dramatically. Our program is based on the exploitation of the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a unique set of spectrometers and experimental techiques specifically developed for this purpose. Recent experiments have been devoted to definitive measurements of line emissivities for iron L-shell ions in optically thin, collisional plasmas.

Kahn, S. M., Columbia University

1998-05-22

387

Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

Foster, B. R.

1975-01-01

388

Terahertz Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past 30 years have witnessed the evolution of medical imaging. Imaging technology has drastically improved medical care and, as a result, everyday life. Since the discovery of X-rays by William Roentgen in 1895, doctors have used radiography to diagnose many diseases of the internal organs for several decades. The development of X-rays brought about a revolution in the field of medical diagnostics. The peak of this revolution would begin in the 1970s when computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were developed. Enormous progress in the field of computer technology has been boosting the evolution of imaging technology since the 1990s. To date, medical imaging innovations have focused on achieving excellent anatomic resolution and contrast.

Han, Joon Koo

389

Research and technology, 1990: Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goddard celebrates 1990 as a banner year in space based astronomy. From above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere, four major orbiting observatories examined the heavens at wavelengths that spanned the electromagnetic spectrum. In the infrared and microwave, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), measured the spectrum and angular distribution of the cosmic background radiation to extraordinary precision. In the optical and UV, the Hubble Space Telescope has returned spectacular high resolution images and spectra of a wealth of astronomical objects. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph has resolved dozens of UV spectral lines which are as yet unidentified because they have never before been seen in any astronomical spectrum. In x rays, the Roentgen Satellite has begun returning equally spectacular images of high energy objects within our own and other galaxies.

1990-01-01

390

The evolution of the quasar continuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We now have in hand a large data base of Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), optical, and IR complementary data. We are in the process of obtaining a large amount of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data for the same quasar sample. For our complementary sample at high redshifts, where the UV was redshifted into the optical, we have just had approved large amounts of observing time to cover the quasar continuum in the near-IR using the new Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) array spectrographs. Ten micron, optical, and VLA radio, data also have approved time. An ISO US key program was approved to extend this work into the far-IR, and the launch of ASTRO-D (early in 1993) promises to extend it to higher energy X-rays.

Elvis, M.

1992-01-01

391

Generalized Tensor Analysis Method Applied to Non-time-orthogonal Coordinate Frames  

E-print Network

A generalized covariant method of analysis applicable to frames for which time is not orthogonal to space, such as spacetime around a star possessing angular momentum or on a rotating disk, is presented. Important aspects of such an analysis are shown to include i) use of the physically relevant contravariant or covariant component form for a given vector/tensor, ii) conversion of physical (measured) components to generalized coordinate components prior to tensor analysis, iii) use of generalized covariant constitutive equations during tensor analysis, and iv) conversion of coordinate components back to physical components after tensor analysis. The method is then applied to electrodynamics in a rotating frame, and shown to predict the results of the Wilson/Wilson and Roentgen/Eichenwald experiments.

Robert D. Klauber

2001-07-10

392

Nuclear hostages  

SciTech Connect

Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the rationale for limited nuclear war, first strike, massive retaliation, non-proliferation, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties. He argues that the concepts of mobile MX weapons, fratricide, and population dispersal for civil defense are unworkable, suggesting a program of unilaterally withdrawing tactical nuclear weapons from Europe and strengthening intelligence and law-enforcement powers to withstand terrorist activity. Economic cooperation and political reconciliation may take a generation to achieve, but should be our national goal.

O'Keefe, B.J.

1983-01-01

393

X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Three 2D Gratings  

PubMed Central

X-ray imaging is of paramount importance for clinical and preclinical imaging but it is fundamentally restricted by the attenuation-based contrast mechanism, which has remained essentially the same since Roentgen's discovery a century ago. Recently, based on the Talbot effect, groundbreaking work was reported using 1D gratings for X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a hospital-grade X-ray tube instead of a synchrotron or microfocused source. In this paper, we report an extension using 2D gratings that reduces the imaging time and increases the accuracy and robustness of phase retrieval compared to current grating-based phase-contrast techniques. Feasibility is demonstrated via numerical simulation. PMID:18401460

Jiang, Ming; Wyatt, Christopher Lee; Wang, Ge

2008-01-01

394

Casimir-Polder forces on moving atoms  

SciTech Connect

Polarizable atoms and molecules experience the Casimir-Polder force near magnetoelectric bodies, a force that is induced by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the matter. Atoms and molecules in relative motion to a magnetoelectric surface experience an additional velocity-dependent force. We present a full quantum-mechanical treatment of this force and identify a generalized Doppler effect, the time delay between photon emission and reabsorption, and the Roentgen interaction as its three sources. For ground-state atoms, the force is very small and always decelerating, hence commonly known as quantum friction. For atoms and molecules in electronically excited states, on the contrary, both decelerating and accelerating forces can occur depending on the magnitude of the atomic transition frequency relative to the surface-plasmon frequency.

Scheel, Stefan; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

395

Disc Height and Sagittal Alignment in Operated and Non-Operated Levels in the Lumbar Spine at Long-Term Follow-Up: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare lumbar disc degeneration at 9-year follow-up in patients with chronic low back pain who had instrumented lumbar fusion or no fusion. Material and methodology: The main outcomes were disc height and sagittal alignment measured by Distortion Compensated Roentgen Analysis (DCRA). Secondary outcome included the Oswestry Disability Index and VAS back pain. Results: Forty-eight patients with baseline and 9-year radiographs from L2- S1 were included. Twenty-three had lumbar fusion and 25 had no fusion. Disc height was reduced at all levels independent of fusion. No difference in disc height and sagittal alignment was observed between patients fused and not fused. There were weak correlations, ranging from 0.04 to 0.36, between clinical and radiological parameters. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration increased at all measured levels independent of fusion and correlated poorly with clinical outcome. PMID:23961300

Froholdt, Anne; Brox, Jens Ivar; Reikerås, Olav; Leivseth, Gunnar

2013-01-01

396

Selecting a Large, Bright, Complete Sample of BL Lacertae Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observations funded by this grant were ROSAT HRI (Roentgen Satellite High Resolution Imager) observations of 21 Einstein Slew Survey X-ray source fields which contain BL Lac (Blazar Lacertae) candidates. The observations took place during A07 and A08; 17 of 21 were completed before ROSAT's demise late last year. The goal of these observations was to clarify the position of the X-ray emitter, enabling us to identify the optical counterpart on sky survey plates. This had not been possible previously for these objects because (1) the radio source within the Slew and RASS (Rosat All Sky Survey) error circles lacked a counterpart on optical sky survey plates; (2) more than one plausble radio optical counterpart existed; or (3) the radio and X-ray positions were not adequate to make a firm identification.

Perlman, Eric

1999-01-01

397

Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Psychology)

1981-11-01

398

Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

1981-12-01

399

New horizons for study of the cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems. [image reconstruction techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the development of computer-controlled three-dimensional reconstruction techniques designed to determine the dynamic changes in the true shape and dimensions of the epi- and endocardial surfaces of the heart, along with variable time base (stop-action to real-time) displays of the transmural distribution of the coronary microcirculation and the three-dimensional anatomy of the macrovasculature in all regions of the body throughout individual cardiac and/or respiratory cycles. A technique for reconstructing a cross section of the heart from multiplanar videoroentgenograms is outlined. The capability of high spatial and high temporal resolution scanning videodensitometry makes possible measurement of the appearance, mean transit and clearance of roentgen opaque substances in three-dimensional space through the myocardium with a degree of simultaneous anatomic and temporal resolution not obtainable by current isotope techniques. The distribution of a variety of selected chemical elements or biologic materials within a body portion can also be determined.

Wood, E. H.

1976-01-01

400

Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

Foster, B. R.

1975-01-01

401

Development of Mirror Modules for the ART-XC Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing x-ray mirror modules for the ART -XC instrument on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission under a Reimbursable Agreement between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI.) ART-XC will consist of seven co-aligned x-ray mirror modules with seven corresponding CdTe focal plane detectors. Currently, four of the modules are being fabricated by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each MSFC module provides an effective area of 65 cm2 at 8 keV, response out to 30 keV, and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec or better HPD. We will present a status of the ART x-ray module development at MSFC.

Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; McCracken, J.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.

2012-01-01

402

Characterizing potential exposure to the public from low-level radioactive waste transportation by truck.  

PubMed

To address public concern about potential exposure to gamma radiation from legal-weight low-level radioactive waste truck shipments to the Nevada Test Site, a stationary, automated array of four pressurized ion chambers was established for trucks to pass through. Data were collected from 1,012 of the 2,260 trucks that transported low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site from February through December 2003. To avoid perception of biasing a potential exposure low, the maximum reading (muR per hour; muR h(-1)) from the array was assigned as the gross measurement value for each truck. [In this article, exposure measurements are reported as Roentgen (R), as this unit is consistent with the data readings of the measurement instruments and has been historically presented to public stakeholders. Subsequently, dose measurements are reported as Roentgen Equivalent Man (rem).] To calculate the "net exposure" for each truck, the average and standard deviation of the maximum background values during the corresponding 12-h period when the truck arrived were subtracted from the gross value. For 483 trucks (47.7%), calculated net exposure values were equal to or less than zero, indicating that the exposure from the truck was indistinguishable from background. An additional 206 trucks (20.4%) had calculated net exposure values ranging between 0.0 and 1.0 muR h(-1). Cumulative exposure scenarios appropriate for rural transportation routes to the Nevada Test Site were developed; however, these scenarios assumed the unlikely case that the same individual was exposed to all of the trucks on that route. Cumulative exposure values were dominated by a small percentage of the trucks with comparatively high values. In communities along transportation routes, the probability of an individual receiving a potential exposure from a single truck may be a more meaningful perspective. PMID:17993845

Miller, Julianne J; Shafer, David S; Gray, Karen J; Church, Bruce W; Tappen, Jeffrey J; Campbell, Scott A; Holz, Barbara A

2007-12-01

403

SRG/eROSITA prospects for the detection of stellar tidal disruption flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the potential of the Extended ROentgen Survey with An Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) telescope on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory to detect stellar tidal disruption events (TDE) during its 4-year all-sky survey. These events are expected to reveal themselves as luminous flares of UV/soft X-ray emission associated with the centres of previously non-active galaxies and fading by a few orders of magnitude on time-scales of several months to years. Given that eROSITA will complete an all-sky survey every 6 months and a total of eight such scans will be performed over the course of the mission, we propose to distinguish TDEs from other X-ray transients using two criteria: (i) large (more than a factor of 10) X-ray variation between two subsequent 6-month scans and (ii) soft X-ray spectrum. The expected number of TDE candidates is ˜103 per scan (with most of the events being new discoveries in a given scan), so that a total of several thousand TDE candidates could be found during the 4-year survey. The actual number may significantly differ from this estimate, since it is based on just a few TDEs observed so far. The eROSITA all-sky survey is expected to be nearly equally sensitive to TDEs occurring near supermassive black holes (SMBH) of mass between ˜106 and ˜107 M? and will thus provide a unique census of quiescent SMBHs and associated nuclear stellar cusps in the local Universe (z ? 0.15). Information on TDE candidates will be available within a day after their detection and localization by eROSITA, making possible follow-up observations that may reveal peculiar types of TDEs.

Khabibullin, I.; Sazonov, S.; Sunyaev, R.

2014-01-01

404

Imaging the renal mass: a historical review.  

PubMed

A matter of months after Roentgen's landmark discovery in 1895, Roentgen's rays were focused on diseases and disorders of the urinary tract, specifically the kidney. At the dawn of the 20th century, urologists in the United States and around the world quickly recognized that by using a variety of metal stylets and radiopaque contrast agents, such as silver salts, the upper urinary tract, namely the ureter, pelvis, and calyces, could be depicted with radiography. Renal cysts and tumors were diagnosed on the basis of deformities in the kidney. Retrograde pyelography dominated the imaging evaluation of the kidney until the discovery of a safe intravenous method for urinary tract imaging (ie, intravenous pyelography). Pioneers and pathfinders in the field of contrast media development and radiologic procedures helped give radiologists the lead role in the work-up of renal masses, an area where urologists once held forth. The subspecialty of uroradiology was born in the middle of the 20th century. Intravenous urography, nephrotomography, and diagnostic angiography with pharmacologic manipulation followed by cyst or mass puncture and biopsy yielded unrivaled specificity for the diagnosis and staging of benign and malignant renal masses. The advent of cross-sectional and multiplanar imaging and the profound effects they had and continue to have on the discovery and characterization of renal masses has been detailed in the pages of Radiology since the 1920s. Ultrasonography, nuclear imaging, computed tomographic scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography each have made a claim to a part of the imaging algorithm of modern uroradiologic practice. © RSNA, 2014 Listen to a discussion of the history of radiology. PMID:25340433

McClennan, Bruce L

2014-11-01

405

eROSITA on SRG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian/German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is now officially scheduled for launch on March 26, 2016. eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters to redshifts z < 1 in order to study the large scale structure in the universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. In addition, eROSITA is expected to yield a sample of a few million AGN, including obscured objects, revolutionizing our view of the evolution of supermassive black holes. The survey will also provide new insights into a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including X-ray binaries, active stars and diffuse emission within the Galaxy. eROSITA is currently (June 2014) in its flight model and calibration phase. All seven flight mirror modules (+ 1 spare) have been delivered and measured in X-rays. The first camera including the complete electronics has been extensively tested (vacuum + X-rays). A pre-test of the final end-toend test has been performed already. So far, all subsystems and components are well within their expected performances.

Predehl, Peter; Andritschke, Robert; Becker, Werner; Bornemann, Walter; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Brunner, Hermann; Boller, Thomas; Burwitz, Vadim; Burkert, Wolfgang; Clerc, Nicolas; Churazov, Evgeniy; Coutinho, Diogo; Dennerl, Konrad; Eder, Josef; Emberger, Valentin; Eraerds, Tanja; Freyberg, Michael J.; Friedrich, Peter; Fürmetz, Maria; Georgakakis, Antonis; Grossberger, Christoph; Haberl, Frank; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Hasinger, Günther; Hoelzl, Johannes; Huber, Heinrich; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kink, Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Lamer, Georg; Lomakin, Ilya; Lapchov, Igor; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Meidinger, Norbert; Merloni, Andrea; Mican, Benjamin; Mohr, Joseph; Müller, Siegfried; Nandra, Kirpal; Pacaud, Florian; Pavlinsky, Mikhail N.; Perinati, Emanuele; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Pietschner, Daniel; Reiffers, Jonas; Reiprich, Thomas; Robrade, Jan; Salvato, Mara; Santangelo, Andrea E.; Sasaki, Manami; Scheuerle, Hartmut; Schmid, Christian; Schmitt, Jürgen; Schwope, Axel D.; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tenzer, Christoph; Tiedemann, Lars; Xu, Weizong; Yaroshenko, Valeri; Walther, Sabine; Wille, Michael; Wilms, Jörn; Zhang, Yu-Ying

2014-07-01

406

Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the ‘MPI semiconductor laboratory’ for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384×384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious ‘Dark Energy’. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the ‘Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics’, is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite ‘Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma’ (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Hälker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schächner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strüder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg

2010-12-01

407

Withstanding trauma: the significance of Emma Eckstein's circumcision to Freud's Irma dream.  

PubMed

The author considers the medical rationale for Wilhelm Fliess's operation on Emma Eckstein's nose in February 1895 and interprets the possible role that this played in Freud's dream of Irma's injection five months later. The author's main argument is that Emma likely endured female castration as a child and that she therefore experienced the surgery to her nose in 1895 as a retraumatization of her childhood trauma. The author further argues that Freud's unconscious identification with Emma, which broke through in his dream of Irma's injection with resistances and apotropaic defenses, served to accentuate his own "masculine protest". The understanding brought to light by the present interpretation of Freud's Irma dream, when coupled with our previous knowledge of Freud, allows us to better grasp the unconscious logic and origins of psychoanalysis itself.(1.) PMID:23824652

Bonomi, Carlo

2013-07-01

408

Conception and development of the Second Life® Embryo Physics Course.  

PubMed

The study of embryos with the tools and mindset of physics, started by Wilhelm His in the 1880s, has resumed after a hiatus of a century. The Embryo Physics Course convenes online allowing interested researchers and students, who are scattered around the world, to gather weekly in one place, the virtual world of Second Life®. It attracts people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life: applied mathematics, artificial life, bioengineering, biophysics, cancer biology, cellular automata, civil engineering, computer science, embryology, electrical engineering, evolution, finite element methods, history of biology, human genetics, mathematics, molecular developmental biology, molecular biology, nanotechnology, philosophy of biology, phycology, physics, self-reproducing systems, stem cells, tensegrity structures, theoretical biology, and tissue engineering. Now in its fifth year, the Embryo Physics Course provides a focus for research on the central question of how an embryo builds itself. PMID:23586840

Gordon, Richard

2013-06-01

409

Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.  

PubMed

This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime. PMID:20503762

Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

2005-01-01

410

Aerodynamics and mathematics in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy: a comparison of research institutes.  

PubMed

The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research. PMID:20503761

Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R

2005-01-01

411

Jung's quest for the Aurora consurgens.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on the year 1929 when Jung published 'A European commentary' to Richard Wilhelm's German translation of the Taoist text The Secret of the Golden Flower. This shows that Jung had already started on the track of European alchemy by following up Conrad Waldkirch's preface in Artis Auriferae (1593); and it raises the question of whether this could be the possible missing link to Jung's subsequent research in Alchemy and Hermetic Philosophy in the years to come. It is argued that here was the beginning of Jung's quest for the Aurora consurgens, the publication of which concludes the Mysterium Conuinctionis more than twenty years later. It is further maintained that this choice of the Aurora is a profound expression of Jung's ambition to revitalize the past from within the individual, and helps explain Jung's deep concern with the welfare and future of modern society. PMID:24467350

Haaning, Aksel

2014-02-01

412

["Directed perception", "mood", "social reinforcement". Sketches towards the historical semantics of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact].  

PubMed

This article analyses three basic concepts of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. It shows first that Fleck's notion of "directed perception" is closely linked to Jakob von Uexküll's writings on the "Umwelt" of animals and humans. The article then proposes to regard the epistemological debates surrounding parapsychology as an important testing ground for the Fleckian concept of „mood“ and his concomitant hypotheses about „the tenacity of systems of opinion and the harmony of illusions". It finally argues that Fleck's modification of Wilhelm Jerusalem's idea of the "social consolidation" of knowledge helps us to understand the indebtedness of Fleck towards early functionalist sociology as well as his strong belief in "specific historical laws governing the development of ideas"The historical semantics of Fleck's works hence proves that his insights are neither marginal nor revolutionary but rather deeply rooted within scientific traditions from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. PMID:24407936

Bauer, Julian

2014-01-01

413

The Off-Limb Behaviour Of The FIP Effect In The Solar Plasma observed by SUMER on SOHO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a study of EUV off-limb spectra obtained on 1996 August 8 and 9 with the SUMER spectrometer on spacecraft SOHO. With the capabilities of SUMER, we rastered the emitting source from 30'' off the lim outwards, and secured a unique high quality set of high-resolution EUV spectra. Using this observation, we investigate the FIP-effect in the transition region emission in the corona and also its variation as a function of height above the lim. We compare and rediscuss our results with the similar observation taken with SUMER on 1996 June 20 but beginning from 40'' off the limb outwards. The abstrat of this paper is already submitted by Dr W. Curdt : A quiet Sun Spectral Atlas Between 660-1500 A Observed with SUMER on SOHO by Curdt, Brekke, Schuhle, Wilhelm and Dwivedi.

Dwivedi, B. N.; Curdt, W.; Wilhelm, K.

1999-10-01

414

Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 8 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 8)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions span a time interval of more than 450 years. There are biographical investigations on Georg Joachim Rheticus, C.W.A. von Wahl and K.F. Heym, investigation on a reprint of a chapter of the principal work of Nicolaus Copernicus, on Christoph Scheiner and the "camera obscura", and, with respect to the history of timekeeping, on the "big Nuremberg clock". 19th century topics are: a contribution on the honorary doctorate of Joseph Fraunhofer, and on the construction of a lunar globe by Wilhelmine Witte, while the report on Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and the cholera pandemia in Königsberg in the year 1831 gives a view into everyday life of scientists. 20th century topics are: the contributions on Bruno Thüring in Vienna and his relations with national socialism, as well as on Arthur Beer, Albert Einstein and the Warburg library. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

415

"Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

Adam, Adolf

416

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette.  

PubMed

According to official historiography, the 10-year-old Louis XVII died in the Temple of Paris on June 8, 1795. However, public rumour spread the theory that Louis XVII escaped and that his descendants would be alive today. One such putative 'Louis XVII' was Carl Wilhelm Naundorff, who died in 1845 in Delft (the Netherlands). Comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis gave evidence that his remains could not be identified as those of Louis XVII. In the present study, mtDNA analysis was performed on the heart of the young boy who died in the prison of Paris in 1795. In order to obtain the strongest evidence possible, two laboratories independently analysed the heart. The results showed that the consensus mtDNA sequence of the heart was identical to that of the maternal relatives of Louis XVII. PMID:11313757

Jehaes, E; Pfeiffer, H; Toprak, K; Decorte, R; Brinkmann, B; Cassiman, J J

2001-03-01

417

The history of examination of reflexes.  

PubMed

In the late 1800s, Wilhelm Erb, Joseph Babinski, William Gowers, and others helped develop the neurologic examination as we know it today. Erb was one of the first to emphasize a detailed and systematic neurologic exam and was co-discoverer of the muscle stretch reflex, Gowers began studying the knee jerk shortly after it was described, and Babinski focused on finding reliable signs that could differentiate organic from hysterical paralysis. These physicians and others emphasized the bedside examination of reflexes, which have been an important part of the neurologic examination ever since. This review will focus on the history of the examination of the following muscle stretch and superficial/cutaneous reflexes: knee jerk, jaw jerk, deep abdominal reflexes, superficial abdominal reflexes, plantar reflex/Babinski sign, and palmomental reflex. The history of reflex grading will also be discussed. PMID:24695995

Boes, Christopher J

2014-12-01

418

Molecular Structure of Nitric acid (aq)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nitric acid was first discovered in 1648 by a German chemist, Johann Rudolf. However, in 1901 Wilhelm Ostwald developed the Ostwald Process, which became the principle way of producing nitric acid. During the Ostwald process, ammonia gas is successively oxidized to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide by air or oxygen in the presence of a platinum gauze catalyst. Nitric acid has a characteristic choking odor that is acrid and suffocating. It is a caustic and corrosive liquid which will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Nitric acid is not combustible, but it may give off poisionous oxides of nitrogen and acid fumes when heated in fire. Nitric acid is mainly used in the production of fertilizers, explosives, flares and rocket propellants. Nitric acids react with toluene in the presence of sulfuric acid to form trinitrotoluene (TNT).

2002-09-10

419

Communication: Supramolecular structures in monohydroxy alcohols: Insights from shear-mechanical studies of a systematic series of octanol structural isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study [C. Gainaru, R. Figuli, T. Hecksher, B. Jakobsen, J. C. Dyre, M. Wilhelm, and R. Böhmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098301 (2014)] of two supercooled monohydroxy alcohols close to the glass-transition temperature showed that the Debye peak, thus far mainly observed in the electrical response, also has a mechanical signature. In this work, we apply broadband shear-mechanical spectroscopy to a systematic series of octanol structural isomers, x-methyl-3-heptanol (with x ranging from 2 to 6). We find that the characteristics of the mechanical signature overall follow the systematic behavior observed in dielectric spectroscopy. However, the influence from the molecular structure is strikingly small in mechanics (compared to roughly a factor 100 increase in dielectric strength) and one isomer clearly does not conform to the general ordering. Finally, the mechanical data surprisingly indicate that the size of the supramolecular structures responsible for the Debye process is nearly unchanged in the series.

Hecksher, Tina; Jakobsen, Bo

2014-09-01

420

Eight Physicists and Astronomers: Biographical Portraits  

E-print Network

This essay provides concise biographical information about eight physicists, astronomers, astrophysicists, and cosmologists from the twentieth century. The portrayed scientists are Hermann Bondi (1919-2005), Charles L. Critchfield (1910-1994), Arthur E. Haas (1884-1941), Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010, Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), Wilhelm Lenz (1888-1957), Franz Selety (1893-1933?), and S. Elis Str\\"omgren (1870-1947). Because the entries were written for a biographical dictionary of astronomers, the emphasis is on the astronomical and astrophysical contributions of the scientists rather than their work in physics. While some of them are well known, others (such as Selety, Haas and Le Bon) will probably be unknown to most physicists.

Kragh, Helge

2012-01-01

421

[Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].  

PubMed

Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

Rohrbach, J M

2012-10-01

422

[Johann Jaroslaw Marcinowski (1868-1935) and his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck" at lake Uklei. Psychoanalysis in an in-patient setting].  

PubMed

Marcinowski came from an aristocratic family. He first joined the army as a lieutenant and later worked as a medical doctor. From 1908 to 1920, Marcinowski was a follower of Freud, additionally influenced by Oskar Vogt. This article describes his restless life in Breslau, Berlin, Sielbeck, Bad Heilbrunn, and Tübingen, with a special focus on his psychoanalytic activities. Freud had high expectations of Marcinowski. In his sanatorium "Haus Sielbeck", Marcinowski treated patients psychoanalytically and published the results in medical journals. This application of psychoanalysis in a sanatorium was virtually unique at that time. Even though Marcinowski could not fulfill Freud's expectations in the long term, he is still one of the pioneers who described phenomena of transference in inpatient settings.--The article is complemented by Freud's letters to Marcinowski, edited by G. Fichtner and M. Schröter. These are mainly concerned with the conflict between Freud and Wilhelm Stekel who was and remained a good friend of Marcinowski. PMID:21598600

Bernhardt, Heike

2011-01-01

423

X-rays for medical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

Hessenbruch, A.

1995-11-01

424

The origin of the vertebrate skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

Pivar, Stuart

2011-01-01

425

[Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].  

PubMed

This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich. PMID:12712776

Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

2003-03-01

426

[Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].  

PubMed

Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools. PMID:20676601

Bormuth, M

2010-11-01

427

The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.  

PubMed

Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically. PMID:15817045

Ma, Shirley S Y

2005-04-01

428

Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal  

SciTech Connect

During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium (HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements. (authors)

Moeller, Kai D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BFS, Postfach 10 01 49, D-38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2007-07-01

429

"Advice to the medical students in my service": the rediscovery of a golden book by Jean Hamburger, father of nephrology and of medical humanities  

PubMed Central

Jean Hamburger (1909–1992) is considered the founder of the concept of medical intensive care (réanimation médicale) and the first to propose the name Nephrology for the branch of medicine dealing with kidney diseases. One of the first kidney grafts in the world (with short-term success), in 1953, and the first dialysis session in France, in 1955, were performed under his guidance. His achievements as a writer were at least comparable: Hamburger was awarded several important literary prizes, including prix Femina, prix Balzac and the Cino del Duca prize (1979), awarded, among others, to Jorge Luis Borges and Konrad Lorenz. Here we would like to offer a selected reading of a “golden” book, “Conseils aux étudiants en medicine de mon service” (“Advice to the Medical Students in my Service”), the first book dedicated to patient-physician relationship in Nephrology, written when dialysis and transplantation were becoming clinical options (1963). The themes include: the central role of the patient, who should be known by name, profession, life style, and not by disease; the importance of the setting of the care; the need for truth-telling and for leaving hope; the role of research not only in the progression of science, but also in the daily clinical practice. PMID:23497662

2013-01-01

430

An evaluation of expert reports with regard to adherence to current quality standards.  

PubMed

In early 2008 the penal system of Lower Saxony established a specialised department responsible for risk assessment regarding all prison inmates in that state. The department generates approximately 200 risk assessment expert reports per year, mainly on questions such as the inmates' aptitude for social therapy, relaxation of imprisonment conditions, and transfer to an open prison. Prof. Dr. Konrad and Dr. Heering (from the Charité's Institute for Forensic Psychiatry) have been accompanying the work of this department scientifically for at least 2 years by offering a scientific exchange and by reviewing random samples of the risk assessments and verifying the application of current standards. It is of particular interest to examine which methods are used and which topics are discussed with the inmates during the exploration for risk assessment expert reports, whether or not standardised risk scales are applied, and finally which conclusions are drawn from the results of the exploration and the information which could be gathered from court and prison files. PMID:22482465

Heering, Eberhard; Konrad, Norbert

2012-01-01

431

Multipartite entanglement evolution under separable operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how multipartite entanglement evolves under the paradigm of separable operations, which include the local operations and classical communication as a special case. We prove that the average “decay” of entanglement induced by a separable operation is measure independent (among SL-invariant ones) and state independent: The ratio between the average output entanglement and the initial entanglement is solely a function of the separable operation, regardless of the input state and of the SL-invariant entanglement measure being used. We discuss the “disentangling power” of a quantum channel and show that it exhibits a similar state invariance as the average entanglement decay ratio. Our Rapid Communication significantly extends the bipartite results of Horodecki and Horodecki, Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 901 (2010), Konrad , Nat. Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys885 4, 99 (2008), and Tiersch , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.170502 101, 170502 (2008) as well as the multipartite one of Gour, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.190504 105, 190504 (2010), all of the previous work being restricted to one-sided or particular noise models.

Gheorghiu, Vlad; Gour, Gilad

2012-11-01

432

Recent international developments in low-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Recent international developments in low-level waste (LLW) disposal have included a move away from ocean dumping and a trend towards engineered and deeper dispoosal. Siting efforts have accelerated as interim storage facilities and existing sites reach capacity. The suspension of ocean dumping by the London Dumping Conventions of 1983 and 1985 has affected the LLW disposal practices of several countries, including the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Japan. Their plans now include disposal in trenches, shallow concrete pits, deep mines, sub-seabed caverns, horizontal mountain tunnels, and long-term storage facilities. Other recent developments include selection of the semi-desert Vaalputs site in South Africa, licensing activities for the Konrad mine site in the Federal Republic of Germany, design of at-reactor sites in Finland, and construction of a Baltic Sea site in Sweden. Also, the French have recently selected the Aube site for engineered disposal in monoliths and tumuli, now used at the La Manche site.

Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

1986-11-01

433

The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

2013-04-01

434

Reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities of various beech plants (Fagaceae): testing and application of a mechanistic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanistic model (Konrad &Roth-Nebelsick a, in prep.) was applied for the reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities and photosynthesis parameters of extant and fossil Fagaceae. The model is based on an approach which couples diffusion and the biochemical process of photosynthesis. Atmospheric CO2 is calculated on the basis of stomatal diffusion and photosynthesis parameters of the considered taxa. The considered species include the castanoid Castanea sativa, two quercoids Quercus petraea and Quercus rhenana and an intermediate species Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis. In the case of Quercus petraea literature data were used. Stomatal data of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis, Quercus rhenana and Castanea sativa were determined by the authors. Data of the extant Castanea sativa were collected by applying a peeling method and by counting of stomatal densities on the digitalized images of the peels. Additionally, isotope data of leaf samples of Castanea sativa were determined to estimate the ratio of intercellular to ambient carbon dioxide. The CO2 values calculated by the model (on the basis of stomatal data and measured or estimated biochemical parameters) are in good agreement with literature data, with the exception of the Late Eocene. The results thus demonstrate that the applied approach is principally suitable for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric CO2.

Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Konrad, W.

2006-12-01

435

Long-term effect of cyclic AMP on N-glycosylation is caused by an increase in the activity of the cis-prenyltransferase.  

PubMed

Previously we have shown that long-term pretreatment of JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells with 8-bromo-cAMP increases the capacity for N-glycosylation that was caused by an 8-10-fold enlargement of the dolichol pyrophosphoryl oligosaccharide (Dol-PP-oligosaccharide) pool [Konrad and Merz (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 8659-8666]. The factors involved in the effect of cAMP on synthesis of Dol-PP-oligosaccharide are investigated here. The GlcNAc transfer to dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) was found to be unaffected by pretreatment with 8-bromo-cAMP. By measuring the uptake of [3H]mevalonate, a 20-fold increase in the incorporation of the label into Dol-P was observed in the cells treated with 8-bromo-cAMP. Under the same conditions, the synthesis of dolichol was enhanced 60-fold. However, the incorporation of the radioactivity into cholesterol was not increased in the JEG-3 cells pretreated with 8-bromo-cAMP, which suggests a specific stimulation of the dolichol/Dol-P pathway by cAMP. The cis-prenyltransferase activity was found to be increased 10-fold in cells pretreated with 8-bromo-cAMP. Dolichol kinase activity was unaffected by stimulation with 8-bromo-cAMP. The present study suggests that the larger glycosylation capacity in JEG-3 cells treated with 8-bromo-cAMP is caused by an increase in the microsomal cis-prenyltransferase activity. PMID:8687403

Konrad, M; Merz, W E

1996-06-01

436

Status of the CCD camera for the eROSITA space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approved German X-ray telescope eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission. After satellite launch to Lagrangian point L2 in near future, eROSITA will perform a survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5 keV - 2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2 keV - 8 keV) it will provide the first complete imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of 100,000 clusters of galaxies up to redshift z ~ 1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. Detection of single X-ray photons with information about their energy, arrival angle and time is accomplished by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 ?m thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. It is a further development of the sensor type which is in operation aboard the XMM-Newton satellite since 1999. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed in the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, the MPI Halbleiterlabor. By means of a unique so-called 'cold-chuck probe station', we have characterized the performance of each PNCCD sensor on chip-level. Various tests were carried out for a detailed characterization of the CCD and its custom-made analog readout ASIC. This includes in particular the evaluation of the optimum detector operating conditions in terms of operating sequence, supply voltages and operating temperature in order to achieve optimum performance. In the course of the eROSITA camera development, an engineering model of the eROSITA flight detector was assembled and is used for tests since 2010. Based on these results and on the extensive tests with lab model detectors, the design of the front-end electronics has meanwhile been finalized for the flight cameras. Furthermore, the specifications for the other supply and control electronics were precisely concluded on the basis of the experimental tests.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Elbs, Johannes; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Herrmann, Sven; Miessner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmaler, Gabriele; Strüder, Lothar; Tiedemann, Lars

2011-09-01

437

Ages of Lunar Light Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light plains are characterized by their relative smoothness and lower crater densities (compared to the highlands), and their occurrence as crater fills. They also exhibit highland-like characteristics, such as high albedos (in comparison to mare basalts) and their geological and stratigraphic setting. Despite the long history of investigating light plains, there are still numerous open questions concerning their mode of emplacement, their mineralogical composition, their ages, and their origin. We dated 16 light plains with crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. All dated regions were previously identified as light plains in the geologic maps [1-5] and either mapped as smooth light plains (Ip) or light plains with undulatory surfaces (INp). The studied light plains occur both inside and outside the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin within a latitudinal band between ~-36° and ~-75°. In particular, we investigated the following smooth light plains: Janssen (40.82°E, -44.96°; Ip [1]), Nishina (-170.8°E, -44.57°; Ip [2]), South of Nishina (Ip [2]), Obruchev (162.43°E, -38.67°; Ip [2]), Oresme (169.22°E, -42.61°, Ip [2]), Schrödinger (132.93°E, -74.73°; Ip [3]), Nearch (39.01°E, -58.58°; Ip [3]), Nasmyth (-56.39°E, -50.49°; Ip [3]), Manzinus (26.37°E, -67.51°; Ip [3]), Klaproth (-26.26°E, -69.85°; Ip [3]), Phocylides (-57.31°E, -52.79°, Ip [3]), Buffon (-133.53°E, -40.64°; Ip [4]), Roche (136.54°E, -42.37°; Ip [5]). We also dated the following light plains with undulatory surfaces: Koch (150.33°E, -42.13°; INp [2]), Garavito (156.78°E, -47.21°; INp [2]), Eötvös (134.43°E, -35.61°; INp [5]). Our CSFD measurements resulted in absolute model ages of 3.71 to 4.02 Ga for all investigated light plains, thus confirming the Imbrian and/or Nectarian ages of the geologic maps [1-5]. We only dated three INp light plains, but they appear to have ages that are close to the upper limit, i.e., 3.96-4.02 Ga. However, further CSFDs of INp light plains are necessary to corroborate this preliminary observation. In general, our new absolute model ages are similar to model ages derived for light plains north of Mare Frigoris (3.65-4.0 Ga) [6], light plains within the SPA basin (3.43-3.81 Ga) [7], and light plains in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basins (3.8-4.3 Ga) [8]. The ages are not only similar, but also show similar ranges. While our model ages vary by about 300 Ma, model ages of [6,7] exhibit ranges of ~350 Ma and ~380 Ma, respectively. Ages of [8] show a somewhat wider range of ~500 Ma. From this wide range in ages it has been concluded that a formation of the light plains by a single event (i.e., Orientale or Imbrium) is unlikely [6-8]. References: [1] Wilhelms and McCauley (1971), USGS I-703; [2] Stuart-Alexander (1978), USGS I-1047; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979), USGS I-1162; [4] Scott et al. (1977), USGS I-1034; [5] Wilhelms and El-Baz (1977), USGS I-948; [6] Köhler et al. (2000), LPSC 31, #1822; [7] Thiessen et al. (2012), LPSC 43, #2060; [8] Neukum (1977b), Moon 17, 383-393.

Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

2013-04-01

438

Investigation of Micro-mechanical Causes of Density Inversion in Polar Firn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The densification of polar firn is a microstructure dependent process (Alley et al., 1982) which plays an important role both in interpretation of paleoclimate records in ice cores and in the remote sensing evaluation of ice sheet volume changes over time. Density inversion results from prolonged differential compaction rates between different microstructure types: low density, coarse grained firn (CGF) tends to compact faster than the high density, fine grained firn (FGF). Eventually, the relative density of the two firn types "inverts", that is, CGF becomes more dense than FGF at some depth (Gerland et al., 1999; Freitag et al., 2010). This process continues beyond the point where CGF and FGF densities are equal, suggesting that some parameter other than bulk density determines the densification rate (Hörhold et al, 2011). Recent work in granular physics (Phillippe et al., 2002; Richard et al., 2005 ; Ribière et al., 2007), have shown that particle size distribution, shape and friction play important roles in determining the both the maximum density of random close packed ensembles, and the magnitude of density difference between the initial state (random loose packed) and final state (random close packed) particle ensembles. We explore the consequences of these granular effects on the densification of polar firn using discrete element modeling of ice particle rearrangement mediated by grain boundary sliding processes (Alley, 1987). Because sintering rate is greatly reduced for pairs of large particles and particle pairs with large size differences (Colbeck, 2001), we expect that CGF will experience enhanced grain boundary sliding compared to the well bonded and highly coordinated particles in FGF. By simulating uni-axial compression on particle ensembles with varying size, shape and frictional properties, we hope to demonstrate that CGF densifies faster than FGF via enhanced grain boundary sliding, and can achieve a higher final density than FGF at the end of particle rearrangment due to the aspherical shape of CGF particles. REFERENCES - Alley, R., Firn densification by grain-boundary sliding: a first model, J. Phys. Coll., 1987, 48, p. 249-256. - Alley, R., Bolzan, J. & Whillans, I., Polar firn densification and grain growth, Ann. Glac., 1982, 3, p. 7-11. - Colbeck, S.C., Sintering of unequal grains, J. Appl. Phys., 2001, 89, p. 4612. - Freitag, J., Wilhelms, F. & Kipfstuhl, S., Microstructure-dependent densification of polar firn derived from X-ray microtomography, J. Glac., 2004, 50, p. 243-250. - Gerland, S., Oerter, H.; Kipfstuhl, J.; Wilhelms, F.; Miller, H. & Miners, W., Density log of a 181 m long ice core from Berkner Island, Antarctica, Ann. Glac., 1999, 29, p. 215-219. - Hörhold, M., Kipfstuhl, S.; Wilhelms, F.; Freitag, J. & Frenzel, A., The densification of layered polar firn, J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116, F01001. - Philippe, P. & Bideau, D., Compaction dynamics of a granular medium under vertical tapping, Europhys. Lett., 2002, 60, p. 677. - Ribière, P., Richard, P., Bideau, D., Delannay, R.: Experimental compaction of anisotropic granular media. Euro. Phys. J. E, 2005, 16, p. 415-420. - Richard, P., Nicodemi, M.; Delannay, R.; Ribière, P. & Bideau, D., Slow relaxation and compaction of granular systems, Nat. Mat., 2005, 4, p. 121-128.

Breton, D. J.; Keegan, K. M.; Albert, M. R.

2011-12-01

439

X-ray-induced changes in growth of Mozambique tilapia  

SciTech Connect

Early fry (30 d postfertilization) and 7-8-week-old Mozambique tilapias (Tilapia mossambica) were exposed to X rays in dosages of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 roentgens and reared in outdoor culture tanks between May 1981 and October 1988. Fish of either sex that were irradiated as fry grew faster than controls at all test X-ray doses. Among fish irradiated at 7-8 weeks, males grew significantly faster, but females grew significantly slower, than controls at all test doses. X-ray-induced changes in growth were dose-dependent: growth rates of fry (both sexes) and of juvenile males rose relative to those of controls with increased radiation dose. The growth increase per unit of radiation dose was higher for fry than for older juveniles. The length-weight regression was steeper for irradiated males than for controls. The average weights of F{sub 1} offspring of irradiated fish were greatly reduced as compared with controls, which suggests the transfer of the detrimental effects of X rays from irradiated parents to their offspring. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Jana, B.B. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)] [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India); Basu, M. [Univ. of Maiduguri (Nigeria)] [Univ. of Maiduguri (Nigeria)

1995-01-01

440

[Salter-harris fractures in dogs and cats considering problems in radiological reports--a retrospective analysis of 245 cases between 1997 and 2072].  

PubMed

To identify typical trauma patterns or frequent radiological pitfalls that could help a radiologists in their daily routine, a retrospective study of Salter-Harris fractures in dogs and cats was performed. Radiographs obtained in the period 1991-2012 of 288 fractures in 245 patients with suspected injuries affecting growth plates in the appendicular skeleton were retrieved from the imaging archive. The femur was the bone most frequently affected (46.5%), followed by the humerus (19.8%), tibia (13.5%) and radius (11.8%). The distal growth plate was in all bones more often involved than the proximal growth plate (79.5% vs. 20.5%). The frequency of Salter-Harris fractures was 39.9% type I, 37.8% type II, 3.1% type III and 19.1% type IV. In dogs the most common physeal fracture was a type IV fracture of the of the distal femur. Radiographically, physeal fractures were recognized by at least two Roentgen signs, including change in opacity, displacement of the epiphysis or the Thurston-Holland sign. On the basis of the review, the original radiographic reports of 44/288 fractures were considered erroneous regarding the incorrect Salter Harris grouping. In 5/44 instances, the radiological examination had technical deficiencies that may have contributed to the errors, including 3 with oblique projections. Minimal variations in the projection was evident in the majority of reviewed cases. Measures to help optimize radiographic reports will be discussed. PMID:24490347

Engel, Eva; Kneiss, Sibylle

2014-01-01

441

Measuring polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty by RSA: differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positioning.  

PubMed

Measuring the minimum-joint-space-width (mJSW) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) provides valuable information on polyethylene wear, a leading cause for TKA failure. Most existing studies use non-weight-bearing (NWB) patient positioning. The latter may compromise mJSW measurements due to knee laxity with subsequent non-contact between the TKA components. We investigated the difference in mJSW between weight-bearing (WB) and NWB images and the association with mediolateral (ML) knee stability. At one-year follow-up, 23 TKAs were included from an ongoing RSA study, and ML stability was evaluated. For each examination, the mJSW and femoral-tibial contact locations were measured. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the mJSW difference (NWB-WB) with the ML stability and contact locations. The mean mJSW difference was 0.28?mm medially and 0.20?mm laterally. Four TKAs had medium (5-9°) and 19 TKAs had high (<5°) ML stability. A higher mJSW difference was found for TKAs with medium stability (0.36?mm, P?=?0.01). In conclusion, mJSW measurements in existing (NWB) RSA studies are influenced by knee laxity, but may still provide information on wear progression based on TKA with high ML stability. A direct comparison of mJSW measurements from WB and NWB data is not possible. PMID:24395396

van Ijsseldijk, Emiel A; Valstar, Edward R; Stoel, Berend C; de Ridder, Ruud; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kaptein, Bart L

2014-04-01

442

[Irreversible image compression in radiology. Current status].  

PubMed

Due to increasing amounts of data in radiology methods for image compression appear both economically and technically interesting. Irreversible image compression allows markedly higher reduction of data volume in comparison with reversible compression algorithms but is, however, accompanied by a certain amount of mathematical and visual loss of information. Various national and international radiological societies have published recommendations for the use of irreversible image compression. The degree of acceptable compression varies across modalities and regions of interest.The DICOM standard supports JPEG, which achieves compression through tiling, DCT/DWT and quantization. Although mathematical loss due to rounding up errors and reduction of high frequency information occurs this results in relatively low visual degradation.It is still unclear where to implement irreversible compression in the radiological workflow as only few studies analyzed the impact of irreversible compression on specialized image postprocessing. As long as this is within the limits recommended by the German Radiological Society irreversible image compression could be implemented directly at the imaging modality as it would comply with § 28 of the roentgen act (RöV). PMID:23456043

Pinto dos Santos, D; Jungmann, F; Friese, C; Düber, C; Mildenberger, P

2013-03-01

443

A High Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes research activities funded for SAO Proposal P3481-5-95, "Monitoring the Center of M31". Related activities for SAO Proposal P3486- 5-95, "A High-Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31" are also described. The research involved the data analysis and interpretation of eleven separate ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) HRI (High Resolution Imager) observations of the center and inner disk of M31, obtained between July, 1990 and January, 1997. A log of the individual data sets is given. All proposed observations were successfully carried out by the ROSAT Observatory, and standard data products were successfully generated for each observation. There were two basic thrusts to the research. First, we wished to monitor the x-ray source nearest the nucleus of M31, to search for anti-correlated radio/x-ray variability predicted by theoretical models for the source. We would also be able to assess the degree and range of variability of other x-ray sources in the central bulge of M31 and to estimate rates of transients. Secondly, we wished to survey the entire inner disk of M31, and in particular the region covered by the recent MIT wide-band and narrow-band surveys to identify x-ray counterparts to supernova remnants, OB associations, and young blue stars, in areas in which the ROSAT PSPC survey was confused. Results of each research project are summarized. Papers describing the results in more detail are in preparation.

Primini, Francis A.

2000-01-01

444

Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated porous total hip arthroplasty: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Sixty osteoarthritic patients undergoing primary uncemented total hip arthroplasty were matched for age and weight and randomized into one of four groups with respect to implant coating and postoperative protected weight-bearing status: group 1, hydroxyapatite, 12 weeks; group 2, uncoated, 12 weeks; group 3, hydroxyapatite, 6 weeks; group 4, uncoated, 6 weeks. Tantalum spheres were implanted periprosthetically into the femur at the time of arthroplasty, thus providing constant references for stereoscopic radiographs. Patients were then evaluated over a 1-year period with clinical examination, plain radiography, and roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Clinical evaluation using Charnley scoring showed no significant preoperative or postoperative intergroup differences, whereas visual analog testing noted less thigh pain with hydroxyapatite-coated stems at 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Plain radiographic analysis produced no significant differences, with no instability detected and bony ingrowth noted uniformly in all groups. The preliminary stereographic evaluation showed migration in all groups, but there were no significant differences between coated and uncoated stems or 6-week and 12-week partial weightbearing protocols. The Charnley, plain radiographic, and preliminary stereogrammetric evaluations all suggest that migration is unaltered by enhanced surfaces and that early unprotected weightbearing does not jeopardize implant fixation regardless of coating design. The lower incidence of visual analog thigh pain with the hydroxyapatite-coated stems, however, may be a reflection of bony ingrowth and as such add some validity to the theoretical advantages of enhanced surface prostheses. PMID:10149615

Ciccotti, M G; Rothman, R H; Veress, S A; Hozack, W J; Moriarty, L; Beight, J

1991-10-01

445

Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-augmented and nonaugmented porous total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Sixty osteoarthritic patients undergoing primary, uncemented total hip arthroplasty were matched for age and weight and randomized into one of four groups with respect to implant coating and postoperative, protected weight-bearing status: group 1, hydroxyapatite-augmented, 12 weeks; group 2, nonaugmented, 12 weeks; group 3, hydroxyapatite-augmented, 6 weeks; and group 4, nonaugmented, 6 weeks. Tantalum spheres were implanted periprosthetically into the femur at the time of the arthroplasty, thus providing constant references for stereoscopic radiographs. Patients were then evaluated over a 2-year period with clinical examination, plain radiography, and roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Clinical evaluation using the Charnley scoring system showed no significant preoperative or postoperative intergroup differences, whereas visual analog testing noted less thigh pain with hydroxyapatite-augmented stems at the 12-week and 6-month follow-up evaluations. Plain radiographic analysis produced no significant differences, with no instability detected, and bony ingrowth was uniform in all groups. Stereographic evaluation showed migration in all groups, but there were no significant differences between the augmented and nonaugmented stems or the 6-week and 12-week partial weight-bearing protocols. Charnley, plain radiographic, and stereogrammetric evaluations all suggest that migration is unaltered by enhanced surfaces and early, unprotected weight bearing does not jeopardize implant fixation regardless of coating design. The lower incidence of visual analog thigh pain with the hydroxyapatite-augmented stems, however, may be a reflection of bony ingrowth and, as such, add some validity to the theoretic advantages of enhanced surface prostheses. PMID:7699376

Ciccotti, M G; Rothman, R H; Hozack, W J; Moriarty, L

1994-12-01

446

Status of ART-XC/SRG Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in March 2016 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is fabricating the flight mirror modules for the ART-XC/SRG. Each mirror module will be aligned with a focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detectors which will operate over the energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of less than 1', a field of view of approximately 34' and an expected energy resolution of about 10 percent at 14 keV.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Grebenev, S.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Drozdova, T.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Babyshkin, V.; Lomakin, I.; Menderov, A.; Moskvinov, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; ODell, S. L.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.

2014-01-01

447

The eROSITA/SRG All-Sky Survey: A new era of large-scale structure studies with AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four-year X-ray all-sky survey (eRASS) of the eROSITA telescope aboard the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) satellite will detect ˜3 million active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of z?1 and typical luminosity of L_{0.5-2.0keV}˜10^{44} erg s^{-1}. We show that this unprecedented AGN sample, complemented with redshift information, will supply us with outstanding opportunities for large-scale structure research. For the first time with a sample of X-ray selected AGN, it will become possible to perform detailed redshift- and luminosity-resolved studies of the linear bias factor. These studies will dramatically improve our understanding of AGN environment, triggering mechanisms, growth of super-massive black holes and their co-evolution with dark matter halos. The eROSITA AGN sample will become a powerful cosmological probe. It will become possible to convincingly detect baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) with ˜8? confidence in the 0.8

Kolodzig, A.; Gilfanov, M.; H"utsi, G.; Sunyaev, R.

2014-07-01

448

The development procedures and tools applied for the attitude control software of the Italian satellite SAX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian satellite (with a large Dutch contribution) SAX is a scientific satellite which has the mission to study roentgen sources. One main requirement for the Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS) is to achieve and maintain a stable pointing accuracy with a limit cycle of less than 90 arcsec during pointings of maximal 28 hours. The main SAX instrument, the Narrow Field Instrument, is highly sensitive to (indirect) radiation coming from the Sun. This sensitivity leads to another main requirement that under no circumstances the safe attitude domain may be left. The paper describes the application software in relation with the overall SAX AOCS subsystem, the CASE tools that have been used during the development, some advantages and disadvantages of the use of these tools, the measures taken to meet the more or less conflicting requirements of reliability and flexibility, and the lessons learned during development. The quality of the approach to the development has proven the (separately executed) hardware/software integration tests. During these tests, a neglectible number of software errors has been detected in the application software.

Hameetman, G. J.; Dekker, G. J.

1993-11-01

449

Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Zabanov, S.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01

450

Sensitometric characteristics of dental xeroradiography  

SciTech Connect

Dental xeroradiography is a high-quality intraoral imaging system which provides a potentially convenient, rapid, low-dose alternative to conventional film radiography. In this study the sensitometric properties of dental xeroradiography were investigated via assessment of high- and low-contrast xeroradiographic processor settings, transmission versus reflection densitometry, reciprocity-law failure, and kVp (tube voltage) plate dependence. Findings of the study indicated that imaging at high-contrast processor settings results in greater dynamic range but less exposure latitude than imaging at low-contrast processor settings. Determination of characteristic curves demonstrated greater contrast in reflection mode than imaging by transillumination for all but the very densest of images (greater than 1.6 O.D.). There was also little difference in characteristic curves produced from 50 to 90 kVp, indicating that the xeroradiographic plate exhibits a relatively constant sensitivity over the tube voltages tested if exposure is expressed in roentgens. Finally, no substantial reciprocity-law failure was observed for dental xeroradiography over a clinically relevant range of exposure times.

Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

1983-11-01

451

Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery. METHODS: Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient’s anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net. RESULTS: There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars. CONCLUSION: This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs. PMID:22816028

Berelavichus, Stanislav V; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Shirokov, Vadim S; Kubyshkin, Valeriy A; Kriger, Andrey G; Kondratyev, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Olga P

2012-01-01

452

Status of ART-XC/SRG instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2015 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is fabricating the flight mirror modules for the ART-XC/SRG. Each mirror module will aligned with a focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detectors which will operate over the energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1', a field of view of 34' and the expected energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV.

Pavlinsky, Mikhail

453

Status of ART-XC/SRG instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in March 2016 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes - a softx- ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is fabricating the flight mirror modules for the ART-XC/SRG. Each mirror module will be aligned with a focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detector which will operate over the energy range of 6-30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1', a field of view of ~34' and an expected energy resolution of about 10% at 14 keV.

Pavlinsky, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovich, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Grebenev, S.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Drozdova, T.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Lazarchuk, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Babyshkin, V.; Lomakin, I.; Menderov, A.; Moskvinov, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; O'Dell, S. L.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.

2014-07-01

454

X-ray optic developments at NASA's MSFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a successful history of fabricating optics for astronomical x-ray telescopes. In recent years optics have been created using electroforming replication for missions such as the balloon payload HERO (High energy replicated optics) and the rocket payload FOXSI (Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager). The same replication process is currently being used in the creation seven x-ray mirror modules (one module comprising of 28 nested shells) for the Russian ART-XC (Astronomical Rontgen Telescope) instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission and for large-diameter mirror shells for the Micro-X rocket payload. In addition to MSFC's optics fabrication, there are also several areas of research and development to create the high resolution light weight optics which are required by future x-ray telescopes. Differential deposition is one technique which aims to improve the angular resolution of lightweight optics through depositing a filler material to smooth out fabrication imperfections. Following on from proof of concept studies, two new purpose built coating chambers are being assembled to apply this deposition technique to astronomical x-ray optics. Furthermore, MSFC aims to broaden its optics fabrication through the recent acquisition of a Zeeko IRP 600 robotic polishing machine. This paper will provide a summary of the current missions and research and development being undertaken at NASA's MSFC.

Atkins, C.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

2013-05-01

455

CCTV for radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) within radiation environments requires the system designer to have a thorough knowledge of the application environment and the electronic and optical components expected to survive within the environment. Of all the many ambient conditions to which CCTV components are exposed, from an air-conditioned office complex to 1,000 feet under the ocean, none is as demanding as the radiation encountered in the nuclear industrial field. Unhardened CCTV equipment can fail or degrade to the point of being useless when exposed to ionizing radiation doses of as little as 10/sup 3/ rads (Si) or to a neutron fluence of as little as 10/sup 11/ neutrons per square centimeter. (Rads (Si) stands for roentgens absorbed dose in silicon, while a fluence is defined as the time integral of neutron flux.) The applications for CCTV systems may require that each component within the system withstand a total ionizing radiation dose of 10/sup 8/ rads or greater.

Shaufl, R.A.

1985-01-01

456

The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine  

E-print Network

Lecture in English, with simultaneous interpreting into French It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications. Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of particle accelerators used to cure tumours. The time is well chosen because the year 2014 marks the 60th anniversary of CERN, the largest particle Physics laboratory in the world, and of the first cancer treatment with protons done at Berkeley. ------ Conférence en...

CERN. Geneva

2014-01-01

457

Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer.

Lin, T.P.

1980-07-01

458

The composition and structure of white dwarf atmospheres revealed by extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ROentgen SATellite (ROSAT) and Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky surveys have resulted in an important change in our understanding of the general composition of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarf atmospheres, with the photospheric opacity dominated by heavy elements rather than helium in the hottest stars (T > 40, 000 K). Most stars cooler than 40,000 K have more or less pure H atmospheres. However, one question, which has not been resolved, concerned the specific nature of the heavy elements and the role of helium in the hottest white dwarfs. One view of white dwarf evolution requires that H-rich DA stars form by gravitational settling of He from either DAO or He-rich central stars of planetary nebulae. In this case, the youngest (hottest) DA white dwarfs may still contain visible traces of He. Spectroscopic observations now available with EUVE provide a crucial test of these ideas. Analysis of data from the EUVE Guest Observer programme and EUVE public archive allows quantitative consideration of the sources of EUV opacity and places limits on the abundance of He which may be present.

Barstow, Martin A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Holberg, Jay B.; Sion, Edward M.

1995-01-01

459

Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography  

SciTech Connect

For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.

1981-02-10

460

Radiation protection: the NCRP guidelines and some considerations for the future.  

PubMed Central

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the USA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), worldwide, were formed about 1928 and have since made recommendations on appropriate levels of protection from ionizing radiation for workers and for the public. These recommendations and much of the guidance provided by these organizations have usually been adopted by regulatory bodies around the world. In the case of the NCRP, the levels have fallen from 0.1 roentgen per day in 1934 to the current 5 rem per year (a factor of about 5). The present levels recommended by both the ICRP and the NCRP correspond to reasonable levels of risk where the risks of harm from ionizing radiation are compared with the hazards of other, commonly regarded, as safe, industries. Some considerations for the future in radiation protection include trends in exposure levels (generally downward for the average exposure to workers) and improvements in risk estimation; questions of lifetime limits, de minimis levels, and partial body exposures; plus problems of high LET radiations, acceptability of risk, synergisms, and risk systems for protection. PMID:7342492

Sinclair, W. K.

1981-01-01

461

Quantitative X-Ray Imaging of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Aortas of ApoE-/-/LDL-/- Double Knockout Mice  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To determine if hemorrhage into an arterial wall can be detected in CT images by virtue of the iron content. Materials and Methods: Aortas from male apoE-/-/LDL-/- mice (n = 31) were infused in situ with contrast agent, for micro-CT scanning and histology. Roentgen-opacities within the aortic walls were identified by histology and micro-x-ray fluorescence to be iron or calcium. Dual-energy scanning was performed at 2 energy levels using synchrotron-based micro-CT [(2 {mu}m)3 voxels, 16 and 20 keV] and 64-slice CT (0.4 x 0.4 x 0.6 mm voxels, 80 and 120 kVp). Results: Opacities were identified as hemorrhage-related clusters of multiple punctate deposits, containing both Fe (0.48 x 10-12 g/voxel) and Ca (3.18 x 10-2 g/voxel), or as isolated confluent accumulations of exclusively calcium. Subtraction of the dual-energy CT scans discriminated iron from calcium deposits. Conclusion: Detection and quantification of iron deposits in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic lesions is feasible by dual-energy CT imaging.

Langheinrich,A.; Michniewicz, A.; Sedding, D.; Lai, B.; Jorgensen, S.; Bohle, R.; Ritman, E.

2007-01-01

462

The cooling concept of the x-ray telescope eROSITA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument of the Russian SRG satellite which will be launched in 2011 into an orbit of 600 km height and 30° inclination. It is being developed by the Max-Planck-Institute fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The seven eROSITA CCD cameras require a stable operating temperature of about (-80+/-0,5)°C. Therefore the thermal control system is vitally important. The cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. By reason of the low-earth-orbit and the special scan geometry it is impossible for one radiator to look into the cold space at all times. The cameras and the radiators are connected by variable conductance heat pipes which can be cut off when a radiator gets too warm. A novel "latent cold storage unit" guarantees an absolute constant temperature without any further control mechanism.

Fürmetz, Maria; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter; Rohé, Christian; Tiedemann, Lars

2008-07-01

463

The Evolution of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) from a Technological Perspective.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895 ionizing radiations have been used as a treatment for cancer. Such treatments have been based on either implantation of radioactive materials at the site of disease or by aiming external radiation beams at the diseased site. This later method is referred to as teletherapy because the beams originate from a location outside of the body distant from the disease site itself. A brief review of the basic radiation biology will be given to illustrate the rationale for therapeutic use of ionizing radiations and the effects of beam energy and beam type- particulate or photon. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the technological teletherapy developments supported by the required physical properties of the beams and their associated characteristics that make them suitable for patient treatments. Chronological highlights will include the following sources or devices: superficial x-rays, orthovaltage x-rays, megavoltage x-rays and Cobalt 60 photons, electron beams, neutron beams, negative pi mesons, protons, and heavy ions. The presentation will illustrate how the physical beam properties have been incorporated into modern radiation treatment devices, many of which are equipped with radiation imaging capability. Such devices include: linacs equipped with multileaf collimators for beam shaping and intensity modulation, the Gamma Knife for precise and accurate irradiation of brain tumors or arterial-venous malformations (AVM), the robotic arm based Cyber Knife, and the Helical Tomotherapy unit.

Detorie, Nicholas

2008-03-01

464

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. [Annual astronomy report  

SciTech Connect

This report is for the period from July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991. A listing of personnel for this period is presented. Progress is reported for research of solar flare gamma ray spectroscopy, stars and galactic binary x-ray sources, supernova remnants, pulsar studies, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays, interstellar matter and molecular clouds, galaxies, active galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies, and diffuse cosmic x-rays. Completed and operating flight programs include ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), Galileo Heavy Ion Counter, Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on GRO, Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), and archival and other data analysis. Progress is reported on the following instrumentation: Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) for the ISTP/WIND spacecraft, the Energetic Particle Acceleration Composition and Transport (EPACT) experiment for the ISTP/WIND spacecraft, the Monitoring X-ray Experiment (MOXE), X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), ASTRO-D, x-ray spectrometer for AXAF, Isotope Matter Antimatter eXperiment (IMAX), Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS), Advanced Gamma Ray Astronomy Telescope Experiment (AGATE), Compton gamma ray telescope development, new gamma-ray burst timing network, Astromag, Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag (LISA), WiZard study of antiprotons, positrons, and nuclei in cosmic rays, International Gamma-Ray Laboratory (INTEGRAL), Rapidly Moving Telescope (RMT), x-ray detector development, and sounding rockets. A list of publications is provided.

Not Available

1992-01-01

465

Global Studies of Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy, The Magellanic Clouds, and M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the course of this grant we used various spacecraft surveys of the Galaxy and M31 in conjunction with our extensive CO spectral line surveys to address central problems in galactic structure and the astrophysics of molecular clouds. These problems included the nature of the molecular ring and its relation to the spiral arms and central bar, the cosmic ray distribution, the origin of the diffuse X-ray background, the distribution and properties of x-ray sources and supernova remnants, and the Galactic stellar mass distribution. For many of these problems, the nearby spiral M31 provided an important complementary perspective. Our CO surveys of GMCs (Galactic Molecular Clouds) were crucial for interpreting Galactic continuum surveys from satellites such as GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite) because they provided the missing dimension of velocity or kinematic distance. GMCs are a well-defined and widespread population of objects whose velocities we could readily measure throughout the Galaxy. Through various emission and absorption mechanisms involving their gas, dust, or associated Population I objects, GMCs modulate the galactic emission in virtually every major wavelength band. Furthermore, the visibility. of GMCs at so many wavelengths provided various methods of resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity for these objects in the inner Galaxy. Summaries of our accomplishments in each of the major wavelength bands discussed in our original proposal are given

Thaddeus, Patrick

1999-01-01

466

Revolutions in Galaxy Cluster Science: Astro-H/eROSITA Synergy and Athena Outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eROSITA will perform the first X-ray imaging all-sky survey up to 10 keV and is expected to detect about 100,000 galaxy clusters. It is planned to be launched as the primary instrument of the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission, around the same time as Astro-H. To reach its major scientific goal -- unprecedented constraints on dark energy -- the cluster masses need to be known accurately. Astro-H will allow us for the first time to tightly constrain sources of non-thermal pressure support in galaxy clusters through its revolutionary micro-calorimeter array, and thereby to quantify one of the primary systematic uncertainties in X-ray mass measurements. The excellent synergy between eROSITA and Astro-H for clusters and cosmology will be illustrated. Moreover, at the end of the next decade, Athena is expected to be launched. Examples will be shown how Athena's combination of high throughput and excellent spectral resolution will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of cluster evolution.

Reiprich, Thomas

467

ROSAT observations of the Jupiter aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) high-resolution imager (HRI) and position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations of Jupiter obtained in April 1991 and May 1992 reveal soft X-ray emissions apparently associated with Jupiter's aurora and similar to X-ray emssions observed earlier by the Einstein Observatory. The HRI images show emission mainly from Jupiter's northern hemisphere at all Jovian longitudes observed, and there is some indication of a longitudinal modulation of the emission in phase with well-known ultraviolet modulation of the northern aurora. The PSPC data reveal a very soft spectrum. Comparison of the observed spectrum with models for both electron bremsstrahlung radiation and line emission from S and O ions indicates that the line spectrum gives a much better statistical fit to the observed spectrum. The X ray observations presented here therefore support the hypothesis that ion precipitation is the most likely cause of the Jovian X ray emissions, a result first suggested by the Einstein results (Metzger et al., 1983).

Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bagenal, F.; Seward, F.; Na, C.; Gladstone, G. R.; Cravens, T. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Clarke, J. T.; Elsner, R.; Stern, S. A.

1994-01-01

468

Image-assisted non-invasive and dynamic biomechanical analysis of human joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematic analysis provides a strong link between musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint conditions, treatment planning/monitoring and prosthesis design/outcome. However, fast and accurate 3D kinematic analysis still remains a challenge in order to translate this procedure into clinical scenarios. 3D computed tomography (CT) to 2D single-plane fluoroscopy registration is a promising non-invasive technology for biomechanical examination of human joints. Although this technique has proven to be very precise in terms of in-plane translation and rotation measurements, out-of-plane motion estimations have been a difficulty so far. Therefore, to enable this technology into clinical translation, precise and fast estimation of both in-plane and out-of-plane movements is crucial, which is the aim of this paper. Here, a fast and accurate 3D/2D registration technique is proposed to evaluate biomechanical/kinematic analysis. The proposed algorithm utilizes a new multi-modal similarity measure called ‘sum of conditional variances’, a coarse-to-fine Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach for robust gradient-descent optimization and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients for out-of-plane rotations. Computer simulations and in vitro experiments showed that the new approach was robust in terms of the capture range, required significantly less iterations to converge and achieved good registration and kinematic accuracy when compared to existing techniques and to the ‘gold-standard’ Roentgen stereo analysis.

Muhit, Abdullah A.; Pickering, Mark R.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Ward, Tom; Smith, Paul N.

2013-07-01

469

The calibration and testing of the eROSITA X-ray mirror assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2016 the X-ray Survey Telescope eROSITA, designed and built at MPE, will be launched on the Russian Spektr- Roentgen-Gamma Mission. A compact bundle of 7 co-aligned mirror modules with a focal length of 1600 mm and 54 nested mirror shells each form the X-ray telescope. The sensitivity of the telescope in terms of effective area, field-ofview (61'), and angular resolution (~16" HEW on-axis) will yield a high grasp of about 1000 cm2 deg2 around 1 keV with an average angular resolution of ~26" HEW over the field-of-view (30" including optical and spacecraft error contributions). All flight mirror modules including a flight spare have been completed and passed their acceptance tests in December 2013. The mirror modules now have all been mated with their corresponding X-ray baffles to form mirror assemblies and the passed rigorous environmental vibration and thermal cycling tests. Here we report on the results of these measurements and on the calibration measurements planned for the completed flight mirror assemblies.

Burwitz, Vadim; Predehl, Peter; Friedrich, Peter; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Burkert, Wolfgang; Dennerl, Konrad; Hartner, Gisela; Menz, Benedikt; Fürmetz, Maria; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Marioni, Fabio; Grisoni, Gabriele

2014-07-01

470

Comparisons of surface vs. volumetric model-based registration methods using single-plane vs. bi-plane fluoroscopy in measuring spinal kinematics.  

PubMed

Several 2D-to-3D image registration methods are available for measuring 3D vertebral motion but their performance has not been evaluated under the same experimental protocol. In this study, four major types of fluoroscopy-to-CT registration methods, with different use of surface vs. volumetric models, and single-plane vs. bi-plane fluoroscopy, were evaluated: STS (surface, single-plane), VTS (volumetric, single-plane), STB (surface, bi-plane) and VTB (volumetric, bi-plane). Two similarity measures were used: 'Contour Difference' for STS and STB and 'Weighted Edge-Matching Score' for VTS and VTB. Two cadaveric porcine cervical spines positioned in a box filled with paraffin and embedded with four radiopaque markers were CT scanned to obtain vertebral models and marker coordinates, and imaged at ten static positions using bi-plane fluoroscopy for subsequent registrations using different methods. The registered vertebral poses were compared to the gold standard poses defined by the marker positions determined using CT and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry analysis. The VTB was found to have the highest precision (translation: 0.4mm; rotation: 0.3°), comparable with the VTS in rotations (0.3°), and the STB in translations (0.6mm). The STS had the lowest precision (translation: 4.1mm; rotation: 2.1°). PMID:24011956

Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Wang, Ting-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Shih, Ting-Fang

2014-02-01

471

Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800{degree}F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection.

Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.

1990-06-01

472

The ART-XC Instrument on Board the SRG Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes . a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6- 30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1 ', a field of view of 30 ' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

Pavlinksy, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovish, A.; Sunyaeve, R.; Churazov, E.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Lutovinov, A.; Molkov, S.; Kudelin, M.; Garanin, S.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; ODell, S. L.; Elsner, R.

2012-01-01

473

Auroral X ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects  

SciTech Connect

Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation at high latitudes, looks at differences with the continuous slow-down model, and compares the results to synthetic spectra fitted to observations. We concentrate on the effects of altitude on the observed spectrum. The opacity of the atmosphere to the outgoing X-ray photons is found to be important for incident ion energies greater than about 1.2 MeV per nucleon for both sulfur and oxygen. Model spectra are calculated for intensities with and without any opacity effects. These synthetic spectra were compared with the results shown by Hui et al. (2010) which fit Chandra X-ray Observatory observations for the north and south Jovian auroral emissions. Quenching of long-lived excited states of the oxygen ions is found to be important. Opacity considerably diminishes the outgoing X-ray intensity calculated, particularly when the viewing geometry is not favorable.

Ozak, Nataly [University of Kansas; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Kharchenko, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Hui, Yawei [ORNL

2010-01-01

474

Paperless or vanishing society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as severe as ASTM D 4303, which is used to rate the lightfastness of artists's paint.

Turner Luke, Joy

2002-06-01

475

Chandra Captures Venus In A Whole New Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have captured the first X-ray view of Venus using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observations provide new information about the atmosphere of Venus and open a new window for examining Earth's sister planet. Venus in X-rays looks similar to Venus in visible light, but there are important differences. The optically visible Venus is due to the reflection of sunlight and, for the relative positions of Venus, Earth and Sun during these observations, shows a uniform half-crescent that is brightest toward the middle. The X-ray Venus is slightly less than a half-crescent and brighter on the limbs. The differences are due to the processes by which Venus shines in visible and X-ray light. The X-rays from Venus are produced by fluorescence, rather than reflection. Solar X-rays bombard the atmosphere of Venus, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, and excite the atoms to a higher energy level. The atoms almost immediately return to their lower energy state with the emission of a fluorescent X-ray. A similar process involving ultraviolet light produces the visible light from fluorescent lamps. For Venus, most of the fluorescent X-rays come from oxygen and carbon atoms between 120 and 140 kilometers (74 to 87 miles) above the planet's surface. In contrast, the optical light is reflected from clouds at a height of 50 to 70 kilometers (31 to 43 miles). As a result, Venus' Sun-lit hemisphere appears surrounded by an almost-transparent luminous shell in X-rays. Venus looks brightest at the limb since more luminous material is there. Venus X-ray/Optical Composite of Venus Credit: Xray: NASA/CXC/MPE/K.Dennerl et al., Optical: Konrad Dennerl "This opens up the exciting possibility of using X-ray observations to study regions of the atmosphere of Venus that are difficult to investigate by other means," said Konrad Dennerl of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, leader of an international team of scientists that conducted the research. The Chandra observation of Venus was also a technological tour de force. The angular separation of Venus from the Sun, as seen from Earth, never exceeds 48 degrees. This relative proximity has prevented star trackers and cameras on other X-ray astronomy satellites from locking onto guide stars and pointing steadily in the direction of Venus to perform such an observation. Venus was observed on Jan. 10, 2001, with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector plus the Low Energy Transmission Grating and on Jan. 13, 2001, with the ACIS alone. Other members of the team were Vadim Burwitz and Jakob Engelhauser, Max Planck Institute; Carey Lisse, University of Maryland, College Park; and Scott Wolk, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. These results were presented at this week's "New Visions of X-ray universe in the XMM-Newton and Chandra Era" symposium in Noordwijk, Netherlands. The Low Energy Transmission Grating was built by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands and the Max Planck Institute, and the ACIS instrument was developed for NASA by The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

2001-11-01

476

Walter Thiel—Short life of a rocket scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch that reached a height of 84.5 km and had a speed of 4.824 km/h (5x sonic speed). This rocket flew 190 km to the target location. One of the masterminds of this launch was Walter Thiel, a German chemist and rocket engineer. Thiel was highly talented, during his education from primary school until diploma exams he always received a grade of A in his exams. He was called "the student with the 7 A grades". In 1934 Thiel became Dr.-Ing. (chem.), with the highest possible honor (summa cum laude), when he was only 24 years old. He started to work for the rocket development department at Humboldt University, Berlin. Walter Dornberger asked him to leave the university research department and become head of rocket propulsion development in his team in Kummersdorf, near Berlin. Thiel's groundbreaking ideas for the rocket engine would lead to a significant reduction in material, weight and work processes, as well as a shortening in the length of the engine itself. Thiel and his team also defined the fuel itself and the best ratio of mixture between ethanol and liquid oxygen for the engine. In 1940 the propulsion team moved from Kummersdorf to Peenemünde after the launch sites were completed there. Thiel became deputy of Wernher von Braun at the R&D units. One of Thiel's team members was Konrad Dannenberg, who later became famous in the development of the Saturn program. On the night from August 17 to August 18, 1943, Thiel and his family (wife and two children) were killed during a Royal Air Force bombing raid (Operation Hydra). The Moon crater "Thiel" on the far side of the Moon is named after Walter Thiel. The research results of Walter Thiel had a strong impact on the United States' rocket program as well as the Russian rocket development program.

Thiel, Karen; Przybilski, Olaf

2013-10-01

477

Sources of DPOAEs revealed by suppression experiments, inverse fast Fourier transforms, and SFOAEs in impaired ears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DPOAE sources are modeled by intermodulation distortion generated near the f2 place and a reflection of this distortion near the DP place. In a previous paper, inverse fast Fourier transforms (IFFTs) of DPOAE filter functions in normal ears were consistent with this model [Konrad-Martin et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2862-2879 (2001)]. In the present article, similar measurements were made in ears with specific hearing-loss configurations. It was hypothesized that hearing loss at f2 or DP frequencies would influence the relative contributions to the DPOAE from the corresponding basilar membrane places, and would affect the relative magnitudes of SFOAEs at frequencies equal to f2 and fDP. DPOAEs were measured with f2=4 kHz, f1 varied, and a suppressor near fDP. L2 was 25-55 dB SPL (L1=L2+10 dB). SFOAEs were measured at f2 and at 2.7 kHz (the average fDP produced by the f1 sweep) for stimulus levels of 20-60 dB SPL. SFOAE results supported predictions of the pattern of amplitude differences between SFOAEs at 4 and 2.7 kHz for sloping losses, but did not support predictions for the rising- and flat-loss categories. Unsuppressed IFFTs for rising losses typically had one peak. IFFTs for flat or sloping losses typically have two or more peaks; later peaks were more prominent in ears with sloping losses compared to normal ears. Specific predictions were unambiguously supported by the results for only four of ten cases, and were generally supported in two additional cases. Therefore, the relative contributions of the two DPOAE sources often were abnormal in impaired ears, but not always in the predicted manner.

Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Neely, Stephen T.; Keefe, Douglas H.; Dorn, Patricia A.; Cyr, Emily; Gorga, Michael P.

2002-04-01

478

Interrelationships between information and energy using knowledge management tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edward Fredkin was an enthusiastic advocate of information-based theoretical physics, who, in the early 1980s, proposed a new theory of physics based on the idea that the universe is ultimately composed of software. According to Fredkin, reality should be considered as being composed not of particles, matter and forces or energy but of bits of data or information modified according to computational rules. Fredkin went on to demonstrate that, while energy is necessary for storing and retrieving information, it can be arbitrarily reduced in order to carry out any particular instance of information processing, and this operation does not have a lower bound. This implies that it is information rather than matter or energy that should be considered at the ultimate fundamental constituent of reality. This possibility had already been suggested by other scientists. Norbert Wiener heralded a fundamental shift from energy to information and suggested that the universe was founded essentially on the transformation of information, not energy. However, Konrad Zuse was the first, back in 1967, to defend the idea that a digital computer is computing the universe. Richard P. Feynman showed this possibility in a similar light in his reflections on how information related to matter and energy. Other pioneering research on the theory of digital physics was published by Kantor in 1977 and more recently by Stephen Wolfram in 2002, who thereby joined the host of voices upholding that it is patterns of information, not matter and energy, that constitute the cornerstones of reality. In this paper, we introduce the use of knowledge management tools for the purpose of analysing this topic.

Lizcano, D.; Martínez, A. María

2014-10-01

479

Applying Mean-Shift - Clustering for 3D object detection in remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timely warning and forecasting of high-impact weather events is crucial for life, safety and economy. Therefore, the development and improvement of methods for detection and nowcasting / short-term forecasting of these events is an ongoing research question. A new 3D object detection and tracking algorithm is presented. Within the project "object-based analysis and seamless predictin (OASE)" we address a better understanding and forecasting of convective events based on the synergetic use of remotely sensed data and new methods for detection, nowcasting, validation and assimilation. In order to gain advanced insight into the lifecycle of convective cells, we perform an object-detection on a new high-resolution 3D radar- and satellite based composite and plan to track the detected objects over time, providing us with a model of the lifecycle. The insights in the lifecycle will be used in order to improve prediction of convective events in the nowcasting time scale, as well as a new type of data to be assimilated into numerical weather models, thus seamlessly bridging the gap between nowcasting and NWP.. The object identification (or clustering) is performed using a technique borrowed from computer vision, called mean-shift clustering. Mean-Shift clustering works without many of the parameterizations or rigid threshold schemes employed by many existing schemes (e. g. KONRAD, TITAN, Trace-3D), which limit the tracking to fully matured, convective cells of significant size and/or strength. Mean-Shift performs without such limiting definitions, providing a wider scope for studying larger classes of phenomena and providing a vehicle for research into the object definition itself. Since the mean-shift clustering technique could be applied on many types of remote-sensing and model data for object detection, it is of general interest to the remote sensing and modeling community. The focus of the presentation is the introduction of this technique and the results of its application on our remote-sensing composite.

Simon, Jürgen-Lorenz; Diederich, Malte; Troemel, Silke

2013-04-01

480

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparative treatment planning study of photons and protons  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this treatment planning study was to investigate the potential advantages of intensity-modulated (IM) proton therapy (IMPT) compared with IM photon therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods Eight NPC patients were chosen. The dose prescriptions in cobalt Gray equivalent (GyE) for gross tumor volumes of the primary tumor (GTV-T), planning target volumes of GTV-T and metastatic (PTV-TN) and elective (PTV-N) lymph node stations were 72.6 GyE, 66 GyE, and 52.8 GyE, respectively. For each patient, nine coplanar fields IMRT with step-and-shoot technique and 3D spot-scanned three coplanar fields IMPT plans were prepared. Both modalities were planned in 33 fractions to be delivered with a simultaneous integrated boost technique. All plans were prepared and optimized by using the research version of the inverse treatment planning system KonRad (DKFZ, Heidelberg). Results Both treatment techniques were equal in terms of averaged mean dose to target volumes. IMPT plans significantly improved the tumor coverage and conformation (P < 0.05) and they reduced the averaged mean dose to several organs at risk (OARs) by a factor of 2–3. The low-to-medium dose volumes (0.33–13.2 GyE) were more than doubled by IMRT plans. Conclusion In radiotherapy of NPC patients, three-field IMPT has greater potential than nine-field IMRT with respect to tumor coverage and reduction of the integral dose to OARs and non-specific normal tissues. The practicality of IMPT in NPC deserves further exploration when this technique becomes available on wider clinical scale. PMID:18218078

Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra; Bjork-Eriksson, Thomas; Nill, Simeon; Wilkens, Jan J; Oelfke, Uwe; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Huber, Peter E; Munter, Marc W

2008-01-01

481

Visual Recognition of Age Class and Preference for Infantile Features: Implications for Species-Specific vs Universal Cognitive Traits in Primates  

PubMed Central

Despite not knowing the exact age of individuals, humans can estimate their rough age using age-related physical features. Nonhuman primates show some age-related physical features; however, the cognitive traits underlying their recognition of age class have not been revealed. Here, we tested the ability of two species of Old World monkey, Japanese macaques (JM) and Campbell's monkeys (CM), to spontaneously discriminate age classes using visual paired comparison (VPC) tasks based on the two distinct categories of infant and adult images. First, VPCs were conducted in JM subjects using conspecific JM stimuli. When analyzing the side of the first look, JM subjects significantly looked more often at novel images. Based on analyses of total looking durations, JM subjects looked at a novel infant image longer than they looked at a familiar adult image, suggesting the ability to spontaneously discriminate between the two age classes and a preference for infant over adult images. Next, VPCs were tested in CM subjects using heterospecific JM stimuli. CM subjects showed no difference in the side of their first look, but looked at infant JM images longer than they looked at adult images; the fact that CMs were totally naïve to JMs suggested that the attractiveness of infant images transcends species differences. This is the first report of visual age class recognition and a preference for infant over adult images in nonhuman primates. Our results suggest not only species-specific processing for age class recognition but also the evolutionary origins of the instinctive human perception of baby cuteness schema, proposed by the ethologist Konrad Lorenz. PMID:22685529

Lemasson, Alban; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Masataka, Nobuo

2012-01-01

482

Rescuing psychoanalysis from Freud: the common project of Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi.  

PubMed

This article offers an extended discussion of Wilhelm Stekel's "On the History of the Analytic Movement" (1926), published in English translation for the first time in "Psychoanalysis and History" 7(1) in 2005. It begins with a critique of the presentation of Stekel's text by Jaap Bos, who takes a purely rhetorical approach that seeks to exclude a psychological analysis of the author's motives. Bos's characterization of Stekel is likewise contested as unduly negative in crucial respects. The second section argues that it remains the task of the historian to search for truth. Attacks on the credibility of Jung by Harold Blum and Kurt Eissler are shown to reflect a bias that causes them to neglect the empirical evidence corroborating Jung's testimony concerning key events in his relationship to Freud. The third section lays out the numerous ways in which Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi independently arrived at remarkably similar judgements concerning Freud's character, and how his human failings exerted a harmful effect on the development of psychoanalysis. The final section moves to a discussion of how Stekel joins with Jung and Ferenczi in defining a common project of rescuing what is best in psychoanalysis from Freud's demands for personal loyalty and his attempts to subjugate his followers to intellectual tyranny. PMID:19771685

Rudnytsky, Peter L

2006-01-01

483

The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project I: Stellar Spectral Analysis  

E-print Network

The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project is a photometric and spectroscopic survey from which we select relatively blue stars (V-R<0.30 mag) as probes of the Milky Way halo. The Survey strip spans the range of Galactic latitude 35Wilhelm et al., and Clewley et al. We identify 55 blue horizontal-branch stars. Our large sample of stars also uncovers a number of unusual objects, including three carbon-enhanced stars, a late B-type star located 0.8 kpc above the Galactic plane, and a DZ white dwarf.

W. R. Brown; C. Allende Prieto; T. C. Beers; R. Wilhelm; M. J. Geller; S. J. Kenyon; M. J. Kurtz

2003-05-21

484

Karl Knorre - First Astronomer of the Nicolaev Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karl Friedrich Knorre was born 28th March 1801 in family of the professor of astronomy of Dorpat university Ernst Knorre. During education in the Dorpat university he got acquantance with the future director of Pulkovo observatory Wilhelm Struve. According passion of K. Knorre for astronomy W. Struwe recommended him to the director position of planned naval observatory in Nikolaev. From the foundation of Nikolaev naval and later astronomical observatory in 1821 K. Knorre was a first director. He made star position observations with the meridian circle, worked as a teacher of astronomy for sea navigators, compiled the fifth page of star map of the Berlin Academy of sciences and headed by all hydrographic determinations on the sea of Asov and Black sea. After 50 years K. Knorre retired 1871 from the Directorship of the Nikolaev observatory and moved to Berlin. Nikolaev astronomical observatory arranges the international scientific conference devoted to the 180 anniversary of NAO and 200's birthday of Karl Friedrich Knorre in 2001.

Petrov, G.; Pinigin, G.

485

Explaining History. Hippolyte Taine's Philosophy of Historical Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historians of European historiography have often characterized Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893) as an adherent of the positivist school of thought, typical for the development of a scientific culture in Western Europe that differed from its German counterpart.1 In accordance with that view, Wilhelm Dilthey grouped him together with other scholars like John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer against who Dilthey tried to develop his conception of the human sciences based on the notion of "verstehen" (see Dilthey [1924] 1957, 139ff.). Dilthey understood Taine as proposing to analyze the human mind by identifying its individual components and then explaining their meaning by laws of their relation. He argued that such an approach might be adequate for the natural sciences, but neglected the fact that an analysis of the mind had to start from a given psychological connection that was prior to any definition of particular phenomena. From Dilthey's point of view, applying Taine's theory to historical studies only made them look more objective while actually Taine was unaware of just following the prevailing convictions of his time (idem, 191f.).

Müller, Philipp

486

The Architectural and Instrumental Heritage of the Strasbourg University Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When, in 1872, Alsace was handed over to Germany, Empperor Wilhelm I decided to make Strasbourg the showcase of his empire, and in particular to build a prestigious university and an observatory. The construction of the observatory was entrusted to the astronomer August Winnecke (1835-1897), former director of the Pulkovo observatory, and to the Baumeister Hermann Eggert. Begun in 1876, the work was completed in 1880. The astronomical instruments, ordered from German makers, were installed during the winter of 1880-1881, and the observatory was inaugurated on September 22, 1881 at the general assembly of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international association of astronomers, whose secretary was Winnecke. Marking the south-eastern extremity of the ‘imperial axis’, the architecture of the university observatory harmonizes perfectly with the new German city built on the former French parade grounds. The astronomical heritage operation conducted at the beginning of the present decade provides a richly docurnented and illustrated inventory of both the architecture and instruments of this institution. This work has also highlighted the unique quality of the collection of instruments, befitting the long and complex history of this institution.

Davoigneau, Jean

487

Delay Discounting in Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats: Steady-state and Rapid-determination Adjusting-amount Procedures  

PubMed Central

Lewis rats have been shown to make more impulsive choices than Fischer 344 rats in discrete-trial choice procedures that arrange fixed (i.e., nontitrating) reinforcement parameters. However, nontitrating procedures yield only gross estimates of preference, as choice measures in animal subjects are rarely graded at the level of the individual subject. The present study was designed to examine potential strain differences in delay discounting using an adjusting-amount procedure, in which distributed (rather than exclusive) choice is observed due to dynamic titration of reinforcer magnitude across trials. Using a steady-state version of the adjusting-amount procedure in which delay was manipulated between experimental conditions, steeper delay discounting was observed in Lewis rats compared to Fischer 344 rats; further, delay discounting in both strains was well described by the traditional hyperbolic discounting model. However, upon partial completion of the present study, a study published elsewhere (Wilhelm & Mitchell, 2009) demonstrated no difference in delay discounting between these strains with the use of a more rapid version of the adjusting-amount procedure (i.e., in which delay is manipulated daily). Thus, following completion of the steady-state assessment in the present study, all surviving Lewis and Fischer 344 rats completed an approximation of this rapid-determination procedure in which no strain difference in delay discounting was observed. PMID:22693360

Stein, Jeffrey S; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Brewer, Adam T; Francisco, Monica T; Madden, Gregory J

2012-01-01

488

Physics & The Detection of Medical X-Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Wilhelm Conrad RÃÂöntgen, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist were alive today, he would most likely heartily approve of this very informative and well-designed site dealing with the detection of medical x-rays. This site was created by the Physics Education Research Group at Kansas State University and it serves as a good introduction to the science behind the discovery and subsequent use of x-rays in a variety of medical settings. The site starts with a brief discussion of RÃÂöntgen's initial discovery of x-rays, and then goes on to offer a brief history of radiology. After that, visitors can learn about different detection methods, including the use of fluorescence film. One feature of the site that is most useful is the inclusion of links to other relevant sites that cover such topics as the concept of an x-ray dose and reduction measures. Overall, the site will be very welcome for beginning students of radiology and medical technology.

489

Moral lesson from American eugenics movement and Nazi Germany, James WatsonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: James Watson DNAi Location:Chronicle>In the third reich>epilogue The lesson of eugenics The state shouldn't make genetic decisions. Epilogue In February 1945, von Verschuer fled Berlin in the face of the advancing Russian army and sent the files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute away for safekeeping in western Germany. Two truckloads of documentation on the Auschwitz twin projects disappeared. After the war, von Verschuer denied that Mengele had been his assistant or that he had any knowledge of the details of the Auschwitz experiments. In 1949, a committee of professors, including Nobel Laureate Adolf Butenandt, officially cleared von Verschuer. He returned to academia as Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Munster, establishing it as a major center of genetics research. Josef Mengele, the "angel of death," fled to South America in 1949 and was never apprehended. Benno Müller-Hill and James Watson discuss what happened to Nazi doctors after the war and what can be learned from Hitler's attempt to make a perfect race.

2008-10-06

490

George A. Kolstad (1919-1996)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

George A. Kolstad, creator and leader of the U.S. Department of Energy's Geosciences Research Program, died of an aneurysm August 7, 1996, in Baltimore, Md. He is survived by Chris, his wife of 52 years, three children, Martha Rae Kolstad Wilhelm of Grinnell, Iowa, Charles D. Kolstad of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Peter K. Kolstad, of Los Angeles, Calif., and four grandchildren. George is also survived by three brothers and a sister.George was born in Elmira, N.Y., on December 10, 1919. Following high school graduation in 1937, he worked at Eastman Kodak while enrolled in night courses at the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester. He entered Bates College in 1939 and completed his B.S. in physics and mathematics in 1943. During World War II, he worked on piezo-electricity, radar countermeasures, and information flow from radar systems in combat environments. Following his Ph.D. in physics at Yale and brief service on the faculty there, he joined the Atomic Energy Commission in 1950. He began a career of fostering and nurturing basic research efforts, first in physics and mathematics, and then in the geosciences. He was a guest staff member at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen, in 1956-1957, and served as a trustee of Bates College from 1958 to 1964.

Luth, W.; Heiken, G.; Weill, D.; Wang, H.; Gilbert, C.; Mitterer, R.; Duba, A.; Goldstein, N.

491

A Novel Metabolite from Aspergillus ochraceus JGI 25 Showing Cytotoxicity to Hela Cells  

PubMed Central

This study aims at the isolation of filamentous fungi, extraction of metabolites, and evaluation of the cytotoxic properties on HeLa cells and normal human lymphocytes. We isolated fungi from the soil by serial dilution method. One of the isolates was chosen and identified as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm (Trichocomaceae) by standard techniques. The metabolites were extracted using methanol. Different concentrations of the extract were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity on HeLa cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the safety of the extract was checked on normal human lymphocytes. The extract was purified by chromatographic techniques like thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. The extract showed significant cytotoxic potential on HeLa cells at low concentrations with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of <50 ?g/ml. The extract gave 10 fractions by thin layer chromatography, and fraction B had higher toxicity than the rest. This fraction gave a single peak by high-performance liquid chromatography and had a mass-to-charge ratio of 905.65, which did not match any of the earlier known fungal metabolites or metabolites from other strains of A. ochraceus. The metabolite from A. ochraceus is alkaloid in nature, cytotoxic to HeLa cells, and appears to be a novel with anticancer potentials, which could be explored further for characterization of the active component. PMID:24403650

Nadumane, Varalakshmi K.; Venkat, Prerana; Pal, Anamika; Dharod, H.; Shukla, Megha; Prashanthi, K.

2013-01-01

492

Subsurface density mapping of the earth with cosmic ray muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its original discovery by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen in 1895, one of the directions of researchers pursued was an application of x-ray radiography to larger objects, while the advent of high voltage x-ray tubes allowed radiographs of industrial objects to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In spite of the great motivation we have to survey the earth's interior, we now know that x rays are not sufficiently penetrative to successfully target geophysical objects. Our current knowledge about the cross sections of the muon with matter solves the problem about this x-ray's inspectable size limit. These particles do not interact strongly with matter, and those with relativistic momentum travel long distances penetrating deep into rock. By tracking the ray paths of the muon after passing through the object, the method gives researchers the ability to study the earth in new ways. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing the earth's interior with muons.

Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

2013-10-01

493

[Not Available].  

PubMed

Historical sociobiographic accounts on members of the scientific and technical professions in the years of the Weimar Republic and after, are as yet scarce. This applied notably to women in the scientific community. Having formally been admitted to academic studies at German Universities only in 1908, their claims of wanting to apply their newly gained knowledge and to pursue academic careers were still not unquestioned by society. The social and cognitive integration of "the female" in male dominated science organisation, especially in the natural sciences and their kin fields in industry, remains problematic to-day. Isolde Hausser, daughter of the ambitious but little succesful inventor-entrepreneur Hermann Ganswindt, took her doctoral degree in physics at Berlin University in 1914, then worked as head of a group at a "Telefunken" laboratory for vacuum tubes till 1929, before she became research scientist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg. There she worked on photoerythemaes and the formation of pigment and discovered the specific action of longwave ultraviolet. She contributed important results to our knowledge on the constitution and the behaviour of organic compounds by modern physical methods. She died of cancer on 5th October 1951. PMID:11640803

Fuchs, M

1994-01-01

494

Communication of benefits and risks of medical radiation: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. Within one year, benefits of x-rays, such as visualization of fractures, and detriments, such as x-ray dermatitis, were recognized. Nobel Laureates Pierre and Marie Sklodowska Curie discovered the radioactive element radium in 1898, and a year later the application of radiation to cure cancer was reported. A significant price was paid for this: Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia related to her radiation exposure, and her daughter Irene Joliot Curie, Nobelist for radiochemical research, died of radiation-induced leukemia. Internationally developed radiation protection recommendations were formalized starting in the late 1920s. The increasing use of ionizing radiation in medical diagnosis and radiation therapy has brought significant societal benefits. Known risks of therapeutic radiation include coronary artery disease and secondary malignancy. However, recently concerns have been raised of possible very small but incremental increases in malignancies due to diagnostic medical radiation. Patients are largely unaware of, and referring physicians and even radiologists often underestimate, the carcinogenic effects of radiation. There is a need to determine the appropriateness of imaging tests that use ionizing radiation prior to performance; optimize imaging protocols to reduce unnecessary radiation; include patients in the decision process and encourage and enable them to track their radiation exposure; and promote education about medical radiation to patients, referring physicians, radiologists, and members of the public. The basic radiation protection principles of justification, optimization, and application of dose limits still pertain. PMID:21979541

Timins, Julie K

2011-11-01

495

Industrial Efficiency and Fatigue  

PubMed Central

The problems of industrial efficiency and fatigue offer increasing scope for the use of that special knowledge of human life with which medical men are equipped by their training. Success and prosperity of industry depend as much on health and efficiency of workers as on the efficiency of machines. Impetus given by European War to study of this human factor; national necessity led to establishment of Health of Munition Workers Committee which later developed into the Industrial Fatigue Research—now the Industrial Health Research—Board of the Medical Research Council. In Germany extensive investigations are now pursued at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie, at Dortmund, into such problems as relationship of age to capacity for heavy muscular work, influence of diet and nutrition on human efficiency, and optimum height of stairs up which loads have to be carried; new system of training apprentices developed in Germany since the war. Factors influencing efficiency and capacity for work of employees may be placed in two general groups, intra-factory conditions, and extra-factory conditions. Many of these factors have been investigated in this country and in America. In particular, the effect of the environmental conditions of temperature, humidity and air-movement on human efficiency has been studied: but much remains to be done. PMID:19987375

Crowden, G. P.

1930-01-01

496

The "prehistory" of psychology: thoughts on a historiographical illusion.  

PubMed

Although it is no longer as current as in the past to identify the "birth" of "scientific psychology" with the establishment of Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory in 1879, Hermann Ebbinghaus's dictum, "Psychology has a long past, but a short history," continues to inspire many authors, and to sustain the belief that there is a "prehistory" of psychology prior to the discipline's institutionalization and professionalization since the last third of the nineteenth century. Such "prehistory" is generally reconstructed by selecting the "psychological ideas" of past thinkers and looking for psychological themes in a variety of intellectual contexts, from medicine to theology. When one, however, considers the origins and uses of the word "psychology" in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the structure and contents of the scientia de anima in Aristotelian contexts, and how such science was remade in the eighteenth century, it becomes possible to write the early history of psychology as a discipline while avoiding the anachronisms and idiosyncrasies that afflict most reconstructions of its "long" prehistorical past. PMID:19569430

Vidal, Fernando

2006-01-01

497

Diabetic retinopathy--an historical review.  

PubMed

Diabetic macular changes in the form of yellowish spots and extravasations that permeated part or the whole thickness of the retina were observed for the first time by Eduard Jaeger in 1856. This was only possible as a result of the newly developed direct ophthalmoscope that was first described in 1855. Jaeger's findings were controversial at the time and Albrecht von Graefe openly claimed that there was no proof of a causal relationship between diabetes and retinal complications. It was only in 1872 that Edward Nettleship published his seminal paper "On oedema or cystic disease of the retina" providing the first histopathological proof of "cystoid degeneration of the macula" in patients with diabetes. In 1876, Wilhelm Manz described the proliferative changes occurring in diabetic retinopathy and the importance of tractional retinal detachments and vitreous haemorrhages. In the early years of the 20th century, the debate continued whether macular changes were directly related to diabetes or whether they were due to hypertension and arteriosclerosis. It was not until the second half of the century that the work of Arthur James Ballantyne in Glasgow provided more evidence that suggested that diabetic retinopathy represents a unique vasculopathy. PMID:15487691

Wolfensberger, T J; Hamilton, A M

2001-03-01

498

Diabetic retinopathy: an historical assessment.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is a significant cause of new-onset blindness. Diabetic macular changes in the form of yellowish spots and full or partial thickness extravasations through the retina were observed for the first time by Eduard Jäger. In 1855, he published "Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges" where he included his fundus paintings. Jaeger's findings were controversial until 1872, when Edward Nettleship published his seminal paper on "Oedema or cystic disease of the retina", providing the first histopathological proof of "cystoid degeneration of the macula" in patients with diabetes. In 1876, Wilhelm Manz described the proliferative changes occurring in diabetic retinopathy and the importance of tractional retinal detachments and vitreous haemorrhages. However, it was not until 1943 that the work of Arthur James Ballantyne provided evidence that diabetic retinopathy represents a unique form of vascular disease. A number of multi-centred clinical trials during the last ten years have contributed substantially to the understanding of the natural history of diabetic retinopathy and have established the value of intensive glycaemic control in reducing both the risk of onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:16728388

Kalantzis, George; Angelou, Michael; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie

2006-01-01

499

From Gauß to Biermann: Highlights from the first 117 years of publications in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present facsimiles of some of the scientifically and historically most relevant papers published in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes (AN) between 1821 and 1938. Almost all of these papers were written and printed in German and it is sometimes not completely straightforward to find these original works and then to cite the historically correct version, e.g. in case of a series of articles or editorial letters. It was common during the early years that many contributions were made in form of letters to the editor. We present a summary for these original works with an English translation of their titles. Among the highlights are the originals of the discovery of stellar parallaxes by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, the discovery of the solar cycle by Heinrich Schwabe, the discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle, the first ever measured stellar radial velocity by Hermann Vogel, the discovery of radio emission from the Sun by Wilsing and Scheiner, the first ever conducted photoelectric photometry of stars by Paul Guthnick and up to the pioneering work by Karl Schwarzschild, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and others. As a particular gimmick we present the still world record holding shortest paper ever published; by Johannes Hartmann in AN 226, 63 (1926) on Nova Pictoris. Our focus is on contributions in the early years and published until 1938 near the verge of the second world war.

von Berlepsch, R.; Strassmeier, K. G.

2009-06-01

500

Genetics of the Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas): A Study of Ancient Bone Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Georg Wilhelm Steller was born 100 years before Darwin in 1709 and he was part of a vast exploration fifty years before Lewis and Clark explored America. Steller was important to the study of marine mammals because he was the only naturalist to see and describe the great northern sea cow ( Hydrodamalis gigas). Knowledge of an extinct population can be used to aid the conservation of a current population. Extraction of DNA from this extinct animal was performed in order to determine the population structure of the Steller's sea cow. A test was also developed that can definitively state whether or not a random bone sample came from H. gigas. This test could be used by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to examine material distributed in the North Pacific to determine whether samples are legally traded extinct Steller's sea cow or illegally traded extant marine mammal species protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA).

Crerar, Lorelei D.