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1

Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Padwick) Matuo and K. Sato) is one of the major yield limiting factors of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). For eco-friendly and sustainable management of the disease, 10 isolates belonging to three species of Trichoderma (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) were evaluated against four isolates of the pathogen representing four different races

Sunil C. Dubey; M. Suresh; Birendra Singh

2007-01-01

2

Production of Beauvericin by Different Races of Fusarium Oxysporum F. sp. Melonis , The Fusarium Wilt Agent of Muskmelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourty-four strains of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of melon with Fusarium wilt symptoms. Among these strains, thirty-nine were characterized for their pathogenicity on melon. Thirty-seven strains belonged to known races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while two strains were non-pathogenic. Four strains belonged to race 0, seven to race 1, four to race 2, and twenty-two to

A. Moretti; A. Belisario; A. Tafuri; A. Ritieni; L. Corazza; A. Logrieco

2002-01-01

3

A Review of Fusarium Wilt of Oil Palm Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Vascular wilt is the most destructive disease of oil palm in Africa and causes severe losses in some areas. Symptoms include initial wilting followed by desiccation of the fronds, which finally break and hang around the trunk. Internally, characteristic browning of the vascular elements is seen both in adult palms and in seedlings. Two disease syndromes are commonly seen in the field in adult palms-"acute wilt" where the palm dies within a few weeks and "chronic wilt" where the palm may remain alive for many months and even years but becomes progressively stunted. The pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis) is a soilborne fungus and the perennial nature of the crop ensured that, in the past, disease management was difficult. Over a period of 30 to 40 years, screening for resistance at the nursery stage was introduced in many plantations and research stations, and successful breeding programs in West Africa, notably in Ivory Coast, have resulted in more resistant oil palm material becoming available. The disease has not yet been detected in South East Asia (largest producer of palm oil) and rigorous quarantine measures have been imposed to prevent introduction of the pathogen into these highly productive areas. PMID:18943186

Flood, Julie

2006-06-01

4

The presence of a virulence locus discriminates Fusarium oxysporum isolates causing tomato wilt from other isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungus that inhabits soils throughout the world. As a species, F. oxysporum can infect a very broad range of plants and cause wilt or root rot disease. Single isolates of F. oxysporum, however, usually infect one or a few plant species only. They have therefore been grouped into formae speciales (f.sp.) based on host specificity. Isolates able to cause tomato wilt (f.sp. lycopersici) do not have a single common ancestor within the F. oxysporum species complex. Here we show that, despite their polyphyletic origin, isolates belonging to f.sp. lycopersici all contain an identical genomic region of at least 8 kb that is absent in other formae speciales and non-pathogenic isolates, and comprises the genes SIX1, SIX2 and SHH1. In addition, SIX3, which lies elsewhere on the same chromosome, is also unique for f.sp. lycopersici. SIX1 encodes a virulence factor towards tomato, and the Six1, Six2 and Six3 proteins are secreted in xylem during colonization of tomato plants. We speculate that these genes may be part of a larger, dispensable region of the genome that confers the ability to cause tomato wilt and has spread among clonal lines of F. oxysporum through horizontal gene transfer. Our findings also have practical implications for the detection and identification of f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:18312397

van der Does, H Charlotte; Lievens, Bart; Claes, Loes; Houterman, Petra M; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Rep, Martijn

2008-06-01

5

Influence of Plant Root Exudates, Germ Tube Orientation and Passive Conidia Transport on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt by Strains of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required\\u000a wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced

Qaher A. Mandeel

2006-01-01

6

Plant Colonization by the Vascular Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Requires FOW1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly pene- trating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxy- sporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1 ,

Iori Inoue; Fumio Namiki; Takashi Tsuge

2002-01-01

7

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeong-Dong

2008-12-01

8

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

9

Biological Control Efficiency of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo-B2 in Different Environments.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Efficiency of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo-B2 for the biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici CU1, was examined in different environments: a growth chamber with sterile soil-less medium, a greenhouse with fumigated or nonfumigated soil, and nonfumigated field plots. Inoculation of Fo-B2 onto tomato roots significantly reduced the severity of disease, but the efficiency of disease suppression decreased as the experimental environment became less controlled. Relationships between the recovery of Fo-B2 from hypocotyls and the disease severity indicated that the biocontrol agent was most effective when it colonized vascular tissues intensively. Moreover, the degree of Fo-B2 colonization was greatly reduced when the seedlings were grown in nonfumigated soil. Dose-response models (negative exponential, hyperbolic saturation, and logistic) were fit to observed data collected over a range of inoculum densities of the pathogen and the antagonist; the logistic model provided the best fit in all environments. The ratios of an 50% effective dose parameter for Fo-B2 to that of CU1 increased as the environment became less controlled, suggesting that environmentally related efficiency reduction impacted the antagonist more than the pathogen. The results suggest that indigenous soil microbes were a primary factor negatively influencing the efficiency of Fo-B2. Therefore, early establishment of the antagonist in a noncompetitive environment prior to outplanting could improve the efficacy of biological control. PMID:18943305

Shishido, Masahiro; Miwa, Chika; Usami, Toshiyuki; Amemiya, Yoshimiki; Johnson, Kenneth B

2005-09-01

10

Virulence Analysis and Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting to Detect Diversity Among Indian Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Causing Chickpea Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence analysis of 64 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing chickpea wilt collected from major chickpea growing states of India on 14 varieties, including 10 international differentials\\u000a revealed that the isolates from each state were highly variable. Based on the reactions on international differentials, more\\u000a than one race was found to be prevalent in every state. Majority of

S. C. Dubey; Shio Raj Singh

2008-01-01

11

Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

2012-11-01

12

Plant Colonization by the Vascular Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Requires FOW1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme–mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. Although the FOW1 insertional mutant and gene-targeted mutants showed normal growth and conidiation in culture, they showed markedly reduced virulence as a result of a defect in the ability to colonize the plant tissue. Mitochondrial import of Fow1 was verified using strains expressing the Fow1–green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. The FOW1-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also showed reduced virulence. These data strongly suggest that FOW1 encodes a mitochondrial carrier protein that is required specifically for colonization in the plant tissue by F. oxysporum.

Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Tsuge, Takashi

2002-01-01

13

Plant colonization by the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum requires FOW1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial protein.  

PubMed

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. Although the FOW1 insertional mutant and gene-targeted mutants showed normal growth and conidiation in culture, they showed markedly reduced virulence as a result of a defect in the ability to colonize the plant tissue. Mitochondrial import of Fow1 was verified using strains expressing the Fow1-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. The FOW1-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also showed reduced virulence. These data strongly suggest that FOW1 encodes a mitochondrial carrier protein that is required specifically for colonization in the plant tissue by F. oxysporum. PMID:12172028

Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Tsuge, Takashi

2002-08-01

14

2001 NATIONAL COTTON FUSARIUM WILT REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton cultivars and elite breeding lines submitted by 24 cooperators were evaluated for Fusarium wilt resistance under field conditions at the E. V. Smith Research Center, Plant Breeding Unit, Tallassee, Alabama. These entries were grown on an Independence loamy fine sand highly infested with the Fusarium wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) Schlect. f. vasinfectum (Atk.) (Snyd. & Hans.) and southern root-knot

Kathryn M. Glass; William S. Gazaway; Edzard van Santen

15

Induction of Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi ) resistance in garden pea using induced mutagenesis and in vitro selection techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is a serious production constraint for peas worldwide. An attempt was made to isolate wilt-resistant mutants in two susceptible\\u000a pea genotypes, Arkel and Azad P-1, employing induced mutagenesis and in vitro selection techniques. Two thousand seeds of\\u000a each genotype were mutagenized either with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, 0.2% and 0.3%) or gamma rays (5-22.5 kR)

Akhilesh Sharma; Rajeev Rathour; P. Plaha; Viveka Katoch; G. S. Khalsa; Vandana Patial; Yudhvir Singh; N. K. Pathania

2010-01-01

16

Influence of chickpea genotype and Bacillus sp. on protection from Fusarium wilt by seed treatment with nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of kabuli chickpea cultivars ICCV 4 and PV 61 were treated with conidia of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolate Fo 90105 suspended in methylcellulose (3 × 106 conidia.seed-1), or with methylcellulose alone, and sown in soil artificially infested with 500 or 1,000 chlamydospores.g-1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5. At an inoculum concentration of 500 chlamydospores.g-1, seed treatment

Ana Harvás; Blanca Landa

1997-01-01

17

A MAP kinase of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. We have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of F. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily. Targeted mutants of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants but show normal vegetative growth and conidiation in culture. Colonies of the fmk1 mutants are easily wettable, and hyphae are impaired in breaching the liquid-air interface, suggesting defects in surface hydrophobicity. Fmk1 mutants also show reduced invasive growth on tomato fruit tissue and drastically reduced transcript levels of pl1 encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme pectate lyase. Conidia of the mutants germinating in the tomato rhizosphere fail to differentiate penetration hyphae, resulting in greatly impaired root attachment. The orthologous MAPK gene Pmk1 from the rice leaf pathogen Magnaporthe grisea complements invasive growth and partially restores surface hydrophobicity, root attachment and pathogenicity in an fmk1 mutant. These results demonstrate that FMK1 controls several key steps in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum and suggest a fundamentally conserved role for the corresponding MAPK pathway in soil-borne and foliar plant pathogens. PMID:11251832

Di Pietro, A; García-MacEira, F I; Méglecz, E; Roncero, M I

2001-03-01

18

Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.  

PubMed

Chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse N-acetylglucosamine polymerization. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The chsV gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. ChsV has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain characteristic of class V chitin synthases. The chsV insertional mutant and a gene replacement mutant of F. oxysporum display morphological abnormalities such as hyphal swellings that are indicative of alterations in cell wall structure and can be partially restored by osmotic stabilizer. The mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or to grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. They are also hypersensitive to plant antimicrobial defence compounds such as the tomato phytoanticipin alpha-tomatine or H2O2. Reintroduction of a functional chsV copy into the mutant restored the growth phenotype of the wild-type strain. These data suggest that F. oxysporum requires a specific class V chitin synthase for pathogenesis, most probably to protect itself against plant defence mechanisms. PMID:12492869

Madrid, Martan P; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

2003-01-01

19

Two xylanase genes of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum are differentially expressed during infection of tomato plants.  

PubMed

Two genes encoding putative family F xylanases from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici have been cloned and sequenced. The two genes, designated xyl2 and xyl3, encode proteins with calculated molecular masses of 33 and 39.3 kDa and isoelectric points of 8.9 and 6.7, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences show significant homology to other family F xylanases. XYL3 contains a cellulose-binding domain in its N-terminal region. Southern analysis suggested that xyl2 and xyl3 homologs are also present in other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Both genes were expressed during growth on oat spelt xylan and tomato vascular tissue in vitro. RT-PCR revealed that xyl3 is expressed in roots and in the lower stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici throughout the whole disease cycle, whereas xyl2 is only expressed during the final stages of disease. PMID:10323234

Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Di Pietro, A; Huertas-González, M D; Roncero, M I

1999-04-01

20

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana.

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

21

Suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and induced resistance of plants involved in the biocontrol of Cucumber Fusarium Wilt by Streptomyces bikiniensis HD-087.  

PubMed

Cucumber Fusarium Wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, which usually leads to severe economic damage, is a common destructive disease worldwide. To date, no effective method has yet been found to counteract this disease. A fungal isolate, designated HD-087, which was identified as Streptomyces bikiniensis using physiological-biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, is shown to possess distinctive inhibitory activity against F. oxysporum. The fermentation broth of HD-087 leads to certain abnormalities in pathogen hyphae. It peroxidizes cell membrane lipids, which leads to membrane destruction along with cytoplasm leakage. This broth also restrains germination of the conidia. The activities of the enzymes peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and ?-1,3-glucanase in cucumber leaves were dramatically increased after treated with fermentation broth of HD-087. The levels of chlorophyll and soluble sugars were also found to be increased, with the relative conductivity of leaves being reduced. In short, the metabolites of strain HD-087 can effectively suppress F. oxysporum and trigger induced resistance in cucumber. PMID:22806732

Zhao, Shuai; Du, Chun-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yan

2012-09-01

22

Differential Colonization of Tomato Roots by Nonpathogenic and Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains May Influence Fusarium Wilt Control.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Histochemical staining, beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, or placing roots on agar were methods used to characterize interactions between the pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and the nonpathogenic biocontrol F. oxysporum strain 70T01 with respect to colonization behaviors, interaction sites, and population densities on tomato roots. Mycelia of strain 70T01, a genetic transformant expressing stable GUS activity, hygromycin B resistance, and effective disease control, were localized in epidermal and cortex cell layers of tomato roots in a discontinuous and uneven pattern. In contrast, mycelia of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found in the vascular bundles. Thus, direct interactions between the two fungi likely happen in the root surface cell layers. Colonization density of strain 70T01 was related to the inoculation density but decreased with distance from the inoculation site. Host defense reactions, including increased cell wall thickness or papilla deposits, were adjacent to 70T01 hyphae. Experiments done in soil showed that strain 70T01 densities in roots were highest at inoculation zones and barely detectable for root segments more than 2 cm away from the inoculation sites. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici densities were lowest at 70T01 inoculation zones and highest (>10 times) where strain 70T01 was not directly applied. Newly elongating roots where strain 70T01 did not reach were available for infection by the pathogen. The higher strain 70T01 density was always found when the plants were simultaneously infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, suggesting that F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has as much influence in predisposing the plant to colonization by strain 70T01 as strain 70T01 has on providing disease protection against the pathogen. PMID:18943589

Bao, J R; Lazarovits, G

2001-05-01

23

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

24

Characterization of the formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by DNA fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive DNA sequences FOLR1 to FOLR4. The four FOLR clones were chosen from a genomic library made from F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. Total DNAs from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to other plants were digested with EcoRV and hybridized with 32P-labeled FOLR probes. The strains were clearly distinguishable at the formae specialis level on the basis of FOLR DNA fingerprints. Fifty-two fingerprint types were detected among the 56 strains by using all FOLR probes. These probes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the DNA fingerprint types by the unweighted pair group method using averages and parsimony analysis. The fingerprint types detected in each of the formae speciales cucumerinum, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae were grouped into a single cluster. However, two different genetic groups occurred in the formae specialis melonis. The two groups also differed in pathogenicity: one group caused wilts of muskmelon and oriental melon, while the second was pathogenic only to muskmelon. The fingerprint types of different formae speciales pathogenic to plants other than cucurbits were distinguishable from one another and from the fingerprints of the cucurbit-infecting strains. These results suggest that the cucurbit-infecting formae speciales are intraspecific variants distinguishable at the DNA level and in their host range. Images

Namiki, F; Shiomi, T; Kayamura, T; Tsuge, T

1994-01-01

25

Fow2, a Zn(II)2Cys6-type transcription regulator, controls plant infection of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne parasite that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of crops by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. In previous work, we generated the non-pathogenic mutant B137 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis by using restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis. Molecular characterization of B137 revealed that this mutant has a single-copy plasmid insertion in a gene, designated FOW2, which encodes a putative transcription regulator belonging to the Zn(II)2Cys6 family. The REMI mutant B137 and other FOW2-targeted mutants completely lost pathogenicity, but were not impaired in vegetative growth and conidiation in cultures. Microscopic observation of infection behaviours of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked wild-type and mutant strains revealed that the mutants were defective in their abilities to invade roots and colonize plant tissues. FOW2 is conserved in F. oxysporum pathogens that infect different plants. The FOW2-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also lost pathogenicity. Nuclear localization of Fow2 was verified using strains expressing Fow2-GFP and GFP-Fow2 fusion proteins. These data strongly suggest that FOW2 encodes a transcription regulator controlling the plant infection capability of F. oxysporum pathogens. PMID:17302801

Imazaki, Iori; Kurahashi, Makoto; Iida, Yuichiro; Tsuge, Takashi

2007-02-01

26

Influence of plant root exudates, germ tube orientation and passive conidia transport on biological control of fusarium wilt by strains of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced resistance by nonpathogenic biocontrol agents strains to Fusarium wilt of cucumber and pea were further investigated. In pre-penetration assays, pathogenic formae specials exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spore germination in 4-day-old root exudates of cucumber and pea than nonpathogens. Also, strain C5 exhibited the lowest significant reduction in spore germination in contrast to strain C14 or control. One-day-old cucumber roots injected with strain C14 resulted in significant reduction in germ tube orientation towards the root surface, 48-96 h after inoculation with F. o. cucumerinum spores, whereas strain C5 induced significantly lower spore orientation of the pathogen and only at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. In post-penetration tests, passive transport of microconidia of pathogenic and nonpathogens in stems from base to apex were examined when severed plant roots were immersed in spore suspension. In repeated trials, strain C5, F. o. cucumerinum and F. o. pisi were consistently isolated from stem tissues of both cucumber and pea at increasing heights over a 17 days incubation period. Strain C14 however, was recovered at a maximum translocation distance of 4.6 cm at day 6 and later height of isolation significantly declined thereafter to 1.2 cm at day 17. In pea stem, the decline was even less. Significant induction of resistance to challenge inoculation by the pathogen in cucumber occurred 72 and 96 h after pre-inoculation with biocontrol agents. Nonetheless, strain C14 induced protection as early as 48 h and the maximum resistance was reached at 96 h. The presented data confirm the previous findings that attributes important for nonpathogenic fusaria to induce resistant are: rapid spore germination and orientation in response to root exudate; active root penetration and passive conidia transport in stem to initiate defence reaction without pathogenicity and enough lag period between induction and challenge inoculation. Strain C14 possesses all these qualifications and hence its ability to enhance host resistance is superior than strain C5. PMID:16482390

Mandeel, Qaher A

2006-03-01

27

Co-inoculation of an antibiotic-producing bacterium and a lytic enzyme-producing bacterium for the biocontrol of tomato wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1, inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and controls Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. On the other hand, Serratia marcescens strain B2, which produces cell wall-degrading enzyme chitinases, did not inhibit fungal growth and the suppressive effect of strain B2 against tomato Fusarium wilt was less than that of strain LRB3W1. Combined inoculation of strain LRB3W1 with strain B2 was more effective than treatment with strain LRB3W1 alone. When 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and the chitinolytic enzymes were applied in combination, a synergistic inhibitory effect against the pathogen was observed. It was possible that bacteria which produce cell wall-degrading enzymes enhanced the biocontrol effect of the antibiotic-producing bacterium against tomato Fusarium wilt. PMID:17408002

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Akutsu, Katsumi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2007-03-01

28

The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-07-19

29

The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Perez, Enrique Rodriguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragon; de Baldarrago, Fatima Caceres; Roco, Mauricio Jimenez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

30

Potentiality of different isolates of wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum collected from rhizosphere of tomato against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of culture filtrates of different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and egg hatching. It was observed that different concentrations including standard extract (S.E), 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of all fungal filtrates inhibited egg hatch when compared with control. Minimum mortality and maximum hatching was observed in BRT (showing least mortality) isolate of F. oxysporum, while maximum mortality and minimum egg hatching was recorded in BGT (showing maximum mortality) isolate. Larval mortality was decreased with a decrease in concentration and the least mortality was observed in 1:100 when compared with SE and 1:10. The potentiality of both the isolates (BRT and BGT) against root-knot nematode M. incognita was confirmed by the pathogenicity test on tomato. These observations confirmed that F. oxysporumisolates possesses variability in pathogenicity ranging from pathogenic to bio-control agent. The plants inoculated with BRT isolate failed to show wilt symptoms while plants inoculated with BGT isolate showed wilt indices. PMID:18941992

Jain, Anju; Mohan, Jitendra; Singh, Mahendra; Goswami, B K

2008-11-01

31

Cloning, expression, and role in pathogenicity of pg1 encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

pg1 encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was cloned and sequenced. The deduced mature protein had a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kDa and a pI of 6.2, and showed significant similarity with other fungal endoPGs. pg1 mRNA was induced in vitro by citrus pectin, tomato vascular tissue, 0.1% D-galacturonic acid, and polygalacturonic acid, and repressed by 1% D-galacturonic acid and 1% glucose. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed pg1 expression in roots and lower stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Three naturally occurring F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates deficient in PG1 were transformed with the cloned gene. The PG1 enzyme secreted by the transformants had the same molecular mass, pI, and glycosylation pattern as those of the donor isolate. Polygalacturonase activity in cultures of transformants grown in vitro on citrus pectin and on melon plants, but not on glucose, increased 10- to 20-fold, compared with the PG1-deficient wild-type isolate, whereas mycelial dry weight increased two- to three-fold. Transformants exhibited the same degree of virulence toward susceptible muskmelon cultivars as the wild-type isolate and were avirulent on a resistant cultivar. PMID:9450333

Di Pietro, A; Roncero, M I

1998-02-01

32

Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible ‘Brazil’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant ‘Nongke No.1’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang I’ were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were selected to validate through quantitative real time PCR method. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of these selected genes corroborate with their respective protein abundance after pathogen infection. Conclusions This report is the first to use proteomic profiling to study the molecular mechanism of banana roots infected with Foc4. The differentially regulated proteins involved in different defense pathways are likely associated with different resistant levels of the three banana cultivars.

2013-01-01

33

Pengujian Planlet Abaka Hasil Seleksi terhadap Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt by Fusarium oxysporum has been a problem on abaca (Musa textilis Nee.) plantation. Utilization of the disease resistant variety can solve the disease problem. However, abaca resistant variety to F. oxysporum disease has not been found. In vitro selection is a selection method to produce a disease resistant plant which have been conducted in abaca in vitro culture to

Deden Sukmadjaja; Ika Mariska; Endang G. Lestari; M. Tombe; Balai Penelitian; Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya; Genetik Pertanian

34

Purification and characterization of an exo-polygalacturonase from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

An exo-polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) was purified to apparent homogeneity from cultures of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on synthetic medium supplemented with citrus pectin, using preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme, denominated PG2, had an apparent M(r) of 74000 Da upon SDS-PAGE. The pI of the main PG2 isoform was 4.5, and pH and temperature optima were 5.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. PG2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by anaysis of degradation products. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, L-A-F-N-V-P-S-K-P-P, has no identify to other known polygalacturonases. PMID:8961570

Di Pietro, A; Roncero, M I

1996-12-01

35

Possible involvement of G-proteins and cAMP in the induction of progesterone hydroxylating enzyme system in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungi present the ability to hydroxylate steroids. In some filamentous fungi, progesterone induces an enzyme system which converts the compound into a less toxic hydroxylated product. We investigated the progesterone response in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone was mainly transformed into 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which was found predominantly in the extracellular medium. The role of two conserved fungal signaling cascades in the induction of the progesterone-transforming enzyme system was studied, using knockout mutants lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 or the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Fgb1 functioning upstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. No steroid hydroxylation was induced in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting a role for the G-protein beta subunit in progesterone signaling. Exogenous cAMP restored the induction of progesterone-transforming activity in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting that steroid signaling in F. oxysporum is mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. PMID:19429428

Poli, Anna; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zigon, Dusan; Lenasi, Helena

2009-02-01

36

Use of sewage sludge compost and Trichoderma asperellum isolates to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that plant growth media amended with composted bark suppress Fusarium wilts whereas media amended with composted municipal sludge aggravate this disease. However, in this study, a compost prepared from vegetable and animal market wastes, sewage sludge and yard wastes showed a high ability to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

L. Cotxarrera; M. I. Trillas-Gay; C. Steinberg; C. Alabouvette

2002-01-01

37

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

38

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent

Sylvie Mazurier; Thérčse Corberand; Philippe Lemanceau; Jos M Raaijmakers

2009-01-01

39

Microsatellite marker-based detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt of Psidium guajava L., incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and Fusarium solani is a serious soil-borne disease of guava in India. Forty-two isolates each of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii (Fop) and F. solani (Fs) collected from different agro climatic zones of India showing pathogenicity were subjected to estimate the genetic and molecular characterisation in terms of

V. K. Gupta; A. K. Misra

2011-01-01

40

First record of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici occurring on sweet basil in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first record of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici causing wilt and crown rot of sweet basil plants in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The identification of the\\u000a pathogen was confirmed with a PCR assay using the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici specific primer pair, Bik 1 + Bik 2.

L. Swart; J. M. van Niekerk

2003-01-01

41

Characterization of antagonistic and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most widespread and predominant species in natural and cultivated soils among the fungal genus Fusarium. It includes saprophytes as well as plant pathogens involved in serious vascular wilts, caused by severalformae speciales and races or pathotypes (1). Morphological similarities among pathogenic and saprophytic strains of F. oxysporum hamper diagnosis and clear discrimination among formae

Q. Migheli; L. Cavallarin

1994-01-01

42

Passive transport of microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation after root inoculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of susceptible carnations withFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi induced characteristic unilateral wilt only if root woundings and use of a microconidial suspension had not been combined at the time of inoculation. The combination, however, induced atypical and sudden stem breaking soon followed by death. In all cases wilt was due to destruction of the xylem. Unilateral wilt appeared to

R. P. Baayen; A. L. De Maat

1987-01-01

43

Longevity of Fusarium oxysporum in Soil Tube Culture.  

PubMed

In soil tube culture, representatives of three biologic forms of Fusarium oxysporum survived unchanged morphologically for 11 years or more. An isolate of the muskmelon wilt fungus remained viable after 17 years' storage in dry air at a temperature of from 3 degrees to 4 degrees C. The surviving unit was found to be the chlamydospore. PMID:17800128

McKeen, C D; Wensley, R N

1961-11-10

44

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae isolates from eggplant in Turkey by pathogenicity, VCG and RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivated in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Seventy-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from diseased eggplant displaying typical Fusarium wilt symptoms were screened for pathogenicity on the highly susceptible\\u000a cv. ‘Pala’. All the isolates tested were pathogenic to eggplant and designated as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.

H. Handan Alt?nok

2010-01-01

45

Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , based on sequences of IGS, MAT1 , and pg1 , are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three evolutionary lineages of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found among a worldwide sample of isolates based on phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. Each lineage consisted of isolates mainly belonging to a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and a single mating type (MAT). The first lineage (A1) was

Masato Kawabe; Yumiko Kobayashi; Gen Okada; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tohru Teraoka; Tsutomu Arie

2005-01-01

46

A study on the susceptibility of the model legume plant Medicago truncatula to the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne disease caused by formae specialis of Fusarium oxysporum on a large number of cultivated and wild plants. The susceptibility of the model legume plant Medicago truncatula to Fusarium oxysporum was studied by root-inoculating young plants in a miniaturised hydroponic culture. Among eight tested M. truncatula lines, all were susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis, the

Montserrat Ramírez-Suero; Anas Khanshour; Yves Martinez; Martina Rickauer

2010-01-01

47

Antagonistic Effect of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudobactin 358 upon Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi  

PubMed Central

Pseudobactin production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 significantly improves biological control of fusarium wilt caused by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 (P. Lemanceau, P. A. H. M. Bakker, W. J. de Kogel, C. Alabouvette, and B. Schippers, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:2978-2982, 1992). The antagonistic effect of Fo47b10 and purified pseudobactin 358 was studied by using an in vitro bioassay. This bioassay allows studies on interactions among nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10, pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi WCS816, and purified pseudobactin 358, the fluorescent siderophore produced by P. putida WCS358. Both nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum reduced each other's growth when grown together. However, in these coinoculation experiments, pathogenic F. oxysporum WCS816 was relatively more inhibited in its growth than nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. The antagonism of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum against pathogenic F. oxysporum strongly depends on the ratio of nonpathogenic to pathogenic F. oxysporum densities: the higher this ratio, the stronger the antagonism. This fungal antagonism appears to be mainly associated with the competition for glucose. Pseudobactin 358 reduced the growth of both F. oxysporum strains, whereas ferric pseudobactin 358 did not; antagonism by pseudobactin 358 was then related to competition for iron. However, the pathogenic F. oxysporum strain was more sensitive to this antagonism than the nonpathogenic strain. Pseudobactin 358 reduced the efficiency of glucose metabolism by the fungi. These results suggest that pseudobactin 358 increases the intensity of the antagonism of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10 against pathogenic F. oxysporum WCS816 by making WCS816 more sensitive to the glucose competition by Fo47b10.

Lemanceau, Philippe; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; De Kogel, Willem Jan; Alabouvette, Claude; Schippers, Bob

1993-01-01

48

Arabidopsis defense response against Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) is the causal agent of root rot or wilt diseases in several plant species, including crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), banana (Musa sapientum) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). Colonization of plants by Fox leads to the necrosis of the infected tissues, a subsequent collapse of vascular vessels and decay of the plant. Plant resistance to Fox appears to be monogenic or oligogenic depending on the host. Perception of Fox by plants follows the concept of elicitor-induced immune response, which in turn activates several plant defense signaling pathways. Here, we review the Fox-derived elicitors identified so far and the interaction among the different signaling pathways mediating plant resistance to Fox. PMID:18289920

Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Molina, Antonio

2008-03-01

49

Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were isolated from wilted chickpea plants obtained from different districts and ‘wilt sickplots’ of central Ethiopia to assess variability in pathogenecity of the populations. Each isolate was tested on 10 different chickpea lines and eight improved chickpea varieties. Isolates showed highly significant variation in wilt severity on the differential lines and improved

Meki Shehabu; Seid Ahmed; Parshotam K. Sakhuja

2008-01-01

50

Induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of banana by exogenous applications of indoleacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is a soilborne systemic disease which occludes host vascular system. We report here two experiments on resistance induction with banana plants (cv. Dwarf Cavendish) carried out in glass greenhouse with different indoleacetic acid treatments, which are capable of inducing resis- tance to Panama disease. The results obtained in

Marino Fernández-Falcón; Andres A. Borges; Andres Borges-Pérez

2003-01-01

51

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-09-01

52

A Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene in Gossypium barbadense and Its Effect on Root-Knot Nematode-Wilt Disease Complex.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt, caused by the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 1, is a vascular disease in cotton (Gossypium spp.), and is a component of a disease complex with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). Genetic analysis of two interspecific crosses (G. barbadense Pima S-7 x G. hirsutum Acala NemX and Pima S-7 x Acala SJ-2) showed that one major gene (designated Fov1) with allele dosage effect conferred resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 1 in Pima S-7. Two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were linked to Fov1 in Pima S-7, with genetic distance from the gene of 9.3 and 14.6 centimorgans. Less severe wilt symptoms in Acala NemX than Acala SJ-2 indicated that Acala NemX possesses one or more minor genes contributing to delay of wilt symptoms. Highly resistant plants in F(2) and F(3) (Pima S-7 x NemX) families indicated transgressive segregation effects of minor genes in Acala NemX combined with Fov1 from Pima S-7. The effects of wilt and nematode resistance on the nematode-wilt disease complex were assayed with two inoculation methods. In the presence of both pathogens, wilt damage measured as shoot and root weight reductions was greatest on wilt- and nematode-susceptible Acala SJ-2 and least in root-knot nematode-resistant and wilt-susceptible Acala NemX. Intermediate damage occurred in wilt-resistant and root-knot nematode-susceptible Pima S-7. The results indicated that nematode resistance was more effective than wilt resistance in suppressing wilt symptoms when either resistance was present alone. Nematode resistance combined with intermediate wilt resistance, as in the F(1) (Pima S-7 x NemX), was highly effective in protecting plants from root-knot nematodes and race 1 of Fusarium wilt as a disease complex. PMID:18943146

Wang, C; Roberts, P A

2006-07-01

53

Degradation of aromatic compounds through the ?-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. Some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases. Aromatic lignin breakdown products are further catabolized via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE), an enzyme of the ?-ketoadipate pathway, in the pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards its host, tomato. As expected, the cmle deletion mutant cannot catabolize phenolic compounds known to be degraded via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In addition, the mutant is impaired in root invasion and is nonpathogenic, even though it shows normal superficial root colonization. We hypothesize that the ?-ketoadipate pathway in plant-pathogenic, soil-borne fungi is necessary to degrade phenolic compounds in root exudate and/or inside roots in order to establish disease. PMID:22827542

Michielse, Caroline B; Reijnen, Linda; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2012-12-01

54

Allelopathic effects of root exudates from watermelon and rice plants on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates have a key role in communication between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere. Fusarium wilt of watermelon,\\u000a caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fusarium oxysporum), drastically reduces watermelon yields in continuous cultivation systems, but it can be significantly alleviated using watermelon\\/aerobic\\u000a rice intercropping system as shown by the research carried out in this laboratory. It is important

Wen-ya Hao; Li-xuan Ren; Wei Ran; Qi-rong Shen

2010-01-01

55

Endopolygalacturonase PG1 in Different Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

PG1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. A Southern analysis of genomic DNA and PCR performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. Two PG1-deficient isolates were identified; one lacked the encoding gene, and the other carried a pg1 allele disrupted by a 3.2-kb insertion with sequence homology to hAT transposases. The virulence for muskmelon of different F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates was not correlated with PG1 production in vitro. We concluded that PG1 is widely distributed in F. oxysporum and that it is not essential for pathogenicity.

Di Pietro, Antonio; Garcia-Maceira, Fe I.; Huertas-Gonzalez, M. Dolores; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Caracuel, Zaira; Barbieri, Andrea S.; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

1998-01-01

56

Endopolygalacturonase PG1 in Different Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed

PG1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. A Southern analysis of genomic DNA and PCR performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. Two PG1-deficient isolates were identified; one lacked the encoding gene, and the other carried a pg1 allele disrupted by a 3.2-kb insertion with sequence homology to hAT transposases. The virulence for muskmelon of different F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates was not correlated with PG1 production in vitro. We concluded that PG1 is widely distributed in F. oxysporum and that it is not essential for pathogenicity. PMID:9572983

Di Pietro A; García-Maceira; Huertas-González; Ruíz-Roldan; Caracuel; Barbieri; Roncero

1998-05-01

57

Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungal species that includes human and animal pathogens and a diverse range of nonpathogens. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of this species can be distinguished from each other with pathogenicity tests, but not with morphological analysis or sexual compatibility studies. Substantial genetic diversity among isolates has led to the realization that F. oxysporum represents a complex of cryptic species. F. oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is one of the more than 150 plant pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies of Foc revealed at least eight phylogenetic lineages, a finding that was supported by random amplified polymorphic DNAs, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Most of these lineages consist of isolates in closely related vegetative compatibility groups, some of which possess opposite mating type alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2; thus, the evolutionary history of this fungus may have included recent sexual reproduction. The ability to cause disease on all or some of the current race differential cultivars has evolved convergently in the taxon, as members of some races appear in different phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, various factors including co-evolution the plant host and horizontal gene transfer are thought to have shaped the evolutionary history of Foc. This review discusses the evolution of Foc as a model formae specialis in F. oxysporum in relation to recent research findings involving DNA-based studies. PMID:21256980

Fourie, G; Steenkamp, E T; Ploetz, R C; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

2011-04-01

58

Germination of Fusarium oxysporum in root exudates from tomato plants challenged with different Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microconidia from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum to root exudates from tomato plants inoculated with different pathogenic and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains was studied. Root exudates from non-inoculated tomatoes highly stimulated the microconidial germination of the two\\u000a tomato pathogens, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici strain Fol 007 and F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici strain Forl 101587. In root exudates

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2008-01-01

59

Liquid fermentation to produce biomass of mycoherbicidal strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for optimizing spore production, especially chlamydospores, by host-specific mycoherbicidal strains of Fusarium oxysporum causing vascular wilts in coca (Erythroxylum coca) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) were studied in 2.5-1 fermentors. The fermentor dissolved oxygen and pH had significant effects on the growth characteristics\\u000a of F. oxysporum strains. The effect of the fungal strain, however was not significant for most of

K. P. Hebbar; R. D. Lumsden; S. M. Poch; J. A. Lewis

1997-01-01

60

Impaired purine biosynthesis affects pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis causes worldwide yield losses of muskmelon. In this study, we characterized a UV-induced non-pathogenic mutant (strain 4\\/4) of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, previously identified as a potential biological control agent. During comparative analysis of vegetative growth parameters using different carbon sources, mutant strain 4\\/4 showed a delay in development and

Youlia Denisov; Oded Yarden; Stanley Freeman

2005-01-01

61

Development of PCR Primers for a New Fusarium oxysporum Pathogenic on Paris Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse PCR technique was applied to clone genomic DNA flanking insertion sites of sequences homologous to the transposable element Fot1 in the genome of a new pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum obtained from wilted Argyranthemum frutescens (Paris daisy). Based on the genomic flanking regions, a primer was designed which when paired to a second primer matching the Fot1 sequence

Matias Pasquali; Alberto Acquadro; Virgilio Balmas; Quirico Migheli; Maria Lodovica Gullino; Angelo Garibaldi

2004-01-01

62

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent pseudomonads. In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, that redox-active phenazines produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease and may act in synergy with carbon competition by resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum. PMID:19369971

Mazurier, Sylvie; Corberand, Thérčse; Lemanceau, Philippe; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2009-08-01

63

Allelopathic impact of artificially applied coumarin on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon production is threatened by fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON) in continuous cultivation system. Some elements, mainly allelochemicals, released from living roots or decayed plants\\u000a might be associated with the disease. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possible impact of coumarin, one kind of\\u000a watermelon allelochemical, on FON. Furthermore, possible new mechanisms might

Hong-Sheng Wu; Waseem Raza; Dong-Yang Liu; Cheng-Long Wu; Ze-Shen Mao; Yang-Chun Xu; Qi-Rong Shen

2008-01-01

64

Fusarium Wilt Suppression and Agglutinability of Pseudomonas putida†  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Pseudomonas putida (Agg?) that lack the ability to agglutinate with components present in washes of bean and cucumber roots showed limited potential to protect cucumber plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. However, a higher level of protection was observed against Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants coinoculated with the parental bacterium (Agg+), which was agglutinable. The Agg? mutants did not colonize the roots of cucumber plants as extensively as the Agg+ parental isolate did. In competition experiments involving bean roots inoculated with a mixture of Agg+ and Agg? bacteria, the Agg+ strains colonized roots to a greater extent than the Agg? cells did. These data suggest that the Agg+ phenotype provides additional interactions that aid in the beneficial character of P. putida.

Tari, P. H.; Anderson, A. J.

1988-01-01

65

Control of Fusarium oxysporum by baking soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking soda (NaHCO3) or KHCO3 was found capable of significantly reducing the mycelial growth of Fusarium species. In Czapek Dox broth with baking soda or KHCO3 at as low as 0.2g\\/100mL, for example, the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum 950 was inhibited by greater than 95%. The bicarbonate component of baking soda was responsible for the inhibitory effect.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

2003-01-01

66

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum n.f. embracing all formae speciales of F. oxysporum attacking Cucurbitaceous crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates ofFusarium oxysporum from wilted muskmelons, watermelons, cucumbers and from the muskmelon rootstockBenincasa hispida were screened for pathogenicity on seedlings and adult plants of these crops and related species. In seedling tests the isolates were not typically species-specific, contrary to what might be expected as an implication of their characterization as forma specialis. They often attacked species of several genera

M. Gerlagh; W. J. Blok

1988-01-01

67

Evolutionary relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense vegetative compatibility groups.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.), is one of the most destructive strains of the vascular wilt fungus F. oxysporum. Genetic relatedness among and within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied by sequencing two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA regions in a collection of 70 F. oxysporum isolates that include representatives of 20 VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, other formae speciales, and nonpathogens. To determine the ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to sexually recombine, crosses were made between isolates of opposite mating types. Phylogenetic analysis separated the F. oxysporum isolates into two clades and eight lineages. Phylogenetic relationships between F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and other formae speciales of F. oxysporum and the relationships among VCGs and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense clearly showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense's ability to cause disease on banana has emerged multiple times, independently, and that the ability to cause disease to a specific banana cultivar is also a polyphyletic trait. These analyses further suggest that both coevolution with the host and horizontal gene transfer may have played important roles in the evolutionary history of the pathogen. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system should sexual reproduction occur. Although, no sexual structures were observed, some lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense harbored MAT-1 and MAT-2 isolates, suggesting a potential that these lineages have a sexual origin that might be more recent than initially anticipated. PMID:19482953

Fourie, Gerda; Steenkamp, E T; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

2009-07-01

68

Evolutionary Relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Vegetative Compatibility Groups?  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.), is one of the most destructive strains of the vascular wilt fungus F. oxysporum. Genetic relatedness among and within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied by sequencing two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA regions in a collection of 70 F. oxysporum isolates that include representatives of 20 VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, other formae speciales, and nonpathogens. To determine the ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to sexually recombine, crosses were made between isolates of opposite mating types. Phylogenetic analysis separated the F. oxysporum isolates into two clades and eight lineages. Phylogenetic relationships between F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and other formae speciales of F. oxysporum and the relationships among VCGs and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense clearly showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense's ability to cause disease on banana has emerged multiple times, independently, and that the ability to cause disease to a specific banana cultivar is also a polyphyletic trait. These analyses further suggest that both coevolution with the host and horizontal gene transfer may have played important roles in the evolutionary history of the pathogen. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system should sexual reproduction occur. Although, no sexual structures were observed, some lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense harbored MAT-1 and MAT-2 isolates, suggesting a potential that these lineages have a sexual origin that might be more recent than initially anticipated.

Fourie, Gerda; Steenkamp, E. T.; Gordon, T. R.; Viljoen, A.

2009-01-01

69

PCR-based differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum ff. sp. lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic type (form and race) of Fusarium oxysporum, which generates wilt symptoms on tomato, was rapidly identified with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique.\\u000a We compared the partial nucleotide sequences of endo polygalacturonase (pg1) and exo polygalacturonase (pgx4) genes from isolates of F. oxysporum ff. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and radicis-lycopersici (FORL) from Japan and designed specific primer sets (uni,

Yasushi Hirano; Tsutomu Arie

2006-01-01

70

Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

2014-04-01

71

Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.  

PubMed

Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

Afifi, A F

1977-01-01

72

Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on Fusarium Wilt of Tomato at or below the Minimum Temperature for Wilt Development.  

PubMed

'Bonny Best' tomato plants were grown at 16, 21, or 24 C for 28 d in soil infested with either of two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and Meloidogyne incognita. Significant levels of fusarium wilt occurred at all temperatures including 16 C, which has not been reported previously. One Fusarium isolate resulted in the highest levels of disease incidence at 21 and 24 C in the presence of root-knot nematodes, and at 24 C when the nematodes were not present. At 16 C there was no significant difference in the number of plants infected by the second Fusarium isolate alone or in combination with root knot nematodes, although the presence of nematodes resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of disease occurrence and vessel infection at 21 C. PMID:19300723

Morrell, J J; Bloom, J R

1981-01-01

73

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum.

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

74

Toxic substances produced by Fusarium . VII. Control of fusarial wilt of safflower by root exudates and extractives of Ruellia tuberosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exudates and extractives of roots ofRuellia tuberosa, containing 2,6-dimethoxyquinone, acacetin and a C16-quinone, have been shown to produce significant protective and curative actions againstFusarium oxysporum-incited wilt of safflower. The potentiality of the root extractives as a foliar fungicide is appraised.

S. Ghosal; S. Banerjee; B. K. Chattopadhyay; R. S. Srivastava; D. K. Chakrabarti

1978-01-01

75

Distribution of the FoToml gene encoding tomatinase in formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and identification of a novel tomatinase from F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici , the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine accumulates in tomato plants and may protect plants from fungal infection. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of vascular wilt of tomato, produces a tomatinase (FoToml) that degrades ?-tomatine to the nontoxic compounds tetrasaccharide lycotetraose and tomatidine. Induction of tomatinases and the distribution of FoToml homologs were examined among 30 strains belonging to 16

Shin-ichi Ito; Takashi Kawaguchi; Ayumi Nagata; Hideyuki Tamura; Hanako Matsushita; Hiroyuki Takahara; Shuhei Tanaka; Tsuyoshi Ikeda

2004-01-01

76

Potential of microsatellites to distinguish four races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri prevalent in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, the causal agent of chickpea wilt, is an important fungal pathogen in India. Thirteen oligonucleotide probes complementary\\u000a to microsatellite loci, in combination with 11 restriction enzymes, were used to assess the potential of such markers to study\\u000a genetic variability in four Indian races of the pathogen. Hybridisation patterns, which were dependent upon both the restriction

M. P. Barve; M. P. Haware; M. N. Sainani; P. K. Ranjekar; V. S. Gupta

2001-01-01

77

Cloning of the pathogenicity-related gene FPD1 in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selected a reduced-pathogenicity mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a tomato wilt pathogen, from the transformants generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. The gene tagged with the plasmid in the mutant was predicted to encode a protein of 321 amino acids and was designated FPD1. Homology search showed its partial similarity to a chloride conductance regulatory protein

Masato Kawabe; Kohei Mizutani; Takanobu Yoshida; Tohru Teraoka; Katsuyoshi Yoneyama; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tsutomu Arie

2004-01-01

78

Fusarium oxysporum as a Multihost Model for the Genetic Dissection of Fungal Virulence in Plants and Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized

Montserrat Ortoneda; Josep Guarro; Marta P. Madrid; Zaira Caracuel; M. I. G. Roncero; E. Mayayo; A. Di Pietro

2004-01-01

79

Aggregate water-stability, particle-size and soil solution properties in conducive and suppressive soils to Fusarium wilt of banana from Canary Islands (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of several soil properties on soil conduciveness or suppressiveness to disease caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied in seven field plots of banana plantations, situated in Tenerife and Gran Canaria islands (Canary Islands, Spain). In each plot, soil samples were taken in conducive and suppressive areas to Fusarium wilt. Water-stable aggregates (WSA:

J Dom??nguez; M. A Negr??n; C. M Rodr??guez

2001-01-01

80

A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foliar rating system was developed to assess the progress of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in seven banana cultivars differing in their resistance to race 1 of the pathogen. Plantlets were transplanted into unamended\\u000a soil naturally infested with the pathogen, soil amended with urea and soil amended with aged chicken manure. A corm

N. NasirA; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg; A. T. Lisle

2003-01-01

81

Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 ?g ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 ?g ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

2012-04-01

82

Chlamydospore germination and Fusarium wilt of banana plantlets in suppressive and conducive soils are affected by physical and chemical factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors affecting the germination, early germ-tube growth (collectively called ‘germination’) of chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and the severity of Fusarium wilt in banana plantlets, we varied chemical and physical factors in a suppressive and conducive soil. Soil temperature (4–40°C), water content (40–80% field capacity), and pH (4–10) were varied, and various amounts of CaCO3,

H. X. Peng; K. Sivasithamparam; D. W. Turner

1999-01-01

83

Plant Pathology and nematology Development of a DNA-based Macroarray for the Detection and Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Cotton t issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

a dna-based macroarray was developed to quickly and accurately identify all known races and the two australian biotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of cotton. t he macroarray utilized oligonucleotide probes designed from sequences of the elongation factor gene unique to Races 1, 3, 4, 8 or the australian biotypes. Starting with diseased

C. A. Gilbert; N. Zhang; R. B. Hutmacher; R. M. Davis; C. D. Smart

84

Differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Phoenix canadensis (Canary Island Date Palm) by vegetative compatibility grouping and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island Date Palm) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc). The disease occurs worldwide, including Australia where hundreds of palms have been killed. Isolates of Foc were collected from fronds of diseased palms at sites around Sydney and different parts (non-frond) of individual palms within\\u000a a site. Three techniques were used to

L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

2002-01-01

85

The use of GFP - transformed isolates to study infection of banana with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of banana. To understand infection of banana roots by Foc race 4, we developed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged transformant and studied pathogenesis using fluorescence microscopy\\u000a and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The transformation was efficient, and GFP expression was stable for at least six subcultures\\u000a with fluorescence

Chunyu Li; Shi Chen; Cunwu Zuo; Qingming Sun; Qian Ye; Ganjun Yi; Bingzhi Huang

86

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt  

PubMed Central

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent.

Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-01-01

87

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Akram, Waheed; Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-12-01

88

Expression of rice thaumatin-like protein gene in transgenic banana plants enhances resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants. PMID:22183565

Mahdavi, F; Sariah, M; Maziah, M

2012-02-01

89

Sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Stem Surfaces of Tomato Plants and Aerial Dissemination of Inoculum.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Plants exhibiting symptoms of wilt and xylem discoloration typical of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were observed in greenhouses of cherry tomatoes at various sites in Israel. However, the lower stems of some of these plants were covered with a pink layer of macroconidia of F. oxysporum. This sign resembles the sporulating layer on stems of tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which causes the crown and root rot disease. Monoconidial isolates of F. oxysporum from diseased plants were assigned to vegetative compatibility group 0030 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and identified as belonging to race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The possibility of coinfection with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was excluded by testing several macroconidia from each plant. Airborne propagules of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were trapped on selective medium in greenhouses in which plants with a sporulating layer had been growing. Sporulation on stems was reproduced by inoculating tomato plants with races 1 and 2 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This phenomenon has not been reported previously with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and might be connected to specific environmental conditions, e.g., high humidity. The sporulation of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on plant stems and the resultant aerial dissemination of macroconidia may have serious epidemiological consequences. Sanitation of the greenhouse structure, as part of a holistic disease management approach, is necessary to ensure effective disease control. PMID:18945093

Katan, T; Shlevin, E; Katan, J

1997-07-01

90

Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum MSA35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grownwithVOCfrom WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression. PMID:19396945

Minerdi, Daniela; Bossi, Simone; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

2009-04-01

91

Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

Jimenez-Fernandez, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jimenez-Diaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortes, Juan A.

2013-01-01

92

Antifungal activity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on genetically distinct Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 1, 2, and 3 deteriorate tomato crops since they cause a vascular wilt. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with hemagglutinating and antifungal activities. This work reports that Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) inhibits F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 growth (61 %) more intensely than of races 1 (55 %) and 2 (45 %). The hemagglutinating activity of MvRL was inhibited by glycoprotein preparations from mycelia of races 1, 2, and 3, and these data indicate that lectin carbohydrate-binding sites recognized glycosylated molecules from races. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker system showed that race 3 is genetically distinct from races 1 and 2, and thus the highest sensitiveness of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 to MvRL may be due to molecular characteristics of this race. PMID:24142386

Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira de; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Napoleăo, Thiago Henrique; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2014-01-01

93

Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 ?g/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 ?g/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl. PMID:21314121

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

2011-03-01

94

Fusarium oxysporum hijacks COI1-mediated jasmonate signaling to promote disease development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although defense responses mediated by the plant oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) are often necessary for resistance against pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles, in this report we demonstrate that jasmonate signaling mediated through COI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for susceptibility to wilt disease caused by the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Despite compromised JA-dependent defense responses, the JA perception mutant coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1), but not JA biosynthesis mutants, exhibited a high level of resistance to wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum. This response was independent from salicylic acid-dependent defenses, as coi1/NahG plants showed similar disease resistance to coi1 plants. Inoculation of reciprocal grafts made between coi1 and wild-type plants revealed that coi1-mediated resistance occurred primarily through the coi1 rootstock tissues. Furthermore, microscopy and quantification of fungal DNA during infection indicated that coi1-mediated resistance was not associated with reduced fungal penetration and colonization until a late stage of infection, when leaf necrosis was highly developed in wild-type plants. In contrast to wild-type leaves, coi1 leaves showed no necrosis following the application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate, and showed reduced expression of senescence-associated genes during disease development, suggesting that coi1 resistance is most likely achieved through the inhibition of F. oxysporum-incited lesion development and plant senescence. Together, our results indicate that F. oxysporum hijacks non-defensive aspects of the JA-signaling pathway to cause wilt-disease symptoms that lead to plant death in Arabidopsis. PMID:19220788

Thatcher, Louise F; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2009-06-01

95

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

96

Mutation breeding of Highgate (Musa acuminata, AAA) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using gamma irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explants of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation\\u000a to evaluate the effectiveness of inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama Disease in banana and plantain. Based on phenotypic

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

97

Distinction of Fusarium oxysporum fungal isolates (strains) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a large fungi genus of a large variety of species and strains which inhabits soil and vegetation. It is distributed worldwide and affiliated to both warm and cold weather. Fusarium oxysporum species, for instance, cause the Fusarium wilt disease of plants, which appears as a leaf wilting, yellowing and eventually plant death. Early detection and identification of these pathogens are very important and might be critical for their control. Previously, we have managed to differentiate among different fungi genera (Rhizoctonia, Colletotrichum, Verticillium and Fusarium) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy methods and cluster analysis. In this study, we used Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate and differentiate between different strains of F. oxysporum. The result obtained was of spectral patterns distinct to each of the various examined strains, which belong to the same species. These differences were not as significant as those found between the different genera species. We applied advanced statistical techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the FTIR-ATR spectra in order to examine the feasibility of distinction between these fungi strains. The results are encouraging and indicate that the FTIR-ATR methodology can differentiate between the different examined strains of F. oxysporum with a high success rate. Based on our PCA and LDA calculations performed in the regions [900-1775 cm(-1), 2800-2990 cm(-1), with 9 PCs], we were able to classify the different strains with high success rates: Foxy1 90%, Foxy2 100%, Foxy3 100%, Foxy4 92.3%, Foxy5 83.3% and Foxy6 100%. PMID:21258677

Salman, A; Pomerantz, A; Tsror, L; Lapidot, I; Zwielly, A; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

2011-03-01

98

Mutation breeding of banana cv. Highgate ( Musa spp., AAA Group) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using chemical mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot apices of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were treated with various concentrations of the mutagens sodium azide, diethyl sulphate, and ethyl methanesulphonate to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

99

Molecular records of micro-evolution within the Algerian population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis during its spread to new oases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of the date palm wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis in Algeria was assessed using vegetative compatibility, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Ninety-eight isolates were collected from the main infested regions, Touat, Gourara and Mzab, and 6 isolates from Morocco were added for comparison. All isolates

Diana Fernandez; Mohamed Ouinten; Abdelaziz Tantaoui; Jean-Paul Geiger

1997-01-01

100

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels.

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N.; Schenk, Peer M.

2014-01-01

101

A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secreted-in-xylem (SIX) proteins of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are secreted during infection of tomato and function in virulence or avirulence. F. oxysporum formae speciales have specific host ranges but the roles of SIX proteins in diverse hosts are unknown. We identified homologs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici SIX1, SIX4, SIX8, and SIX9 in the genome of Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176. A SIX4 homolog (termed Fo5176-SIX4) differed from that of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol-SIX4) by only two amino acids, and its expression was induced during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing Fo5176-SIX4 had increased disease symptoms with Fo5176. Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (?six4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. Full virulence was restored by complementation of ?six4 mutants with either Fo5176-SIX4 or Fol-SIX4. Thus, Fo5176-SIX4 contributes quantitatively to virulence on Arabidopsis whereas, in tomato, Fol-SIX4 acts in host specificity as both an avirulence protein and a suppressor of other race-specific resistances. The strong sequence conservation for SIX4 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Fo5176 suggests a recent common origin. PMID:21942452

Thatcher, Louise F; Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-02-01

102

The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth  

PubMed Central

Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth.

Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

103

Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 systemically affects root exudates of watermelon to decrease the conidial germination of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 has been identified as a potential agent for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt in watermelon, which is caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON). In the present study, the effects of root exudates from watermelon plants inoculated or non-inoculated with either\\u000a SQR-21 or FON on conidial germination of FON were investigated. Compared to the

Ning Ling; Qiwei Huang; Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

104

RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 1, a Dominant Arabidopsis Disease-Resistance Gene, Is Not Race Specific  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes differ in their susceptibility to Fusarium wilt diseases. Ecotype Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (f.) matthioli whereas Columbia-0 (Col-0) is resistant. Segregation analysis of a cross between Ty-0 and Col-0 revealed six dominant RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) loci that significantly contribute to f. matthioli resistance in Col-0 relative to Ty-0. We refer to the locus with the strongest effect as RFO1. Ty-0 plants in which only the Col-0 allele of RFO1 (RFO1Col-0) was introduced were resistant to f. matthioli. Surprisingly, RFO1Col-0 also conferred resistance to f. raphani, demonstrating that RFO1-mediated resistance is not race specific. Expression of resistance by RFO2, RFO4, or RFO6 was dependent on RFO1Col-0. Map-based cloning of RFO1Col-0 showed that RFO1 is identical to the previously named Arabidopsis gene WAKL22 (WALL-ASSOCIATED KINASE-LIKE KINASE 22), which encodes a receptor-like kinase that does not contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain. Consistent with these results, a Col-0 rfo1 loss-of-function mutant was more susceptible to f. matthioli, f. conglutinans, and f. raphani. Thus, RFO1 encodes a novel type of dominant disease-resistance protein that confers resistance to a broad spectrum of Fusarium races.

Diener, Andrew C.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2005-01-01

105

Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium redolens f.sp. dianthi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and four as F. redolens f.sp. dianthi. All VCGs of F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi were characterized

R. P. Baayen; F. van Dreven; M. C. Krijger; C. Waalwijk

1997-01-01

106

Auxin signaling and transport promote susceptibility to the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Currently, very little is known about the molecular or physiological processes that are activated in the host during infection and the roles these processes play in resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression profiles of F. oxysporum-infected Arabidopsis plants. Genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis as well as jasmonate-dependent defense were coordinately induced by F. oxysporum. Similarly, tryptophan pathway genes, including those involved in both indole-glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis, were upregulated in both the leaves and the roots of inoculated plants. Analysis of plants expressing the DR5:GUS construct suggested that root auxin homeostasis was altered during F. oxysporum infection. However, Arabidopsis mutants with altered auxin and tryptophan-derived metabolites such as indole-glucosinolates and camalexin did not show an altered resistance to this pathogen. In contrast, several auxin-signaling mutants were more resistant to F. oxysporum. Chemical or genetic alteration of polar auxin transport also conferred increased pathogen resistance. Our results suggest that, similarly to many other pathogenic and nonpathogenic or beneficial soil organisms, F. oxysporum requires components of auxin signaling and transport to colonize the plant more effectively. Potential mechanisms of auxin signaling and transport-mediated F. oxysporum susceptibility are discussed. PMID:21281113

Kidd, Brendan N; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Dombrecht, Bruno; Tekeoglu, Mücella; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Schenk, Peer M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2011-06-01

107

Dispersal of Formulations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis by Ants.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A natural epidemic of Fusarium wilt on coca (Erythroxylum coca) in Peru prompted the suggestion of possibly using the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli as a mycoherbicide against this narcotic plant. During field trials conducted in Kauai, HI, to test the pathogenicity of the coca wilt pathogen, ants were observed removing formulations from test plots. While removal of formulations by ants was considered detrimental with respect to conducting field tests, ant removal was considered potentially beneficial in disseminating the mycoherbicide. Thus, research was initiated to assess the ability of formulation additives to alter the preference of ants for the formulated mycoherbicide. In Hawaii, preference of indigenous ants for removing formulations was tested using three different food bases (rice, rice plus canola oil, and wheat flour [gluten]). Similar tests were conducted at Beltsville, MD, using F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, in which the formulation based on wheat flour was replaced by a formulation based on canola meal. Formulations based on wheat were preferred by ants in both locations; up to 90% of the wheat plus rice flour granules (C-6) and the wheat gluten plus kaolin granules (pesta) were removed within 24 h, while only 20% of those containing rice without oils were taken. However, when either canola, sunflower (Maryland only), or olive oil was added to the rice formulation, up to 90% of the granules were taken. The formulation based on canola meal was less attractive to ants, as only 65% of the granules were removed within a period of 24 h. Ants showed no preference with respect to presence or absence of fungal biomass. To alter the attractiveness of the C-6 formulation to ants, C-6 was amended with three natural products. Canna and tansy leaves were added to C-6 at a ratio of 1:5 (wt/wt), while chili powder was added at 1:25 or 1:2.5 (wt/wt). Canna, tansy, and the higher rate of chili powder significantly reduced the number of C-6 granules removed by ants. Canna and tansy leaves affected neither germination nor sporulation of the mycoherbicide, while the high concentration of chili powder reduced viability of propagules in the formulation. More F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli-type colonies were recovered from inside ant nests (9 cm depth) than from nest surfaces, indicating that ants may distribute the mycoherbicide in the soil profile. Ants passively carried propagules of F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli outside their bodies, as well as either very closely adhering to the outside or within their bodies. PMID:18944963

Gracia-Garza, J A; Fravel, D R; Bailey, B A; Hebbar, P K

1998-03-01

108

Cloning and expression of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from wild banana resistant to banana Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Wild banana species are essential natural gene pools for banana improvement. In this study, six RGAs about 500 bp were obtained from leaves of Musa acuminata, a wild banana shown to be resistant to banana Fusarium wilt race 4, by PCR amplification with degenerate primers designed according to the conserved NBS motif and serine/threonine kinase domain of plant resistance (R) genes. Among these RGAs, the deduced amino acids of WNB1 and WNB2 contain NB-ARC domain and WNB1 can be translated into polypeptide uninterrupted by stop codons. The deduced amino acids of other four RGAs (WST1, WST2, WST3 and WST4) all contain the serine/threonine kinase domain and WST3 encodes a polypeptide homologous to that of bacterial blight resistance gene Xa21 of rice. At different time after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) race 4, the transcript patterns of WNB1 and WST3 was enhanced, which implied that the expression of WNB1 and WST3 may be related to the resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt. PMID:18349511

Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin

2007-12-01

109

Molecular Characterization of an Endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum Expressed during Early Stages of Infection  

PubMed Central

The tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. Here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 8.3 and is more closely related to endoPGs from other fungal plant pathogens than to PG1, the major endoPG of F. oxysporum. Overexpression of pg5 in a bacterial heterologous system produced a 35-kDa protein with endoPG activity. Accumulation of pg5 transcript is induced by citrus pectin and d-galacturonic acid and repressed by glucose. As shown by reverse transcription-PCR, pg5 is expressed by F. oxysporum in tomato roots during the initial stages of infection. Targeted inactivation of pg5 has no detectable effect on virulence toward tomato plants.

Garcia-Maceira, Fe I.; Di Pietro, A.; Huertas-Gonzalez, M. Dolores; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

2001-01-01

110

Molecular characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum expressed during early stages of infection.  

PubMed

The tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. Here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 8.3 and is more closely related to endoPGs from other fungal plant pathogens than to PG1, the major endoPG of F. oxysporum. Overexpression of pg5 in a bacterial heterologous system produced a 35-kDa protein with endoPG activity. Accumulation of pg5 transcript is induced by citrus pectin and D-galacturonic acid and repressed by glucose. As shown by reverse transcription-PCR, pg5 is expressed by F. oxysporum in tomato roots during the initial stages of infection. Targeted inactivation of pg5 has no detectable effect on virulence toward tomato plants. PMID:11319099

García-Maceira, F I; Di Pietro, A; Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Roncero, M I

2001-05-01

111

Galleria mellonella as model host for the trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease, affects a wide range of plant species and can produce disseminated infections in humans. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate FGSC 9935 causes disease both on tomato plants and immunodepressed mice, making it an ideal model for the comparative analysis of fungal virulence on plant and animal hosts. Here we tested the ability of FGSC 9935 to cause disease in the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, an invertebrate model host that is widely used for the study of microbial human pathogens. Injection of living but not of heat-killed microconidia into the hemocoel of G. mellonella larvae resulted in dose-dependent killing both at 30°C and at 37°C. Fluorescence microscopy of larvae inoculated with a F. oxysporum transformant expressing GFP revealed hyphal proliferation within the hemocoel, interaction with G. mellonella hemocytes, and colonization of the killed insects by the fungus. Fungal gene knockout mutants previously tested in the tomato and immunodepressed mouse systems displayed a good correlation in virulence between the Galleria and the mouse model. Thus, Galleria represents a useful non-vertebrate infection model for studying virulence mechanisms of F. oxysporum on animal hosts. PMID:21907298

Navarro-Velasco, Gesabel Y; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Ortíz-Urquiza, Almudena; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-12-01

112

Use of a Nitrate-Nonutilizing Mutant and Selective Media to Examine Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional Fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. Therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. Colony forming units of the pathogen were countable after soil-dilution plating onto nit mutant-selective media MMCPA, CMP, and CGMBP. Colony forming units of wild-type Fusarium spp. were countable using a wildtype Fusarium-selective medium, GMBP. By combining nit mutant- and wild-type-selective media, the population densities of pathogenic and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum in the same soil could be measured selectively. This method was useful in studying population dynamics of the pathogen after different soil treatments. Soil disinfested with hot water or chloropicrin was amended with the nit mutant pathogen, and subsequent changes in population densities of the pathogen were compared with those in nontreated field soil. The pathogen rapidly proliferated in disinfested soil and wilt developed faster than in nontreated soil. When a nonpathogenic isolate of F. oxysporum was added at high density to sterilized soil prior to the pathogen, growth of the pathogen was greatly suppressed. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum could not, however, reduce the density of preexisting pathogen. PMID:18944103

Takehara, Toshiaki; Kuniyasu, Katsuto; Mori, Mitsutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

113

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

114

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2009-01-01

115

Regulatory elements mediating expression of xylanase genes in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The role of DNA regulatory elements mediating activation of the xylanase-encoding gene xyl4 by the transcription factor XlnR in the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was studied by in vitro and in vivo functional analysis of the xyl4 promoter. Recombinant XlnR protein specifically bound the sequence GGCTAA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Experiments with xyl4 promoter fusions with the lacZ reporter gene showed that the GGCTAA sequence is required for xylan-induced transcriptional activation of xyl4 in F. oxysporum. The results support a model in which the interaction between the transcriptional activator XlnR and an unknown constitutive repressor regulates xylanase gene expression in F. oxysporum. PMID:17664074

Calero-Nieto, Fernando; Hera, Concepción; Di Pietro, Antonio; Orejas, Margarita; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-01-01

116

Control of Banana Wilt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME years ago I reported in these columns an unusually interesting and important field experiment on the control of Panama (wilt) disease of bananas (Fusarium oxysporum cubense), which I had seen while travelling in Honduras1. This consisted in flood-fallowing an area of about a hundred acres which had gone out of cultivation because of wilt disease. The area was empoldered

C. W. Wardlaw

1947-01-01

117

Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

2007-01-01

118

The membrane mucin Msb2 regulates invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogenicity in plants requires a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast filamentous growth pathway. How this signaling cascade is activated during infection remains poorly understood. In the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the orthologous MAPK Fmk1 (Fusarium MAPK1) is essential for root penetration and pathogenicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Here, we show that Msb2, a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein, is required for surface-induced phosphorylation of Fmk1 and contributes to a subset of Fmk1-regulated functions related to invasive growth and virulence. Mutants lacking Msb2 share characteristic phenotypes with the ?fmk1 mutant, including defects in cellophane invasion, penetration of the root surface, and induction of vascular wilt symptoms in tomato plants. In contrast with ?fmk1, ?msb2 mutants were hypersensitive to cell wall targeting compounds, a phenotype that was exacerbated in a ?msb2 ?fmk1 double mutant. These results suggest that the membrane mucin Msb2 promotes invasive growth and plant infection upstream of Fmk1 while contributing to cell integrity through a distinct pathway. PMID:21441438

Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-03-01

119

A PR-1-like Protein of Fusarium oxysporum Functions in Virulence on Mammalian Hosts*  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis-related PR-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. Here we have characterized a PR-1-like protein, Fpr1, from Fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. Fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. The fpr1 gene is required for virulence in a disseminated immunodepressed mouse model, and its function depends on the integrity of the proposed active site of PR-1-like proteins. Fpr1 belongs to a gene family that has expanded in plant pathogenic Sordariomycetes. These results suggest that secreted PR-1-like proteins play important roles in fungal pathogenicity.

Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Roldan-Rodriguez, Raquel; Serena, Carolina; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Guarro, Josep; Martinez-del-Pozo, Alvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

120

Physiologic races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in the southeastern anatolia region of turkey and varietal reactions to races of the pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four isolates ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis (F.o.m.) obtained from 205 fields in melon-producing areas in the southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey were identified on the basis\\u000a of colony morphology and pathogenicity by the root dip method. In this region the mean prevalence of wilt disease was 88.1%\\u000a and the mean incidence of disease was 47.5%. Physiologic races 0, 1, 2, and

Sener Kurt; B. Baran; N. Sar?; H. Yetisir

2002-01-01

121

Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in Japan based on phylogenetic analyses of rDNA-IGS and MAT1 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae (FOS; the causal agent of spinach wilt) collected from Japan were assessed for mating type and subjected to phylogenetic analysis.\\u000a Mating type analysis revealed all isolates to be MAT1-2, suggesting that there is no sexual recombination within the population.\\u000a Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS)

Masato Kawabe; Kazunori Katsube; Takanobu Yoshida; Tsutomu Arie; Kenichi Tsuchiya

2007-01-01

122

Comparison of antibiotic tolerance, lipids and respiration in the tomato pathogens Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici and F. oxysporum radicis lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiration and lipid contents and the tolerance to mycostatin, chloramphenicol and cycloheximide were compared in the two morphologically similar forms of the tomato pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici (FOL) and the virulent form F. oxysporum radicis lycopersici (FORL). The differential tolerances to mycostatin were the most significant feature of the comparisons. The MIC for FORL was 24 ?g\\/mL for the

Clarence Madhosingh; Alvin N. Starratt

1987-01-01

123

Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

1999-02-01

124

Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices modify the hormone disruption induced by Fusarium oxysporum infection in melon plants.  

PubMed

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and abscisic acid (ABA) are known to play crucial roles in plant disease and pest resistance. Changes in the concentrations of these plant hormones in melon plant shoots, as a consequence of the interaction between the plant, the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, the antagonistic microorganism Trichoderma harzianum, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices were investigated. Attack by F. oxysporum activated a defensive response in the plant, mediated by the plant hormones SA, JA, ET, and ABA, similar to the one produced by T. harzianum. When inoculated with the pathogen, both T. harzianum and G. intraradices attenuated the plant response mediated by the hormones ABA and ET elicited by the pathogen attack. T. harzianum was also able to attenuate the SA-mediated response. In the three-way interaction (F. oxysporum-T. harzianum-G. intraradices), although a synergistic effect in reducing disease incidence was found, no synergistic effect on the modulation of the hormone disruption induced by the pathogen was observed. These results suggest that the induction of plant basal resistance and the attenuation of the hormonal disruption caused by F. oxysporum are both mechanisms by which T. harzianum can control Fusarium wilt in melon plants; while the mechanisms involving G. intraradices seem to be independent of SA and JA signaling. PMID:20528186

Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso; Roldán, Antonio

2010-07-01

125

Antagonistic effects of Streptomyces violaceusniger strain G10 on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4: indirect evidence for the role of antibiosis in the antagonistic process.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal pathogen of wilt disease of banana. A cost-effective measure of control for this disease is still not available. Streptomyces violaceusniger strain G10 acts as an antifungal agent antagonistic towards many different phytopathogenic fungi, including different pathogenic races of the Fusarium wilt pathogen. In an attempt to understand the mode of action of this antagonist in nature, the interaction between S. violaceusniger strain G10 and F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was first studied by paired incubation on agar plates. Evidence for the in vitro antibiosis of strain G10 was demonstrated by inhibition zones in the "cross-plug" assay plates. Microscopic observations showed lysis of hyphal ends in the inhibited fungal colonies. Culture of strain G10 in liquid media produces antifungal metabolites, which showed in vitro antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense such as swelling, distortion and excessive branching of hyphae, and inhibition of spore germination. An indirect method was used to show that antibiosis is one of the mechanisms of antagonism by which strain G10 acts against F. oxysporun f.sp. cubense in soil. This study suggests the potential of developing strain G10 for the biological control of Fusarium wilt disease of banana. PMID:12032802

Getha, K; Vikineswary, S

2002-06-01

126

The in vitro phytotoxicity of culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum to five genotypes of Amaranthus hybridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem decay and root rot of Amaranthus hybridus, caused by Fusarium oxysporum is a serious threat to the commercial production of this crop in South Africa. Five Amaranthus hybridus varieties were examined in vitro for sensitivity to a culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum. The phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate was assessed for its inhibitory effect on callus and seeding root

Wei-Qun Chen; Wijnand J. Swart

2002-01-01

127

Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall ?-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

Lee, Hyeseung; Damsz, Barbara; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Bressan, Ray A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

2010-01-01

128

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Paprika in Korea.  

PubMed

In the present study we first report in Korea the identification and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from rotten stems and roots of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) at Masan, Kyungsangnamdo in 2006. The fungal species produced white aerial mycelia accompanying with dark violet pigment on PDA. The optimal temperature and pH for the growth of the species was 25? and pH 7, respectively. Microscopic observation of one of isolates of the species shows that its conidiophores are unbranched and monophialides, its microconidia have oval-ellipsoidal shape with no septate and are of 3.0~11 × 1.5~3.5 µm sizes, its macroconidia are of 15~20 × 2.0~3.5 µm sizes and have slightly curved or slender shape with 2~3 septate. The results of molecular analysis show that the ITS rDNA of F. oxysporum from paprika shares 100% sequence identity with that of known F. oxysporum isolates. The identified species proved it's pathogenicity by causing rotting symptom when it was inoculated on paprika fruits. The growth of F. oxysporum from paprika was suppressed on PDA by agrochemicals such as benomyl, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin. The identified species has the ability of producing extracelluar enzymes that degrade cellobiose and pectin. PMID:24015078

Cha, Sang-Do; Jeon, Young-Jae; Ahn, Geum-Ran; Han, Jae In; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Seong Hwan

2007-06-01

129

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Paprika in Korea  

PubMed Central

In the present study we first report in Korea the identification and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from rotten stems and roots of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) at Masan, Kyungsangnamdo in 2006. The fungal species produced white aerial mycelia accompanying with dark violet pigment on PDA. The optimal temperature and pH for the growth of the species was 25? and pH 7, respectively. Microscopic observation of one of isolates of the species shows that its conidiophores are unbranched and monophialides, its microconidia have oval-ellipsoidal shape with no septate and are of 3.0~11 × 1.5~3.5 µm sizes, its macroconidia are of 15~20 × 2.0~3.5 µm sizes and have slightly curved or slender shape with 2~3 septate. The results of molecular analysis show that the ITS rDNA of F. oxysporum from paprika shares 100% sequence identity with that of known F. oxysporum isolates. The identified species proved it's pathogenicity by causing rotting symptom when it was inoculated on paprika fruits. The growth of F. oxysporum from paprika was suppressed on PDA by agrochemicals such as benomyl, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin. The identified species has the ability of producing extracelluar enzymes that degrade cellobiose and pectin.

Cha, Sang-Do; Jeon, Young-Jae; Ahn, Geum-Ran; Han, Jae In; Han, Kap-Hoon

2007-01-01

130

Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

2013-01-01

131

Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.  

PubMed

Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. PMID:23103050

Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2012-12-01

132

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

2013-07-01

133

Induction of systemic resistance of benzothiadiazole and humic Acid in soybean plants against fusarium wilt disease.  

PubMed

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy; Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-12-01

134

Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1? (EF-1?) and ?-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

2004-01-01

135

Pathogenic, Genetic and Molecular Characterisation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from lily were screened for pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and compared to reference isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and F. oxysporum f.sp. tulipae to justify the distinction of F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii. Twenty-four isolates from different locations in The Netherlands (18 isolates), Italy (4 isolates), Poland and the United States

R. P. Baayen; M. G. Förch; C. Waalwijk; P. J. M. Bonants; H. J. M. Löffler; E. J. A. Roebroeck

1998-01-01

136

Isoverrucarol production by Fusarium oxysporum CJS-12 isolated from corn.  

PubMed Central

Isoverrucarol (3,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxy-trichothec-9-ene) was isolated and purified from wheat cultures of a toxic strain of Fusarium oxysporum CJS-12. The toxin was characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Isoverrucarol caused toxic effects in rats, including loss of appetite, bodily weakness, severe mucosae of the stomach, and death, when administered orally at 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight. The toxin also caused a definite dermatitic reaction of epidermis and an edematic-necrotic response of the dermis.

Kim, K H; Lee, Y W; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R J

1990-01-01

137

The lateral organ boundaries domain transcription factor LBD20 functions in Fusarium wilt Susceptibility and jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling. PMID:22786889

Thatcher, Louise F; Powell, Jonathan J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-09-01

138

Vegetative Hyphal Fusion Is Not Essential for Plant Infection by Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

Vegetative hyphal fusion (VHF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in filamentous fungi whose biological role is poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Mak-2 and the WW domain protein So are required for efficient VHF. A MAPK orthologous to Mak-2, Fmk1, was previously shown to be essential for root penetration and pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Here we took a genetic approach to test two hypotheses, that (i) VHF and plant infection have signaling mechanisms in common and (ii) VHF is required for efficient plant infection. F. oxysporum mutants lacking either Fmk1 or Fso1, an orthologue of N. crassa So, were impaired in the fusion of vegetative hyphae and microconidial germ tubes. ?fmk1 ?fso1 double mutants exhibited a more severe fusion phenotype than either single mutant, indicating that the two components function in distinct pathways. Both ?fso1 and ?fmk1 strains were impaired in the formation of hyphal networks on the root surface, a process associated with extensive VHF. The ?fso1 mutants exhibited slightly reduced virulence in tomato fruit infection assays but, in contrast to ?fmk1 strains, were still able to perform functions associated with invasive growth, such as secretion of pectinolytic enzymes or penetration of cellophane sheets, and to infect tomato plants. Thus, although VHF per se is not essential for plant infection, both processes have some signaling components in common, suggesting an evolutionary relationship between the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Prados Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2008-01-01

139

Identification of Limiting Factors for the Optimum Growth of Fusarium Oxysporum in Liquid Medium  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a highly ubiquitous species that infects a wide range of hosts causing various diseases such as vascular wilts, yellows, rots, and damping-off. Despite the immense economic significance of this phytopathogen, few workers have reported growth studies in this genus in submerged culture. In the present study, several parameters such as change in media pH, biomass, pattern of substrate utilization, viability of the fungal cells, and protein content were observed over a period of time. The fungal biomass increased at a slow rate for the initial 48 h and thereafter increased at an exponential rate. However, after about 8 days the rapid growth stabilized and the trend became more toward stationary phase. The concentration of glucose in the liquid media decreased rapidly up to the initial 4 days, followed by a slow decrease. The pH of the medium gradually decreased as the fungal growth progressed, the reduction being more pronounced in the initial 48 h. This study would be of immense importance for utilization of F. oxysporum for diverse applications because we can predict the growth pattern in the fungus and modulate its growth for human benefit.

Srivastava, Shilpi; Pathak, Neelam; Srivastava, Prachi

2011-01-01

140

Stable integration and expression of a plant defensin in tomato confers resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides which belong to a group of pathogenasis related defense mechanism proteins. The proteins inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes and are highly stable under extreme environmental stresses. Tomato cultivation is affected by fungal disease such as Fusarium wilt. In order to overcome fungal damages, transgenic tomato plants expressing the Medicago sativa defensin gene MsDef1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter were developed. The Fusarium-susceptible tomato (Lycobersicum esculentum Mill) cultivar CastleRock was used for transformation to acquire fungal resistance. Hypocotyl with a part of cotyledon (hypocotyledonary) for young tomato seedlings were used as an explant material and transformation was performed using the biolistic delivery system. Bombarded shoots were selected on regeneration medium supplemented with hygromycin and suitable concentrations of BA, zeatin ripozide and AgNO(3). Putative transgenic plantlets of T(0) were confirmed by PCR analysis using primers specific for the transgene and the transformation frequency obtained was 52.3%. Transformation and transcription of transgenes were confirmed in T(1) by PCR, Southern hybridizations, and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The copy numbers of integrated transgene into tomato genome ranged between 1-3 copies. Greenhouse bioassay was performed on the transgenic T(1) and T(2) young seedlings and non-transgenic controls by challenging with a vigorous isolate of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. The level of fungal infectivity was determined using RT-PCR with tomatinase specific primers. Transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by fusarium than the control plants. These results indicated that overexpressing defensins in transgenic plants confer resistance to fungal pathogens. PMID:21844692

Abdallah, Naglaa A; Shah, Dilip; Abbas, Dina; Madkour, Magdy

2010-01-01

141

Role of salicylic acid in systemic resistance induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in chickpea.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1-94, Pf4-92, Pf12-94, Pf151-94 and Pf179-94) and chemical resistance inducers (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, DL-norvaline, indole-3-carbinol and lichenan) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. The isolates of P. fluorescens systemically induced resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (FocRs1), and significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the wilt disease by 26-50% as compared to control. Varied degree of protection against Fusarium wilt was recorded with chemical inducers. The reduction in disease was more pronounced when chemical inducers were applied with P. fluorescens. Among chemical inducers, SA showed the highest protection of chickpea seedlings against wilting. Fifty two- to 64% reduction of wilting was observed in soil treated with isolate Pf4-92 along with chemical inducers. A significant (P = 0.05; r = -0.946) negative correlation was observed in concentration of salicylic acid and mycelial growth of FocRs1 and at a concentration of 2000 microg ml(-1) mycelial growth was completely arrested. Exogenously supplied SA also stimulated systemic resistance against wilt and reduced the disease severity by 23% and 43% in the plants treated with 40 and 80 microg ml(-1) of SA through root application. All the isolates of P. fluorescens produced SA in synthetic medium and in root tissues. HPLC analysis indicated that Pf4-92 produced comparatively more SA than the other isolates. 1700 to 2000 nanog SA g(-1) fresh root was detected from the application site of root after one day of bacterization whereas, the amount of SA at distant site ranged between 400-500 nanog. After three days of bacterization the SA level decreased and was found more or less equal at both the detection sites. PMID:14521230

Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Tanuja; Kumar, Rakesh; Srivastava, Juhi; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K

2003-01-01

142

The tomato xylem sap protein XSP10 is required for full susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease  

PubMed Central

XSP10 is an abundant 10?kDa protein found in the xylem sap of tomato. The protein displays structural similarity to plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are involved in various physiological processes, including disease resistance, and some are able to bind and transfer diverse lipid molecules. XSP10 abundance in xylem sap declines upon infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), implying involvement of XSP10 in the plant–pathogen interaction. Here, the biochemical characterization of XSP10 with respect to fatty acid-binding properties is reported; a weak but significant binding to saturated fatty acids was found. Furthermore, XSP10-silenced tomato plants were engineered and it was found that these plants exhibited reduced disease symptom development upon infection with a virulent strain of Fol. Interestingly, the reduced symptoms observed did not correlate with an altered expression profile for known reporter genes of plant defence (PR-1 and WIPI). This work demonstrates that XSP10 has lipid-binding properties and is required for full susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium wilt.

Krasikov, Vladimir; Dekker, Henk L.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

2011-01-01

143

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae by ISSR and RAPD markers on eggplant.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae is a major soil-borne pathogen of eggplant (Solanum melongena). ISSR and RAPD markers were used to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae isolates collected from eggplant fields in southern Turkey. Those isolates were not pathogenic to tomato. Pathogens were identified by their morphology, and their identity was confirmed by PCR amplification using the specific primer PF02-3. The isolates were classified into groups on the basis of ISSR and RAPD fingerprints, which showed a level of genetic specificity and diversity not previously identified in Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae, suggesting that genetic differences are related to the pathogen in the Mediterranean region. The primers selected to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae may be used to determine genetic differences and pathogen virulence. This study is the first to characterize eggplant F. oxysporum species using ISSR and RAPD. PMID:20390339

Baysal, O; Siragusa, M; Gumrukcu, E; Zengin, S; Carimi, F; Sajeva, M; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

2010-06-01

144

Detection of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in infected tomato plants.  

PubMed

The antifungal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) is proposed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a vascular pathogen of tomato, produces a tomatinase enzyme which hydrolyses the glycoalkaloid into non-fungitoxic compounds. Detoxification of alpha-tomatine may be how this fungus avoids the plant glycoalkaloid barrier. As an initial step to evaluate this possibility we have studied the induction of tomatinase; (i) in fungal cultures containing extracts from leaf, stem or root of tomato plants; and (ii) in stem and root of tomato plants infected with the pathogen at different infection stages. The kinetics of tomatinase induction with leaf extract (0.6% dry weight) was similar to that observed with 20 micrograms ml-1 of alpha-tomatine. In the presence of stem extract, tomatinase activity was less than 50% of that induced with leaf extract, whereas in the presence of root extract tomatinase activity was very low. In the stem of infected tomato plants tomatinase activity was higher at the wilt stage than in previous infections stages and in root, tomatinase activity appeared with the first symptoms and was maintained until wilting. TLC analysis showed that the tomatinase induced in culture medium with plant extracts and in infected tomato plants had the same mode of action as the enzyme induced with pure alpha-tomatine, hydrolysing the glycoalkaloid into its non-fungitoxic forms, tomatidine and beta-lycotetraose. The antisera raised against purified tomatinase recognized in extracts of root and stem of infected tomato plants a protein of 50000 (45000 when proteins were deglycosylated), corresponding to the tomatinase enzyme. Therefore, it is concluded that F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici express tomatinase in vivo as a result of the infection of tomato plant. PMID:9237400

Lairini, K; Ruiz-Rubio, M

1997-08-01

145

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

146

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

147

Susceptibility of gerbera and chrysanthemum varieties (Gerbera jamesoni and Chrysanthemum morifolium) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. chrysanthemi.  

PubMed

In 2002, gerbera plants (cv Kaliki) were observed exhibiting symptoms of a wilt in a soilless cultivation at Albenga area (Northern Italy). A similar wilt was also observed in the Sanremo area (Northern Italy) on cv Red Bull, Anedin and Gud finger grown in soil. The same observations were carried out in 2004 in SW Spain where gerbera plants showing wilt symptoms were observed in soilless crops. In all cases, the planting material originated from the Netherlands. Recently on the base of experimental trials F. oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi was recognized as the causal agent of wilts of gerbera both in Italy and in Spain. The aim of this experimental work was the evaluation of the resistance/susceptibility of available cultivars of chrysanthemum and gerbera to the Fusarium wilt. The pathogenicity of two isolates of Fusarium chrysanthemi obtained from infected gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants was tested on several varieties both of gerbera and chrysanthemum in 2004-2006. In 2004 and 2005 respectively 54 and 30 cultivars of chrysanthemum and 57 and 55 of gerbera were tested, while in 2006 only 53 cultivars of gerbera were tested. The results showed that respectively in 2004 and 2005 67 and 33 % of chrysanthemum cultivars were highly resistant to F. chrysanthemi obtained from chrysanthemum while 57 and 53 % were highly resistant to strain isolated from gerbera. In 2004, 2005 and 2006 47, 65 and 75 % of gerbera cultivars were highly resistant to F. chrysanthemi obtained from chrysanthemum and 48, 56 and 72 % were highly resistant to the strain isolated from gerbera. PMID:18396800

Minuto, Andrea; Gullino, Lodovica Maria; Garibaldi, Angelo

2007-01-01

148

Insight into the molecular requirements for pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici through large-scale insertional mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in tomato. In order to gain more insight into the molecular processes in F. oxysporum necessary for pathogenesis and to uncover the genes involved, we used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to generate 10,290 transformants and screened the transformants for loss or reduction of pathogenicity. Results This led to the identification of 106 pathogenicity mutants. Southern analysis revealed that the average T-DNA insertion is 1.4 and that 66% of the mutants carry a single T-DNA. Using TAIL-PCR, chromosomal T-DNA flanking regions were isolated and 111 potential pathogenicity genes were identified. Conclusions Functional categorization of the potential pathogenicity genes indicates that certain cellular processes, such as amino acid and lipid metabolism, cell wall remodeling, protein translocation and protein degradation, seem to be important for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum. Several known pathogenicity genes were identified, such as those encoding chitin synthase V, developmental regulator FlbA and phosphomannose isomerase. In addition, complementation and gene knock-out experiments confirmed that a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, thought to be involved in cell wall integrity, a transcriptional regulator, a protein with unknown function and peroxisome biogenesis are required for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum.

Michielse, Caroline B; van Wijk, Ringo; Reijnen, Linda; Cornelissen, Ben JC; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

149

The pH signalling transcription factor PacC controls virulence in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Gene expression in fungi by ambient pH is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor PacC/Rim1p. We have identified a pacC orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-GCCAAG-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to PacC from Aspergillus nidulans. pacC transcript levels were elevated in F. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme acidic growth conditions. PacC+/- loss-of-function mutants displayed an acidity-mimicking phenotype resulting in poor growth at alkaline pH, increased acid protease activity and higher transcript levels of acid-expressed polygalacturonase genes. Reintroduction of a functional pacC copy into a pacC+/- mutant restored the wild-type phenotype. Conversely, F. oxysporum merodiploids carrying a dominant activating pacCc allele had increased pacC transcript and protein levels and displayed an alkalinity-mimicking phenotype with reduced acid phosphatase and increased alkaline protease activities. PacC+/- mutants were more virulent than the wild-type strain in root infection assays with tomato plants, whereas pacCc strains were significantly reduced in virulence. We propose that F. oxysporum PacC acts as a negative regulator of virulence to plants, possibly by preventing transcription of acid-expressed genes important for infection. PMID:12694620

Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M Isabel G; Espeso, Eduardo A; González-Verdejo, Clara I; García-Maceira, Fe I; Di Pietro, Antonio

2003-05-01

150

The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.  

PubMed

The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen. PMID:23617416

Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

2013-08-01

151

Combined use of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 with reduced fungicide application for the control of tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and suppressed the Fusarium wilt of tomato. The chemical fungicide, benomyl, did not suppress the disease incidence at low concentrations. However, the disease incidence was decreased by the combined application of benomyl at low concentrations with strain LRB3W1. Combined application of benomyl with the bacterium was more effective than treatment with the bacterium alone. The survival of strain LRB3W1 was not influenced by the presence of benomyl. This combined use of the biocontrol bacterium, strain LRB3W1, and a fungicide, benomyl, should be an attractive approach for suppressing tomato wilt. PMID:16789550

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2006-06-01

152

Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans.  

PubMed

Alcaligenes xylosoxydans protected pigeonpea from Fusarium wilt in a pot experiment and field trials. When seeds of pigeonpea (C. cajan) were treated with A. xylosoxydans and sown in soil infested with Fusarium, the incidence of wilt was reduced by 43.5% and resulted in 58% higher grain yield. The antifungal activity of A. xylosoxydans was based on chitinase production and was comparable in efficacy to commercial antifungal agents such as benlate, monitor WP, thiram and bavistin. PMID:15320506

Vaidya, R J; Macmil, S L A; Vyas, P R; Ghetiya, L V; Thakor, K J; Chhatpar, H S

2003-12-01

153

Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

Schafer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

2014-01-01

154

Physiological races and vegetative compatibility groups within Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility of mainly Dutch isolates ofFusarium oxysporum collected from diseased gladioli and other Iridaceae were investigated. Based on their pathogenicity to two differential gladiolus cultivars, the isolates could tentatively be divided into two races. All self-compatible isolates ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.gladioli belonged to one of three distinct vegetative compatibility groups, VCG 0340, 0341 or 0342, and were

E. J. A. Roebroeck; J. J. Mes

1992-01-01

155

Genetic Variation Among Vegetative Compatibility Groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Analyzed by DNA Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bentley, S., Pegg, K. G., Moore, N. Y., Davis, R. D., and Buddenhagen, I. W. 1998. Genetic variation among vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. Phytopathology 88:1283-1293. Genetic variation within a worldwide collection of 208 isolates of Fu- sarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, representing physiological r aces 1, 2, 3, and 4 and

S. Bentley; K. G. Pegg; N. Y. Moore; R. D. Davis; I. W. Buddenhagen

1998-01-01

156

Cell interactions between a nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain and root tissues of Eucalyptus viminalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum can be successful antagonists of pathogenic forms of the same fungal species that commonly attacks crop plants. The characteristics that distinguish nonpathogenic from pathogenic forms are not well understood. In this study, the mode of root colonization of Eucalyptus viminalis seedlings by a nonpathogenic F. oxysporum strain is described at the ultrastructural level. Root systems

Maria-Isabel Salerno; Silvio Gianinazzi; Christine Arnould; Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson

2004-01-01

157

Foxy : an active family of short interspersed nuclear elements from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel family of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) has been identified in Fusarium oxysporum. This family has been called Foxy. The feature that makes Foxy unique among SINEs is the presence of 5? terminal tetranucleotide repeats. Both the number and the sequence of these repeats\\u000a vary between individual members of the family. The genome of F. oxysporum f. sp.

J. J. Mes; M. A. Haring; B. J. C. Cornelissen

2000-01-01

158

Phylogeny of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae Inferred from Mitochondrial Small Subunit, Elongation Factor 1-alpha, and Nuclear Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Sequence Data.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, causal agent of Fusarium wilt of lettuce, is a serious pathogen recently reported in Arizona. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, and the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region was conducted to resolve relationships among f. sp. lactucae isolates, F. oxysporum isolates from other hosts, and local non-pathogenic isolates. Analysis of mtSSU sequences provided limited phylogenetic resolution and did not differentiate the lactucae isolates from 13 other F. oxysporum isolates. Analysis of EF-1alpha sequences resulted in moderate resolution, grouping seven formae speciales with the lactucae isolates. Analysis of the IGS region revealed numerous sequence polymorphisms among F. oxysporum formae speciales consisting of insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide transitions and substitutions. Repeat sequence analysis revealed several duplicated subrepeat units that were distributed across much of the region. Based on analysis of the IGS sequence data, lactucae race 1 isolates resolved as a monophyletic group with three other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. In all analyses, lactucae race 2 isolates composed a separate lineage that was phylo-genetically distinct and distantly related to the lactucae race 1 isolates. PMID:18942941

Mbofung, Gladys Y; Hong, Soon Gyu; Pryor, Barry M

2007-01-01

159

Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL and sequencing composition.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the inheritance of disease resistance and genomic regions housing resistance (R) genes is essential to prevent expanding pathogen threats such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] in cotton (Gossypium spp.). We conducted a comprehensive study combining conventional inheritance, genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, QTL marker-sequence composition, and genome sequencing to examine the distribution, structure and organization of disease R genes to race 1 of FOV in the cotton genome. Molecular markers were applied to F(2) and recombinant inbred line (RIL) interspecific mapping populations from the crosses Pima-S7 (G. barbadense L.) × 'Acala NemX' (G. hirsutum L.) and Upland TM-1 (G. hirsutum) × Pima 3-79 (G. barbadense), respectively. Three greenhouse tests and one field test were used to obtain sequential estimates of severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS). A single resistance gene model was observed for the F(2) population based on inheritance of phenotypes. However, additional inheritance analyses and QTL mapping indicated gene interactions and inheritance from nine cotton chromosomes, with major QTLs detected on five chromosomes [Fov1-C06, Fov1-C08, (Fov1-C11 ( 1 ) and Fov1-C11 ( 2)) , Fov1-C16 and Fov1-C19 loci], explaining 8-31% of the DSI or VRS variation. The Fov1-C16 QTL locus identified in the F(2) and in the RIL populations had a significant role in conferring FOV race 1 resistance in different cotton backgrounds. Identified molecular markers may have important potential for breeding effective FOV race 1 resistance into elite cultivars by marker-assisted selection. Reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from marker-DNA and new DNA sequences of BAC clones tagged with the resistance-associated QTLs revealed defenses genes induced upon pathogen infection and gene regions rich in disease-response elements, respectively. These offer candidate gene targets for Fusarium wilt resistance response in cotton and other host plants. PMID:21533837

Ulloa, Mauricio; Wang, Congli; Hutmacher, Robert B; Wright, Steven D; Davis, R Michael; Saski, Christopher A; Roberts, Philip A

2011-07-01

160

Foliar spray of validamycin a or validoxylamine a controls tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Tomato wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is effectively controlled by a foliar spray of validamycin A (VMA) or validoxylamine A (VAA) (>/=10 mug/ml); however, neither VMA nor VAA is antifungal in vitro. In pot tests, the effect of a foliar application of VMA or VAA at 100 mug/ml lasted for 64 days. Plants sprayed with VMA or VAA accumulated salicylic acid and had elevated expression of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) marker genes P4 (PR-1), Tag (PR-2), and NP24 (PR-5). Foliar spray of VMA also controlled late blight and powdery mildew of tomato. The disease control by VMA and VAA lasted up to 64 days after treatment, was broad spectrum, and induced the expression of PR genes, all essential indicators of SAR, suggesting that VMA and VAA are plant activators. The foliar application of plant activators is a novel control method for soilborne diseases and may provide an economically feasible alternative to soil fumigants such as methyl bromide. PMID:18943474

Ishikawa, Ryo; Shirouzu, Kentaro; Nakashita, Hideo; Lee, Han-Young; Motoyama, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2005-10-01

161

Panama Disease: Cell Wall Reinforcement in Banana Roots in Response to Elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race Four.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. Tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. Goldfinger and susceptible cv. Williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for resistance in breeding programs. Similarly, defense responses were induced by treatment of the plants with an elicitor preparation from the mycelial cell walls of the pathogen. Differences in the induction of lignin and callose deposition, phenolics, and the enzymes involved in cell wall strengthening; phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were determined. Root tissue of the tolerant cv. Goldfinger responded to the fungal elicitor through the strong deposition of lignin, preceded by the induction or activation of the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and polymerization thereof, whereas only slight increases were observed for the susceptible cv. Williams. No increase in callose content was observed for either clone. These results indicate an important role for cell wall strengthening due to the deposition of lignin as an inducible defense mechanism of banana roots against F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four. PMID:18944483

De Ascensao, A R; Dubery, I A

2000-10-01

162

Molecular detection and genotyping of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii isolates from different agro-ecological regions of India.  

PubMed

Twenty one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii (Fop), causing a vascular wilt in guava (Psidium guajava L.), were collected from different agro-ecological regions of India. The pathogenicity test was performed in guava seedlings, where the Fop isolates were found to be highly pathogenic. All 21 isolates were confirmed as F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii by a newly developed, species-specific primer against the conserved regions of 28S rDNA and the intergenic spacer region. RAPD and PCR-RFLP were used for genotyping the isolates to determine their genetic relationships. Fifteen RAPD primers were tested, of which five primers produced prominent, polymorphic, and reproducible bands. RAPD yielded an average of 6.5 polymorphic bands per primer, with the amplified DNA fragments ranging from 200-2,000 bp in size. A dendrogram constructed from these data indicated a 22-74% level of homology. In RFLP analysis, two major bands (350 and 220 bp) were commonly present in all isolates of F. oxysporum. These findings provide new insight for rapid, specific, and sensitive disease diagnosis. However, genotyping could be useful in strain-level discrimination of isolates from different agro-ecological regions of India. PMID:23990290

Mishra, Rupesh Kumar; Pandey, Brajesh Kumar; Singh, Vijai; Mathew, Amita John; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2013-08-01

163

HapX-mediated iron homeostasis is essential for rhizosphere competence and virulence of the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ?hapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:22968717

López-Berges, Manuel S; Capilla, Javier; Turrŕ, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-09-01

164

Role of the transcriptional activator xlnR of Fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.  

PubMed

Fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. The role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. Here, we have studied XlnR, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in Aspergillus spp. Transcription of the xlnR gene was activated by inducing carbon sources such as oat spelt xylan (OSX) and repressed by glucose. Targeted knockout of xlnR in F. oxysporum resulted in lack of transcriptional activation of structural xylanase genes, both in culture and during infection of tomato plants, as well as in dramatically reduced extracellular xylanase activity. By contrast, overexpression of xlnR under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter did not significantly increase xylanase activity, suggesting that XlnR is regulated not only at the transcriptional but also at the post-translational level. The deltaxlnR mutants were still fully virulent on tomato plants. Thus, XlnR, the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes, is not an essential virulence determinant in F. oxysporum. PMID:17722701

Calero-Nieto, Fernando; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hera, Concepcion

2007-08-01

165

Induced resistance in tomato plants by IAA against Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici.  

PubMed

The phytohormone IAA (indol-3-acetic acid) was tested in vitro on growth of tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici. The hormone reduced spore germination, mycelial dry weight and protein content. Such reduction was matched with the elevation in the hormone concentration. The in vivo application of IAA to soil of the uninoculated plants (controls) improved growth and yielded longer shoot and root, particularly at low concentrations. Moreover, the hormone could prevent completely any chance for disease incidence by soil pathogens. Presence of IAA in soil of inoculated plants not only reduced the infection rate but also increased plant growth, causing that they appeared healthy and normal. Disease suppression in tomato plants, exerted by application of IAA, was achieved through either increasing plant growth, exerting a direct harmful effect on the target pathogen and/or inducing resistance in host tissue. The induced resistance was correlated with induction of certain secondary metabolites which may have a role in increasing tolerance in tomato plants to the pathogen. PMID:15478356

Sharaf, Eman F; Farrag, Ayman A

2004-01-01

166

The two-component histidine kinase Fhk1 controls stress adaptation and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungal histidine kinases (HKs) have been implicated in different processes, such as the osmostress response, hyphal development, sensitivity to fungicides and virulence. Members of HK class III are known to signal through the HOG mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but possible interactions with other MAPKs have not been explored. In this study, we have characterized fhk1, encoding a putative class III HK from the soil-borne vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Inactivation of fhk1 resulted in resistance to phenylpyrrole and dicarboximide fungicides, as well as increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress and menadione-induced oxidative stress. The osmosensitivity of Delta fhk1 mutants was associated with a striking and previously unreported change in colony morphology. The Delta fhk1 strains showed a significant decrease in virulence on tomato plants. Epistatic analysis between Fhk1 and the Fmk1 MAPK cascade indicated that Fhk1 does not function upstream of Fmk1, but that the two pathways may interact to control the response to menadione-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20447287

Rispail, Nicolas; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-05-01

167

Disease Development Following Infection of Tomato and Basil Foliage by Airborne Conidia of the Soilborne Pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in basil, are soilborne pathogens capable of producing conspicuous masses of macroconidia along the stem. The role of the airborne propagules in the epidemics of the disease in tomato plants was studied. In the field, airborne propagules of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici were trapped with a selective medium and their prevalence was determined. Plants grown in both covered and uncovered pots, detached from the field soil, and exposed to natural aerial inoculum developed typical symptoms (82 to 87% diseased plants). The distribution of inoculum in the growth medium in the pots also indicated the occurrence of foliage infection. In greenhouse, foliage and root inoculations were carried out with both tomato and basil and their respective pathogens. Temperature and duration of high relative humidity affected rate of colonization of tomato, but not of basil, by the respective pathogens. Disease incidence in foliage-inoculated plants reached 75 to 100%. In these plants, downward movement of the pathogens from the foliage to the crown and roots was observed. Wounding enhanced pathogen invasion and establishment in the foliage-inoculated plants. The sporulation of the two pathogens on stems, aerial dissemination, and foliage infection raise the need for foliage protection in addition to soil disinfestation, in the framework of an integrated disease management program. PMID:18943372

Rekah, Y; Shtienberg, D; Katan, J

2000-12-01

168

[Identification of phenylacetic acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud, using GC-MS].  

PubMed

These studies are concerned with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a.), the causal agent of bayoud, the wilt disease of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Fungal secondary metabolites are chemical compounds identified in a limited number of species. They consist of toxins, antibiotics and antifungal agents. Among the metabolites we could isolate from the pathogen grown in a liquid medium, and then identify by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), phenylacetic acid has been distinguished. This compound is widely described in the literature as having antimicrobial, antifungal, phytotoxic properties and also endowed with hormonal activity similar to that of indole acetic acid (IAA). To date, this metabolite has never been reported in F. o. a. PMID:21146137

Ait Kettout, T; Rahmania, F

2010-01-01

169

Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses. PMID:19230952

Shi, Kai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Yun-Long; Yu, Jing-Quan

2009-05-01

170

Expression Analysis of Defense-Related Genes in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) after Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Infection and Following Chemical Elicitation using a Salicylic Acid Analog and Methyl Jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is considered as a major threat for commercial cotton production worldwide. Relative expression ratios of two key pathogenesis-related\\u000a (PR) genes (PR-3 and PR-10) and a detoxification gene (GST18) were compared between a fully susceptible (“LACTA”) and a partially field-resistant (“EMERALD”) cultivar after challenging\\u000a with an Australian Fov isolate,

Antonios G. Zambounis; Mairi S. Kalamaki; Eleni E. Tani; Epameinondas J. Paplomatas; Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

171

Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly.

Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

2013-01-01

172

Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

2013-01-01

173

Skippy, a retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has been isolated and characterized. The element, designated skippy (skp) is 7846 bp in length, flanked by identical long terminal repeats (LTR) of 429 bp showing structural features characteristic of retroviral and retrotransposon LTRs. Target-site duplications of 5 bp were found. Two long overlapping open reading frames (ORF) were identified. The first ORF, 2562 bp in length, shows homology to retroviral gag genes. The second ORF, 3888 bp in length, has homology to the protease, reverse transcriptase. RNase H and integrase domains of retroelement pol genes in that order. Sequence comparisons and the order of the predicted proteins from skippy indicate that the element is closely related to the gypsy family of LTR-retrotransposons. The element is present in similar copy numbers in the two races investigated, although RFLP analysis showed differences in banding patterns. The number of LTR sequences present in the genome is higher than the number of copies of complete elements, indicating excision by homologous recombination between LTR sequences. PMID:8544829

Anaya, N; Roncero, M I

1995-12-20

174

Sustainable Approaches for Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) is an important crop of Indian subcontinent and African countries, cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.\\u000a Fusarium wilt is one of the major yield and growth-limiting factors of pigeon pea. Along with nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, F. udum result in highly destructive wilt disease complex, which is a major constraint for the

Piyush Pandey; Abhinav Aeron; D. K. Maheshwari

175

PENGIMBASAN KETAHANAN PISANG TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM DENGAN Burkholderia cepacia Induce resistence of banana against fusarium wilt by using  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fakultas Pertanian UGM Yogyakarta F usarium wilt of banana or Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxyspsorum f.sp. cubense is widespread in the tropics and subtropics. The disease control is difficult because the pathogen form chlamidospores in soil and can still alive for a long time. Although some disease controls have been done, an efficient and effective methods of control is

Salim Widono; Christanti Sumardiyono; Bambang Hadisutrisno

2003-01-01

176

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

177

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service studies on polyketide toxins of Fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.  

PubMed

A group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f sp vasinfectum (Atk) Sny & Hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. All isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. Most isolates of race 1 (previously denoted as races 1, 2 and 6; and also called race A) also synthesized the heptaketide naphthoquinones, nectriafurone, anhydrofusarubin lactol and 5-O-methyljavanicin. Nine avirulent isolates of F oxysporum from Upland cotton roots, three isolates of race 3 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum, and four isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum from Australia, all of which previously failed to cause disease of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in stem-puncture assays, also failed to synthesize or secrete more than trace amounts of the heptaketide compounds. These results indicate that the heptaketides may have a unique role in the virulence of race 1 to Upland cotton. The synthesis of all polyketide toxins by ATCC isolate 24908 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum was regulated by pH, carbon/nitrogen ratios, and availability of calcium in media. Synthesis was greatest below pH 7.0 and increased progressively as carbon/nitrogen ratios were increased by decreasing the amounts of nitrogen added to media. The nonaketides were the major polyketides accumulated in synthetic media at pH 4.5 and below, whereas the heptaketides were predominant at pH 5.0 and above. The heptaketides were the major polyketides formed when 10 F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum race 1 isolates were grown on sterilized stems of Fusarium wilt-susceptible cotton cultivars, but these compounds were not produced on sorghum grain cultures. Both groups of polyketide toxins were apparently secreted by F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum, since half of the toxin in 2-day-old shake culture was present in the supernatant. Secretion was enhanced by calcium. Glutamine and glutamic acid inhibited both nonaketide and heptaketide syntheses, even at low nitrogen PMID:12846324

Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Liu, Jinggao; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Orta, Heather

2003-01-01

178

Modeling competition for infection sites on roots by nonpathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

By use of plane and solid geometry and probability models, efficiencies of infection and competition for nutrients and infection\\u000a sites by a nonpathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum (C14) with F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum on the rhizoplane of cucumber were calculated. The model is derived from previously published data. Efficiencies for successful\\u000a infection were 0.04 chlamydospores per infection site for

Qaher A. Mandeel

2007-01-01

179

Analysis of diversity within Fusarium oxysporum populations using molecular and vegetative compatibility grouping  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprints, based on Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) sites, were investigated as an alternative\\u000a technique to Vegetative Compatibility Grouping (VCG) in studying populations of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. & Hans. Isolates of F. oxysporum were recovered from orchids displaying visible signs of root rot. Fifty-two isolates were collected and analysed using both\\u000a the ERIC DNA fingerprinting technique and

J. L. Smith-White; L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

2001-01-01

180

The role of antagonists in the chemical control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of narcissus bulbs with methoxy ethyl mercury chloride, pimaricin or thiram provided control of basal rot and primary\\u000a root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi and secondary root rot and ‘skin disease’ caused by F. oxysporum ff.\\u000a spp. A similar treatment with formal in was only effective against basal rot and root rot. Newly formed roots of

C. J. Langerak

1977-01-01

181

Responses of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum to exogenously added sinapic acid in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the influence of phenolic acids from plant root exudates on soil pathogens, we studied the effect of sinapic acid\\u000a added to chemically defined media on the growth and virulence factors of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Sinapic acid inhibited the growth and conidial formation and germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum by 6.7–8.8% and 11.2–37.3%, respectively. Mycotoxin

Hong-sheng Wu; Yang Wang; Wei Bao; Dong-yang Liu; Waseem Raza; Qi-wei Huang; Ze-sheng Mao; Qi-rong Shen

2009-01-01

182

Comparison of two fatty acid analysis protocols to characterize and differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles for characterization and differentiation of isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was investigated. Two fatty acid analysis protocols of the normal (MIDI) and a modified MIDI method were used for their utility.\\u000a Only the modified MIDI method allowed a clear differentiation between F. oxysporum

Masaru Matsumoto

2006-01-01

183

Multilocus Analysis Using Putative Fungal Effectors to Describe a Population of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae. PMID:24502207

Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

2014-08-01

184

Comparison of in vitro activities of amphotericin, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, and nystatin against Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The inhibitory activity of amphotericin B, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole and nystatin was compared against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum. The most efficient antifungal agent against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum was econazole, followed by clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin and nystatin. The ED50 and ED90 values were 0.053 and 1.002 ppm for econazole, 0.088 and 1.100 ppm for clotrimazole, 0.173 and 3.210 ppm for miconazole, 0.713 and greater than 48 ppm for amphotericin and 3.860 and 16.702 ppm for nystatin. The ED50 values of nystatin and amphotericin against spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum were determined at 3.1427 ppm and 8.3990 ppm respectively, nystatin was 2.76 times more effective than amphotericin, while no effect was observed after the addition of econazole, clotrimazole and miconazole. The tested azoles were more effective than amphotericin and nystatin on growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum but amphotericin and nystatin acted significantly better on spore germination of Fusarium. PMID:11411855

Tzatzarakis, M N; Tsatsakis, A M; Charvalos, E; Vakalounakis, D

2001-05-01

185

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain Transcription Factor LBD20 Functions in Fusarium Wilt Susceptibility and Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling.

Thatcher, Louise F.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Aitken, Elizabeth A.B.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2012-01-01

186

A molecular insight into the early events of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (race 1) interaction through cDNA-AFLP analysis.  

PubMed

Wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most severe diseases of chickpea throughout the world. Variability of pathotypes of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and breakdown of natural resistance are the main hindrances to developing resistant plants by applying resistant breeding strategies. Additionally, lack of information of potential resistant genes limits gene-transfer technology. A thorough understanding of Fusarium spp.-chickpea interaction at a cellular and molecular level is essential for isolation of potential genes involved in counteracting disease progression. Experiments were designed to trigger the pathogen-challenged disease responses in both susceptible and resistant plants and monitor the expression of stress induced genes or gene fragments at the transcript level. cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism followed by homology search helped in differentiating and analyzing the up- and downregulated gene fragments. Several detected DNA fragments appeared to have relevance with pathogen-mediated defense. Some of the important transcript-derived fragments were homologous to genes for sucrose synthase, isoflavonoid biosynthesis, drought stress response, serine threonine kinases, cystatins, arginase, and so on. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed with samples collected at 48 and 96 h postinfection confirmed a similar type of differential expression pattern. Based on these results, interacting pathways of cellular processes were generated. This study has an implication toward functional identification of genes involved in wilt resistance. PMID:19821728

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rangi, Rumdeep K; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

2009-11-01

187

Fusarium oxysporum as a Multihost Model for the Genetic Dissection of Fungal Virulence in Plants and Mammals  

PubMed Central

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase, a pH response transcription factor, or a class V chitin synthase previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants were tested in the mouse model. The results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during the infection of tomato plants and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to study fungal virulence mechanisms in plant and mammalian pathogenesis.

Ortoneda, Montserrat; Guarro, Josep; Madrid, Marta P.; Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Mayayo, Emilio; Di Pietro, Antonio

2004-01-01

188

Fusarium oxysporum as a multihost model for the genetic dissection of fungal virulence in plants and mammals.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase, a pH response transcription factor, or a class V chitin synthase previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants were tested in the mouse model. The results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during the infection of tomato plants and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to study fungal virulence mechanisms in plant and mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:14977985

Ortoneda, Montserrat; Guarro, Josep; Madrid, Marta P; Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M Isabel G; Mayayo, Emilio; Di Pietro, Antonio

2004-03-01

189

Loss of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A affects multiple traits important for root pathogenesis by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt and root rot diseases in many plant species. We investigated the role of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A of F. oxysporum (FoCPKA) in growth, morphology, and root attachment, penetration, and pathogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Affinity of spore attachment to root surfaces of A. thaliana, observed microscopically and measured by atomic force microscopy, was reduced by a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of FoCPKA. The resulting mutants also failed to penetrate into the vascular system of A. thaliana roots and lost virulence. Even when the mutants managed to enter the vascular system via physically wounded roots, the degree of vascular colonization was significantly lower than that of the corresponding wild-type strain O-685 and no noticeable disease symptoms were observed. The mutants also had reduced vegetative growth and spore production, and their hyphal growth patterns were distinct from those of O-685. Coinoculation of O-685 with an focpkA mutant or a strain nonpathogenic to A. thaliana significantly reduced disease severity and the degree of root colonization by O-685. Several experimental tools useful for studying mechanisms of fungal root pathogenesis are also introduced. PMID:21261464

Kim, Hye-Seon; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Sangwoo; Adams, Elizabeth L; Czymmek, Kirk; Kang, Seogchan

2011-06-01

190

Proteomic identification of potential target proteins regulated by the SCF(F) (bp1) -mediated proteolysis pathway in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

F-box proteins function in the recruitment of proteins for SCF ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. Here, we studied the role of Fbp1, a nonessential F-box protein of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The ?fbp1 mutant showed a significant delay in the production of wilt symptoms on tomato plants and was impaired in invasive growth on cellophane membranes and on living plant tissue. To search for target proteins recruited by Fbp1, a combination of sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to compare proteins in mycelia of the wild-type and ?fbp1 mutant. The proteomic approach identified 41 proteins differing significantly in abundance between the two strains, 17 of which were more abundant in the ?fbp1 mutant, suggesting a possible regulation by proteasome degradation. Interestingly, several of the identified proteins were related to vesicle trafficking. Microscopic analysis revealed an impairment of the ?fbp1 strain in directional growth and in the structure of the Spitzenkörper, suggesting a role of Fbp1 in hyphal orientation. Our results indicate that Fbp1 regulates protein turnover and pathogenicity in F.?oxysporum. PMID:23855991

Miguel-Rojas, Cristina; Hera, Concepcion

2013-12-01

191

Fusarium oxysporum gas1 encodes a putative beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase required for virulence on tomato plants.  

PubMed

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (beta)-1,3-glucanosyltransferases play active roles in fungal cell wall biosynthesis and morphogenesis and have been implicated in virulence on mammals. The role of beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferases in pathogenesis to plants has not been explored so far. Here, we report the cloning and mutational analysis of the gas1 gene encoding a putative beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In contrast to Candida albicans, expression of gas1 in F. oxysporum was independent of ambient pH and of the pH response transcription factor PacC. Gene knockout mutants lacking a functional gas1 allele grew in a way similar to the wildtype strain in submerged culture but exhibited restricted colony growth on solid substrates. The restricted growth phenotype was relieved by the osmotic stabilizer sorbitol, indicating that it may be related to structural alterations in the cell wall. Consistent with this hypothesis, deltagas1 mutants exhibited enhanced resistance to cell wall-degrading enzymes and increased transcript levels of chsV and rho1, encoding a class V chitin synthase and a small monomeric G protein, respectively. The deltagas1 mutants showed dramatically reduced virulence on tomato, both in a root infection assay and in a fruit tissue-invasion model, thus providing the first evidence for an essential role of fungal beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferases during plant infection. PMID:16353549

Caracuel, Zaira; Martínez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Di Pietro, Antonio; Madrid, Marta P; Roncero, M Isabel G

2005-11-01

192

Fusarium oxysporum Adh1 has dual fermentative and oxidative functions and is involved in fungal virulence in tomato plants.  

PubMed

An alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adh1, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that adh1 is highly expressed in mycelia grown in potato dextrose liquid medium (PDB) under hypoxic conditions, as compared to mycelia grown under aerobic conditions. One spontaneous allyl alcohol-resistant (Ally(R)) mutant exhibited insertion of an incomplete F.oxysporum transposable element, while another mutant contained a short (13 nucleotide) deletion, in both cases interrupting the coding region of the adh1 gene. These mutations caused deficiency in Adh activity due to loss of the main constitutive isoform of Adh1, as well as alteration of different physiological parameters related to carbon and energy metabolism, including the ability to use ethanol as a carbon source under aerobic conditions; impaired growth under hypoxic conditions with glucose as the carbon source; and diminished production of ethanol in glucose-containing medium. Interestingly, the adh1 mutations resulted in a significant delay in fungal disease development in tomato plants. Complementation with the wild-type adh1 allele repaired all defects caused by mutation, indicating that the product of the adh1 gene has dual enzymatic functions (fermentative and oxidative), depending on culture conditions, and is also required for full fungal virulence. PMID:21704720

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Rangel Porras, Rosa Angelica; Meza Carmen, Victor; Gonzalez Hernandez, Gloria Angélica; Torres Guzman, Juan Carlos; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Roncero, M Isabel G; Gutierrez Corona, J Felix

2011-09-01

193

Inactivation of Snt2, a BAH/PHD-containing transcription factor, impairs pathogenicity and increases autophagosome abundance in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soil-borne, asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) is a causal agent of muskmelon wilt disease. The current study focused on the most virulent race of FOM-race 1,2. The tagged mutant D122, generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, caused the delayed appearance of initial wilt disease symptoms, as well as a 75% reduction in pathogenicity. D122 was impaired in the gene product homologous to the Snt2-like transcription factor of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Involvement of snt2 in the early stage of FOM pathogenesis and its requirement for host colonization were confirmed by targeted disruption followed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of snt2 expression in planta. ?snt2 mutants of FOM and Neurospora crassa exhibited similar morphological abnormalities, including a reduction in conidia production and biomass accumulation, slower vegetative growth and frequent hyphal septation. In N. crassa, snt-2 is required for sexual development, as ?snt-2 mutants were unable to produce mature perithecia. Suppressive subtraction hybridization analysis of the D122 mutant versus wild-type isolate detected four genes (idi4, pdc, msf1, eEF1G) that were found previously in association with the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase pathway. Expression of the autophagy-related idi4 and pdc genes was found to be up-regulated in the ?snt2 FOM mutant. In N. crassa, disruption of snt-2 also conferred a significant over-expression of idi4. PMID:21535351

Denisov, Youlia; Freeman, Stanley; Yarden, Oded

2011-06-01

194

Comparative studies with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen ratio on sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans.  

PubMed

Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a factor for sporulation, expressed in terms of magnitude of population variation of macroconidia and microconidia in the cultures of Eusarium oxysporum Schlecht ex. Fr., Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans Wr. and Rg., and of chlamydospores (only in Fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. It has been found that the amount of carbon source shapes the course of macro- and micro. conidial production in a linear fashion, being enhanced parallel to the increase in its amount-Nitrogen level, limiting proliferation and effectively diminishing the macro- and micro-conidial population, varies for the two species, namely Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v-subglutinans. For chlamydomspore production, higher carbon and still higher nitrogen concentration favours profuse proliferation in case of Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:543920

Prasad, M

1979-01-01

195

DNA amplification fingerprinting analysis of genetic variation within Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among 29 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi (Foz) collected from diseased ginger rhizome in production regions throughout Queensland was analysed using DNA amplification\\u000a fingerprinting (DAF). Eight isolates of other Fusarium species and\\/or formae speciales were included for comparative analysis. Within the Foz isolates, three haplotypes were identified based on 17 polymorphic bands generated with five primers. Two

L. Pappalardo; M. K. Smith; S. D. Hamill; A. M. Stirling; D. McKay

2009-01-01

196

A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana fusarium wilt pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1? (TEF-1?) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, comprising 20 vegetative compatibility groups (VCG). Based on two single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the IGS region, a

M. A. Dita Rodriguez; C. Waalwijk; I. W. Buddenhagen; M. T. Souza Jr; G. H. J. Kema

2010-01-01

197

Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-10-01

198

Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.  

PubMed

We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:19329332

Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya

2009-07-01

199

Induced resistance by the mutualistic endophyte, Fusarium oxysporum strain 162, toward Meloidogyne incognita on tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-pathogenic endophytic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum strain 162, originally isolated from the endorhiza of tomato roots, reduces damage caused by Meloidogyne incognita, by inhibiting juvenile penetration of and development in the root. However, little is known about the mode of action of this endophyte fungus against the nematode. This study aimed at investigating how the endophyte affects nematode motility and

Abd El-Fattah Adnan Dababat; Richard Alexander Sikora

2007-01-01

200

Study of Resistance of Musa acuminata to Fusarium oxysporum using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suckers collected from different populations of Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis were found to be highly resistant to race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) suggesting that local wild banana populations co-evolved with the pathogen. Seedlings from these wild banana plants segregated for resistance to the pathogen. The infected seedlings were characterized based on external and internal symptoms and

M. A. Javed; M. Chai; R. Y. Othman

2004-01-01

201

Soil sterilization and glasshouse disinfection to control Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici in tomatoes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder & Hansen, was observed on tomatoes under glass in the Netherlands for the first time in 1968 and spread widely in the following years. Experiments showed that soil infestation could be reduced by sterilization with steam, methyl bromide and chloropicrin, provided the treatments were applied with great care. Disinfection of the glasshouse structures with

G. Weststeijn

1973-01-01

202

An RFLP marker in tomato linked to the Fusarium oxysporum resistance gene I2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locus, I2, which in tomato confers resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2, was introgressed into Lycopersicon esculentum from the wild species L. pimpinellifolium (P.I. 126915). We searched for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between nearly isogenic lines (NILs) in clones that map to the region introgressed from the wild species. Since I2 maps to chromosome 11,

M. Sarfatti; J. Katan; R. Fluhr; D. Zamir

1989-01-01

203

Interaction of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense on plantlets of banana ‘Maça’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum and Burkholderia on the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) establishment and on the plantlets growth of the ‘Maçă’ banana (Musa spp., group ABB). Two assays were carried out in a greenhouse at the National Center of Tropical Agroindustry in Fortaleza\\u000a city, Ceará State (Brazil),

Olmar B. Weber; Celli R. Muniz; Aline O. Vitor; Francisco C. O. Freire; Valéria M. Oliveira

2007-01-01

204

Responses of alfalfa pollen and callus to filtrates from two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For 25 Medicago sativa plants, measurements were made of in vitro pollen germination and growth and callus growth on mediums containing culture filtrate from two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis. In vivo resistance was determined by field inoculation with one isolate. There was no correlation between any in vitro measurement and in vivo resistance, and none of the

D. E. Rowe; D. L. Stortz-Lintz

1993-01-01

205

Fine Structure of the Early Interaction of Lily Roots with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early interaction of lily roots with the cortical rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii was studied using roots of lily bulblets grown in Hoagland's solution, inoculated with the pathogen, and sampled up to 48?h later. Conidia produced germ tubes within 6?h, which extended towards and into the mucilage covering the root elongation zone, and along and into the anticlinal

R. P. Baayen; F. H. J. Rijkenberg

1999-01-01

206

Earthworms disseminate a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish plants infested with a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani PEG-4, which is resistant to hygromycin B, were placed on the surface of a soil microcosm containing earthworms (Pheretima sp.). The earthworms ate the radish plants and scattered individual casts everywhere in the burrows. The fungal propagules were detected in the gut of the earthworms and in

K. Toyota; M. Kimura

1994-01-01

207

Alterations in superoxide dismutase and catalase in Fusarium oxysporum during starvation-induced differentiation.  

PubMed

Vegetative hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum differentiate into chlamydospore by triggering with carbon-starvation. The current changes in the cellular detoxifying defenses against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Although there was a little change in catalase, a dramatic change in SOD was observed during the differentiation. In vegetative hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani, three isozymes of SOD, all of which were not inhibited by hydrogen peroxide and cyanide, were present whereas in chlamydospore an isoenzyme, which was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide but not by cyanide, was present. Thus, as differentiation proceeded, Mn-type SOD disappeared and an Fe-type SOD appeared. The results suggest that the Fe-type SOD is specifically expressed during chlamydospore formation and that active intermediates of oxygen and/or its scavenging enzymes participate in the differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:7626660

Kono, Y; Yamamoto, H; Takeuchi, M; Komada, H

1995-07-20

208

pH Response Transcription Factor PacC Controls Salt Stress Tolerance and Expression of the P-Type Na+-ATPase Ena1 in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Fungi possess efficient mechanisms of pH and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. In this study, we addressed the role of the pH response transcription factor PacC in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Loss-of-function pacC+/? mutants showed increased sensitivity to Li+ and Na+ and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. In contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacCc allele were more salt tolerant and had lower intracellular Li+ and Na+ concentrations. Although the kinetics of Li+ influx were not altered by mutations in pacC, we found that Li+ efflux at an alkaline, but not at an acidic, ambient pH was significantly reduced in pacC+/? loss-of-function mutants. To explore the presence of a PacC-dependent efflux mechanism in F. oxysporum, we cloned ena1 encoding an orthologue of the yeast P-type Na+-ATPase ENA1. Northern analysis revealed that efficient transcriptional activation of ena1 in F. oxysporum required the presence of high Na+ concentrations and alkaline ambient pH and was dependent on PacC function. We propose a model in which PacC controls ion homeostasis in F. oxysporum at a high pH by activating expression of ena1 coordinately with a second Na+-responsive signaling pathway.

Caracuel, Zaira; Casanova, Carlos; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ramos, Jose

2003-01-01

209

pH response transcription factor PacC controls salt stress tolerance and expression of the P-Type Na+ -ATPase Ena1 in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungi possess efficient mechanisms of pH and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. In this study, we addressed the role of the pH response transcription factor PacC in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Loss-of-function pacC(+/-) mutants showed increased sensitivity to Li(+) and Na(+) and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. In contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacC(c) allele were more salt tolerant and had lower intracellular Li(+) and Na(+) concentrations. Although the kinetics of Li(+) influx were not altered by mutations in pacC, we found that Li(+) efflux at an alkaline, but not at an acidic, ambient pH was significantly reduced in pacC(+/-) loss-of-function mutants. To explore the presence of a PacC-dependent efflux mechanism in F. oxysporum, we cloned ena1 encoding an orthologue of the yeast P-type Na(+)-ATPase ENA1. Northern analysis revealed that efficient transcriptional activation of ena1 in F. oxysporum required the presence of high Na(+) concentrations and alkaline ambient pH and was dependent on PacC function. We propose a model in which PacC controls ion homeostasis in F. oxysporum at a high pH by activating expression of ena1 coordinately with a second Na(+)-responsive signaling pathway. PMID:14665459

Caracuel, Zaira; Casanova, Carlos; Roncero, M Isabel G; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ramos, José

2003-12-01

210

Phenylpropanoid Pathway Is Potentiated by Silicon in the Roots of Banana Plants During the Infection Process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçă, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the resistance of banana plants to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection when supplied with Si. PMID:24350769

Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

2014-06-01

211

Characterization of the gene encoding pisatin demethylase (FoPDA1) in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The pea pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is able to detoxify pisatin produced as a defense response by pea, and the gene encoding this detoxification mechanism, FoPDA1, was 82% identical to the cytochrome P450 pisatin demethylase PDA1 gene in Nectria haematococca. A survey of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi isolates demonstrated that, as in N. haematococca, the PDA gene of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi is generally located on a small chromosome. In N. haematococca, PDA1 is in a cluster of pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes. Homologs of these PEP genes also were found in the F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi isolates, and PEP1 and PEP5 were sometimes located on the same small chromosomes as the FoPDA1 homologs. Transforming FoPDA1 into a pda(?) F. oxysporum f. sp. lini isolate conferred pda activity and promoted pathogenicity on pea to some transformants. Different hybridization patterns of FoPDA1 were found in F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi but these did not correlate with the races of the fungus, suggesting that races within this forma specialis arose independently of FoPDA1. FoPDA1 also was present in the formae speciales lini, glycines, and dianthi of F. oxysporum but they had mutations resulting in nonfunctional proteins. However, an active FoPDA1 was present in F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and it was virulent on pea. Despite their evolutionary distance, the amino acid sequences of FoPDA1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli revealed only six amino acid differences, consistent with a horizontal gene transfer event accounting for the origin of these genes. PMID:22066900

Coleman, Jeffrey J; Wasmann, Catherine C; Usami, Toshiyuki; White, Gerard J; Temporini, Esteban D; McCluskey, Kevin; VanEtten, Hans D

2011-12-01

212

Trichoderma asperelloides suppresses nitric oxide generation elicited by Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

Inoculations with saprophytic fungus Trichoderma spp. are now extensively used both to promote plant growth and to suppress disease development. The underlying mechanisms for both roles have yet to be fully described so that the use of Trichoderma spp. could be optimized. Here, we show that Trichoderma asperelloides effects include the manipulation of host nitric oxide (NO) production. NO was rapidly formed in Arabidopsis roots in response to the soil-borne necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and persisted for about 1 h but is only transiently produced (approximately 10 min) when roots interact with T. asperelloides (T203). However, inoculation of F. oxysporum-infected roots with T. asperelloides suppressed F. oxysporum-initiated NO production. A transcriptional study of 78 NO-modulated genes indicated most genes were suppressed by single and combinational challenge with F. oxysporum or T. asperelloides. Only two F. oxysporum-induced genes were suppressed by T. asperelloides inoculation undertaken either 10 min prior to or after pathogen infection: a concanavlin A-like lectin protein kinase (At4g28350) and the receptor-like protein RLP30. Thus, T. asperelloides can actively suppress NO production elicited by F. oxysporum and impacts on the expression of some genes reported to be NO-responsive. Of particular interest was the reduced expression of receptor-like genes that may be required for F. oxysporum-dependent necrotrophic disease development. PMID:24283937

Gupta, Kapuganti J; Mur, Luis A J; Brotman, Yariv

2014-04-01

213

Antifungal Activity of (KW)n or (RW)n Peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)n-NH2, where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum, at 4–32 ?M. Furthermore, longer peptides displayed potent fungicidal activities against a variety of agronomical important filamentous fungi, including F. solani and F. oxysporum, at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, RW series peptides showed slightly higher fungicidal activities than KW peptides against the two strains. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that these short peptides would be good candidates for use as synthetic or transgenic antifungal agents.

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Na, Hyungjong; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2012-01-01

214

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of watermelon commonly occurs in locations where the crop has been grown for many seasons. Its occurrence results\\u000a in a severely decreased watermelon crop. The goal of this study was to assess the capability of a new product (bio-organic\\u000a fertilizer) to control the wilt in Fusarium-infested soil. Pot experiments were conducted under growth chamber and greenhouse\\u000a conditions. The

Hong-sheng Wu; Xin-ning Yang; Jia-qin Fan; Wei-guo Miao; Ning Ling; Yang-chun Xu; Qi-wei Huang; Qirong Shen

2009-01-01

215

Formation of fumonisins and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The principal aim of this study was to estimate the formation of fumonisins (FB(1) and FB(2)), moniliformin (MON), and ergosterol (ERG) by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum, while the formation of beauvericin (BEA) was estimated by the latter Fusarium species only. Moreover, the effect of temperature on the biosynthesis of mycotoxins was also evaluated. Fumonisins were formed by F. proliferatum, with the highest yield at 18 degrees C (720.0-1976.6 microg g(-1) for FB(1), 74.2-670.8 microg g(-1) for FB(2)) and only by three of four F. oxysporum strains at a very low level (0.02-4.77 microg g(-1) for FB(1), 0.02-2.15 microg g(-1) for FB(2)). The amount of MON formed by F. proliferatum was the highest (p < 0.001) at 32 degrees C (3056.87 microg g(-1)), while MON biosynthesis by F. oxysporum was lower 227.54 microg g(-1) (p < 0.001). BEA was produced by F. proliferatum with the highest level at 25 degrees C (p < 0.001). ERG-recognized as an indicator of fungal biomass development and as a consequence of mycotoxin formation-was found at the highest concentration at a biosynthesis temperature of 25 degrees C for F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum (p < 0.001). PMID:20455157

Waskiewicz, A; Golinski, P; Karolewski, Z; Irzykowska, L; Bocianowski, J; Kostecki, M; Weber, Z

2010-05-01

216

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races and their genetic discrimination by molecular markers in West Mediterranean region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) races and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL), the causal agents of root rot and crown rot diseases, respectively, cause serious economic losses in tomato greenhouses where production is intensive in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey. The isolates were collected from West Mediterranean region of Turkey and were characterized by specific primers

Ö. Baysal; M. Siragusa; H. ?kten; ?. Polat; E. Gümrükcü; F. Yigit; F. Carimi

2009-01-01

217

Control of polygalacturonase synthesis in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici.  

PubMed

Genetic control of polygalacturonase (PG) activity from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was analyzed on pectin and glucose cultures. One exopolygalacturonase from F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was strongly induced, in stationary culture, when the fungus was grown on apple pectin, while on glucose no extracellular PG activity could be detected. Although SDS-PAGE detected the presence of a putative PG band (66 kDa) in both conditions, specific antibodies obtained against the purified PG only detected it in PG-inducing conditions, that is to say, when apple pectin was used as the carbon source. Northern blot analysis of RNA of two isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici (r6 and r2) confirmed that this regulation of PG synthesis was exerted at the transcriptional level. Only one single mRNA species of around 1400 nucleotides was detected on the cultures containing pectin and was absent in glucose-grown cultures. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicated that pg gene seems to be present in a single copy in the genomes of F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici r6 and r2 and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, showing similar hybridization patterns in all species. The partial sequence of this pg gene from F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici r6, which is also reported, showed high similarity to diverse PGs already reported. Exopolygalacturonase of F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici r6 is heavily glycosylated; its deglycosylated form had a molecular mass of 50 kDa. PMID:9436311

Patińo, B; Posada, M L; González-Jaén, M T; Martínez del Pozo, A; Vázquez, C

1997-11-01

218

Formation of tomatine in tomato plants infected with Streptomyces species and treated with herbicides, correlated with reduction of Pseudomonas solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of tomato seeds with pendimethalin or metribuzin and inoculation of seedlings with the antagonistic Streptomyces corchorusii or/and Streptomyces mutabilis were tested for the formation of tomatine in roots and stems of tomato, infested with Pseudomonas solancearum or/and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. All treatments induced the formation of variable quantities of tomatine, compared with untreated control. The variation was proportional to: the pathogen, Fusarium was more stimulating than Pseudomonas; the antagonistic organism, S. corchorusii being more eliciting than S. mutabilis; the herbicide and its concentration, pendimethalin at 2 x 10(-3) M being the most eliciting of tomatine; and according to the soil, plants grown in non-sterilized soil accumulated more tomatine than did these grown in sterilized soil. In all treatments, stems had more tomatine than roots and non-sterilized soil was better than sterilized soil. The antagonistic streptomycetes induced accumulation of tomatine more than did the herbicides. The highest amounts of tomatine were detected in plants pretreated with pendimethalin at 2 x 10(-3) M, grown in non-sterilized soil, infested with F. oxysporum, and inoculated with S. corchorusii and S. mutabilis. The effect of the extracted tomatine on the growth of Fusarium and Pseudomonas was examined in vitro. The crude extract of tomatine from all treatments reduced growth and sporulation of F. oxysporum and growth of P. solanacearum in defined media. The reduction varied according to the treatment and was proportional to the quantities of extracted tomatine, the highest amounts being the most effective. The mechanism of phytoalexins in controlling tomato wilt pathogens was also discussed. PMID:8934667

El-Raheem, A; El-Shanshoury, R; El-Sououd, S M; Awadalla, O A; El-Bandy, N B

1995-01-01

219

Isolation and characterization of an exopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 and race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt is an economically devastating disease that affects banana production. Although Cavendish banana cultivars are resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 (FOC1) and maitain banana production after Gros Michel was destructed by race 1, a new race race 4 (FOC4) was found to infect Cavendish. Results An exopolygalacturonase (PGC2) was isolated and purified from the supernatant of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). PGC2 had an apparent Mr of 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 51.7 kDa by mass spectrometry. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. PGC2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. To obtain adequate amounts of protein for functional studies between the PGC2 proteins of two races of the pathogen, pgc2 genes encoding PGC2 from race 4 (FOC4) and race 1 (FOC1), both 1395 bp in length and encoding 465 amino acids with a predicted amino-terminal signal sequence of 18 residues, were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC2 products, r-FOC1-PGC2 and r-FOC4-PGC2, were expressed and purified as active extracellular proteins. Optimal PGC2 activity was observed at 50°C and pH 5. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC1-PGC2 were 0.43 mg.mL-1 and 94.34 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC4-PGC2 were 0.48 mg.mL-1 and 95.24 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. Both recombinant PGC2 proteins could induce tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that PGC2 is the first exoPG reported from the pathogen FOC, and we have shown that fully functional PGC2 can be produced in the P. pastoris expression system.

2011-01-01

220

Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size?=?554 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99%) genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 33,243 (37.71%) unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI), ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in banana. Conclusions This study generated a substantial amount of banana transcript sequences and compared the defense responses against Foc TR4 between resistant and susceptible Cavendish bananas. The results contribute to the identification of candidate genes related to plant resistance in a non-model organism, banana, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

2012-01-01

221

Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 ?g g?ą FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR. PMID:23702248

Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

2013-07-15

222

Genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant and human pathogenic ascomycetous group, with near ubiquity in agricultural and non-cultivated ecosystems. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that F. oxysporum is a complex of multiple morphologically cryptic species. Species boundaries and limits of genetic exchange within this complex are poorly defined, largely due to the absence of a sexual state and the paucity of morphological characters. This study determined species boundaries within the F. oxysporum species complex using Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) with eight protein coding loci. GCPSR criteria were used firstly to identify independent evolutionary lineages (IEL), which were subsequently collapsed into phylogenetic species. Seventeen IELs were initially identified resulting in the recognition of two phylogenetic species. Further evidence supporting this delineation is discussed. PMID:24742832

Laurence, Matthew H; Summerell, Brett A; Burgess, Lester W; Liew, Edward C Y

2014-04-01

223

RFLP mapping of I1 , a new locus in tomato conferring resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance and linkage relationships of a gene for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 were analyzed. An interspecific hybrid between a resistant Lycopersicon pennellii and a susceptible L. esculentum was backcrossed to L. esculentum. The genotype of each backcross-1 (BC1) plant with respect to its Fusarium response was determined by means of backcross-2 progeny tests. Resistance

M. Sarfatti; M. Abu-Abied; J. Katan; D. Zamir

1991-01-01

224

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis-lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radiciscucumerinum V03-2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well-known non-pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non-compatible pathogen Forc V03-2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3-week-old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox. PMID:21255375

Validov, Shamil Z; Kamilova, Faina D; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

2011-01-01

225

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis?lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radicis?cucumerinum V03?2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well?known non?pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non?compatible pathogen Forc V03?2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3?week?old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox.

Validov, Shamil Z.; Kamilova, Faina D.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

2011-01-01

226

Development of a molecular marker for specific detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the causal agent of Panama disease of banana. A rapid and reliable diagnosis is the foundation of integrated disease management\\u000a practices in commodity crops. For this diagnostic purpose, we have developed a reliable molecular method to detect Foc race\\u000a 4 isolates in Taiwan. By PCR amplification, the primer set Foc-1\\/Foc-2 derived from the sequence

Ying-Hong Lin; Jing-Yi Chang; En-Tzu Liu; Chih-Ping Chao; Jenn-Wen Huang; Pi-Fang Linda Chang

2009-01-01

227

Antagonistic potential of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus against Fusarium oxysporum in sweet potato (Ipomea batatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium, is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the biocontrol potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with soil-borne plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum. The possible compounds involved in the biocontrol involves 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, Pyrrolnitrin and Pyoluteorin. Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus

P. Logeshwarn; M. Thangaraju; K. Rajasundari

2011-01-01

228

Combination therapy of disseminated Fusarium oxysporum infection with terbinafine and amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of disseminated infection with Fusarium oxysporum following chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukemia is reported. Antifungal treatment was successful with a 13-day course of oral terbinafine 250 mg t.i.d. in combination with amphotericin B deoxycholate 1.0–1.5 mg\\/kg qd and subsequently intravenous liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg\\/kg qd. Preceding monotherapy with amphotericin B deoxycholate 1.0–1.5 mg\\/kg qd had not stopped the progression of infection.

A. Rothe; M. Seibold; Th. Hoppe; H. Seifert; A. Engert; C. Caspar; M. Karthaus; G. Fätkenheuer; U. Bethe; K. Tintelnot; O. A. Cornely

2004-01-01

229

Evidence for an expanded host range of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of four isolates ofFusarium oxysporum obtained from infected cultivated rocket (Eruca vesicaria) and wild (sand) rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) was tested on the following cruciferous hosts: stock, radish, wild and cultivated rockets, and various species in the cabbage\\u000a tribe: cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.sabauda), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var.gemmifera), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica), turnip (Brassica rapa

Angelo Garibaldi; Giovanna Gilardi; Maria Lodovica Gullino

2006-01-01

230

Genetic exchange of avirulence determinants and extensive karyotype rearrangements in parasexual recombinants of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to genetically map and eventually isolate avirulence genes, parasexual crosses between different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were performed by means of protoplast fusion. Two wild-type strains, race 1 Fol004 (A1a2a3) and race 3 Fol029 (a1a2A3), were transformed with phleomycin and hygromycin resistance genes, respectively. In total 32 fusion products were selected by screening for the

H. A. S. Teunissen; J. Verkooijen; B. J. C. Cornelissen; M. A. Haring

2002-01-01

231

Alteration of substrate specificity of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FOD-F) from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (NBRC 9972) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of fructosyl-amino acids such as $$ N^{\\\\varepsilon }$$-fructosyl $$ N^{\\\\alpha }$$-benzyloxycarbonyl-lysine (FZK) and fructosyl valine (FV), which are model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood. Wild-type\\u000a FOD-F has high activities toward both substrates. We obtained a mutant FOD-F, which reacts

Maki Fujiwara; Jun-ichi Sumitani; Shinji Koga; Issei Yoshioka; Takuji Kouzuma; Shigeyuki Imamura; Takashi Kawaguchi; Motoo Arai

2007-01-01

232

Two granular formulations of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. orthoceras to mitigate sunflower broomrape Orobanche cumana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. orthoceras (Appel & Wollenw.) Bilai, a potential biocontrol agent against Orobanche cumana Wallr.,was formulated into two granular forms, wheatflour kaolin (`Pesta') granules and sodium alginatepellets. The formulations were compared in terms ofeffectiveness for mitigating O. cumanaparasitism in sunflower and shelf-life forstorage. `Pesta' granules reduced the emergence of O. cumana shoots by 64% while sodium alginatepellets did

D. Müller-Stöver; H. Thomas; J. Sauerborn; J. Kroschel

2004-01-01

233

Mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphisms in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracts from 13 isolatesof Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.niveum, including 12 from widely separated geographic regions within the United States and representing the three races, and one\\u000a race 2 isolate from Israel, were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA and were also subjected to restriction endonucleases\\u000a analysis. None of the mtDNA from any isolate had a copurifying

D. H. kim; R. D. martyn; C. W. magill

1991-01-01

234

Induction of mutants of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with altered virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici were obtained by UV irradiation. The mutants of race 1 and race 2 caused disease symptoms on plants with resistance genes\\u000a against the corresponding wild type strains. Mutants of race 1 of the pathogen were stable, whereas mutants of race 2 lost\\u000a the ability to cause disease symptoms in plants carrying the 1–2 resistance gene,

B. A. M. Kroon; D. M. Elgersma

1991-01-01

235

In vitro study on the benomyl tolerance of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae were tested for tolerance to benomyl. Although all isolates were relatively\\u000a insensitive to benomyl, no tolerance was found. Some isolates, however, became tolerant to benomyl in vitro after prolonged\\u000a contact with increasingly high concentrations of the compound in the medium. The properties of one of these tolerant strains\\u000a are described and possible implications

Th. L. J. Duineveld; J. C. M. Beijersbergen

1977-01-01

236

Development of sequence tagged site markers to identify races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae  

Microsoft Academic Search

By random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the representative isolates of each race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, RAPD fragments of 0.6, 1.6, and 2.9?kb were obtained. The 0.6-kb RAPD fragment was common to the representative isolates of all three races. Amplification of the 1.6- and 2.9-kb fragments were unique to the isolates of races 1 and 2,

Jyuichi Shimazu; Norihito Yamauchi; Tadaharu Hibi; Mamoru Satou; Seizo Horiuchi; Takashi Shirakawa

2005-01-01

237

Lack of biocontrol capacity in a non-pathogenic mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the biocontrol capacity of rev157, a non-pathogenic mutant of a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom24). Inoculated in association with the virulent parental strain, the mutant rev157 did not protect the host plant (muskmelon)\\u000a against infection by Fom24. Applied on flax, a non-host plant, the mutant rev157 was not

Floriane L’Haridon; Sébastien Aimé; Claude Alabouvette; Chantal Olivain

2007-01-01

238

Infection of cotton by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum as affected by water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since virulence ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.vasinfectum (FOV) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is enhanced when the fungus is cultivated in a saline environment, excessively saline water must not be used for the irrigation\\u000a of cotton. However, the limitations thus placed on the available water resources may lead to conditions of enforced water\\u000a stress for the plant. The present study investigated whether water

A. Ragazzi; S. Moricca; Irene Dellavalle; Francesca Mancini

1995-01-01

239

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) is one of the major limiting factors for watermelon production worldwide. Rapid and accurate detection of the causal pathogen is the cornerstone of integrated disease management. In this paper, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fon in soil. Positive products were amplified only from Fon isolates and not from any other species or formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested, showing a high specificity of the primer sets. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was 1.2 pg ?L(-1) genomic DNA or 10(3) spores g(-1) of artificially inoculated soil, whereas real-time PCR could detect as low as 12 fg ?L(-1) or 10(2) spores g(-1). The RealAmp assay was further applied to detect eight artificially inoculated and 85 field soil samples. No significant differences were found between the results tested by the RealAmp and real-time PCR assays. The RealAmp assay is a simple, rapid and effective technique for the quantitative detection and monitoring of Fon in soil under natural conditions. PMID:24256412

Peng, Jun; Zhan, Yuanfeng; Zeng, Fanyun; Long, Haibo; Pei, Yuelin; Guo, Jianrong

2013-12-01

240

Functional characterization of the gene FoOCH1 encoding a putative ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt and has become one of the most destructive pathogens threatening the banana production worldwide. However, few genes related to morphogenesis and pathogenicity of this fungal pathogen have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the disrupted gene in a T-DNA insertional mutant (L953) of FOC with significantly reduced virulence on banana plants. The gene disrupted by T-DNA insertion in L953 harbors an open reading frame, which encodes a protein with homology to ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH1) in fungi. The deletion mutants (?FoOCH1) of the OCH1 orthologue (FoOCH1) in FOC were impaired in fungal growth, exhibited brighter staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Concanavalin A, had less cell wall proteins and secreted more proteins into liquid media than the wild type. Furthermore, the mutation or deletion of FoOCH1 led to loss of ability to penetrate cellophane membrane and decline in hyphal attachment and colonization as well as virulence to the banana host. The mutant phenotypes were fully restored by complementation with the wild type FoOCH1 gene. Our data provide a first evidence for the critical role of FoOCH1 in maintenance of cell wall integrity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. PMID:24503549

Li, Min-Hui; Xie, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Xiu; Ding, Zhao-Jian; Ling, Jin-Feng; Xi, Ping-Gen; Zhou, Jia-Nuan; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin; Jiang, Zi-De

2014-04-01

241

Impaired colonization and infection of tomato roots by the Deltafrp1 mutant of Fusarium oxysporum correlates with reduced CWDE gene expression.  

PubMed

The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici efficiently invades roots and colonizes vascular tissues of its host tomato. For these processes, the F-box protein Frp1 is required. The Fusarium oxysporum Deltafrp1 mutant was characterized in detail to uncover the cause of its colonization defect. Using growth assays, we could attribute poor root colonization to reduced assimilation of organic acids, amino acids (except proline), or polysaccharides, singly or in combination. External root colonization by the Deltafrp1 mutant is restored by the addition of 0.1% glucose or proline but infection still does not occur. This is due to the inability of the Deltafrp1 mutant to penetrate the roots, as demonstrated by the lack of expression of SIX1 in the Deltafrp1 strain, which is a gene exclusively expressed inside roots, and loss of cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) gene expression. Many of the metabolic defects of the Deltafrp1 strain can be attributed to reduced expression of the ICL1 (isocitrate lyase) gene. Strikingly, an Deltaicl1 mutant is still fully pathogenic and capable of external root colonization. We conclude that the inability of the Deltafrp1 strain to colonize and invade roots is not primarily due to metabolic defects but can be attributed to reduced expression of several CWDE genes. PMID:19348569

Jonkers, Wilfried; Rodrigues, Christopher D Andrade; Rep, Martijn

2009-05-01

242

A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W  

PubMed Central

During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ?meaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi.

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-01-01

243

Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes. PMID:24504695

Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

2014-05-01

244

HapX-Mediated Iron Homeostasis Is Essential for Rhizosphere Competence and Virulence of the Soilborne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ?hapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals.

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Capilla, Javier; Turra, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jochl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

245

Diversity in receptor-like kinase genes is a major determinant of quantitative resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. matthioli.  

PubMed

Resistance to wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. matthioli (FOM) is a polygenic trait in Arabidopsis thaliana. RFO3 is one of six quantitative trait loci accounting for the complete resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of accession Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0). We find that Col-0 and Ty-0 alleles of RFO3 are representative of two common variants in wild Arabidopsis accessions, that resistance and susceptibility to FOM are ancestral features of the two variants and that resistance from RFO3 is unrivalled by other genes in a genome-wide survey of diversity in accessions. A single receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene in Col-0 is responsible for the resistance of RFO3, although the susceptible Ty-0 allele codes for two RLK homologs. Expression of RFO3 is highest in vascular tissue, which F. oxysporum infects, and root-expressed RFO3 restricts FOM infection of the vascular system. RFO3 confers specific resistance to FOM and provides no resistance to two other crucifer-infecting F. oxysporum pathogens. RFO3's identity, expression and specificity suggest that RFO3 represents diversity in pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) genes. The characteristics of RFO3 and the previously published RFO1 suggest that diversity in RLK PRRs is a major determinant of quantitative resistance in wild plant populations. PMID:23790083

Cole, Stephanie J; Diener, Andrew C

2013-10-01

246

A rapid molecular method for differentiating two special forms (lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici) of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Two pathogenic special forms (f. sp.) of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) are morphologically indistinguishable. Although they are pathogenic to the same host genus Lycopersicon (tomato), and infect the same tomato cultivar, they form distinct diseases; Fol causes wilt and Forl causes crown rot and root rot. These two special forms apparently exist as genetically isolated populations, based on vegetative compatibility and molecular variation at the DNA level. In seeking efficient diagnostic tools for differentiating Fol and Forl isolates, we examined three techniques: isozyme analysis, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RFLP by HaeIII-digestion of total genomic DNA, and an osmotic method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect fungal pigments. The isolates were collected from geographically widespread locations. Distinct HPLC-profile differences were found between an endophytic non-pathogenic isolate and the other pathogenic isolates. However, the direct mtDNA RFLP technique proved to be an efficient diagnostic tool for routine differentiation of Fol and Forl isolates. PMID:15446712

Attitalla, Idress H; Fatehi, Jamshid; Levenfors, Jens; Brishammar, Sture

2004-07-01

247

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1  

PubMed Central

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens.

Anderson, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

248

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1.  

PubMed

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2-3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2-4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Gaspar, Yolanda M; McKenna, James A; McGinness, Bruce S; Hinch, Jillian; Poon, Simon; Connelly, Angela A; Anderson, Marilyn A; Heath, Robyn L

2014-04-01

249

ChsVb, a Class VII Chitin Synthase Involved in Septation, Is Critical for Pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (?chsVb) and double (?chsV ?chsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus.

Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Jose Antonio; Ruiz-Roldan, Carmen

2008-01-01

250

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid sensitive and insensitive catalases in different genotypes of chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.  

PubMed

Differential expression of catalase isozymes in different genotypes of chickpea resistant genotypes- A1, JG-315, JG-11, WR-315, R1-315, Vijaya, ICCV-15017, GBS-964, GBM-10, and susceptible genotypes- JG-62, MNK, ICCV-08321, ICCV-08311, KW-104, ICCV-08123, ICC-4951, ICC-11322, ICC-08116 for wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. ciceri (Foc) was analyzed. Salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 concentrations were determined in control as well as in plants infected with F. ciceri and found that the high and low levels of salicylic acid and H2O2 in resistant and susceptible genotypes of chickpea respectively. Catalase isozyme activities were detected in the gel and found that no induction of new catalases was observed in all the resistant genotypes and their some of the native catalase isozymes were inhibited; whereas, induction of multiple catalase isozymes was observed in all the screened susceptible genotypes and their activities were not inhibited upon Foc or SA treatments. The above results support the possible role of these isozymes as a marker to identify which genotype of chickpea is expressing systemic acquired resistance. PMID:24431522

Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

2013-10-01

251

Expression of effector gene SIX1 of Fusarium oxysporum requires living plant cells.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual, soil inhabiting fungus that comprises many different formae speciales, each pathogenic towards a different host plant. In absence of a suitable host all F. oxysporum isolates appear to have a very similar lifestyle, feeding on plant debris and colonizing the rhizosphere of living plants. Upon infection F. oxysporum switches from a saprophytic to an infectious lifestyle, which probably includes the reprogramming of gene expression. In this work we show that the expression of the known effector gene SIX1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is strongly upregulated during colonization of the host plant. Using GFP (green fluorescent protein) as reporter, we show that induction of SIX1 expression starts immediately upon penetration of the root cortex. Induction requires living plant cells, but is not host specific and does not depend on morphological features of roots, since plant cells in culture can also induce SIX1 expression. Taken together, F. oxysporum seems to be able to distinguish between living and dead plant material, preventing unnecessary switches from a saprophytic to an infectious lifestyle. PMID:18606236

van der Does, H Charlotte; Duyvesteijn, Roselinde G E; Goltstein, Pieter M; van Schie, Chris C N; Manders, Erik M M; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Rep, Martijn

2008-09-01

252

Populations of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Associated with Roots of Four Plant Species Compared to Soilborne Populations.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of the plant on the diversity of soilborne populations of Fusarium oxysporum was assessed after successive cultures of flax, melon, tomato, and wheat in separate samples of the same soil. Forty soil-borne isolates of F. oxysporum and forty root-colonizing isolates of each plant species were sampled during the first (T0) and fourth (T1) cultures. The population structures were assessed by a genotypic method based on restriction fragment analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ri-bosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) DNA. Sixteen IGS types were defined among the four hundred isolates analyzed. The distributions of soil isolates among IGS types were similar at both sampling times. The structure of F. oxysporum populations associated with the roots of flax or melon did not differ from the structure of soilborne populations. In contrast, the structure of F. oxysporum populations associated with roots of wheat or tomato differed from the structure of soilborne populations. High frequencies were found for IGS type 4 among wheat isolates at both T0 and T1 and for IGS type 11 among tomato isolates at T1. Moreover, a high level of genetic divergence was obtained between IGS types 4 and 11. Our results suggest that tomato and wheat have a selective effect on soilborne populations of F. oxysporum and that this effect seems to be plant specific. PMID:18945090

Edel, V; Steinberg, C; Gautheron, N; Alabouvette, C

1997-07-01

253

Ethylene response factor 1 mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) is a transcriptional factor from Arabidopsis thaliana that regulates plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina and whose overexpression enhances resistance to these fungi. Here, we show that ERF1 also mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungi Fusarium oxysporum sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, because its constitutive expression in Arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to these pathogens. Expression of ERF1 was upregulated after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, and this response was blocked in ein2-5 and coi1-1 mutants, impaired in the ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) signal pathways, respectively, which further indicates that ERF1 is a downstream component of ET and JA defense responses. The signal transduction network controlling resistance to F. oxysporum fungi was explored using signaling-defective mutants in ET (ein2-5), JA (jar1-1), and salicylic acid (SA) (NahG, sid2-1, eds5-1, npr1-1, pad4-1, eds1-1, and pad2-1) transduction pathways. This analysis revealed that Arabidopsis resistance to F. oxysporum requires the ET, JA, and SA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene, although it is independent of the PAD4 and EDS1 functions. PMID:15242170

Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Molina, Antonio

2004-07-01

254

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt and Fusarium Wilt by a Burkholderia nodosa Strain Isolated from Kalimantan Soils, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to suppress bacterial wilt of tomato (BWT) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum using biocontrol agents (BCAs) isolated from soils in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Five isolates were selected from 270 isolates as better performing BCAs through screening four times using a pumice medium. The isolates selected were identified as Burkholderia nodosa, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia terricola according to 16S rDNA sequences, fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization patterns. Among them, B. nodosa G5.2.rif1 had significant suppressive effects on Fusarium wilt of tomato (FWT) and spinach (FWS) as well as BWT. When B. nodosa G5.2rif1 was inoculated into a pumice medium in combination with sucrose, it showed even more stable disease suppression for BWT, but not for FWS. This suppression was considered to mainly occur through competition for nutrients. In two times greenhouse experiments for BWT using pots comparable in size to those used commercially, B. nodosa G5.2rif1 significantly suppressed the disease index by 33-79%, with no inhibitory effects on the growth, yield and quality of tomatoes. PMID:21558699

Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

2008-01-01

255

[Effect of water activity and temperature on competing abilities of Penicillium oxalicum against Fusarium oxysporum].  

PubMed

The in vitro effect of water activity (0.995, 0.98, 0.95, 0.90 and 0.85) and temperature (25 and 15 degrees C) on competing abilities of the biocontrol agent Penicillium oxalicum against Fusarium oxysporum fsp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, and Fusarium oxysporum fsp. gladioli, a gladiolus pathogen, was evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of P. oxalicum to be applied as a biocontrol agent against these phytopathogenic fungi. Plates were inoculated in two points with P. oxalicum and one of the Fusarium species. Two different approaches were taken into account: the growth rate of each isolate and the Dominance Index (ID). P. oxalicum showed higher growth rates under most of the conditions tested except for 0.995 aw at both temperatures and at 0.98 and 15 degrees C. Similarly, P. oxalicum was dominating at 25 degrees C and < or = 0.95 aw, and at 15 degrees C and < or = 0.90 aw, while under the other conditions studied, mutual inhibition situations were found. This indicates a high ability of this species to successfully compete over a wide range of conditions and consequently the potential of P. oxalicum as a biocontrol agent against these Fusarium species. PMID:15456354

Santamarina Siurana, María Pilar; Roselló Caselles, Josefa; Barceló Cerdá, Susana; Marín Sillué, Sonia

2003-12-01

256

Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-06-01

257

Nitrite reductase gene upregulated during conidiation is involved in macroconidium formation in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. We previously found that the transcript level of the nitrite reductase gene of F. oxysporum, named FoNIIA, was markedly upregulated during conidiation compared with during vegetative growth. FoNIIA was also found to be positively regulated by Ren1 that is a transcription regulator controlling development of microconidia and macroconidia. In this study, we analyzed the function of FoNIIA in conidiation of F. oxysporum. Conidiation cultures showed markedly higher level of accumulation of FoNiiA protein as well as FoNIIA mRNA than vegetative growth cultures. FoNIIA protein was significantly decreased in cultures of the REN1 disruption mutant compared with that of the wild type. These results confirmed that FoNIIA expression is upregulated during conidiation and is positively regulated by REN1. The FoNIIA disruption mutants produced microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores, which were morphologically indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The mutants, however, produced significantly fewer macroconidia than the wild type, although the wild type and mutant strains produced similar numbers of microconidia and chlamydospores. These results demonstrate that nitrite reductase is involved in quantitative control of macroconidium formation as well as nitrate utilization in F. oxysporum. PMID:18943456

Iida, Y; Kurata, T; Harimoto, Y; Tsuge, T

2008-10-01

258

Pantothenate synthetase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by alpha-tomatine.  

PubMed

The steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine which is present in tomato (Lycopersicum sculentum) is assumed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. We have isolated a gene from the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that is induced by this glycoalkaloid. This gene, designated panC, encodes a predicted protein with a molecular mass of 41 kDa that shows a high degree of sequence similarity to pantothenate synthetases from yeast, plants and bacteria. Recombinant PanC protein from F. oxysporum has been over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It shows pantothenate synthetase activity in the presence of D-pantoate, beta-alanine and ATP. The panC gene from F. oxysporum functionally complements an E. coli panC mutant, demonstrating that the PanC protein functions in vivo as a pantothenate synthetase. Southern analysis of F. oxysporum genomic DNA from other formae speciales indicates that there is a single copy of the pantothenate syntethase gene in this fungus. The presence of a STRE consensus sequence (CCCCT) in the promoter region of the gene suggests that the induction of panC may be part of a cellular stress response triggered by alpha-tomatine. PMID:11523810

Pérez-Espinosa, A; Roldán-Arjona, T; Ruiz-Rubio, M

2001-07-01

259

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects]. PMID:19536588

Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

2010-01-01

260

Distinguishable staining with neutral red for GFP-marked and GFP-nonmarked Fusarium oxysporum strains simultaneously colonizing root surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and nonmarked F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae were stained with neutral red. The neutral red stained vacuoles of the fungi without disturbing GFP fluorescence in the cytoplasm.\\u000a GFP-marked fungi showed fluorescent hyphae with dark-stained vacuoles, whereas nonmarked fungi were detected as nonfluorescent\\u000a hyphae with dark-dotted vacuoles. Root colonization by these two

Teruo Nonomura; Hiromi Tajima; Yuko Kitagawa; Naoko Sekiya; Kayoko Shitomi; Mami Tanaka; Kazuhiko Maeda; Yoshinori Matsuda; Hideyoshi Toyoda

2003-01-01

261

Efficacy of chemical and fluorescent protein markers in studying plant colonization by endophytic non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studying plant colonization by inoculated Fusarium oxysporum endophytes, it is important to be able to distinguish inoculated isolates from saprophytic strains. In the current study,\\u000a F. oxysporum isolates were transformed with the green (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) genes, and benomyl- and chlorate-resistant\\u000a mutant isolates were also developed. The benomyl- and chlorate-resistant mutants, and the fluorescently labelled transformants,

Pamela Paparu; Adele Macleod; Thomas Dubois; Daniel Coyne; Altus Viljoen

2009-01-01

262

Targeted disruption of a G protein alpha subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a G protein alpha subunit, was performed by standard PCR techniques and by screening a Fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the PCR product as a probe. The full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of G protein alpha(i) family proteins from other filamentous fungi. Disruption of fga1 had no effect on vegetative growth, but reduced the conidiation and pathogenicity of the fungus. Disruptants also showed a decreased level of intracellular cAMP and increased resistance to heat shock at 45 degrees C. These results suggest that the Galpha subunit encoded by fga1 is involved in a signal transduction pathway in F. oxysporum that controls conidiation, heat resistance and pathogenicity. PMID:12228810

Jain, Sona; Akiyama, Kouichi; Mae, Kenjiro; Ohguchi, Tomizo; Takata, Renkichi

2002-09-01

263

[Research wilt disease of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its pathogen].  

PubMed

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a highly valued traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related disorders in china, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. The wilt disease is serious in the culture of S. miltiorrhiza. Wilt disease cause biomass of plant shoots and roots is lessened, active components are decreased. To solve these problems, we research the pathogen causing wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza. The suspected pathogen is identified by morphology and etiological test. The identification was further confirmed by alignment the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplified by PCR. Our result show the wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza mostly occurred in July and August, which is hot and wetter. The wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for one year in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 10%, but the wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for three years in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 60%-70%. The root rot of S. miltiorrhiz caused by the wilt disease, so the wilt disease was mistaken for the rot root in production. Morphological characteristics show the pathogen is Fusarium oxysporum. The sequence of ITS wes determined and found by BLAST shared 99% identity to that of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. So it comes to the conclusion that the causing agent of wilt disease on S. miltiorrhiza belongs to F. oxysporum. PMID:24791484

Yang, Li; Miao, Zuo-Qing; Yang, Guang; Shao, Ai-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Shen, Ye; Wang, Xue; Chen, Mei-Lan

2013-12-01

264

N-Methyl-4-Hydroxy-2-Pyridinone Analogs from Fusarium oxysporum?  

PubMed Central

Three new N-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridinone analogs, 6-epi-oxysporidinone (3), the dimethyl ketal of oxysporidinone (4), and N-demethylsambutoxin (5), along with the known compounds, (?)-oxysporidinone (1), (?)-sambutoxin (2), wortmannin (6), enniatin A (7), enniatin A1 (8), and enniatin B1 (9) were isolated from Fusarium oxysporum (N17B) by bioassay-guided fractionation. Compounds 1 and 3 showed selective fungistatic activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and wortmannin had selective potent activity against Candida albicans. Moderate activity was observed with the enniatins 7–9 against C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 1–5 had no activity against the agriculturally important fungi Fusarium verticillioides (syn. F. moniliforme) and Aspergillus flavus.

Jayasinghe, Lalith; Abbas, Hamed K.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Herath, Wimal H. M. W.; N. P., Dhammika Nanayakkara

2008-01-01

265

Induced suppressiveness to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici in rockwool substrate used in closed soilless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomatoes grown in soilless systems can be seriously damaged byFusarium oxysporum Schlect f.sp.radicis lycopersici (Forl) causing Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR). FCRR suppression can be achieved through the use of chemicals, selected substrates,\\u000a composts and artificially introduced antagonistic microorganisms. This study evaluated the natural capacity of a used rockwool\\u000a to suppress FCRR infections. New and used rockwool, sampled from

Andrea Minuto; Francesca Clematis; Maria Lodovica Gullino; Angelo Garibaldi

2007-01-01

266

Visualization of Interactions of Microbial Biocontrol Agents and Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Radicis-Lycopersici on Tomato Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (F.o.r.l.) causes foot and root rot of tomato, which can be controlled by various microbes including Pseudomonas, Trichoderma and non-pathogenic Fusarium. Microbes labeled with autofluorescent protein (AFP) markers can be visualized in live samples using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This enables the simultaneous determination of both pathogen and biocontrol agent in the

Annouschka Bolwerk; BEN J. J. LUGTENBERG

267

The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity and/or compensation of plant biomass does not depend on the degree of AM colonisation but more on the intercropping partner. PMID:23549903

Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

2013-10-01

268

Tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt is associated with early up-regulation of cell wall-strengthening genes in the roots.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of bananas. In the tropics and subtropics, Cavendish banana varieties are highly susceptible to Foc race 4 (VCG 0120). Cavendish selection GCTCV-218 was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar Williams in replicated greenhouse and field trials. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was previously carried out to identify genes induced in roots of GCTCV-218, but not in Williams, after infection with Foc'subtropical' race 4. Seventy-nine SSH clones were sequenced and revealed 13 non-redundant gene fragments, several of which showed homology to defence-associated genes, including cell wall-strengthening genes. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm up-regulation and differential expression of a number of genes throughout a time-course, following Foc infection in the tolerant GCTCV-218 when compared with susceptible cv. Williams. Tolerance of GCTCV-218 was linked to significantly increased induction of cell wall-associated phenolic compounds. PMID:20507503

VAN DEN Berg, Noëlani; Berger, Dave K; Hein, Ingo; Birch, Paul R J; Wingfield, Michael J; Viljoen, Altus

2007-05-01

269

Effect of organic amendments and solarisation on Fusarium wilt in susceptible banana plantlets, transplanted into naturally infested soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research since pathogenicity was first established in 1919, no cultural or chemical control strategy has proven effective against Fusarium wilt of bananas. The efficacy of cultural control is attributed to the suppression of pathogen activity. Yet, amending naturally infested soil with aged chicken manure has been shown to enhance disease severity, without any change in the activity of

N. NasirA; K. G. Pegg

270

Localization of enzymes in the mycelium and microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Maruyama, Yoshiharu (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) and Martin Alexander. Localization of enzymes in the mycelium and microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. J. Bacteriol. 84:307-312. 1962-Extracts prepared from mycelium and microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. cubense were fractionated into a soluble and four particulate fractions by differential centrifugation, and the distribution of several enzymes in the isolated cell constituents was examined. Succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, and a large amount of the reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) cytochrome c reductase and reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide cytochrome c reductase were associated with one of the particulate fractions prepared from the hyphae; fumarase and DPNH oxidase activities were largely found in the soluble and in a second particulate fraction. The highest recovery and concentration of diphosphopyridine nucleotidase was observed to be bound to a third type of hyphal granule. Aldolase, aconitase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and uricase were recovered entirely with the soluble mycelium constituents. Similar enzyme-distribution patterns were observed in microconidia. Several enzymatic activities of the mycelial extracts were compared with those in the extracts of microconidia. PMID:14470662

MARUYAMA, Y; ALEXANDER, M

1962-08-01

271

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea.

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

272

Recent developments in the molecular discrimination of formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Rapid and reliable detection and identification of potential plant pathogens is required for taking appropriate and timely disease management measures. For many microbial species of which all strains generally are plant pathogens on a known host range, this has become quite straightforward. However, for some fungal species this is quite a challenge. One of these is Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend:Fr., which, as a species, has a very broad host range, while individual strains are usually highly host-specific. Moreover, many strains of this fungus are non-pathogenic soil inhabitants. Thus, with regard to effective disease management, identification below the species level is highly desirable. So far, the genetic basis of host specificity in F. oxysporum is poorly understood. Furthermore, strains that infect a particular plant species are not necessarily more closely related to each other than to strains that infect other hosts. Despite these difficulties, recently an increasing number of studies have reported the successful development of molecular markers to discriminate F. oxysporum strains below the species level. PMID:18335459

Lievens, Bart; Rep, Martijn; Thomma, Bart P H J

2008-08-01

273

Local origin of two vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Australia  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum from geographically widespread native Gossypium populations, including a cotton growing area believed to be the center of origin of VCG 01111 and VCG 01112 of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) in Australia, was determined using glasshouse bioassays and AFLPs. Five lineages (A–E) were identified among 856 isolates. Of these, 12% were strongly pathogenic on cotton, 10% were weakly pathogenic and designated wild Fov, while 78% were nonpathogenic. In contrast to the occurrence of pathogenic isolates in all five lineages in soils associated with wild Gossypium, in cotton growing areas only three lineages (A, B, E) occurred and all pathogenic isolates belonged to two subgroups in lineage A. One of these contained VCG 01111 isolates while the other contained VCG 01112 isolates. Sequence analyses of translation elongation factor-1?, mitochondrial small subunit rDNA, nitrate reductase and phosphate permease confirmed that Australian Fov isolates were more closely related to lineage A isolates of native F. oxysporum than to Fov races 1–8 found overseas. These results strongly support a local evolutionary origin for Fov in Australian cotton growing regions.

Wang, Bo; Brubaker, Curt L; Summerell, Brett A; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

2010-01-01

274

Exploiting the inter-strain divergence of Fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol  

PubMed Central

Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. A targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. The microorganism studied was Fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. Strains of F. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. Using optimised solid-state straw culture conditions, experiments were conducted that compared fungal strains in terms of their growth, enzyme activities (cellulases, xylanase and alcohol dehydrogenase) and yield of bioethanol and the undesirable by-products acetic acid and xylitol. Significant inter-strain divergence was recorded in regards to the capacity of studied F. oxysporum strains to produce alcohol from untreated straw. No correlation was observed between bioethanol synthesis and either the biomass production or microbial enzyme activity. A strong correlation was observed between both acetic acid and xylitol production and bioethanol yield. The level of diversity recorded in the alcohol production capacity among closely-related microorganism means that a targeted screening of populations of selected microbial species could greatly improve bioprocessing yields, in terms of providing both new host strains and candidate genes for the bioethanol industry.

2012-01-01

275

Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle. PMID:20543061

Ruiz-Roldán, M Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M Isabel G; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A

2010-08-01

276

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

277

Phylogenetic relationship between different race representative populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in respect of translation elongation factor-1?, ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer region genes.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1? (TEF-1?), ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1?, ?-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1?, the groups generated by ?-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1? partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately. PMID:24639029

Dubey, Sunil C; Priyanka, Kumari; Singh, Vivek

2014-06-01

278

An inhibitory effect of a new Bacillus subtilis strain (EU07) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a destructive disease on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplant seedlings and the causal organism of crown and root rot of tomato plants growing in southern coast greenhouses of Turkey. An isolate of Bacillus subtilis (EU07) identified by the 16s RNA region code gene was selected as the best antagonist and evaluated against FORL

Ömür Baysal; Mikail Çal??kan; Özlem Ye?ilova

2008-01-01

279

Influence of Agricultural By-products in Liquid Culture on Chlamydospore Production by the Potential Mycoherbicide Fusarium oxysporum Foxy 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically feasible inoculum mass production methods are required for successful application of Fusarium oxysporum Foxy 2 as a potential mycoherbicide. Therefore, different substrates (agricultural by-products) and the factors that influence the production of spores, especially chlamydospores, of Foxy 2 were investigated in liquid cultures. The substrates tested were cotton seed cake, maize stover, wheat and triticale stillage. The presence of

Abuelgasim Elzein; Jürgen Kroschel

2004-01-01

280

Granular Pesta formulation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras for biological control of sunflower broomrape: efficacy and shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulation of fungal propagules encapsulated in a wheat-gluten matrix (termed ‘Pesta’) has proved to be a suitable technique for the development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras (FOO) as a bioherbicide for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana). To improve the efficacy of this fungus, 19 Pesta formulations, using two types of fungal spores and 8 adjuvants, used singly or in combinations,

Yasser M Shabana; D Müller-Stöver; J Sauerborn

2003-01-01

281

Oil\\/mineral-salts medium designed for easy recovery of extracellular lipase from Fusarium oxysporum AM3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase production by the potato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum AM3 was investigated in a mineral medium using triolein and sodium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Medium design by factorial analysis of the medium components increased enzyme activity 9.4-folds over the standard medium. The simple medium composition promoted easy enzyme recovery to its homogeneity in a single step. The lipase

M. M. Camargo-de-Morais; M. M. D. Maia; F. F. S. Borba; K. G. Melo; C. M. S. O. Santos; E. R. A. Reis; M. A. Morais Jr; J. L. Lima-Filho

2003-01-01

282

Physiological races and vegetative compatibility groups of butterhead lettuce isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Races were identified among butterhead lettuce isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae collected from three geographical areas of Hokkaido, Shizuoka, and Fukuoka in Japan by inoculation tests using Fujinaga’s race differential cultivars of lettuce (i.e., Patriot, Costa Rica No. 4, and Banchu Red Fire). Eighteen isolates from Shizuoka and Fukuoka were designated race 3, with two unknown vegetative compatibility

Norihito Yamauchi; Jyuichi Shimazu; Mamoru Satou; Seizo Horiuchi; Takashi Shirakawa

2004-01-01

283

Elicitation of soluble phenolics in date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) callus by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system using callus cultures from two cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), resistant (BSTN) and susceptible (JHL) to ‘Bayoud disease’, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis (Foa), was established as a suitable system for this host-pathogen interaction study. De novo accumulation of phenolic compounds occurred in date palm callus in response to elicitation with filtrates from Foa cultures. Based

F Daayf; M El Bellaj; M El Hassni; F J'Aiti; I El Hadrami

2003-01-01

284

Effect of mixed inoculations with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi on the phenols content of tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms ofFusarium oxysporum specific on hosts other than tomato induce in this plant greater initial increases of the phenols content than the pathogenic f. sp.lycopersici. Mixed inoculations of f. sp.lycopersici and f. sp.dianthi are on the contrary no more effective in inducing the phenol accumulation 24 h after the infection than f. sp.lycopersici alone. This observation suggests that the pathogen

A. Matta; Irene Gentile; Isa Giai

1970-01-01

285

Effect of fusaric acid and phytoanticipins on growth of rhizobacteria and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Suppression of soilborne diseases by biocontrol agents involves complex interactions among biocontrol agents and the pathogen and between these microorganisms and the plant. In general, these interactions are not well characterized. In this work, we studied (i) the diversity among strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Paenibacillus sp. for their sensitivity to fusaric acid (FAc) and phytoanticipins from different host plants, (ii) the diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates for their sensitivity to phytoanticipins, and (iii) the influence of FAc on the production of pyoverdine by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. tolerant to this compound. There was a great diversity in the response of the bacterial strains to FAc; however, as a group, Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus macerans were much more sensitive to FAc than Pseudomonas spp. FAc also affected production of pyoverdine by FAc-tolerant Pseudomonas spp. strains. Phytoanticipins differed in their effects on microbial growth, and sensitivity to a phytoanticipin varied among bacterial and fungal strains. Biochanin A did not affect growth of bacteria, but coumarin inhibited growth of Pseudomonas spp. strains and had no effect on Bacillus circulans and P. macerans. Conversely, tomatine inhibited growth of B. circulans and P. macerans. Biochanin A and tomatine inhibited growth of three pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum but increased growth of three nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates. Coumarin inhibited growth of all pathogenic and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates. These results are indicative of the complex interactions that can occur among plants, pathogens, and biological control agents in the rhizosphere and on the root surface. Also, these results may help to explain the low efficacy of some combinations of biocontrol agents, as well as the inconsistency in achieving disease suppression under field conditions. PMID:12556125

Landa, Blanca B; Cachinero-Díaz, Juana M; Lemanceau, Philippe; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Alabouvette, Claude

2002-11-01

286

Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system  

PubMed Central

Background Brewer's spent grain (BG), a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, ?-D-xylosidase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm), corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck of the bioconversion process. However, a considerable bioconversion yield was achieved (60% of the theoretical) making this bioprocess worthy of further investigation for a potential commercial application.

Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

2009-01-01

287

Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism. Results Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher biomass to xylose yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth on glucose revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source. Conclusions Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics.

2014-01-01

288

Outbreak of fungal endophthalmitis due to Fusarium oxysporum following cataract surgery.  

PubMed

Outbreak of exogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis after cataract surgery was evaluated. Twenty patients developed postoperative endophthalmitis. In 19 eyes, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed, in 14 cases (74 %) with primary intraocular lens explantation. In one case, the PPV was not performed because of poor general condition of the patient. Symptoms of endophthalmitis (damaged vision, iritis, tyndallization in anterior chamber, hypopyon) occurred at intervals of 16-79 days (mean 31.3 days). Fungal etiology was documented in 12 eyes (60 %). Fusarium oxysporum was evidenced by culture and/or microscopy and confirmed by PCR and sequencing analysis. Eighteen (90 %) patients were treated with oral voriconazole (400 mg/day) for a period of 4-6 weeks. The final visual acuity was 6/15 in 1 case (5 %), 6/60 and worse in 17 eyes (85 %), and in 2 cases (10 %), enucleation had to be performed. Viscoelastic filling material was suggested the most likely source of infection. Endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium spp. are a potentially big threat for patients with serious impact on vision. Successful management of the infection is highly dependent on early diagnosis including species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing, and on aggressive and long-term treatment. PMID:24381050

Buchta, Vladimír; Feuermannová, Alena; Váša, Martin; Bašková, Lenka; Kutová, Radka; Kubátová, Alena; Vejsová, Marcela

2014-02-01

289

Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in Meloidogyne javanica Induced Giant Cells in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Cultivars.  

PubMed

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings, susceptible (cv. Pearson A-I Improved) and resistant (cv. Pearson Improved) to race 1 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd &Hans., were inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood second-stage juveniles and 3 weeks later with race 1 F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici spores. One week after fungal inoculation, no fungus was visible in root tissue of the tomato cultivars and the giant cells were normal. Two weeks after fungal inoculation, abundant hyphae were visible in xylem tissues of Fusarium-susceptible but not of Fusarium-resistant plants. In susceptible plants, giant cell degeneration occurred, characterized by membrane and organelle disruption. In addition, where hyphae were in direct contact with the giant cell, dissolution of the giant cell wall occurred. Three weeks after fungal inoculation, fungal hyphae and spores were visible inside xylem tissues and giant cells in Fusarium-susceptible plants and in xylem tissue of the resistant plants. In susceptible and resistant plants, giant cell degeneration was apparent. Giant cell walls were completely broken down in Fusarium-susceptible tomato plants. In both cultivars infected by Fusarium, giant cell nuclei became spherical and dark inclusions occurred within the chromatin material which condensed adjacent to the fragmented nuclear membrane. No such ultrastructural changes were seen in the giant cells of control plants inoculated with nematode alone. Giant cell deterioration in both cultivars is probably caused by toxic fungal metabolites. PMID:19295778

Fattah, F; Webster, J M

1983-01-01

290

Antifungal potential of some higher plants against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of Cajanus cajan.  

PubMed

The fungitoxic effects of different plant extracts on Fusarium udum, which causes wilt disease of Cajanus cajan in vitro and in vivo, were examined. The complete arrest of the radial growth of the pathogen occurred at a 10% concentration of leaf extract from Adenocallyma alliaceum. A leaf extract of Citrus medica, a root extract of Asparagus adscendens, rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, and a bulb extract of Allium sativum inhibited up to 100% growth at higher concentrations. A. alliaceum controlled the disease up to 100% by amending its 4% powder in unsterilized soil and 2% in sterilized soil. The population of F. udum was found to be markedly reduced following treatments with plant powders. PMID:10955831

Singh, R; Rai, B

2000-01-01

291

Analysis of hairpin RNA transgene-induced gene silencing in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Hairpin RNA (hpRNA) transgenes can be effective at inducing RNA silencing and have been exploited as a powerful tool for gene function analysis in many organisms. However, in fungi, expression of hairpin RNA transcripts can induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, but in some species can also lead to transcriptional gene silencing, suggesting a more complex interplay of the two pathways at least in some fungi. Because many fungal species are important pathogens, RNA silencing is a powerful technique to understand gene function, particularly when gene knockouts are difficult to obtain. We investigated whether the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum possesses a functional gene silencing machinery and whether hairpin RNA transcripts can be employed to effectively induce gene silencing. Results Here we show that, in the phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum, hpRNA transgenes targeting either a ?-glucuronidase (Gus) reporter transgene (hpGus) or the endogenous gene Frp1 (hpFrp) did not induce significant silencing of the target genes. Expression analysis suggested that the hpRNA transgenes are prone to transcriptional inactivation, resulting in low levels of hpRNA and siRNA production. However, the hpGus RNA can be efficiently transcribed by promoters acquired either by recombination with a pre-existing, actively transcribed Gus transgene or by fortuitous integration near an endogenous gene promoter allowing siRNA production. These siRNAs effectively induced silencing of a target Gus transgene, which in turn appeared to also induce secondary siRNA production. Furthermore, our results suggested that hpRNA transcripts without poly(A) tails are efficiently processed into siRNAs to induce gene silencing. A convergent promoter transgene, designed to express poly(A)-minus sense and antisense Gus RNAs, without an inverted-repeat DNA structure, induced consistent Gus silencing in F. oxysporum. Conclusions These results indicate that F. oxysporum possesses functional RNA silencing machineries for siRNA production and target mRNA cleavage, but hpRNA transgenes may induce transcriptional self-silencing due to its inverted-repeat structure. Our results suggest that F. oxysporum possesses a similar gene silencing pathway to other fungi like fission yeast, and indicate a need for developing more effective RNA silencing technology for gene function studies in this fungal pathogen.

2013-01-01

292

ULTRASTRUCTURE AND TIME COURSE OF MITOSIS IN THE FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

PubMed Central

Mitosis in Fusarium oxysporum Schlect. was studied by light and electron microscopy. The average times required for the stages of mitosis, as determined from measurements made on living nuclei, were as follows: prophase, 70 sec; metaphase, 120 sec; anaphase, 13 sec; and telophase, 125 sec, for a total of 5.5 min. New postfixation procedures were developed specifically to preserve the fine-structure of the mitotic apparatus. Electron microscopy of mitotic nuclei revealed a fibrillo-granular, extranuclear Spindle Pole Body (SPB) at each pole of the intranuclear, microtubular spindles. Metaphase chromosomes were attached to spindle microtubules via kinetochores, which were found near the spindle poles at telophase. The still-intact, original nuclear envelope constricted around the incipient daughter nuclei during telophase.

Aist, James R.; Williams, P. H.

1972-01-01

293

Effect of common food preservatives on mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The growth and spore germination inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum by the common food additives: acetic acid, formic acid potassium sorbate, propionic acid, sorbic acid, and the fungistatic agent sec-butylamine was examined in vitro. The inhibitory efficacy of these chemicals decreased in the following order: sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, propionic acid, acetic acid, sec-butylamine and formic acid. At pH 6.4, the ED50 value for mycelium growth was: 976 ppm for sorbic acid, 1292 ppm for potassium sorbate, 2435 ppm for propionic acid, 3805 ppm for acetic acid, 3962 ppm for sec butylamine and 4668 ppm for formic acid. The ED50 value for spore germination was: 225 ppm for potassium sorbate, 1201 ppm for sorbic acid, 1402 ppm for propionic acid, 1600 ppm for sec-butylamine, 1957 ppm for acetic acid and 2485 ppm for formic acid. PMID:10874628

Tzatzarakis, M; Tsatsakis, A M; Liakou, A; Vakalounakis, D J

2000-07-01

294

[Bioprotection mechanisms of the lentil plant by Rhizobium leguminosarum against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis].  

PubMed

Living and heat-killed bacterial cells of Rhizobium leguminosarum protected totally lentil plants against infection by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum MR 84. Culture filtrate of this rhizobacterium was also able to protect the plants to a high degree. However, when they were inoculated separately of the pathogen, living bacterial cells did not protect the plants whereas culture filtrate and killed bacterial cells protected them. These results suggest that Rhizobium cannot protect lentil plants without interaction with the pathogen, but the culture filtrate and the killed bacterial cells can protect them even in the absence of this interaction. It seems that the culture filtrate and the killed bacterial cells contain signals able to induce plant resistance. Those signals would be suppressed once Rhizobium is in contact with the plant. PMID:14746271

Essalmani, Haiat; Lahlou, Houria

2003-12-01

295

The velvet complex governs mycotoxin production and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on plant and mammalian hosts.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens provoke devastating losses in agricultural production, contaminate food with mycotoxins and give rise to life-threatening infections in humans. The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum attacks over 100 different crops and can cause systemic fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. Here we functionally characterized VeA, VelB, VelC and LaeA, four components of the velvet protein complex which regulates fungal development and secondary metabolism. Deletion of veA, velB and to a minor extent velC caused a derepression of conidiation as well as alterations in the shape and size of microconidia. VeA and LaeA were required for full virulence of F.?oxysporum on tomato plants and on immunodepressed mice. A critical contribution of velvet consists in promoting chromatin accessibility and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster for beauvericin, a depsipeptide mycotoxin that functions as a virulence determinant. These results reveal a conserved role of the velvet complex during fungal infection on plants and mammals. PMID:23106229

López-Berges, Manuel S; Hera, Concepción; Sulyok, Michael; Schäfer, Katja; Capilla, Javier; Guarro, Josep; Di Pietro, Antonio

2013-01-01

296

Linear plasmidlike DNA in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.  

PubMed Central

Double-stranded, 1.9-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA molecules were found in 18 strains representing three pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The DNA element (pFOXC1) from a race 1 strain and the DNA element (pFOXC2) from a race 2 strain were shown by restriction endonuclease mapping to be linear. pFOXC2 was found in mitochondrial preparations and appears to have blocked 5' termini, as it was sensitive to 3'----5' exonuclease III but insensitive to 5'----3' lambda exonuclease. The major 1.8-kbp BglII restriction endonuclease fragment of pFOXC2 was cloned in plasmid pUC12. The recombinant plasmid (pCK1) was not homologous to the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. This suggests that pFOXC2 is self-replicating. pCK1 was homologous to all 1.9-kbp DNA elements of race 2 but was not homologous to those of race 1 or race 5. All race 1 and 5 elements were also shown to share common DNA sequences. Images

Kistler, H C; Leong, S A

1986-01-01

297

Identification of genes up-regulated during conidiation of Fusarium oxysporum through expressed sequence tag analysis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. F. oxysporum produces microconidia and macroconidia in carboxymethyl cellulose-added liquid medium (CMCLM) and exhibits vegetative growth without conidiation in complete liquid medium (CLM). The cDNA libraries were constructed using mRNAs from CLM and CMCLM cultures. A total of 1288 and 1353 clones from CLM (vegetative growth) and CMCLM (conidiation) libraries, respectively, were sequenced, and 641 and 626 unique genes were identified. Of these unique genes, only 130 ( approximately 20%) were common in the two libraries, indicating different patterns of gene expression during vegetative growth and conidiation. The expression levels of 496 CMCLM-specific genes were compared during vegetative growth and conidiation by cDNA dot-blot differential hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR analyses, and 42 genes were identified to display >5-fold increases in mRNA abundance during conidiation. These genes provide ideal candidates for further studies directed at understanding fungal conidiogenesis and its molecular regulation. PMID:16480905

Iida, Yuichiro; Ohara, Toshiaki; Tsuge, Takashi

2006-03-01

298

An Iron 13S-Lipoxygenase with an ?-Linolenic Acid Specific Hydroperoxidase Activity from Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates constitute a family of lipid-derived signaling molecules that are abundant in higher plants. The biosynthetic pathway leading to plant jasmonates is initiated by 13-lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of ?-linolenic acid into its 13-hydroperoxide derivative. A number of plant pathogenic fungi (e.g. Fusarium oxysporum) are also capable of producing jasmonates, however, by a yet unknown biosynthetic pathway. In a search for lipoxygenase in F. oxysporum, a reverse genetic approach was used and one of two from the genome predicted lipoxygenases (FoxLOX) was cloned. The enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli, purified via affinity chromatography, and its reaction mechanism characterized. FoxLOX was found to be a non-heme iron lipoxygenase, which oxidizes C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids to 13S-hydroperoxy derivatives by an antarafacial reaction mechanism where the bis-allylic hydrogen abstraction is the rate-limiting step. With ?-linolenic acid as substrate FoxLOX was found to exhibit a multifunctional activity, because the hydroperoxy derivatives formed are further converted to dihydroxy-, keto-, and epoxy alcohol derivatives.

Brodhun, Florian; Cristobal-Sarramian, Alvaro; Zabel, Sebastian; Newie, Julia; Hamberg, Mats; Feussner, Ivo

2013-01-01

299

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.  

PubMed

In recent years, Bacillus species have received considerable attention for the biological control of many fungal diseases. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 was tested for its potential use against a variety of plant pathogens. Our screen for genes involved in the biosynthesis of antifungal agents revealed that the fen and bmy gene clusters are present in the Q-426 genome. Lipopeptides such as bacillomycin D, fengycin A, and fengycin B were purified from the bacterial culture broth and subsequently identified by ESI-mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration of fengycin A against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hansen O-27 was determined to be 31.25??g?ml(-1) . However, exposure of fungal cells to 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A did not allow permeation of fluorescein diacetate into the cytoplasm through the cell membrane. Moreover, leakage of intracellular inorganic cations, nucleic acid and protein were also not detected, indicating that the fungal cell membrane is not the primary target of action for fengycin A. Profound morphological changes were observed in the F. oxysporum strain and spore germination was completely inhibited, suggesting that 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A acts, at least, as a fungistatic agent. PMID:23553741

Zhao, Pengchao; Quan, Chunshan; Wang, Yingguo; Wang, Jianhua; Fan, Shengdi

2014-05-01

300

Lipolytic system of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The lipolytic profile of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici was studied by in silico search and biochemical enzyme activity analyses. Twenty-five structural secreted lipases were predicted based on the conserved pentapeptide Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly-, characteristic of fungal lipases, and secretion signal sequences. Moreover, a predicted lipase regulatory gene was identified in addition to the previously characterized ctf1. The transcription profile of thirteen lipase genes during tomato plant colonization revealed that lip1, lip3, and lip22 were highly induced between 21 and 96 h after inoculation. Deletion mutants in five lipase genes (lip1, lip2, lip3, lip5, and lip22) and in the regulatory genes ctf1 and ctf2 as well as a ?ctf1?ctf2 double mutant were generated. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression analyses of structural lipase genes in the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants indicated the existence of a complex lipase regulation network in F. oxysporum. The reduction of total lipase activity, as well as the severely reduced virulence of the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants, provides evidence for an important role of the lipolytic system of this fungus in pathogenicity. PMID:23718123

Bravo-Ruiz, Gustavo; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2013-09-01

301

Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Conclusion Our data suggest that resistance against FOM in melon involves only limited transcriptional changes, and that wilting symptoms could derive, at least partially, from an active plant response. We discuss the pathogen-derived transcripts expressed in planta during the infection process and potentially related to virulence functions, as well as transcripts that are differentially expressed between the two FOM races grown in vitro. These transcripts provide candidate sequences that can be further tested for their ability to distinguish between races. Sequence data from this article have been deposited in GenBank, Accession Numbers: HO867279-HO867981.

2011-01-01

302

Trichoderma asperellum Strain T34 Controls Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato Plants in Soilless Culture Through Competition for Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness\\u000a of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000?µM provided as\\u000a EDTA\\/Fe(III)] in

Guillem Segarra; Eva Casanova; Manuel Avilés; Isabel Trillas

2010-01-01

303

Population Dynamics of Fusarium Oxysporum f. Sp. Radicis-lycopersici in Relation to the Onset of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici the causal agent of crown and root rot in tomato comprises two overlapping separate phases: monocyclic and polycyclic. Oversummering inoculum is the source of primary infection (the monocyclic phase) and the spread from plant to plant via root-to-root contact is the source of the secondary infection (the polycyclic phase). In the present work, relationships between

Yael Rekah; D. Shtienberg; J. Katan

2001-01-01

304

Effects of conventional and organic nitrogen fertilizers on soil microbial activity, mycorrhizal colonization, leaf antioxidant content, and Fusarium wilt in highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in the greenhouse to determine the effects of conventional and organic nitrogen (N) fertilizer on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium solani, in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Legacy’). Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, soil microbial activity, and leaf antioxidants content was also measured the treatments. Plants grown with organic N fertilizer exhibited a lower incidence

René Montalba; Cesar Arriagada; Marysol Alvear; Gustavo E. Zúńiga

2010-01-01

305

Fine mapping of the tomato I-3 gene for fusarium wilt resistance and elimination of a co-segregating resistance gene analogue as a candidate for I-3.  

PubMed

The I-3 gene from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii confers resistance to race 3 of the devastating vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As an initial step in a positional cloning strategy for the isolation of I-3, we converted restriction fragment length polymorphism and conserved orthologue set markers, known genes and a resistance gene analogue (RGA) mapping to the I-3 region into PCR-based sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Additional PCR-based markers in the I-3 region were generated using the randomly amplified DNA fingerprinting (RAF) technique. SCAR, CAPS and RAF markers were used for high-resolution mapping around the I-3 locus. The I-3 gene was localised to a 0.3-cM region containing a RAF marker, eO6, and an RGA, RGA332. RGA332 was cloned and found to correspond to a putative pseudogene with at least two loss-of-function mutations. The predicted pseudogene belongs to the Toll interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich-repeat sub-class of plant disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of two RGA332 homologues in L. esculentum, DNA gel blot and PCR analysis suggests that no other homologues are present in lines carrying I-3 that could be alternative candidates for the gene. PMID:15045176

Hemming, M N; Basuki, S; McGrath, D J; Carroll, B J; Jones, D A

2004-07-01

306

Murine model for Fusarium oxysporum invasive fusariosis reveals organ-specific structures for dissemination and long-term persistence.  

PubMed

The soil-borne plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum causes life-threatening invasive fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism of infection in mammalian hosts is largely unknown. In the present study we show that the symptoms of disseminated fusariosis caused by F. oxysporum in immunosuppressed mice are remarkably similar to those reported in humans. Distinct fungal structures were observed inside the host, depending on the infected organ. Invasive hyphae developed in the heart and kidney, causing massive colonization of the organs. By contrast, chlamydospore-like survival structures were found in lung, spleen and liver. Systemically infected mice also developed skin and eye infections, as well as thrombosis and necrosis in the tail. We further show that F. oxysporum can disseminate and persist in the organs of immunocompetent animals, and that these latent infections can lead to lethal systemic fusariosis if the host is later subjected to immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:24587124

Schäfer, Katja; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; MacCallum, Donna

2014-01-01

307

Sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the wool cuticle-degrading enzyme encoding genes in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1.  

PubMed

Two protease-like proteins, KrtA and KrtC, were identified in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1. Genes coding these proteins, krtA and krtC, were isolated and characterized. Recombinant KrtA (rKrtA) and KrtC (rKrtC) were successfully expressed in Aspergillus oryzae and secreted. The combination of rKrtA and rKrtC completely removed the cuticle of wool fibers. PMID:24360406

Chaya, Etsushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Karita, Shuichi; Hanya, Akira; Yoshino-Yasuda, Shoko; Kitamoto, Noriyuki

2014-06-01

308

Characterization of biotin-autotrophic isolates derived from naturally occurring auxotrophic race 2 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Race 2 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae have been recognized as biotin auxotrophs and consequently have restricted growth on Puhalla's minimal medium (MM), which\\u000a contains no biotin. Biotin-autotrophic isolates were raised from race 2 isolates through cultural mutation that grew as well\\u000a on MM as they did on MM supplemented with biotin. These autotrophs were identical to the

Norihito Yamauchi; Mamoru Satou; Jyuichi Shimazu; Takashi Shirakawa; Seizo Horiuchi

2007-01-01

309

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis Toxin Characterization and Use for Selection of Resistant Date Palm to Bayoud Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the most economically important food crop in Moroccan oasean agricultural areas, contributing to preserving an arid\\u000a ecosystem threatened by desertification. The bayoud disease, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa), is incontestably the most serious disease affecting date palm in North Africa. The selection for resistance among\\u000a date palm cultivars was

My H. Sedra; B. H. Lazrek

310

Effects of fusaric acid on cells from tomato cultivars resistant or susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures were set up from two tomato cultivars, one resistant, (‘Rio grande’) and one susceptible (‘63.5’) toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici. Growth rates of the two cell cultures were comparable. Toxicity of fusaric acid, expressed as the fresh weight loss, was analyzed: It was significant in both cases after 10 h, but toxicity was twice as high for ‘63.5’

I. Gapillout; M.-L. Milat; J.-P. Blein

1996-01-01

311

Differences in pathogenesis observed among susceptible interactions of carnation with four races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptible interactions of Early Sam carnations with races 1,2,4, and 8 ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi differed in pathogenesis, both after stem and after root inoculation. Race 1 induced pallescence and withering of leaves. Affected vascular tissue had a uniform pallid to pale brown colour; though heavily colonized, it was not or virtually not degraded. Defence reactions developed only slowly. Race

R. P. Baayen; D. M. Elgersma; J. F. Demmink; L. D. Sparnaaij

1988-01-01

312

Mechanisms of Action and Dose-Response Relationships Governing Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Three isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium spp. (CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47), previously shown to reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt diseases of multiple crops, were evaluated to determine their mechanisms of action and antagonist-pathogen inoculum density relationships. Competition for nutrients, as represented by a reduction in pathogen saprophytic growth in the presence of the biocontrol isolates, was observed to be an important mechanism of action for isolate Fo47, but not for isolates CS-1 and CS-20. All three biocontrol isolates demonstrated some degree of induced systemic resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plants, as determined by split-root tests, but varied in their relative abilities to reduce disease. Isolate CS-20 provided the most effective control (39 to 53% disease reduction), while Fo47 provided the least effective control (23 to 25% reduction) in split-root tests. Dose-response relationships also differed considerably among the three biocon-trol isolates, with CS-20 significantly reducing disease incidence at antagonist doses as low as 100 chlamydospores per g of soil (cgs) and at pathogen densities up to 10(5) cgs. Isolate CS-1 also was generally effective at antagonist densities of 100 to 5,000 cgs, but only when pathogen densities were below 10(4) cgs. Isolate Fo47 was effective only at antagonist densities of 10(4) to 10(5) cgs, regardless of pathogen density. Epidemiological dose-response models (described by linear, negative exponential, hyperbolic saturation [HS], and logistic [LG] functions) fit to the observed data were used to quantify differences among the biocontrol isolates and establish biocontrol characteristics. Each isolate required a different model to best describe its dose-response characteristics, with the HS/HS, LG/HS, and LG/LG models (pathogen/biocontrol components) providing the best fit for isolates CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47, respectively. Model parameters (defining effective biocontrol dose (ED(50)) indicated an ED(50) of 2.6, 36.3, and 2.1 x 10(6) cgs and estimates of biocontrol efficiency of 0.229, 0.539, and 0.774 for isolates CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47, respectively. Differences in dose-response relationships among the biocontrol isolates were attributed to differences in their mechanisms of action, with CS-20 and CS-1 functioning primarily by induced resistance and Fo47 functioning primarily by competition for nutrients. PMID:18944639

Larkin, R P; Fravel, D R

1999-12-01

313

Antimicrobial activity and physical characterization of silver nanoparticles green synthesized using nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Nanostructures from natural sources have received major attention due to wide array of biological activities and less toxicity for humans, animals, and the environment. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a fungal nitrate reductase, and their biological activity was assessed against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The enzyme was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum IRAN 31C after culturing on malt extract-glucose-yeast extract-peptone (MGYP) medium. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and its molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme had a maximum yield of 50.84 % with a final purification of 70 folds. With a molecular weight of 214 KDa, it is composed of three subunits of 125, 60, and 25 KDa. The purified enzyme was successfully used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a way dependent upon NADPH using gelatin as a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These stable nonaggregating nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 50 nm and a zeta potential of -34.3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of synthesized nanoparticles by disk diffusion method showed strong growth inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogenic fungi and bacteria as evident from inhibition zones that ranged from 14 to 25 mm. Successful green synthesis of biologically active silver nanoparticles by a nitrate reductase from F. oxysporum in the present work not only reduces laborious downstream steps such as purification of nanoparticle from interfering cellular components, but also provides a constant source of safe biologically-active nanomaterials with potential application in agriculture and medicine. PMID:24610039

Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Amini, Abdolhossein; Gholami-Shabani, Zeynab; Imani, Afshin; Chiani, Mohsen; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

2014-04-01

314

Defense responses of Fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

A collection of 76 plant-pathogenic and 41 saprophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains was screened for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by multiple strains of antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens. Approximately 17% of the F. oxysporum strains were relatively tolerant to high 2,4-DAPG concentrations. Tolerance to 2,4-DAPG did not correlate with the geographic origin of the strains, formae speciales, intergenic spacer (IGS) group, or fusaric acid production levels. Biochemical analysis showed that 18 of 20 tolerant F. oxysporum strains were capable of metabolizing 2,4-DAPG. For two tolerant strains, analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that deacetylation of 2,4-DAPG to the less fungitoxic derivatives monoacetylphloroglucinol and phloroglucinol is among the initial mechanisms of 2,4-DAPG degradation. Production of fusaric acid, a known inhibitor of 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis in P. fluorescens, differed considerably among both 2,4-DAPG-sensitive and -tolerant F. oxysporum strains, indicating that fusaric acid production may be as important for 2,4-DAPG-sensitive as for -tolerant F. oxysporum strains. Whether 2,4-DAPG triggers fusaric acid production was studied for six F. oxysporum strains; 2,4-DAPG had no significant effect on fusaric acid production in four strains. In two strains, however, sublethal concentrations of 2,4-DAPG either enhanced or significantly decreased fusaric acid production. The implications of 2,4-DAPG degradation, the distribution of this trait within F. oxysporum and other plant-pathogenic fungi, and the consequences for the efficacy of biological control are discussed. PMID:15559985

Schouten, Alexander; van den Berg, Grardy; Edel-Hermann, Véonique; Steinberg, Christian; Gautheron, Nadine; Alabouvette, Claude; de Vos, C H; Lemanceau, Philippe; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2004-11-01

315

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR).  

PubMed

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10(-6) dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies. PMID:23961219

Mishra, Rupesh K; Pandey, Brajesh K; Muthukumar, M; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

316

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR)  

PubMed Central

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10?6 dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies.

Mishra, Rupesh K.; Pandey, Brajesh K.; Muthukumar, M.; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

317

Benzothiadiazole-Mediated Induced Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in Tomato1  

PubMed Central

Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a synthetic chemical, was applied as a foliar spray to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants and evaluated for its potential to confer increased resistance against the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL). In nontreated tomato plants all root tissues were massively colonized by FORL hyphae. Pathogen ingress toward the vascular stele was accompanied by severe host cell alterations, including cell wall breakdown. In BTH-treated plants striking differences in the rate and extent of fungal colonization were observed. Pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex, and fungal ingress was apparently halted by the formation of callose-enriched wall appositions at sites of fungal penetration. In addition, aggregated deposits, which frequently established close contact with the invading hyphae, accumulated in densely colonized epidermal cells and filled most intercellular spaces. Upon incubation of sections with gold-complexed laccase for localization of phenolic-like compounds, a slight deposition of gold particles was observed over both the host cell walls and the wall appositions. Labeling was also detected over the walls of fungal cells showing signs of obvious alteration ranging from cytoplasm disorganization to protoplasm retraction. We provide evidence that foliar applications of BTH sensitize susceptible tomato plants to react more rapidly and more efficiently to FORL attack through the formation of protective layers at sites of potential fungal entry.

Benhamou, Nicole; Belanger, Richard R.

1998-01-01

318

Deoxyribonucleic acid metabolism and nuclear division during spore germination in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Ungerminated microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum have a mean cell DNA content of 0-134 times 10--12 g/cell with a guanine-plus-cytosine composition (%GC) of 50-75%. During germination, the first dry weight increase of the spore population was defected after 3 h incubation and the first germ tube appeared after 4 h. The total DNA of the culture sharply increased after 5 h, followed by a pause at 6 h. At this time the DNA content per nucleus was maximal and the first nuclear divisions were detected. auses in the rise of total DNA of the culture and in the [14C]adenine incorporation pattern suggest that there is partial synchrony in DNA synthesis at the beginning of incubation. This is also supported by the fact that until 8 h, only hyphae with 1, 2 and 4 nucleic were observed. [14C]adenine incorporation into DNA averaged 2-68% of the total taken up in 10 h incubation. PMID:1151339

Kumari, L; Decallonne, J R; Meyer, J A

1975-06-01

319

Galactose Oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum - Expression in E. coli and P. pastoris and Biochemical Characterization.  

PubMed

A gene coding for galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum G12 was cloned together with its native preprosequence and a C-terminal His-tag, and successfully expressed both in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was subsequently purified and characterized. Among all tested substrates, the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was found with 1-methyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (2.2 mM-1 s-1). The Michaelis constant (Km) for D-galactose was determined to be 47 mM. Optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 7.0 and 40°C, respectively, and the enzyme was thermoinactivated at temperatures above 50°C. GalOx contains a unique metalloradical complex consisting of a copper atom and a tyrosine residue covalently attached to the sulphur of a cysteine. The correct formation of this thioether bond during the heterologous expression in E. coli and P. pastoris could be unequivocally confirmed by MALDI mass spectrometry, which offers a convenient alternative to prove this Tyr-Cys crosslink, which is essential for the catalytic activity of GalOx. PMID:24967652

Paukner, Regina; Staudigl, Petra; Choosri, Withu; Sygmund, Christoph; Halada, Petr; Haltrich, Dietmar; Leitner, Christian

2014-01-01

320

Galactose Oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum - Expression in E. coli and P. pastoris and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

A gene coding for galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum G12 was cloned together with its native preprosequence and a C-terminal His-tag, and successfully expressed both in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was subsequently purified and characterized. Among all tested substrates, the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was found with 1-methyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (2.2 mM?1 s?1). The Michaelis constant (Km) for D-galactose was determined to be 47 mM. Optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 7.0 and 40°C, respectively, and the enzyme was thermoinactivated at temperatures above 50°C. GalOx contains a unique metalloradical complex consisting of a copper atom and a tyrosine residue covalently attached to the sulphur of a cysteine. The correct formation of this thioether bond during the heterologous expression in E. coli and P. pastoris could be unequivocally confirmed by MALDI mass spectrometry, which offers a convenient alternative to prove this Tyr-Cys crosslink, which is essential for the catalytic activity of GalOx.

Paukner, Regina; Staudigl, Petra; Choosri, Withu; Sygmund, Christoph; Halada, Petr; Haltrich, Dietmar; Leitner, Christian

2014-01-01

321

Transposition of the autonomous Fot1 element in the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Autonomous mobility of different copies of the Fot1 element was determined for several strains of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum to develop a transposon tagging system. Two Fot1 copies inserted into the third intron of the nitrate reductase structural gene (niaD) were separately introduced into two genetic backgrounds devoid of endogenous Fot1 elements. Mobility of these copies was observed through a phenotypic assay for excision based on the restoration of nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation of the Fot1 transposase open reading frame (frameshift, deletion, or disruption) prevented excision in strains free of Fot1 elements. Molecular analysis of the Nia+ revertant strains showed that the Fot1 element reintegrated frequently into new genomic sites after excision and that it can transpose from the introduced niaD gene into a different chromosome. Sequence analysis of several Fot1 excision sites revealed the so-called footprint left by this transposable element. Three reinserted Fot1 elements were cloned and the DNA sequences flanking the transposon were determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction. In all cases, the transposon was inserted into a TA dinucleotide and created the characteristic TA target site duplication. The availability of autonomous Fot1 copies will now permit the development of an efficient two-component transposon tagging system comprising a trans-activator element supplying transposase and a cis-responsive marked element. PMID:10049918

Migheli, Q; Laugé, R; Davičre, J M; Gerlinger, C; Kaper, F; Langin, T; Daboussi, M J

1999-03-01

322

Benzothiadiazole-mediated induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomato  

PubMed

Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a synthetic chemical, was applied as a foliar spray to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants and evaluated for its potential to confer increased resistance against the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL). In nontreated tomato plants all root tissues were massively colonized by FORL hyphae. Pathogen ingress toward the vascular stele was accompanied by severe host cell alterations, including cell wall breakdown. In BTH-treated plants striking differences in the rate and extent of fungal colonization were observed. Pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex, and fungal ingress was apparently halted by the formation of callose-enriched wall appositions at sites of fungal penetration. In addition, aggregated deposits, which frequently established close contact with the invading hyphae, accumulated in densely colonized epidermal cells and filled most intercellular spaces. Upon incubation of sections with gold-complexed laccase for localization of phenolic-like compounds, a slight deposition of gold particles was observed over both the host cell walls and the wall appositions. Labeling was also detected over the walls of fungal cells showing signs of obvious alteration ranging from cytoplasm disorganization to protoplasm retraction. We provide evidence that foliar applications of BTH sensitize susceptible tomato plants to react more rapidly and more efficiently to FORL attack through the formation of protective layers at sites of potential fungal entry. PMID:9847094

Benhamou; Belanger

1998-12-01

323

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles from different cellular fractions of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The addition of varying concentrations of precursor gold salt to different cellular fractions of Fusarium oxysporum, viz., the culture filtrate and the intracellular extract obtained in the growing and resting phase of the cells had a profound influence on the size, shape, and state of aggregation of the nanoparticles. Multiply-twinned nanoparticles were obtained when the culture filtrate was used for synthesizing nanoparticles while mostly irregular shapes were obtained with the intracellular extract. The time taken for the formation of gold nanoparticles in the culture filtrate of resting cells was very less (< 30 min) while it took more than 8 h when the intracellular extract was used for synthesis of nanoparticles. There was a reduction in size of the nanoparticles with decreasing concentration of the gold salt from 1 mM to 0.05 mM. With the intracellular extract, the initial rate of increase in surface plasmon absorption maximum was linearly proportional to the initial concentration of the gold salt used. Gold nanoparticles were also obtained with the heat-inactivated culture filtrate which suggests alternatively the role of peptides and amino acids besides proteins in reducing and/or stabilizing the nanoparticles. PMID:24734569

Deepa, Kannan; Panda, Tapobrata

2014-05-01

324

Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05).

Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Glaucia

2011-01-01

325

FoSTUA, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein, differentially regulates development of three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores, in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt of a wide variety of plant species. F. oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. Falcate macroconidia are formed generally from terminal phialides on conidiophores and rarely from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Ellipsoidal microconidia are formed from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Globose chlamydospores with thick walls are developed by the modification of hyphal and conidial cells. Here we describe FoSTUA of F. oxysporum, which differentially regulates the development of macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. FoSTUA encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to Aspergillus nidulans StuA, which has been identified as a transcriptional regulator controlling conidiation. Nuclear localization of FoStuA was verified by using strains expressing FoStuA-green fluorescent protein fusions. The FoSTUA-targeted mutants exhibited normal microconidium formation in cultures. However, the mutants lacked conidiophores and produced macroconidia at low frequencies only from intercalary phialides. Thus, FoSTUA appears to be necessary to induce conidiophore differentiation. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. These data demonstrate that FoStuA is a positive regulator and a negative regulator for the development of macroconidia and chlamydospores, respectively, and is dispensable for microconidium formation in cultures. The disease-causing ability of F. oxysporum was not affected by mutations in FoSTUA. However, the mutants produced markedly fewer macroconidia and microconidia in infected plants than the wild type. These results suggest that FoSTUA also has an important role for microconidium formation specifically in infected plants. PMID:15590816

Ohara, Toshiaki; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-12-01

326

A proteomic study of in-root interactions between chickpea pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia and the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the main soil-borne disease limiting chickpea production. Management of this disease is achieved mainly by the use of resistant cultivars. However, co-infection of a Foc-resistant plant by the fungus and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia (Ma) causes breakdown of the resistance and thus limits its efficacy in the control of Fusarium wilt. In this work we aimed to reveal key aspects of chickpea:Foc:Ma interactions, studying fungal- and nematode-induced changes in root proteins, using chickpea lines 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' that show similar resistant (Foc race 5) and susceptible (Ma) responses to either pathogen alone but a differential response after co-infection with both pathogens. 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' chickpea plants were challenged with Foc race 5 and Ma, either in single or in combined inoculations, and the root proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using three biological replicates. Pairwise comparisons of treatments indicated that 47 protein spots in 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 31 protein spots in 'ICC 14216K' underwent significant changes in intensity. The responsive protein spots tentatively identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS (27 spots for 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 15 spots for 'ICC 14216K') indicated that same biological functions were involved in the responses of either chickpea line to Foc race 5 and Ma, although common as well as line-specific responsive proteins were found within the different biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study at the root proteome level of chickpea response to a biotic stress imposed by single and joint infections by two major soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21640211

Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2011-09-01

327

Endophytic fungi from Vitis labrusca L. ('Niagara Rosada') and its potential for the biological control of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

We investigated the diversity of endophytic fungi found on grape (Vitis labrusca cv. Niagara Rosada) leaves collected from Salesópolis, SP, Brazil. The fungi were isolated and characterized by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, followed by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. In addition, the ability of these endophytic fungi to inhibit the grapevine pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp herbemontis was determined in vitro. We also observed that the climatic factors, such as temperature and rainfall, have no effect on the frequency of infection by endophytic fungi. The endophytic fungal community that was identified included Aporospora terricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Bjerkandera adusta, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, D. phaseolorum, Epicoccum nigrum, Flavodon flavus, Fusarium subglutinans, F. sacchari, Guignardia mangiferae, Lenzites elegans, Paraphaeosphaeria pilleata, Phanerochaete sordida, Phyllosticta sp, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Preussia africana, Tinctoporellus epiniltinus, and Xylaria berteri. Among these isolates, two, C. gloeosporioides and F. flavus, showed potential antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f. sp herbemontis. We suggest the involvement of the fungal endophyte community of V. labrusca in protecting the host plant against pathogenic Fusarium species. Possibly, some endophytic isolates could be selected for the development of biological control agents for grape fungal disease; alternatively, management strategies could be tailored to increase these beneficial fungi. PMID:23315803

Brum, M C P; Araújo, W L; Maki, C S; Azevedo, J L

2012-01-01

328

Identification of genes with changes in transcription levels caused by mutations in conidiation regulator genes REN1 and FoSTUA in Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. We previously identified two genes,\\u000a REN1 and FoSTUA, which encode different types of transcription regulators essential for conidiation in F. oxysporum. We also performed expressed sequence tag analysis during vegetative growth and conidiation and identified 496 genes specifically\\u000a detected in the conidiation cDNA library. Here, we selected genes

Yuichiro Iida; Toshiaki Ohara; Takashi Tsuge

2007-01-01

329

Red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) as a novel reporter in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

pAn-DsRed2 vector was constructed for constitutive cytoplasmic expression of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) under control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. DsRed2-transformation of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains pathogenic against tomato host resulted in bright red cytoplamic fluorescence of the fungus. The transformants were screened based on the hygromycin B resistance, brightness, stability and rate of appearance of the DsRed2 fluorescence. The transormed fungi were growing normally and their pathogenicity did not change after transformation procedure. The function of novel DsRed2 marker was verified by fluorescence microscopy of the infected tomato seedlings. The results indicate that DsRed2 can be used as a efficient novel reporter gene for monitoring of the F. oxysporum within the host tissues. PMID:12951257

Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid

2003-08-29

330

Molecular detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Mycosphaerella melonis in infected plant tissues and soil.  

PubMed

We developed two species-specific PCR assays for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Mycosphaerella melonis in diseased plant tissues and soil. Based on differences in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Fusarium spp. and Mycosphaerella spp., two pairs of species-specific primers, Fn-1/Fn-2 and Mn-1/Mn-2, were synthesized. After screening 24 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, 22 isolates of M. melonis, and 72 isolates from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota, and Oomycota, the Fn-1/Fn-2 primers amplified only a single PCR band of approximately 320 bp from F. oxysporum f. sp.niveum, and the Mn-1/Mn-2 primers yielded a PCR product of approximately 420 bp from M. melonis. The detection sensitivity with primers Fn-1/Fn-2 and Mn-1/Mn-2 was 1fg of genomic DNA. Using ITS1/ITS4 as the first-round primers, combined with either Fn-1/Fn-2 and or Mn-1/Mn-2, two nested PCR procedures were developed, and the detection sensitivity increased 1000-fold to 1ag. The detection sensitivity for the soil pathogens was 100-microconidia/g soil. A duplex PCR method, combining primers Fn-1/Fn-2 and Mn-1/Mn-2, was used to detect F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and M. melonis in plant tissues infected by the pathogens. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assays were developed to detect and monitor the pathogens directly in soil samples. The PCR-based methods developed here could simplify both plant disease diagnosis and pathogen monitoring as well as guide plant disease management. PMID:16019161

Zhang, Zhenggang; Zhang, Jingyu; Wang, Yuanchao; Wang, Yuchao; Zheng, Xiaobo

2005-08-01

331

Molecular cloning and in silico analysis of potential Fusarium resistance genes in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for causing a destructive wilting disease in numerous crops including banana. To date, only two non-TIR-NBS-LRR\\u000a genes that confer resistance to F. oxysporum, the I2 and Fom-2 genes from tomato and melon, respectively, have been isolated. We previously identified two partial non-TIR-NBS sequences,\\u000a designated RGC2 and RGC5, from FOC race 4 resistant banana, Musa

Santy Peraza-Echeverria; James L. Dale; Rob M. Harding; Chris Collet

2009-01-01

332

Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) in laboratory.  

PubMed

The entomopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum are the next generation mosquito controlling agent. F. oxysporum basically contains unique toxin and can be a selectively good agent in tropical countries. We are reporting here the efficacy of the metabolites of F. oxysporum against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. F. oxysporum was grown on Czapek Dox broth. The bioassays were run at five different concentrations (1.30, 1.60, 1.77, 1.90, and 2.00 ppm). The LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99) values with 95% fiducial limits and probit equations were calculated by probit analysis. The mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 h against all instars. The LC(90) values in the case of C. quinquefasciatus after 48 h when calculated were 1.85, 1.92, 1.87, and 1.87 ppm, respectively, while LC(99) values calculated were 2.24, 2.25, 2.18, and 2.19 ppm. Moreover, after 48 h in the case of A. stephensi, the LC(50) values for the first, second, third, and fourth instars were recorded as 1.48, 1.51, 1.71, and 1.50 ppm, respectively. The LC(90) values recorded were 1.88, 1.91, 1.93, and 1.89 ppm and LC(99) values observed were 2.36, 2.23, 2.26, and 2.21 ppm. The results obtained 24, 48, and 72 h have been compared and it was observed significantly that 48 h after exposure the metabolite has more pathogenicity. The results of the metabolites of F. oxysporum may be considered as a new bio-control agent for vector mosquitoes if the field trial succeeds. PMID:20499096

Prakash, Soam; Singh, Gavendra; Soni, Namita; Sharma, Sweta

2010-08-01

333

Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

2013-01-01

334

Purification and characterization of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed Central

The antifungal compound alpha-tomatine, present in tomato plants, has been reported to provide a preformed chemical barrier against phytopathogenic fungi. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, produces an extracellular enzyme inducible by alpha-tomatine. This enzyme, known as tomatinase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-tomatine into its nonfungitoxic forms, tomatidine and beta-lycotetraose. The maximal tomatinase activity in the fungal culture medium was observed after 48 h of incubation of germinated conidia at an alpha-tomatine concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. The enzymatic activity in the supernatant was concentrated against polyethylene glycol 35,000, and the enzyme was then purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a procedure that includes preparative isoelectric focusing and preparative gel electrophoresis as main steps. The purification procedure had a yield of 18%, and the protein was purified about 40-fold. Tomatinase was found to be a monomer of 50 kDa by both native gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The analytical isoelectric focusing of the native tomatinase showed at least five isoforms with pIs ranging from 4.8 to 5.8. Treatment with N-glycosidase F gave a single protein band of 45 kDa, indicating that the 50-kDa protein was N glycosylated. Tomatinase activity was optimum at 45 to 50 degrees C and at pH 5.5 to 7. The enzyme was stable at acidic pH and temperatures below 50 degrees C. The enzyme had no apparent requirement for cofactors, although Co2+ and Mn2+ produced a slight stimulating effect on tomatinase activity. Kinetic experiments at 30 degrees C gave a K(m) of 1.1 mM for alpha-tomatine and a Vmax of 118 mumol/min/mg. An activation energy of 88 kJ/mol was calculated.

Lairini, K; Perez-Espinosa, A; Pineda, M; Ruiz-Rubio, M

1996-01-01

335

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities.

2013-01-01

336

A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion  

PubMed Central

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1–3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I–I3) in tomato. The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host. Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family. This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3.

Inami, Keigo; Yoshioka-Akiyama, Chizu; Morita, Yasuaki; Yamasaki, Mutsuko; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

337

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar ‘Brazilian’ in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of ‘Yueyoukang 1’ and ‘Brazilian’ and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that ‘Yueyoukang 1’ had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than ‘Brazilian’. Expression patterns of genes involved in ‘Plant-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in ‘Brazilian’ but down-regulated in ‘Yueyoukang 1’, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was found to differ from that in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4.

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

338

Transcriptome and expression profile analysis of highly resistant and susceptible banana roots challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.  

PubMed

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1' was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar 'Brazilian' in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1'. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of 'Yueyoukang 1' and 'Brazilian' and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', especially at the first three time points, which suggested that 'Yueyoukang 1' had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than 'Brazilian'. Expression patterns of genes involved in 'Plant-pathogen interaction' and 'Plant hormone signal transduction' pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in 'Brazilian' but down-regulated in 'Yueyoukang 1', which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant 'Yueyoukang 1' was found to differ from that in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

339

Analysis of the inter- and extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain was screened and found to be successful for the inter- and extracellular production of platinum nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formation was visually observed, over time, by the colour of the extracellular solution and/or the fungal biomass turning from yellow to dark brown, and their concentration was determined from the amount of residual hexachloroplatinic acid measured from a standard curve at 456 nm. The extracellular nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles of varying size (10-100 nm) and shape (hexagons, pentagons, circles, squares, rectangles) were produced at both extracellular and intercellular levels by the Fusarium oxysporum. The particles precipitate out of solution and bioaccumulate by nucleation either intercellularly, on the cell wall/membrane, or extracellularly in the surrounding medium. The importance of pH, temperature and hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) concentration in nanoparticle formation was examined through the use of a statistical response surface methodology. Only the extracellular production of nanoparticles proved to be statistically significant, with a concentration yield of 4.85 mg l-1 estimated by a first-order regression model. From a second-order polynomial regression, the predicted yield of nanoparticles increased to 5.66 mg l-1 and, after a backward step, regression gave a final model with a yield of 6.59 mg l-1.

Riddin, T. L.; Gericke, M.; Whiteley, C. G.

2006-07-01

340

The global nitrogen regulator, FNR1, regulates fungal nutrition-genes and fitness during Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne pathogen that infects plants through the roots and uses the vascular system for host ingress. Specialized for this route of infection, F. oxysporum is able to adapt to the scarce nutrient environment in the xylem vessels. Here we report the cloning of the F. oxysporum global nitrogen regulator, Fnr1, and show that it is one of the determinants for fungal fitness during in planta growth. The Fnr1 gene has a single conserved GATA-type zinc finger domain and is 96% and 48% identical to AREA-GF from Gibberella fujikuroi, and NIT2 from Neurospora crassa, respectively. Fnr1 cDNA, expressed under a constitutive promoter, was able to complement functionally an N. crassa nit-2(RIP) mutant, restoring the ability of the mutant to utilize nitrate. Fnr1 disruption mutants showed high tolerance to chlorate and reduced ability to utilize several secondary nitrogen sources such as amino acids, hypoxanthine and uric acid, whereas growth on favourable nitrogen sources was not affected. Fnr1 disruption also abolished in vitro expression of nutrition genes, normally induced during the early phase of infection. In an infection assay on tomato seedlings, infection rate of disruption mutants was significantly delayed in comparison with the parental strain. Our results indicate that FNR1 mediates adaptation to nitrogen-poor conditions in planta through the regulation of secondary nitrogen acquisition, and as such acts as a determinant for fungal fitness during infection. PMID:20507463

Divon, Hege Hvattum; Ziv, Carmit; Davydov, Olga; Yarden, Oded; Fluhr, Robert

2006-11-01

341

A robust identification and detection assay to discriminate the cucumber pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum.  

PubMed

The fungal species Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous inhabitant of soils worldwide that includes pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic or even beneficial strains. Pathogenic strains are characterized by a high degree of host specificity and strains that infect the same host range are organized in so-called formae speciales. Strains for which no host plant has been identified are believed to be non-pathogenic strains. Therefore, identification below the species level is highly desired. However, the genetic basis of host specificity and virulence in F. oxysporum is so far unknown. In this study, a robust random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker-based assay was developed to specifically detect and identify the economically important cucumber pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. While the F. oxysporum radicis-cucumerinum strains were found to cluster in a separate clade based on elongation factor-1alpha phylogeny, strains belonging to F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum were found to be genetically more diverse. This is reflected in the observation that specificity testing of the identified markers using a broad collection of F. oxysporum strains with all known vegetative compatibility groups of the target formae speciales, as well as representative strains belonging to other formae speciales, resulted in two cross-reactions for the F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerimum marker. However, no cross-reactions were observed for the F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerimum marker. This F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerimum marker shows homology to Folyt1, a transposable element identified in the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and may possibly play a role in host-range specificity in the target forma specialis. The markers were implemented in a DNA array that enabled parallel and sensitive detection and identification of the pathogens in complex samples from diverse origins. PMID:17686014

Lievens, Bart; Claes, Loes; Vakalounakis, Demetrios J; Vanachter, Alfons C R C; Thomma, Bart P H J

2007-09-01

342

Microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in the presence of root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we assessed microconidia germination of the tomato pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) in the presence of root exudates. Tomato root exudates stimulated microconidia germination and the level of stimulation was affected by plant age. Treatment of root exudates with insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, which binds phenolic compounds, indicated that tomato

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2005-01-01

343

Characterization and selection of Bacillus sp. strains, effective biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici , the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antagonistic activities of 20Bacillus isolates were tested with dual culture and greenhouse conditions againstFusarium oxysporum f. sp.Pseudomonas (FORL) race 0, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. Under dual culture, 10 isolates inhibited mycelial\\u000a growth >38% and the most effective inhibited fungal growth >50%. The 20Bacillus isolates were tested for production of volatiles, cyanide, antibiotics,

Neila Saidi; Soulwene Kouki; Fadhel M’Hiri; Mohamed R. Hajlaoui; Meriam Mahrouk; Hadda Ouzari; Naceur Jedidi; Abdennaceur Hassen

2009-01-01

344

Suppressiveness to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici in re-used perlite and perlite–peat substrates in soilless tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the occurrence of suppressiveness to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) on recycled perlite and perlite–peat mix from closed and open soilless systems. Nine soilless systems were sampled from three different sites in Northern and Southern Italy and different parameters, including sampling site, growing period before sampling, electric conductivity of the nutrient solution, tomato cultivar, and

Francesca Clematis; Andrea Minuto; Maria Lodovica Gullino; Angelo Garibaldi

2009-01-01

345

Increased Growth and Yield of Hydroponically Grown Greenhouse Tomato Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus monosporum, G. vesiculiferum, G. deserticola, G. intraradices, G. mosseae, and two unidentified species were tested to determine their effect on plant growth and fruit production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Trust inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) under near-commercial greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with G. monosporum and G. mosseae significantly increased fruit yield

R. Utkhede

2006-01-01

346

Biochemical markers as a useful tool for the early identification of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, race 1 resistance banana clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panama disease of banana (Musa spp) caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense (FOC), is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Chemical control is not economically effective and is also hazardous to the environment and human health. Breeding for disease resistance is an alternative strategy, which leads to the

M. Kavino; N. Kumar; T. Damodaran; S. Harish; D. Saravanakumar

2009-01-01

347

Root exudates of mycorrhizal tomato plants exhibit a different effect on microconidia germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici than root exudates from non-mycorrhizal tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of root exudates from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants on microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was tested. Microconidia germination was enhanced in the presence of root exudates from mycorrhizal tomato plants. The more tomato plants were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae, the more microconidia germination was increased, indicating that

S. Scheffknecht; R. Mammerler; S. Steinkellner; H. Vierheilig

2006-01-01

348

Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to identify races 1, 2, 4 and 8 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAPD fingerprinting procedure was used in combination with pathogenicity assays on differential cultivars to characterize a representative collection of 72 Fusarium spp. isolates of different geographic origin collected from diseased carnation. In F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, isolates were grouped according to the physiologic race: group 1 included isolates of race 4; group 2 was formed by isolates of

Quirico Migheli; Elena Briatore; Angelo Garibaldi

1998-01-01

349

Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes.

Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

2012-01-01

350

Properties of spin labelled membranes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Growth temperature-induced compositional changes in membranes of Fusarium oxysporum provided a test system for study of the relationship between physical properties and composition. Growth at 15 degrees C was characterized by a decrease in phospholipid content relative to sterol content, a shift in phospholipid composition from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine and a marked enhancement in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid and triglyceride classes. Uptake of a spin labelled analog of stearic acid during growth and subsequent solution of the probe in the membranes allowed estimation of viscosity and molecular order of the membranes of live cells and of isolated membrane preparations. Less than 1/20 of the intracellular label was accessible to sodium ascorbate while none was released by sodium dodecyl sulfate. All of the label in live cells was reduced by in vivo respiratory activity above 20 degrees C but this process could be reversed or avoided by added ferricyanide. A cholestane spin probe was also incorporated into the membranes. The probes were not reduced as readily in isolated membranes and hence fluidity of the membranes could be assessed over a wide temperature range. At low temperatures (-10 degrees C) a nonlethal, liquid-solid phase transition was indicated in isolated membrane lipids while at higher (lethal) temperatures (40-45 degrees C), discontinuities appeared in Arrhenius plots of rotational correlation time. Activation energies for isotropic rotation of the stearate probes in the membranes changed markedly in this temperature range and this effect correlated closely with loss of viability of conidial cells. Correlation times for stearate probes showed little variation with growth temperature nor were any breaks in Arrhenius plots of this parameter detected in the range 0-35 degrees C in whole cells or isolated membranes. The data indicated control of membrane physical properties within close tolerances throughout the physiological temperature range regardless of growth temperature. It was concluded that this homeostatic phenomenon was due to the counteractive effects of sterol/phospholipid ratio, phospholipid composition and fatty acid polyunsaturation since the condensing and fluidizing components of the isolated total membranes vary in a reciprocal manner. PMID:182261

Miller, R W; De La Roche, I A

1976-08-01

351

Reverse transcription of the pFOXC mitochondrial retroplasmids of Fusarium oxysporum is protein primed  

PubMed Central

Background The pFOXC retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating DNA molecules found in mitochondria of certain strains of the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and are among the first linear genetic elements shown to replicate via reverse transcription. The plasmids have a unique clothespin structure that includes a 5'-linked protein and telomere-like terminal repeats, with pFOXC2 and pFOXC3 having iterative copies of a 5 bp sequence. The plasmids contain a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding an active reverse transcriptase (RT). The pFOXC-RT is associated with the plasmid transcript in a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and can synthesize full-length (-) strand cDNA products. In reactions containing partially purified RT preparations with exogenous RNAs, the pFOXC3-RT has been shown to initiate cDNA synthesis by use of snapped-back RNAs, as well as loosely associated DNA primers. Results The complete sequence of the distantly related pFOXC1 plasmid was determined and found to terminate in 3-5 copies of a 3 bp sequence. Unexpectedly, the majority of (-) strand cDNA molecules produced from endogenous pFOXC1 transcripts were attached to protein. In vitro experiments using partially purified pFOXC3-RT preparations having a single radiolabeled deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) generated a nucleotide-labeled protein that migrated at the size of the pFOXC-RT. The nucleotide preference of deoxynucleotidylation differed between pFOXC3 and pFOXC1 and showed complementarity to the respective 3' terminal repeats. In reactions that include exogenous RNA templates corresponding to the 3' end of pFOXC1, a protein-linked cDNA product was generated following deoxynucleotidylation, suggesting that reverse transcription initiates with a protein primer. Conclusions The finding that reverse transcription is protein primed suggests the pFOXC retroplasmids may have an evolutionary relationship with hepadnaviruses, the only other retroelement family known to initiate reverse transcription via a protein primer. Moreover, the similarity to protein-primed linear DNA elements supports models in which the terminal repeats are generated and maintained by a DNA slideback mechanism. The ability of the pFOXC-RT to utilize RNA, DNA and protein primers is unique among polymerases and suggests that the pFOXC plasmids may be evolutionary precursors of a broad range of retroelements, including hepadnaviruses, non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and telomerase.

2011-01-01

352

Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) markers by converting RAPD markers E07 (a 1.25-kb band) and G17 (a 1.05-kb band), respectively. The RAPD-PCR polymorphic fragments from the susceptible line 'Vedrantais' were cloned and sequenced in order to construct primers that would amplify only the target fragment. The derived primers, E07SCAR-1/E07SCAR-2 from E07 and G17SCAR-1/G17SCAR-2 from G17, yielded a single 1.25-kb fragment (designated SCE07) and a 1.05-kb fragment (designated SCG17) (the same as RAPD markers E07 and G17), respectively, from both resistant and susceptible melon lines, thus demonstrating locus-specific associated primers. Potential CAPS markers were first revealed by comparing sequence data between fragments amplified from resistant (PI 161375) and susceptible ('Vedrantais') lines and were then confirmed by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease digestion products. Twelve restriction endonucleases were evaluated for their potential use as CAPS markers within the SCE07 fragment. Three (BclI, MspI, and BssSI) yielded ideal CAPS markers and were subsequently subjected to extensive testing using an additional 88 diverse melon cultigens, 93 and 119 F(2) individuals from crosses of 'Vedrantais' x PI 161375 and 'Ananas Yokneam'×MR-1 respectively, and 17 families from a backcross BC(1)S(1) population derived from the breeding line 'MD8654' as a resistance source. BclI- and MspI-CAPS are susceptible-linked markers, whereas the BssSI-CAPS is a resistant-linked marker. The CAPS markers that resulted from double digestion by BclI and BssSI are co-dominant. Results from BclI- and MspI-CAPS showed over 90% accuracy in the melon cultigens, and nearly 100% accuracy in the F(2) individuals and BC(1)S(1) families tested. This is the first report of PCR-based CAPS markers linked to resistance/susceptibility for Fusarium wilt in melon. The RFLP markers resulting from probing with a clone-derived 1.05-kb SCG17 PCR fragment showed 85% correct matches to the disease phenotype. Both the CAPS and RFLP markers were co-dominant, easier to score, and more accurate and consistent in predicting the melon phenotype than the RAPD markers from which they were derived. PMID:22665178

Zheng, X Y; Wolff, D W; Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

1999-08-01

353

Evaluations of Shorter Exposures of Contact Lens Cleaning Solutions against Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex and Fusarium solani Species Complex To Simulate Inappropriate Usage?  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in contact lens users resulted in withdrawal of ReNu with MoistureLoc solution, although the exact cause of the outbreak remains enigmatic. We evaluated current and discontinued multipurpose cleaning solutions (MPSs; MoistureLoc, Equate, MultiPlus, and OptiFree Express) against plankton- and biofilm-derived cells of Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and F. solani species complex (FSSC). The methods included a traditional assay based on CFU counts and a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay based on percent cell subpopulation (PCS) stained with two fluorochromes (Sytox Red and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate). The tests were done with the respective manufacturers' recommended cleaning regimens (240 to 360 min) and under shorter exposures (15 to 60 min) to simulate inappropriate usage by the customers. FC assay measured PCS, which was available rapidly, in 5 to 7 h, whereas 24 to 48 h was needed for CFU counts, and there was good correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.97). FC assays allowed identification of injured fungal cells, which are likely to be missed with growth assays. In general, a time- and inoculum-dependent survival pattern was seen for both FOSC and FSSC cells, and biofilm-derived cells were more resistant than plankton-derived cells. MultiPlus and Equate produced 100% sterilization of fungi even under shorter exposures. However, biofilm FOSC and FSSC cells survived for up to 4 h in MoistureLoc solution and up to 6 h in OptiFree Express solution under shorter exposure times. This finding was enigmatic, as OptiFree Express is not associated with any outbreak of Fusarium keratitis. This study provides additional support for possible roles that improper lens cleaning regimens and fungal biofilms could play as predisposing factors for Fusarium keratitis.

Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

2011-01-01

354

Increased resistance to fungal wilts in transgenic eggplant expressing alfalfa glucanase gene.  

PubMed

The wilt diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum are the major diseases of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In order to generate transgenic resistance against the wilt diseases, Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was performed to introduce alfalfa glucanase gene encoding an acidic glucanase into eggplant using neomycin phosphotransferase (npt-II) gene as a plant selection marker. The transgene integration into eggplant genome was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis and transgene expression by the glucanase activity and western blot analysis. The selected transgenic lines were challenged with V. dahliae and F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo growth conditions, and transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance against the wilt-causing fungi with a delay of 5-7 days in the disease development as compared to wild-type plants. PMID:24757318

Singh, Deepali; Ambroise, Annick; Haicour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2014-04-01

355

Induced resistance to Fusarial wilt of banana by menadione sodium bisulphite treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal agent of banana vascular wilt disease named Panama disease and one of the most serious threats to banana crops worldwide. A water-soluble addition compound of vitamin K3, menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), first studied as a plant growth regulator, has recently been shown to induce resistance against Panama disease. Effective fungicides

A. A. Borges; A. Borges-Pérez; M. Fernández-Falcón

2004-01-01

356

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants.

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-01-01

357

Survival and inoculum potential of conidia and chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini in soil.  

PubMed

The kinetics of survival and inoculum potential of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini were studied in soil. Two types of inoculum were compared: microconidia freshly harvested from a laboratory-grown culture and microchlamydospores produced in sterilized soil. Introduced at the same inoculum densities into a natural soil, the two types of inoculum showed similar behavior; the inoculum densities changed little with time, at least during 100 days. However, the two types of inoculum did differ in disease potential. A higher percentage of microchlamydospores than microconidia germinated in the rhizosphere of flax seedlings, and the heterotrophic fluorescein diacetate hydrolysing activity of the microchlamydospores was 100 times higher than that of microconidia. Moreover, the microchlamydospores produced more disease on flax than the microconidia even at a much lower inoculum density. PMID:2245379

Couteaudier, Y; Alabouvette, C

1990-08-01

358

Resistance in pepper plants induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici involves different defence-related genes.  

PubMed

Inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) protects pepper plants from subsequent infection with Phytophthora capsici. In the present paper, the level of local and systemic protection achieved by plants induced with FOL was evaluated by quantifying the pathogen biomass and using real-time PCR. Differences in the amount of pathogen were found in stems and roots between FOL-treated and untreated plants, while pathogen biomass could not be detected in leaves of induced plants. Five defence-related genes coding for a PR-1 protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a chitinase, a peroxidase and a sesquiterpene cyclase were up-regulated 48 h after treatment in all the tissues studied, and maximal mRNAs levels were found in leaves. PMID:19121115

Silvar, C; Merino, F; Díaz, J

2009-01-01

359

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.  

PubMed

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-01-01

360

Biological and Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Divides Race 1 Isolates into Separate Virulence Groups.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A collection of race 1 and race 2 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was screened for vegetative compatibility and characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to establish the identity and genetic diversity of the isolates. Comparison of RAPD profiles revealed two main groups that coincide with vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). In addition, several single-member VCGs were identified that could not be grouped in one of the two main RAPD clusters. This suggests that F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a polyphyletic taxon. To assign avirulence genotypes to race 1 isolates, they were tested for their virulence on a small set of tomato lines (Lycopersicon esculentum), including line OT364. This line was selected because it shows resistance to race 2 isolates but, unlike most other race 2-resistant lines, susceptibility to race 1 isolates. To exclude the influence of other components than those related to the race-specific resistance response, we tested the virulence of race 1 isolates on a susceptible tomato that has become race 2 resistant by introduction of an I-2 transgene. The results show that both line OT364 and the transgenic line were significantly affected by four race 1 isolates, but not by seven other race 1 isolates nor by any race 2 isolates. This allowed a subdivision of race 1 isolates based on the presence or absence of an avirulence gene corresponding to the I-2 resistance gene. The data presented here support a gene-for-gene relationship for the interaction between F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and its host tomato. PMID:18944790

Mes, J J; Weststeijn, E A; Herlaar, F; Lambalk, J J; Wijbrandi, J; Haring, M A; Cornelissen, B J

1999-02-01

361

The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, Encoding a Putative N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase, Is Involved in Cell Wall Architecture and Virulence  

PubMed Central

With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. ?gnt2 mutants had ?alterations in cell wall properties related to terminal ?or ?-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. ?gnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity.

Lopez-Fernandez, Loida; Ruiz-Roldan, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

2013-01-01

362

Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1), 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2), and 20–40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X3). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions.

Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

2012-01-01

363

Colonization of Flax Roots and Early Physiological Responses of Flax Cells Inoculated with Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (Foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (Fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. Both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, and collapsed cells, were less frequent and less intense in a root colonized by Foln3 than by Fo47. Early physiological responses were measured in flax cell suspensions confronted with germinated microconidia of both strains. Both pathogenic (Foln3) and nonpathogenic strains (Fo47) triggered transient H2O2 production in the first few minutes of the interaction, but the nonpathogenic strain also induced a second burst 3 h postinoculation. Ca2+ influx was more intense in cells inoculated with Fo47 than in cells inoculated with Foln3. Similarly, alkalinization of the extracellular medium was higher with Fo47 than with Foln3. Inoculation of the fungi into flax cell suspensions induced cell death 10 to 20 h postinoculation, with a higher percentage of dead cells observed with Fo47 than with Foln3 beginning at 14 h. This is the first report showing that early physiological responses of flax cells can be used to distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum.

Olivain, Chantal; Trouvelot, Sophie; Binet, Marie-Noelle; Cordier, Christelle; Pugin, Alain; Alabouvette, Claude

2003-01-01

364

Colonization of flax roots and early physiological responses of flax cells inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (Foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (Fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. Both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, and collapsed cells, were less frequent and less intense in a root colonized by Foln3 than by Fo47. Early physiological responses were measured in flax cell suspensions confronted with germinated microconidia of both strains. Both pathogenic (Foln3) and nonpathogenic strains (Fo47) triggered transient H(2)O(2) production in the first few minutes of the interaction, but the nonpathogenic strain also induced a second burst 3 h postinoculation. Ca(2+) influx was more intense in cells inoculated with Fo47 than in cells inoculated with Foln3. Similarly, alkalinization of the extracellular medium was higher with Fo47 than with Foln3. Inoculation of the fungi into flax cell suspensions induced cell death 10 to 20 h postinoculation, with a higher percentage of dead cells observed with Fo47 than with Foln3 beginning at 14 h. This is the first report showing that early physiological responses of flax cells can be used to distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum. PMID:12957934

Olivain, Chantal; Trouvelot, Sophie; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Cordier, Christelle; Pugin, Alain; Alabouvette, Claude

2003-09-01

365

Solid-state cultures of Fusarium oxysporum transform aromatic components of olive-mill dry residue and reduce its phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The present study mainly investigated the ability of solid-state cultures of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain BAFC 738 to transform aromatic components to reduce the phytotoxicity in olive-mill dry residue (DOR), the waste from the two-phase manufacturing process. Lignin, hemicellulose, fats and water-soluble extractives contents of DOR colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks were reduced by 16%, 25%, 71% and 13%, respectively, while the cellulose content increased by 25%. In addition, the ethyl acetate-extractable phenolic fraction of the waste was reduced by 65%. However, mass-balance ultra-filtration and size-exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that the apparent removal of that fraction, mainly including 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol, was due to polymerization. Mn-peroxidase and Mn-independent peroxidase activities were found in F. oxysporum solid-state cultures, while laccase and aryl alcohol oxidase activities were not detected. Tests performed with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), soybean (Glycine maximum Merr.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown on soils containing 6% (w/w) of bioconverted DOR (kg soil)(-1) showed that the waste's phytotoxicity was removed by 20 weeks-old fungal cultures. By contrast, the same material exhibited a high residual toxicity towards lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). PMID:17207620

Sampedro, Inmaculada; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Ocampo, Juan A; Stazi, Silvia R; García-Romera, Inmaculada

2007-12-01

366

New nystatin polymeric complexes and their in vitro antifungal evaluation in a model study with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Six water-soluble nystatin-polyvilnylpyrrolidone complexes with respective MW of 10 kDa (NC1), 25 kDa (NC2), 30 kDa (NC3), 40 kda (NC4), 90 kDa (NC5), 360 kDa (NC6) were synthesized. The activity of the complexes was compared with that of nystatin against growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radiciscucumerinum. The ED50 value (effective dose) of free nystatin in aqueous solution on growth inhibition on solid medium was determined at 35.7 ppm. The ED50 of the complexes NC3, NC4, NC5, and NC6 ranged from 2.2 to 4 times lower than that of nystatin. The NC6 complex exhibited the highest activity, followed by NC5, NC4, and NC3. The activities of NC1 and NC2 were about 3 and 1.7 times higher than nystatin respectively in the same in vitro model. The complexes NC6. NC1 and NC4 were 25.4, 13.6 and 6.9 times more active respectively than nystatin against spore germination of E oxysporum. The activity of the nystatin complexes was dependent on the molecular weight of the polymeric carrier. PMID:11913760

Charvalos, Ekatherina; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Dolapsakis, George; Stiakakis, John

2002-01-01

367

Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts  

PubMed Central

The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ? 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus .

Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmuller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

2013-01-01

368

The photolyase gene from the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.  

PubMed

Survival of irradiated spores from Fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (UV) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of UV. A genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from F. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the Neurospora crassa photolyase gene. The F. oxysporum phr1 cDNA was isolated and expressed in a photolyase deficient Escherichia coli strain. The complementation of the photoreactivation deficiency of this E. coli mutant by phr1 cDNA demonstrated that the photolyase gene from F. oxysporum encodes a functional protein. The F. oxysporum PHR1 protein has a domain characteristic of photolyases from fungi (Trichoderma harziaium, N. crassa, Magnaporthe grisea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to bacteria (E. coli), and clusters in the photolyases phylogenetic tree with fungal photolyases. The F. oxysporum phr1 gene was inducible by visible light. The phr1 expression was also detected in presence of alpha-tomatine, a glycoalkaloid from tomato damaging cell membranes, suggesting that phr1 is induced by this cellular stress. PMID:14516768

Alejandre-Durán, Encarna; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

2003-11-01

369

Induction of resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by combination of chitosan with an endophytic bacterial strain: ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the host response  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The potential of Bacillus pumilus (PGPR strain SE?34), either alone or in combination with chitosan, for inducing defense reactions in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants inoculated with the vascular fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy and further investigated by gold cytochemistry. The key importance\\u000a of fungal challenge in the elaboration of

Nicole Benhamou; Joseph W. Kloepper; Sadik Tuzun

1998-01-01

370

Influence of pH, nutrient solution disinfestation and antagonists application in a closed soilless system on severity of fusarium wilt of gerbera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials were carried out during the years 2002–2005 at the Agricultural Experimental Center of Albenga (northern Italy)\\u000a on gerbera plants grown in a closed soilless system. The efficacy of slow sand filtration and UV treatment in eliminatingFusarium oxysporum f.sp.chrysanthemi (Foc) propagules, naturally present or artificially added to the recirculating nutrient solution, was evaluated. These techniques\\u000a were tested alone and

A. Minuto; L. Gaggero; M. L. Gullino; A. Garibaldi

2008-01-01

371

Rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens using a DNA array.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Verticillium wilt, caused by either Verticillium albo-atrum or V. dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) found worldwide. Monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. The lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. In this paper, we describe the development of a molecular detection system, based on DNA array technology, for rapid and efficient detection of these vascular wilt pathogens. We demonstrate that by using this array these pathogens can be detected within 24 h from complex substrates like soil, plant material, and samples as they are collected by tomato growers in their greenhouses. PMID:15151292

Lievens, B; Brouwer, M; Vanachter, A C R C; Cammue, B P A; Thomma, B P H J

2003-01-01

372

Researches on the Resistance to Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Dianthi in Carnation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trials have been undertaken in order to discover in carnations with sexual reproduction some resistances to Fusarium equivalent to those known previously in certain sorts of carnations with asexual propagation, such as Heidi. Only the resistance of hortic...

A. Silvy P. Pereau-Leroy

1977-01-01

373

Somaclonal variation in celery: screening for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. apii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods were used to screen putative Fusarium-resistant celery (Apium graveolens L.) plantlets from cell culture: placing plantlets on a mycelial mat for one month or planting them directly in Fusarium-infested soil. Resistant phenotypes were identified with both methods, but the plants grown on the mycelial mat died before they reached reproductive maturity. Four plants, K, T-2, T-3, and R-R1

S. Heath-Pagliuso; J. Pullman; L. Rappaport

1988-01-01

374

Genetic and Physical Mapping of Candidate Genes for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum Race 3 in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant) x 24-125B-1 (susceptible). Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties using marker-assisted selection (MAS).

Pottorff, Marti; Wanamaker, Steve; Ma, Yaqin Q.; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

375

Selection of Chickpea-Rhizosphere-Competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI1303 Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Pythium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A procedure that consumes less screening time was developed for screening chickpea rhizosphere-competent bacteria for suppression\\u000a of the chickpea pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Pythium sp. Of the 478 bacteria obtained by random selection of the predominant, morphologically distinct colonies, 386 strains that\\u000a effectively colonize chickpea roots could be divided broadly into three different

Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal

1997-01-01

376

Development of a small-plant bioassay to assess banana grown from tissue culture for consistent infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reliable small-plant bioassays were developed using tissue-cultured banana, resulting in consistent symptom expression\\u000a and infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). One bioassay was based on providing a constant watertable within a closed pot and the second used free-draining pots. Culture\\u000a medium for spore generation influenced infectivity of Foc. Inoculation of potted banana by drenching potting mix with

L. J. SmithA; M. K. Smith; D. Tree; D. O’Keefe; V. J. Galea

2008-01-01

377

Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum isolates from Turkish greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum isolates from cucumbers in Turkey in terms of pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism\\u000a (AFLP) variation. In the 2007 and 2008 greenhouse cucumber-growing seasons, surveys were conducted in Adana, Antalya, Hatay\\u000a and Mersin provinces of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Forty-seven fungal isolates of

Fatih Mehmet Tok; ?ener Kurt

2010-01-01

378

Risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) cultivation under various climate change projections.  

PubMed

Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication. PMID:24340100

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

2013-01-01

379

Effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on the soil-to-root translocation of heavy metals in tomato plants susceptible and resistant to the fungus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to gain an insight on the potential role of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the translocation of metals and metalloids from soil to plant roots in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Two varieties of tomato (one susceptible and another resistant to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were challenged with the fungus for different periods of time, and several elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were determined in roots and in soil substrate. Additionally, phenolic plant products were also analyzed for the evaluation of the plant response to biotic stress. In order to obtain representative results for plants cultivated in noncontaminated environments, the infected and control plants were grown in commercial soil with natural, relatively low metal concentrations, partly associated with humic substances. Using such an experimental design, a specific role of the fungus could be observed, while possible effects of plant exposure to elevated concentrations of heavy metals were avoided. In the infected plants of two varieties, the root concentrations of several metals/metalloids were increased compared to control plants; however, the results obtained for elements and for phenolic compounds were significantly different in the two plant varieties. It is proposed that both Lycopersicum esculentum colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the increase of metal bioavailability due to fungus-assisted solubilization of soil humic substances contribute to element traffic from soil to roots in tomato plant. PMID:21053907

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Landero Figueroa, Julio Alberto; Gutíerrez Corona, J Felix; Wrobel, Kazimierz

2010-12-01

380

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

381

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

382

Lysis of mycelium of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum in soil amended with organic matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Autoclaved or natural field soil amended with 0.1 to 5.0 per cent (W\\/W) of margosa cake, rice husk and sawdust with or without supplemental nitrogen were tested for lytic activity and bacterial numbers. Generally, non-amended autoclaved soil caused little or no lysis of mycelium ofF. oxysporum f. sp.udum; non-amended natural soil caused more lysis. Amendment of soil with margosa

Narendra Singh; R. S. Singh

1981-01-01

383

EFFECT OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM EXUDATE ON THE GROWTH AND VIABILITY OF SCENEDESMUS ACUTUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The influence of exudate of F. oxysporum on the viability, produc- tivity and the content of some ingredients of S. acutus cells was studied. It was established that the fungal exudate stimulates cell growth (6.6%) and enhances the content of proteins (13%), lipids (7.6%) and pigments (4.8%). Furthermore, it was found that treatment with fungal exudate resulted in en-

Irina Puneva; Tonka Toncheva-Panova; Milka Bozhkova

384

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

385

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China.

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

386

Biological and phylogenetic characterization of Fusarium oxysporum complex, which causes yellows on Brassica spp., and proposal of F. oxysporum f. sp. rapae, a novel forma specialis pathogenic on B. rapa in Japan.  

PubMed

Although the causal agent of yellows of Brassica rapa (turnip, pak choi, and narinosa) in Japan was reported in 1996 to be Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, this classification has remained inconclusive because of a lack of detailed genetic and pathogenic studies. Therefore, we analyzed the taxonomic position of this organism using Japanese isolates of F. oxysporum complex obtained from diseased individuals of various B. rapa subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the rDNA intergenic spacer region and the mating-type gene (MAT1-1-1alpha-box) showed that B. rapa and cabbage isolates belong to different monophyletic clades that separated at early evolutionary stages. Additionally, correlations were observed between the molecular phylogeny and the vegetative compatibility groups. Isolates from turnip, komatsuna, and narinosa (B. rapa group) did not show pathogenicity against cabbage or broccoli (B. oleracea group), although they caused severe symptoms on their original host species. In contrast, cabbage isolates had significantly higher (P = 0.05) virulence on B. oleracea than on B. rapa crops. Our results indicate that F. oxysporum complex isolates from B. rapa and B. oleracea are not only phylogenetically distinct but also differ in host specificity. Therefore, we propose a novel forma specialis, F. oxysporum f. sp. rapae, which causes yellows on B. rapa, including turnip, komatsuna, pak choi, and narinosa. PMID:18944198

Enya, J; Togawa, M; Takeuchi, T; Yoshida, S; Tsushima, S; Arie, T; Sakai, T

2008-04-01

387

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application.  

PubMed

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

388

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

389

Native soil bacteria isolates in Mexico exhibit a promising antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

PubMed

Sinaloa state accounts for 23% of Mexico's tomato production. One constraint on this important crop is the Fusarium crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which has been reported to reduce crop yield by up to 50%. In this study, we set out to identify bacterial populations which could be used to control this disease through natural antagonism. Five tomato rhizospheric soil samples were collected, dried for 1-week, and homogenized. Sub-samples were used to prepare an aqueous solution used to isolate microorganisms in pure cultures. Organisms were purified and grown separately, and used to generate a collection of 705 bacterial isolates. Thirty-four percent from this bank (254 strains) was screened against Forl, finding 27 bacteria displaying in vitro Forl growth inhibition levels from 5% to 60%. These isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and their 16Sr DNA sequences showed that they are closely related to seven species and they were putatively designated as: B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, B. megaterium, and B. pumilus. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Two B. subtilis isolates (144 and 151) and one B. cereus isolate (171) showed the best antagonistic potential against FCRRT when evaluated on seedlings. Plate and activity assays indicate that these isolates include a diverse repertoire of functional antagonistic traits that might explain their ability to control FCRRT. Moreover, bacteria showed partial hemolytic activity, and future research will be directed at ensuring that their application will be not harmful for humans and effective against Forl in greenhouse or field conditions. PMID:23417777

Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; López-Rivera, Raquel; Figueroa-Lopez, Alejandro Miguel; Mancera-López, María Elena; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Apodaca-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

2013-02-18

390

Design and development of a DNA array for rapid detection and identification of multiple tomato vascular wilt pathogens.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Verticillium wilt, caused by either Verticillium albo-atrum or Verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. Monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. The lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. In this paper, we describe the development of a molecular detection system, based on DNA array technology, for rapid and efficient detection of these vascular wilt pathogens. We show the utility of this array for the sensitive detection of these pathogens from complex substrates like soil, plant tissues and irrigation water, and samples that are collected by tomato growers in their greenhouses. PMID:12799009

Lievens, Bart; Brouwer, Margreet; Vanachter, Alfons C R C; Lévesque, C André; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thomma, Bart P H J

2003-06-01

391

Colonization of Tomato Root by Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains Inoculated Together and Separately into the Soil  

PubMed Central

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites.

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-01-01

392

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and 1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis.

Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

2013-01-01

393

Extracellular biosynthesis of CdTe quantum dots by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and their anti-bacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for semiconductor [quantum dots (Q-dots)] nanoparticles has fuelled significant research in developing strategies for their synthesis and characterization. They are extensively investigated by the chemical route; on the other hand, use of microbial sources for biosynthesis witnessed the highly stable, water dispersible nanoparticles formation. Here we report, for the first time, an efficient fungal-mediated synthesis of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots at ambient conditions by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum when reacted with a mixture of CdCl2 and TeCl4. Characterization of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was carried out by different techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. CdTe nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fungal based fabrication provides an economical, green chemistry approach for production of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots.

Syed, Asad; Ahmad, Absar

2013-04-01

394

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last few decades nanoparticles have attracted and emerged as a field in biomedical research due to their incredible applications. The current research was focused on extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell free culture supernatant of strain GP-23. It was found that the strain GP-23 belonged to Bacillus species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution, after 24 h it turned to brown color solution with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, EDX and AFM. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 7-21 nm. It was stable in aqueous solution for five months period of storage at room temperature under dark condition. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum at the concentration of 8 ?g ml-1. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide.

Gopinath, V.; Velusamy, P.

2013-04-01

395

Colonization of tomato root by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated together and separately into the soil.  

PubMed

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites. PMID:16461707

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-02-01

396

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum on Meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. As AM fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. Experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the AM fungus Glomus coronatum and the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 in the control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Pre-inoculation of tomato plants with G. coronatum or Fo162 stimulated plant growth and reduced M. incognita infestation. Combined application of the AM fungus and Fo162 enhanced mycorrhization of tomato roots but did not increase overall nematode control or plant growth. A higher number of nematodes per gall was found for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. In synergisms between biocontrol agents, differences in their antagonistic mechanisms seem to be less important than their effects on different growth stages of the pathogen. PMID:12938032

Diedhiou, P M; Hallmann, J; Oerke, E-C; Dehne, H-W

2003-08-01

397

Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is a more important contributor to biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum than pyrrolnitrin in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd.  

PubMed

Phenazines and pyrrolnitrin (Prn) are broad spectrum antibiotics, produced by bacteria, more so by the biocontrol strains to kill the phytopathogens in soil. We have studied a rhizospheric soil isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd producing both phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and Prn. In order to study the contribution of these antibiotics, the phzD and prnC genes involved in PCA and Prn biosynthesis, were disrupted in a site-specific manner using a group II intron-based Targetron gene-knockout system, and gene disruption followed by allelic exchange through homologous recombination, respectively. The resulting knockout strains Psdphz122s-34 and PsdprnC::gen did not produce PCA and Prn, respectively. In fact, by combining these two strategies, a Psdphz122s-34prnC::gen double mutant could also be generated. Identification and la