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1

USING STRAINS OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM TO CONTROL FUSARIUM WILTS: DREAM OR REALITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-borne strains of F. oxysporum are involved in the mechanisms of soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilts, and many attempts\\u000a have been made to use strains of Fusarium oxysporum to control Fusarium diseases. The modes of action of the protective strains\\u000a are diverse; they include direct antagonism, competition for nutrients, and indirect antagonism through induced resistance\\u000a of the plant. The use

Claude Alabouvette; Chantal Olivain; Sébastien Aimé; Christian Steinberg

2

Role of fusaric acid in the virulence of cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid is a potent phytotoxin to cotton. It has also long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fusarium wilt for a number of plant species including cotton, tomato, watermelon, and flax. The Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) produce copious amount of ...

3

Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

4

First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

5

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

6

Quantitative Modeling of the Effects of Temperature and Inoculum Density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races 0 and 5 on Development of Fusarium Wilt in Chickpea Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navas-Cortés, J. A., Landa, B. B., Méndez-Rodríguez, M. A., and Jiménez-Díaz, R. M. 2007. Quantitative modeling of the effects of temperature and inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 on development of Fusarium wilt in chickpea cultivars. Phytopathology 97:564-573. Races 0 (Foc -0) and 5 (Foc -5) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris differ in

Juan A. Navas-Cortés; Blanca B. Landa; Miguel A. Méndez-Rodríguez; Rafael M. Jiménez-Díaz

2007-01-01

7

Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed. PMID:18943184

Ploetz, Randy C

2006-06-01

8

Combined application of botanical formulations and biocontrol agents for the management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp . cubense (Foc) causing Fusarium wilt in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant products along with biocontrol agents were tested against Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Of the 22 plant species tested, the leaf extract of Datura metel (10%) showed complete inhibition of the mycelial growth of Foc. Two botanical fungicides, Wanis 20 EC and Damet 50 EC along with selected PGPR strains with known

R. Akila; L. Rajendran; S. Harish; K. Saveetha; T. Raguchander; R. Samiyappan

2011-01-01

9

Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

10

Co-infection of Wilt-Resistant Chickpeas by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica are important pathogens of chickpea. Interrelationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and M. javanica were investigated on 53 Fusarium wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes in pot experiments. All of the genotypes were susceptible to M. javanica. Fusarium wilt resistance in one genotype (ICC 12275) was ineffective in the presence of M. javanica, and all the plants completely wilted. Resistance in four genotypes (ICCs 11319, 11322, 12254, 12272) was reduced in the presence of the nematode. Vascular discoloration above the collar region of the plants, an indication of susceptibility to the fungus, was observed. Wilt resistance in 48 genotypes was not modified by M. javanica. The effects of interactions between the pathogens on shoot and root weights, gall index, and galled area of root were significant only on 10-28% of the genotypes. Presence of the fungus reduced the adverse effects of nematodes on growth of 15% of the genotypes. Appraisal of wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes for their reactions to combinations of the two pathogens would help to identify and develop chickpea cultivars with wilt resistance stable in presence of M. javanica. PMID:19277336

Maheshwari, T. Uma; Sharma, S. B.; Reddy, D. D. R.; Haware, M. P.

1995-01-01

11

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

2014-10-01

12

[Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].  

PubMed

Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was significantly higher than that of YM42. In conclusion, intercropping influenced the microbial activity and substrate utilization of soil microorganisms, altered the microbial community diversity in rhizosphere of faba bean, reduced the amount of F. oxysporum and disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt, and promoted faba bean growth. Effects of intercropping on disease control were influenced by the intercropped wheat variety, suggesting that the differences of root exudates of wheat were important factors that affected soil-borne diseases control in intercropping. PMID:25345048

Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

2014-07-01

13

Transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense , causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foe) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) of bananas in most tropical and subtropical banana-producing regions\\u000a of the world. The fungus infects through roots, colonises the rhizomes and eventually blocks the vascular system of the pseudostems,\\u000a resulting in plant death. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) emits green fluorescence when excited by blue

Marinda Visser; Thomas R. Gordon; Brenda D. Wingfield; Michael J. Wingfield; Alius Viljoen

2004-01-01

14

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeong-Dong

2008-12-01

15

Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

2012-11-01

16

RFLP analysis of rDNA-ITS regions of native non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates and their field evaluation for the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease of banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the most devastating disease of banana affecting commercial cultivars grown worldwide. An attempt has been made to identify\\u000a antagonistic, non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (npFo) isolates from banana soil. A total of 200 rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different commercial cultivars, as\\u000a well as wild bananas. Forty Fusarium isolates were recovered,

R. Thangavelu; A. Jayanthi

2009-01-01

17

Plant Colonization by the Vascular Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Requires FOW1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme–mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. Although the FOW1 insertional mutant and gene-targeted mutants showed normal growth and conidiation in culture, they showed markedly reduced virulence as a result of a defect in the ability to colonize the plant tissue. Mitochondrial import of Fow1 was verified using strains expressing the Fow1–green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. The FOW1-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also showed reduced virulence. These data strongly suggest that FOW1 encodes a mitochondrial carrier protein that is required specifically for colonization in the plant tissue by F. oxysporum. PMID:12172028

Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Tsuge, Takashi

2002-01-01

18

Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum Race 1 and Race 4 Reveals Enzymes Involved in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Ion Transport That Might Play Important Roles in Banana Fusarium Wilt  

PubMed Central

Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil–spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt. PMID:25460190

Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

2014-01-01

19

Effect of Brassica carinata (L.) biofumigants (seed meal) on chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris), growth, yield and yield component in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were carried out in the green house at Amhara Regional Agriculture Research Institute (ARARI) Bahirdar, Ethiopia to evaluate the potential of Brassica carinata cultivars namely; Holleta-l, S-67 and Yellow Dodola in 2007 and 2008. The treatment effects of B. carinata (L.) cultivars Holleta–1, S-67 and Yellow Dodola seed meals on chickpea fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris) were

Merkuz Abera; Seid Ahmed; Chemeda Fininsa; Parshotham K. Sakhuja; Getachew Alemayehu

2011-01-01

20

Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. putida WCS358 had no effect on disease severity when inoculated on its own but significantly improved the control achieved with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. In contrast, a siderophore-negative mutant of WCS358 had no effect on disease severity even in the presence of Fo47b10. Since the densities of both bacterial strains at the root level were similar, the difference between the wild-type WCS358 and the siderophore-negative mutant with regard to the control of fusarium wilt was related to the production of pseudobactin 358. The production of pseudobactin 358 appeared to be responsible for the increased suppression by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 relative to that with Fo47b10 alone. PMID:1444411

Lemanceau, P; Bakker, P A; De Kogel, W J; Alabouvette, C; Schippers, B

1992-01-01

21

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana. PMID:24743270

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

22

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

23

Characterization of the formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by DNA fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive DNA sequences FOLR1 to FOLR4. The four FOLR clones were chosen from a genomic library made from F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. Total DNAs from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to other plants were digested with EcoRV and hybridized with 32P-labeled FOLR probes. The strains were clearly distinguishable at the formae specialis level on the basis of FOLR DNA fingerprints. Fifty-two fingerprint types were detected among the 56 strains by using all FOLR probes. These probes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the DNA fingerprint types by the unweighted pair group method using averages and parsimony analysis. The fingerprint types detected in each of the formae speciales cucumerinum, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae were grouped into a single cluster. However, two different genetic groups occurred in the formae specialis melonis. The two groups also differed in pathogenicity: one group caused wilts of muskmelon and oriental melon, while the second was pathogenic only to muskmelon. The fingerprint types of different formae speciales pathogenic to plants other than cucurbits were distinguishable from one another and from the fingerprints of the cucurbit-infecting strains. These results suggest that the cucurbit-infecting formae speciales are intraspecific variants distinguishable at the DNA level and in their host range. Images PMID:8085813

Namiki, F; Shiomi, T; Kayamura, T; Tsuge, T

1994-01-01

24

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization on Microbial Community in Rhizosphere Soil and Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is caused by soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and was infected with wilt disease. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus etunicatium) on the microbial community in the rhizosphere soil and Fusarium wilt in tomato (cv. Oogatafukuju).

Lixuan Ren; Yunsheng Lou; Kazunori Sakamoto; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Yoshimiki Amemiya; Qirong Shen; Guohua Xu

2010-01-01

25

Management Fusarium wilt on melon and watermelon by Penicillium oxalicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the biological control fungus Penicillium oxalicum to suppress wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum on melon and watermelon, respectively, was tested under different growth conditions. The area under disease progress curve of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis infected melon plants was significantly reduced in growth chamber and field experiments.

A. De Cal; A. Sztejnberg; P. Sabuquillo; P. Melgarejo

2009-01-01

26

The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

27

The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

28

Pengujian Planlet Abaka Hasil Seleksi terhadap Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt by Fusarium oxysporum has been a problem on abaca (Musa textilis Nee.) plantation. Utilization of the disease resistant variety can solve the disease problem. However, abaca resistant variety to F. oxysporum disease has not been found. In vitro selection is a selection method to produce a disease resistant plant which have been conducted in abaca in vitro culture to

Deden Sukmadjaja; Ika Mariska; Endang G. Lestari; M. Tombe; Balai Penelitian; Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya; Genetik Pertanian

29

Potentiality of different isolates of wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum collected from rhizosphere of tomato against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of culture filtrates of different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and egg hatching. It was observed that different concentrations including standard extract (S.E), 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of all fungal filtrates inhibited egg hatch when compared with control. Minimum mortality and maximum hatching was observed in BRT (showing least mortality) isolate of F. oxysporum, while maximum mortality and minimum egg hatching was recorded in BGT (showing maximum mortality) isolate. Larval mortality was decreased with a decrease in concentration and the least mortality was observed in 1:100 when compared with SE and 1:10. The potentiality of both the isolates (BRT and BGT) against root-knot nematode M. incognita was confirmed by the pathogenicity test on tomato. These observations confirmed that F. oxysporumisolates possesses variability in pathogenicity ranging from pathogenic to bio-control agent. The plants inoculated with BRT isolate failed to show wilt symptoms while plants inoculated with BGT isolate showed wilt indices. PMID:18941992

Jain, Anju; Mohan, Jitendra; Singh, Mahendra; Goswami, B K

2008-11-01

30

Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible ‘Brazil’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant ‘Nongke No.1’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang I’ were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were selected to validate through quantitative real time PCR method. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of these selected genes corroborate with their respective protein abundance after pathogen infection. Conclusions This report is the first to use proteomic profiling to study the molecular mechanism of banana roots infected with Foc4. The differentially regulated proteins involved in different defense pathways are likely associated with different resistant levels of the three banana cultivars. PMID:24070062

2013-01-01

31

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

2005-01-01

32

Comparison of sugar beet responses at different ages to isolates of Fusarium oxysporum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum has been reported to cause several diseases of sugar beet, including seedling damping-off, a mature plant wilt (Fusarium yellows), a mature plant root rot, and seed stalk blight. Recent work in our lab and others has shown a great deal of diversity in F. oxysporum from sugar beet....

33

A highly efficient Agrobacterium mediated transformation system for chickpea wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri using DsRed-Express to follow root colonisation.  

PubMed

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc) causes vascular wilt of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), resulting in substantial yield losses worldwide. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) has served as a resourceful tool for plant-pathogen interaction studies and offers a number of advantages over conventional transformation systems. Here, we developed a highly efficient A. tumefaciens mediated transformation system for Foc. In addition, a binary vector for constitutive expression of red fluorescent protein (DsRed-Express) was used to study developmental stages and host-pathogen interactions. Southern hybridisation was performed to confirm the transformation event and the presence of T-DNA in selected hygromycin resistant transformants. Most of the transformants showed single copy integrations at random positions. Microscopic studies revealed significant levels of fluorescent protein, both in conidia and mycelia. Confocal microscopy of chickpea roots infected with the transformed Foc showed rapid colonisation. These studies will allow us to develop strategies to determine the mechanisms of Foc-chickpea interaction in greater detail and to apply functional genomics for the characterisation of involved genes at the molecular level either by insertional mutagenesis or gene knock-out. PMID:22397973

Islam, Md Nazrul; Nizam, Shadab; Verma, Praveen K

2012-06-20

34

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

35

Passive transport of microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation after root inoculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of susceptible carnations withFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi induced characteristic unilateral wilt only if root woundings and use of a microconidial suspension had not been combined at the time of inoculation. The combination, however, induced atypical and sudden stem breaking soon followed by death. In all cases wilt was due to destruction of the xylem. Unilateral wilt appeared to

R. P. Baayen; A. L. De Maat

1987-01-01

36

Pathogen profile update: Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomy: Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Sordariomycetes; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; genus Fusarium. Host range: Very broad at the species level. More than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families. Disease symptoms: Initial symptoms of vascular wilt include vein clearing and leaf epinasty, followed by stunting,

CAROLINE B. MICHIELSE; MARTIJN REP

2009-01-01

37

The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt disease. Over the last 6 years, new insights into the molecular basis of these gene-for-gene interactions have been obtained. Highlights are the identification of three avirulence genes in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the development of a molecular switch model for I-2, a nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat-type resistance protein which mediates the recognition of the Avr2 protein. We summarize these findings here and present possible scenarios for the ongoing molecular arms race between tomato and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both nature and agriculture. PMID:20447279

Takken, Frank; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-01

38

In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

2014-03-01

39

20082009 Fusarium wilt trial results  

E-print Network

of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by Fov is more severe when fields are co-infested with the root-knot nematode strategies for this disease complex consist of the use of nematicides, rotation with non-host crops, soil impact Fusarium wilt via reducing nematode damage (3). Likewise, crop rotation affects M. incognita more

Mukhtar, Saqib

40

New genotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum from the Southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were collected from cotton plants (Gossypium spp.) with symptoms of Fusarium wilt to determine the composition of races present in the southeastern U.S. Analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor gene revealed four n...

41

Fusaric acid production and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, Fusarium wilt of cotton has gained increased importance with the emergence of extremely virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The recent discovery of new pathotypes not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a ...

42

Origin of Race 3 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at a Single Site in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cai, G., Gale, L. R., Schneider, R. W., Kistler, H. C., Davis, R. M., Elias, K. S., and Miyao, E. M. 2003. Origin of race 3 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at a single site in California. Phytopathology 93:1014-1022. Thirty-nine isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were collected from to- mato plants displaying wilt symptoms in a field in California 2

G. Cai; L. Rosewich Gale; R. W. Schneider; H. C. Kistler; R. M. Davis; K. S. Elias; E. M. Miyao

2003-01-01

43

Endopolygalacturonase PG1 in Different Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

PG1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. A Southern analysis of genomic DNA and PCR performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. Two PG1-deficient isolates were identified; one lacked the encoding gene, and the other carried a pg1 allele disrupted by a 3.2-kb insertion with sequence homology to hAT transposases. The virulence for muskmelon of different F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates was not correlated with PG1 production in vitro. We concluded that PG1 is widely distributed in F. oxysporum and that it is not essential for pathogenicity. PMID:9572983

Di Pietro, Antonio; García-Maceira, Fe I.; Huertas-González, M. Dolores; Ruíz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Caracuel, Zaira; Barbieri, Andrea S.; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

1998-01-01

44

Increased soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of flax after addition of municipal solid waste compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suppressiveness of a loamy soil amended with municipal solid waste compost to Fusarium wilt of flax (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini) was studied. The soil was moderately conducive to the disease, with an estimated half life time (HLT) of the flax population of 41 days. Heat-treatment made the soil highly conducive (HLT of 28 days). Compost addition

Claire Serra-Wittling; Sabine Houot; Claude Alabouvette

1996-01-01

45

Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

46

Induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of banana by exogenous applications of indoleacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is a soilborne systemic disease which occludes host vascular system. We report here two experiments on resistance induction with banana plants (cv. Dwarf Cavendish) carried out in glass greenhouse with different indoleacetic acid treatments, which are capable of inducing resis- tance to Panama disease. The results obtained in

Marino Fernández-Falcón; Andres A. Borges; Andres Borges-Pérez

2003-01-01

47

Control of Fusarium wilt disease of cucumber plants with the application of a bioorganic fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer application either with or without antagonistic\\u000a bacteria (Bacillus subtilis SQR-5 and Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21) on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen wilt disease in cucumber. The incidence of Fusarium wilt disease was 5.3–13.5% for cucumber plants treated with\\u000a bioorganic fertilizer, while it was

Shusheng Zhang; Waseem Raza; Xingming Yang; Jiang Hu; Qiwei Huang; Yangchun Xu; Xinghai Liu; Wei Ran; Qirong Shen

2008-01-01

48

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y.H.; Wang, R.C.; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

2012-01-01

49

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-09-01

50

Degradation of aromatic compounds through the ?-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. Some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases. Aromatic lignin breakdown products are further catabolized via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE), an enzyme of the ?-ketoadipate pathway, in the pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards its host, tomato. As expected, the cmle deletion mutant cannot catabolize phenolic compounds known to be degraded via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In addition, the mutant is impaired in root invasion and is nonpathogenic, even though it shows normal superficial root colonization. We hypothesize that the ?-ketoadipate pathway in plant-pathogenic, soil-borne fungi is necessary to degrade phenolic compounds in root exudate and/or inside roots in order to establish disease. PMID:22827542

Michielse, Caroline B; Reijnen, Linda; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2012-12-01

51

Development and evaluation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, is an important soilborne pathogen in many areas of the world where spinach is grown. The pathogen is persistent in acid soils of maritime western Oregon and Washington, the only region of the USA suitable for commercial spi...

52

Identification of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in citrullus lanatus var. citroides plant introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult, because the soil-borne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), produces resilient spores that remain infectious for many years. Although various levels of resist...

53

Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica on Cicer arietinum  

PubMed Central

Interaction of Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied on Fusarium wilt-susceptible (JG 62 and K 850) and resistant (JG 74 and Avrodhi) chickpea cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, inoculation of M. javanica juveniles prior to F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri caused greater wilt incidence in susceptible cultivars and induced vascular discoloration in roots of resistant cultivars. Nematode reproduction was greatest (P = 0.05) at 25 °C. Number of galls and percentage of root area galled increased when the temperature was increased from 15 °C to 25 °C. Wilt incidence was greater at 20 °C than at 25 °C. Chlorosis of leaves and vascular discoloration of plants did not occur at 15 °C. The nematode enhanced the wilt incidence in wilt-susceptible cultivars only at 25 °C. Interaction between the two pathogens on shoot and root weights was significant only at 20 °C, and F. o. ciceri suppressed the nematode density at this temperature. Wilt incidence was greater in clayey (48% clay) than in loamy sand (85% sand) soils. The nematode caused greater plant damage on loamy sand than on clayey soil. Fusarium wilt resistance in Avrodhi and JG 74 was stable in the presence of M. javanica across temperatures and soil types. PMID:19274140

Maheswari, T. Uma; Sharma, S. B.; Reddy, D. D. R.; Haware, M. P.

1997-01-01

54

Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt on Cotton by Use of Endophytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy bacterial strains isolated from internal tissues of cotton, 49 strains with known biological control activity against Rhizoctonia solani in cotton, and 25 strains known to induce systemic resistance to Collectotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, were screened for biological control potential against vascular wilt of cotton caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The strains were introduced as endophytes

C. Chen; E. M. Bauske; G. Musson; R. Rodriguezkabana; J. W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

55

Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

2014-04-01

56

Fusarium wilt of banana and Wallace’s line: Was the disease originally restricted to his Indo-Malayan region?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edible bananas originated in Asia. Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a lethal disease of this important food crop. Also known as Panama disease, it impacts on a wide range of cultivars and,\\u000a like its host, is now found throughout the tropical regions of the world. Although most authorities believe that the pathogen

Randy Ploetz; Kenneth Pegg

1997-01-01

57

FUSARIUM WILT (PANAMA DISEASE) OF BANANAS: AN UPDATING REVIEW OF THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ON THE DISEASE AND ITS CAUSAL AGENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of banana or Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most economic important and harmful diseases of Musa. During the first half of the last century was the cause of destruction of more than 50 000 ha of Gros Michel and the substitution for Cavendish cultivars together with important transformations of

Luis Pérez-Vicente

58

Role of chitin synthase genes in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a soilborne pathogen causing vascular wilt disease in tomato plants. Based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (CSs) of class I, class II and class III, respectively. A gene (chs7) encoding a chaperone-like protein was identified by comparison of the deduced protein with Chs7p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein required for the export of ScChs3p (class IV) from the ER. So far no CS gene belonging to class IV has been isolated from F. oxysporum, although it probably contains more than one gene of this class, based on the genome data of the closely related species Fusarium graminearum. F. oxysporum chs1-, chs2- and chs7-deficient mutants were constructed through targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination. No compensatory mechanism seems to exist between the CS genes studied, since chitin content determination and expression analysis of the chs genes showed no differences between the disruption mutants and the wild-type strain. By fluorescence microscopy using Calcofluor white and DAPI staining, the wild-type strain and Deltachs2 and Deltachs7 mutants showed similar septation and even nuclear distribution, with each hyphal compartment containing only one nucleus, whereas the Deltachs1 mutant showed compartments containing up to four nuclei. Pathogenicity assays on tomato plants indicated reduced virulence of Deltachs2 and Deltachs7 null mutants. Stress conditions affected normal development in Deltachs2 but not in Deltachs1 or Deltachs7 disruptants, and the three chs-deficient mutants showed increased hyphal hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type strain when grown in sorbitol-containing medium. The chitin synthase mutants will be useful for elucidating cell wall biogenesis in F. oxysporum and the relationship between fungal cell wall integrity and pathogenicity. PMID:15470098

Martín-Udíroz, Magdalena; Madrid, Marta P; Roncero, M Isabel G

2004-10-01

59

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent pseudomonads. In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, that redox-active phenazines produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease and may act in synergy with carbon competition by resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum. PMID:19369971

Mazurier, Sylvie; Corberand, Thérèse; Lemanceau, Philippe; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2009-08-01

60

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

61

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-12-01

62

Fungal Diversity Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia  

E-print Network

Fungal Diversity 51 Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia using AFLP, SSR using AFLP, SSR and DNA sequence analyses. Fungal Diversity 23: 51-66. Fusarium oxysporum is one agriculture has not been well investigated. We employed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Simple

63

Protein changes associated with sugar beet resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum is serious threat to sugar beet production worldwide. Although certain sugar beet lines appear to have resistance against F. oxysporum, little is understood about the basis for that resistance. Examination of F. oxysporum-induced protein changes in the sugar beet will serve two ...

64

Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2015-01-01

65

Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2015-01-01

66

Molecular mapping of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers linked closely to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea were identified, and linkage between three wilt resistance genes was elucidated. The resistance to race 3 in chickpea germplasm accession WR-315 was inherited as a single gene, designated foc-3, in 100 F 7 recombinant inbred lines derived

KamalDev Sharma; P. Winter; G. Kahl; Fred J. Muehlbauer

2004-01-01

67

The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.  

PubMed

Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

2014-04-01

68

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that ...

69

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum isolates recovered from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that...

70

Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and other biocontrol agents in managing Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense infection in banana cv. Neypoovan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panama wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (race 1) is a serious disease devastating the important cultivar Neypoovan (syn Elakki Bale AB) in southern India. Chemical control methods are not very effective in controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate biocontrol agents (BCAs) under controlled and field conditions for their efficacy against

Sukhada Mohandas; R. Manjula; R. D. Rawal; H. C. Lakshmikantha; Saikat Chakraborty; Y. L. Ramachandra

2010-01-01

71

Temporal and spatial changes in phenolic compounds in response to Fusarium wilt in chickpea and pigeonpea.  

PubMed

Plant phenolic compounds are known to play an important role in innate plant defense and are reported to show temporal and spatial changes in response to abiotic and biotic stress including invading pathogens. In the present study, spatial and temporal variations in phenolic compounds in response to infection by wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) were studied in wilt resistant and wilt susceptible cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh) (i) before the onset of wilt infection (S1 stage; 7 Days after sowing (DAS)), (ii) after the onset of wilt infection (S2 stage; 15 DAS) and (iii) at severe disease stage (S3 stage; 30 DAS), respectively and analyzed for association of total phenol with disease reaction. Under un—inoculated condition, maximum phenol content (21.8 mg gdw—1) was found in wilt resistant cultivars and minimum (16.5 mg gdw—1) in susceptible lines of chickpea. Wilt resistant cultivars of chickpea showed two fold increase in total phenolic content at the onset of infection. In case of pigeonpea, roots of resistant cultivars showed 2.27 fold increase in phenolics, but the increase was marginal in susceptible cultivars. In the present study, interaction between Fusarium and host plants was found to enhance defense responses against wilt disease in resistant cultivars of chickpea and pigeonpea. PMID:23273197

Datta, J; Lal, N

2012-01-01

72

Potential impact of a new highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon in the U.S.A.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt of watermelon was first reported in the United States in 1894. Although there exists variation in virulence within the pathogen population, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, differentiation of isolates into races did not occur for 70 years. Currently, three races (0, 1, and 2) of F. ...

73

Razas de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Snyder y Hansen, en Tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) en el Valle de Culiacán, Sinaloa, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the worldwide and national phytosanitary problems limiting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) production, is vascular wilting caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), which has greater incidence in warm weather areas causing great economic losses. Because of the importance of this disease in Culiacan valley, Sinaloa, Mexico, the objective of this research was identify races of Fusarium

José Armando Carrillo-Fasio; Teófilo de Jesús Montoya-Rodríguez; Raymundo Saúl García-Estrada; Jacobo Enrique Cruz-Ortega; Isidro Márquez-Zequera

74

The use of GFP - transformed isolates to study infection of banana with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of banana. To understand infection of banana roots by Foc race 4, we developed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged transformant and studied pathogenesis using fluorescence microscopy\\u000a and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The transformation was efficient, and GFP expression was stable for at least six subcultures\\u000a with fluorescence

Chunyu Li; Shi Chen; Cunwu Zuo; Qingming Sun; Qian Ye; Ganjun Yi; Bingzhi Huang

75

Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother. PMID:25383318

Carvalho, Vania O.; Vicente, Vania A.; Werner, Betina; Gomes, Renata R.; Fornari, Gheniffer; Herkert, Patricia F.; Rodrigues, Cristina O.; Abagge, Kerstin T.; Robl, Renata; Camiña, Ricardo H

2014-01-01

76

Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.

2013-01-01

77

A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foliar rating system was developed to assess the progress of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in seven banana cultivars differing in their resistance to race 1 of the pathogen. Plantlets were transplanted into unamended\\u000a soil naturally infested with the pathogen, soil amended with urea and soil amended with aged chicken manure. A corm

N. NasirA; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg; A. T. Lisle

2003-01-01

78

Wilts of the Watermelon and Related Crops: Fusarium Wilts of Cucurbits.  

E-print Network

% healthy.. . .1100% healthy.. . . 2 plants died from: )4ofl0l, died (rom 1 I Fusarium wilt I Fusarrum wilt Table 4.-Watermelon Fusarium sick soil, 3 year rotation, I plant Pied fromi % of 1% died from Fusarrum wrlt I Fusarlum wdt 87 died from... that this okra wilt is different from the common wilt of okra and as proved by Carpenter(4) is attributed to Fusarium vasinfectum, which also attacks the cotton. As mill be seen on page 20 the okra wilt at the Robertson farm was founcl to 'be induced...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1920-01-01

79

Antifungal activity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on genetically distinct Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 1, 2, and 3 deteriorate tomato crops since they cause a vascular wilt. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with hemagglutinating and antifungal activities. This work reports that Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) inhibits F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 growth (61 %) more intensely than of races 1 (55 %) and 2 (45 %). The hemagglutinating activity of MvRL was inhibited by glycoprotein preparations from mycelia of races 1, 2, and 3, and these data indicate that lectin carbohydrate-binding sites recognized glycosylated molecules from races. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker system showed that race 3 is genetically distinct from races 1 and 2, and thus the highest sensitiveness of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 to MvRL may be due to molecular characteristics of this race. PMID:24142386

Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira de; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2014-01-01

80

Identification of quantitative trait loci contributing to Fusarium wilt resistance on an AFLP linkage map of flax (Linum usitatissimum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AFLP genetic linkage map of flax (Linum usitatissimum) was used to identify two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on independent linkage groups with a major effect on resistance\\u000a to Fusarium wilt, a serious disease caused by the soil pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (lini). The linkage map was constructed using a mapping population from doubled-haploid (DH) lines. The DH lines were derived

W. Spielmeyer; A. G. Green; D. Bittisnich; N. Mendham; E. S. Lagudah

1998-01-01

81

Biosynthesis of fusaric acid by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetically unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen was first recognized in wilted and dead Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings in Australia in 1993. Since that time, the disease has spread rapidly with losses greater than 90 percent in some Australian fields where it was first disc...

82

Chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A new oxysporidinone analogue (1) and a new 3-hydroxyl-2-piperidinone derivative (2), along with the known compounds (-)-4,6'-anhydrooxysporidinone (3), (+)-fusarinolic acid (4), gibepyrone D (5), beauvercin (6),cerevisterol (7), fusaruside (8), and (2S,2'R,3R,3'E,4E,8E)-1-O-D-glucopyranosyl-2-N-(2'-hydroxy-3'-octadecenoyl)-3-hydroxy-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine (9) were isolated from Fusarium oxysporum. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for cytotoxicity using the MTT method against cancer cell lines, PC-3, PANC-1, and A549. Beauvericin showed cytotoxicity against PC-3, PANC-1, and A549 with IC(50) value of 49.5 ± 3.8, 47.2 ± 2.9, and 10.4 ± 1.6?M, respectively. Beauvericin also exhibited anti-bacterial activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=3.125 ?g/mL) and Bacillus subtilis (MIC=3.125 ?g/mL). PMID:21497643

Wang, Quan-Xin; Li, Sai-Fei; Zhao, Feng; Dai, Huan-Qin; Bao, Li; Ding, Rong; Gao, Hao; Zhang, Li-Xin; Wen, Hua-An; Liu, Hong-Wei

2011-07-01

83

Synergistic Effect of Dazomet Soil Fumigation and Clonostachys rosea Against Cucumber Fusarium Wilt.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Soil fumigation and biological control are two control measures frequently used against soilborne diseases. In this study, the chemical fumigant dazomet was applied in combination with the biocontrol agent (BCA) Clonostachys rosea 67-1 to combat cucumber wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum KW2-1. When the mycoparasite C. rosea 67-1 was applied after dazomet fumigation, disease control reached 100%, compared with 88.1 and 69.8% for dazomet and 67-1 agent, respectively, applied alone, indicating a synergistic effect of dazomet and C. rosea in combating cucumber Fusarium wilt based on analysis of Bliss Independence. To understand the synergistic mechanism, the effects of chemical fumigation on the colonization potential and activity of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and the interaction between the BCA and the pathogen were investigated. The results showed that growth of the pathogen decreased with increasing dazomet concentration subsequent to fumigation. When exposed to dazomet at 100 ppm, the fungal sporulation rate decreased by 94.4%. Severe damage was observed in fumigated isolates using scanning electron microscopy. In the greenhouse, disease incidence of cucumber caused by fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly decreased. Whereas germination of C. rosea 67-1 spores increased by >sixfold in fumigated soil, and its ability to parasitize fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly increased (P = 0.014). PMID:24941326

Tian, Tian; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

2014-12-01

84

Effect of silicates and electrical conductivity on Fusarium wilt of hydroponically grown lettuce.  

PubMed

Silicon can stimulate natural defense mechanisms in plants, reducing foliar diseases like powdery arid downy mildew on several crops, including lettuce. The effect of silicate on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions on lettuce grown in soilless systems. Silicon, as potassium silicate, was added at 100 mg L(-1) of nutrient solution at three levels of electrical conductivity; 1.5-1.6 mS cm(-1) (E.C.1), 3.0-3.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.2) and 4-4.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.3). Pots containing lettuce plants were first inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (3x10(5) chlamidospores ml(-1)) 15-20 days before transplanting. Disease severity and physiological parameters, including chlorophyll content, were analyzed weekly after transplanting. The addition of potassium silicate slightly reduced Fusarium wilt, at all levels of electrical conductivity under study, compared to the control. On the contrary, the increase of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution showed no effect on the disease. The use of silicon was previously demonstrated to significantly reduce downy mildew on lettuce in soilless systems, and in this trial it demonstrated to slightly reduce disease severity of an important soil-borne pathogen like F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, suggesting the possibility to apply it successfully in soilless crops. PMID:25151830

Chitarra, W; Pugliese, M; Gilardi, G; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2013-01-01

85

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Akram, Waheed; Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-12-01

86

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt  

PubMed Central

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-01-01

87

Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stewart, J. E., Kim, M.-S., James, R. L., Dumroese, R. K., and Klopfenstein, N. B. 2006. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune isolates from a conifer nursery. Phytopathology 96:1124-1133. Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most con- tainer and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings,

Jane E. Stewart; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

2006-01-01

88

Susceptibility of chrysanthemum and Paris daisy varieties to several isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. chrysonthemi is a pathogen recently reported in Italy on four economically important ornamental crops belonging to the Compositae family: chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), Paris daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens), African daisy (Osteospermum sp.) and gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii). The risk of transmission of the pathogen among these species is high because the hosts are frequently cultivated in the same nursery. The susceptibility of 24 Paris daisy and 12 chrysanthemum cultivars to 10 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi and 3 isolates of F. oxysporum of different origin and to one isolate of F. tracheiphilum from gerbera was tested. Among the tested chrysanthemum cultivars, "Menthise bianco", "Cottonball", "Super Yellow" and "Meribel" were resistant to all the tested strains, while Pingpong gel was resistant to 10 out of 12 isolates. Among the 24 tested cultivars of Paris daisy, only "Sole mio", "Butterfly" and "Maria" were resistant to all isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. chrysanthemi and to F. tracheiphilum. The results obtained in this work suggest the need of devoting more attention to resistance to Fusarium wilt while developing new varieties of both chrysanthemum and Paris daisy, since only few varieties are resistant to all strains tested. PMID:20222547

Garibaldi, A; Bertetti, D; Gullino, M L

2009-01-01

89

Mutation breeding of Highgate (Musa acuminata, AAA) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using gamma irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explants of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation\\u000a to evaluate the effectiveness of inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama Disease in banana and plantain. Based on phenotypic

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

90

Fusarium oxysporum Triggers Tissue-Specific Transcriptional Reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Some of the most devastating agricultural diseases are caused by root-infecting pathogens, yet the majority of studies on these interactions to date have focused on the host responses of aerial tissues rather than those belowground. Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting pathogen that causes wilt disease on several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. To investigate and compare transcriptional changes triggered by F. oxysporum in different Arabidopsis tissues, we infected soil-grown plants with F. oxysporum and subjected root and leaf tissue harvested at early and late timepoints to RNA-seq analyses. At least half of the genes induced or repressed by F. oxysporum showed tissue-specific regulation. Regulators of auxin and ABA signalling, mannose binding lectins and peroxidases showed strong differential expression in root tissue. We demonstrate that ARF2 and PRX33, two genes regulated in the roots, promote susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In the leaves, defensins and genes associated with the response to auxin, cold and senescence were strongly regulated while jasmonate biosynthesis and signalling genes were induced throughout the plant. PMID:25849296

Lyons, Rebecca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Rusu, Anca; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

2015-01-01

91

A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secreted-in-xylem (SIX) proteins of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are secreted during infection of tomato and function in virulence or avirulence. F. oxysporum formae speciales have specific host ranges but the roles of SIX proteins in diverse hosts are unknown. We identified homologs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici SIX1, SIX4, SIX8, and SIX9 in the genome of Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176. A SIX4 homolog (termed Fo5176-SIX4) differed from that of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol-SIX4) by only two amino acids, and its expression was induced during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing Fo5176-SIX4 had increased disease symptoms with Fo5176. Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (?six4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. Full virulence was restored by complementation of ?six4 mutants with either Fo5176-SIX4 or Fol-SIX4. Thus, Fo5176-SIX4 contributes quantitatively to virulence on Arabidopsis whereas, in tomato, Fol-SIX4 acts in host specificity as both an avirulence protein and a suppressor of other race-specific resistances. The strong sequence conservation for SIX4 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Fo5176 suggests a recent common origin. PMID:21942452

Thatcher, Louise F; Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-02-01

92

Mutation breeding of banana cv. Highgate ( Musa spp., AAA Group) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using chemical mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot apices of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were treated with various concentrations of the mutagens sodium azide, diethyl sulphate, and ethyl methanesulphonate to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

93

Resistance to wilt in chickpea. I. Inheritance of late-wilting in response to race 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in time of wilting of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in response to Race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, are confirmed. C-104 wilts later than JG-62 and the difference in time of wilting appears to be inherited as a single gene with early wilting partially dominant to late wilting. Considered in relation to earlier studies, the observations indicate that

H. D. Upadhyaya; M. P. Haware; J. Kumar; J. B. Smithson

1983-01-01

94

RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 1, a dominant Arabidopsis disease-resistance gene, is not race specific.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes differ in their susceptibility to Fusarium wilt diseases. Ecotype Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (f.) matthioli whereas Columbia-0 (Col-0) is resistant. Segregation analysis of a cross between Ty-0 and Col-0 revealed six dominant RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) loci that significantly contribute to f. matthioli resistance in Col-0 relative to Ty-0. We refer to the locus with the strongest effect as RFO1. Ty-0 plants in which only the Col-0 allele of RFO1 (RFO1(Col-0)) was introduced were resistant to f. matthioli. Surprisingly, RFO1(Col-0) also conferred resistance to f. raphani, demonstrating that RFO1-mediated resistance is not race specific. Expression of resistance by RFO2, RFO4, or RFO6 was dependent on RFO1(Col-0). Map-based cloning of RFO1(Col-0) showed that RFO1 is identical to the previously named Arabidopsis gene WAKL22 (WALL-ASSOCIATED KINASE-LIKE KINASE 22), which encodes a receptor-like kinase that does not contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain. Consistent with these results, a Col-0 rfo1 loss-of-function mutant was more susceptible to f. matthioli, f. conglutinans, and f. raphani. Thus, RFO1 encodes a novel type of dominant disease-resistance protein that confers resistance to a broad spectrum of Fusarium races. PMID:15965251

Diener, Andrew C; Ausubel, Frederick M

2005-09-01

95

The nuclear protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum is required for parasitic growth.  

PubMed

Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth. PMID:19851506

Michielse, Caroline B; van Wijk, Ringo; Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M M; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2009-10-01

96

Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato by Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Our result showed that P. ehimensis KWN38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. Tomato seedlings were treated with water (W), grass medium (G), G with P. ehimensis KWN38 inoculation (GP) and G along with synthetic fungicide (GSf). Disease symptoms were was first observed in G and W at 12 days after infection (DAI) while symptoms were noticeable in the GP and GSf treatments at 20 and 24 DAI, respectively. Tomato plants treated with P. ehimensis KWN38 or fungicide significantly reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence and severity as compared to control tomato plants treated with water and grass medium. The similar results were also found in the root mortality of tomato plants. At 25 DAI, most plants in control treatments (W and G) wilted and the brown vascular systems of infected plants was clearly differentiable from normal green vascular system of healthy plants from GP and GSf. Plants in the GP showed higher fresh and dry weights of both root and shoots than those in W and G treatments. Leaf peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities of tomato plants in G and W were higher than those in GP and GSf. Root enzyme activities showed a similar pattern but the values were higher than leaf enzyme. The results clearly demonstrated that P. ehimensis KWN38 may be considered as biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. PMID:25384610

Naing, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Anees, Muhammad; Lee, Yong Seong; Kim, Yong Cheol; Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kil Yong

2015-01-01

97

Host perception of jasmonates promotes infection by Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales that produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonates.  

PubMed

Three pathogenic forms, or formae speciales (f. spp.), of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana below ground, instigating symptoms of wilt disease in leaves above ground. In previous reports, Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid or salicylic acid or insensitive to ethylene or jasmonates exhibited either more or less wilt disease, than the wild-type, implicating the involvement of hormones in the normal host response to F.?oxysporum. Our analysis of hormone-related mutants finds no evidence that endogenous hormones contribute to infection in roots. Mutants that are deficient in abscisic acid and insensitive to ethylene show no less infection than the wild-type, although they exhibit less disease. Whether a mutant that is insensitive to jasmonates affects infection depends on which forma specialis (f. sp.) is infecting the roots. Insensitivity to jasmonates suppresses infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F.?oxysporum f. sp. matthioli, which produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonate (JA-Ile/Leu), respectively, in culture filtrates, whereas insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. raphani, which produces no detectable JA-Ile/Leu. Furthermore, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on wilt disease of tomato, and the tomato pathogen F.?oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces no detectable jasmonates. Thus, some, but not all, F.?oxysporum pathogens appear to utilize jasmonates as effectors, promoting infection in roots and/or the development of symptoms in shoots. Only when the infection of roots is promoted by jasmonates is wilt disease enhanced in a mutant deficient in salicylic acid biosynthesis. PMID:24387225

Cole, Stephanie J; Yoon, Alexander J; Faull, Kym F; Diener, Andrew C

2014-08-01

98

Three improved Citrullus lanatus var. citroides lines USVL246-FR2, USVL252-FR2, and USVL335-FR2, with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt (FW) is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult because the soil-borne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) produces chlamydospores that remain infectious in the soil for many years. Although, various le...

99

Phylogenetic analysis based on the PKS gene involved in fusaric acid biosynthesis production reveals close relationship between US race 1 lineage isolates & Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of cotton, vary significantly in their virulence. Isolates have been further subcategorized into pathogenic races based on their differential interaction with host genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on three n...

100

Soil treatments against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few economically feasible disease management options are available for California cotton producers with fields infested with race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. For treating soil to reduce inoculum levels, past studies indicate that solarization and fumigation with metam-sodium may be a...

101

Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular\\u000a tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression\\u000a are

Sara Sestili; Annalisa Polverari; Laura Luongo; Alberto Ferrarini; Michele Scotton; Jamshaid Hussain; Massimo Delledonne; Nadia Ficcadenti; Alessandra Belisario

2011-01-01

102

Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 ?g/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 ?g/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl. PMID:21314121

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

2011-03-01

103

Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and leads to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storage for sugar beet producers. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum isolated from...

104

Inheritance and linkage of a gene for resistance to race 4 of fusarium wilt and RAPD markers in chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several races of Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr f. sp. ciceris (Padwick) Matuo and K. Sato cause economic losses from\\u000a wilting disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.). While the genetics of resistance to race 1 have been reported, little is\\u000a known of the genetics of resistance to race 4. We undertook a study to determine the inheritance of resistance and identified

A. Tullu; F. J. Muehlbauer; C. J. Simon; M. S. Mayer; J. Kumar; W. J. Kaiser; J. M. Kraft

1998-01-01

105

Galleria mellonella as model host for the trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease, affects a wide range of plant species and can produce disseminated infections in humans. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate FGSC 9935 causes disease both on tomato plants and immunodepressed mice, making it an ideal model for the comparative analysis of fungal virulence on plant and animal hosts. Here we tested the ability of FGSC 9935 to cause disease in the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, an invertebrate model host that is widely used for the study of microbial human pathogens. Injection of living but not of heat-killed microconidia into the hemocoel of G. mellonella larvae resulted in dose-dependent killing both at 30°C and at 37°C. Fluorescence microscopy of larvae inoculated with a F. oxysporum transformant expressing GFP revealed hyphal proliferation within the hemocoel, interaction with G. mellonella hemocytes, and colonization of the killed insects by the fungus. Fungal gene knockout mutants previously tested in the tomato and immunodepressed mouse systems displayed a good correlation in virulence between the Galleria and the mouse model. Thus, Galleria represents a useful non-vertebrate infection model for studying virulence mechanisms of F. oxysporum on animal hosts. PMID:21907298

Navarro-Velasco, Gesabel Y; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Ortíz-Urquiza, Almudena; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-12-01

106

Molecular Characterization of an Endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum Expressed during Early Stages of Infection  

PubMed Central

The tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. Here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 8.3 and is more closely related to endoPGs from other fungal plant pathogens than to PG1, the major endoPG of F. oxysporum. Overexpression of pg5 in a bacterial heterologous system produced a 35-kDa protein with endoPG activity. Accumulation of pg5 transcript is induced by citrus pectin and d-galacturonic acid and repressed by glucose. As shown by reverse transcription-PCR, pg5 is expressed by F. oxysporum in tomato roots during the initial stages of infection. Targeted inactivation of pg5 has no detectable effect on virulence toward tomato plants. PMID:11319099

García-Maceira, Fé I.; Di Pietro, A.; Huertas-González, M. Dolores; Ruiz-Roldán, M. Carmen; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

2001-01-01

107

A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinum×C. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated molecular marker map of the chickpea genome was established using 130 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross\\u000a between a cultivar resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. &. Hans f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Snyd & Hans, and an accession of Cicer reticulatum (PI 489777), the wild progenitor of chickpea. A total of 354

P. Winter; A.-M. Benko-Iseppon; B. Hüttel; M. Ratnaparkhe; A. Tullu; G. Sonnante; T. Pfaff; M. Tekeoglu; D. Santra; V. J. Sant; P. N. Rajesh; G. Kahl; F. J. Muehlbauer

2000-01-01

108

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

109

Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

2007-01-01

110

BREEDING FOR FUSARIUM WILT (FOV) RACE 4 RESISTANCE IN COTTON.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans continues to threaten cotton production in the U.S. Several troubling developments with this pathogen (e.g., newly-recognized Australian FOV races) highlight the need for additional comprehensive research to protect our cotton industry aga...

111

Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, the RFO1 QTL appears to interact with three other loci, RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6, and is attributed to the gene At1g79670. Results When resistance to FOM was mapped in a new BC1 population, in which the loss-of-function mutant of At1g79670 replaced wild type as the Col-0 parent, RFO1’s major effect and RFO1’s interaction with RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6 were absent, showing that At1g79670 alone accounts for the RFO1 QTL. Resistance of two QTLs, RFO3 and RFO5, was independent of RFO1 and was reproduced in the new BC1 population. In analysis of a third BC1 population, resistance to a second pathogen, F. oxysporum forma specialis conglutinans race 1 (FOC1), was mapped and the major effect locus RFO7 was identified. Conclusions Natural quantitative resistance to F. oxysporum is largely specific to the infecting forma specialis because different RFO loci were responsible for resistance to FOM and FOC1. The mapping of quantitative disease resistance traits in BC1 populations, generated from crosses between sequenced Arabidopsis accessions, can be a routine procedure when genome-wide genotyping is efficient, economical and accessible. PMID:24172069

2013-01-01

112

The Membrane Mucin Msb2 Regulates Invasive Growth and Plant Infection in Fusarium oxysporum[W  

PubMed Central

Fungal pathogenicity in plants requires a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast filamentous growth pathway. How this signaling cascade is activated during infection remains poorly understood. In the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the orthologous MAPK Fmk1 (Fusarium MAPK1) is essential for root penetration and pathogenicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Here, we show that Msb2, a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein, is required for surface-induced phosphorylation of Fmk1 and contributes to a subset of Fmk1-regulated functions related to invasive growth and virulence. Mutants lacking Msb2 share characteristic phenotypes with the ?fmk1 mutant, including defects in cellophane invasion, penetration of the root surface, and induction of vascular wilt symptoms in tomato plants. In contrast with ?fmk1, ?msb2 mutants were hypersensitive to cell wall targeting compounds, a phenotype that was exacerbated in a ?msb2 ?fmk1 double mutant. These results suggest that the membrane mucin Msb2 promotes invasive growth and plant infection upstream of Fmk1 while contributing to cell integrity through a distinct pathway. PMID:21441438

Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-01-01

113

Antifungal Activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 Volatile Compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 produces volatile compounds (VOCs) that inhibit the growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Among the total of 36 volatile compounds detected, 11 compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The antifungal activity of these compounds suggested that VOCs can play important roles over short and long distances in the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:22685147

Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem

2012-01-01

114

Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions

Nelson Durán; Priscyla D Marcato; Oswaldo L Alves; Gabriel IH De Souza; Elisa Esposito

2005-01-01

115

A PR-1-like Protein of Fusarium oxysporum Functions in Virulence on Mammalian Hosts*  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis-related PR-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. Here we have characterized a PR-1-like protein, Fpr1, from Fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. Fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. The fpr1 gene is required for virulence in a disseminated immunodepressed mouse model, and its function depends on the integrity of the proposed active site of PR-1-like proteins. Fpr1 belongs to a gene family that has expanded in plant pathogenic Sordariomycetes. These results suggest that secreted PR-1-like proteins play important roles in fungal pathogenicity. PMID:22553200

Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Roldán-Rodríguez, Raquel; Serena, Carolina; López-Berges, Manuel S.; Guarro, Josep; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

116

Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

1999-02-01

117

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review)  

E-print Network

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review) JM Kraft US Department of Agriculture, quand le pathogène a développé des quantités suffisantes d'inoculum et qu'on plante un cultivar sensible, il en résulte des pertes sévères. Les symptômes sur la plante consistent en folioles chlorotiques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

[Cellulolytic activity of Fenellia flavipes and Fusarium oxysporum strains].  

PubMed

The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Fenellia flavipes and Fusarium oxysporum strains in submerged culture with plant residues as carbon source was studied. It was established that the majority of studied strains was able to hydrolyze the filter paper, husk of sunflower seeds, wheat straw and corn stalks. The ability to synthesize enzymes depended on the strain of microscopic fungi, type of substrate and duration of cultivation. As a result two fungal strains were selected: F. flavipes 655 with maximum of cellulolytic activity 2 U/ml in the medium with wheat straw and 1.6 U/ml in the medium with corn stalks on the 4th day of cultivation and F. oxysporum 420 which synthesized 0.875 mg/ml of reducing sugars. PMID:24450186

Chepchak, T P; Olishevskaia, S V; Kurchenko, I N

2013-01-01

119

[Biodegradation of agricultural plant residues by Fusarium oxysporum strains].  

PubMed

The cellulolytic and endoglucanase activity of Fusarium oxysporum strains isolated from soil and plants in the media with plant waste as carbon source has been studied. It was established that the majority of studied strains were able to hydrolyze the filter paper, husk of sunflower seeds, wheat straw and corn stalks. Cellulolytic activity depended on the strain of microscopic fungi, type of substrate and duration of cultivation. The maximum cellulase activity 1 U/ml and the concentration of reducing sugars -0.875 mg/ml were found in soil strain F. oxysporum 420 in the medium with corn stalks. Endoglucanase activity of plant pathogenic strains was higher than that of soil ones. PMID:25199344

Chepchak, T P; Kurchenko, I N; Iur'eva, E M

2014-01-01

120

Eugenol oil nanoemulsion: antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and phytotoxicity on cottonseeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The formulated eugenol oil nanoemulsion was characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability test, transmission electron microscopy and thin layer chromatography. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 80 nm and TEM study reveals the spherical shape of eugenol oil nanoemulsion (EON). The size of the nanoemulsion was found to be physically stable up to more than 1-month when it was kept at room temperature (25 °C). The TEM micrograph showed that the EON was spherical in shape and moderately mono or di-dispersed and was in the range of 50-110 nm. Three concentrations of the nanoformulation were used to evalute the anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. SDS-PAGE results of total protein from the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) isolate before and after treatment with eugenol oil nanoemulsion indicate that the content of extra cellular soluble small molecular proteins decreased significantly in EON-treated fungus. Light micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with EON showed the disruption of the fungal structures. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Fusarium wilt incidence indicated highly significant ( p = 0.000) effects of concentration, genotype, and their interaction. The difference in wilt incidence between concentrations and control was not the same for each genotype, that is, the genotypes responded differently to concentrations. Effects of three EON concentration on germination percentage, and radicle length, were determined in the laboratory. One very interesting finding in the current study is that cotton genotypes was the most important factors in determining wilt incidence as it accounted for 93.18 % of the explained (model) variation. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential phytotoxic effect of three EON concentrations. Concentration, genotype and concentration x genotype interaction were all highly significant sources of variation in seed germination; however, interaction was the first in importance as a source of variation followed by the concentration, while genotype was the least important source of variation. These results suggest the potential use of eugenol oil nanoemulsion for protecting seedcotton from Fusarium wilt infection.

Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

2015-02-01

121

MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S.; Han, Cliff S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

122

MicroRNAs suppress NB domain genes in tomato that confer resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S; Han, Cliff S; Stajich, Jason E; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A

2014-10-01

123

Rapid and efficient estimation of pea resistance to the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by infrared imaging.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilts are widespread diseases affecting most agricultural crops. In absence of efficient alternatives, sowing resistant cultivars is the preferred approach to control this disease. However, actual resistance sources are often overcome by new pathogenic races, forcing breeders to continuously search for novel resistance sources. Selection of resistant accessions, mainly based on the evaluation of symptoms at timely intervals, is highly time-consuming. Thus, we tested the potential of an infra-red imaging system in plant breeding to speed up this process. For this, we monitored the changes in surface leaf temperature upon infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi in several pea accessions with contrasting response to Fusarium wilt under a controlled environment. Using a portable infra-red imaging system we detected a significant temperature increase of at least 0.5 °C after 10 days post-inoculation in the susceptible accessions, while the resistant accession temperature remained at control level. The increase in leaf temperature at 10 days post-inoculation was positively correlated with the AUDPC calculated over a 30 days period. Thus, this approach allowed the early discrimination between resistant and susceptible accessions. As such, applying infra-red imaging system in breeding for Fusarium wilt resistance would contribute to considerably shorten the process of selection of novel resistant sources. PMID:25671514

Rispail, Nicolas; Rubiales, Diego

2015-01-01

124

Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants. PMID:23922960

Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

2013-01-01

125

Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1? (EF-1?) and ?-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

2004-01-01

126

BEET ROOT-ROT INDUCING ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM FROM COLORADO AND MONTANA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium root rot, a rot of the root top of sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum has been confirmed only in Texas, USDA, to date. Isolates of Fusarium were obtained from beets with tip rot symptoms from Montana and Colorado. Isolates were identified and tested for pathogenicity on sugar beet. ...

127

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

128

Vegetative Hyphal Fusion Is Not Essential for Plant Infection by Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

Vegetative hyphal fusion (VHF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in filamentous fungi whose biological role is poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Mak-2 and the WW domain protein So are required for efficient VHF. A MAPK orthologous to Mak-2, Fmk1, was previously shown to be essential for root penetration and pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Here we took a genetic approach to test two hypotheses, that (i) VHF and plant infection have signaling mechanisms in common and (ii) VHF is required for efficient plant infection. F. oxysporum mutants lacking either Fmk1 or Fso1, an orthologue of N. crassa So, were impaired in the fusion of vegetative hyphae and microconidial germ tubes. ?fmk1 ?fso1 double mutants exhibited a more severe fusion phenotype than either single mutant, indicating that the two components function in distinct pathways. Both ?fso1 and ?fmk1 strains were impaired in the formation of hyphal networks on the root surface, a process associated with extensive VHF. The ?fso1 mutants exhibited slightly reduced virulence in tomato fruit infection assays but, in contrast to ?fmk1 strains, were still able to perform functions associated with invasive growth, such as secretion of pectinolytic enzymes or penetration of cellophane sheets, and to infect tomato plants. Thus, although VHF per se is not essential for plant infection, both processes have some signaling components in common, suggesting an evolutionary relationship between the underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:18039941

Prados Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2008-01-01

129

Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.  

PubMed

Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. PMID:23103050

Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2012-12-01

130

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

131

Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

2014-01-01

132

Insight into the molecular requirements for pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici through large-scale insertional mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in tomato. In order to gain more insight into the molecular processes in F. oxysporum necessary for pathogenesis and to uncover the genes involved, we used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to generate 10,290 transformants and screened the transformants for loss or reduction of pathogenicity. Results This led to the identification of 106 pathogenicity mutants. Southern analysis revealed that the average T-DNA insertion is 1.4 and that 66% of the mutants carry a single T-DNA. Using TAIL-PCR, chromosomal T-DNA flanking regions were isolated and 111 potential pathogenicity genes were identified. Conclusions Functional categorization of the potential pathogenicity genes indicates that certain cellular processes, such as amino acid and lipid metabolism, cell wall remodeling, protein translocation and protein degradation, seem to be important for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum. Several known pathogenicity genes were identified, such as those encoding chitin synthase V, developmental regulator FlbA and phosphomannose isomerase. In addition, complementation and gene knock-out experiments confirmed that a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, thought to be involved in cell wall integrity, a transcriptional regulator, a protein with unknown function and peroxisome biogenesis are required for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum. PMID:19134172

Michielse, Caroline B; van Wijk, Ringo; Reijnen, Linda; Cornelissen, Ben JC; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

133

Rhizosphere soil microorganism populations and community structures of different watermelon cultivars with differing resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is an increasingly serious disease of watermelon that reduces crop productivity. Changes in microorganism populations and bacterial and fungal community structures in rhizosphere soil of watermelon cultivars resistant or susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum were investigated using a plate culture method and PCR-DGGE analysis. Plate culture showed that populations of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes were more abundant in the rhizosphere of the resistant watermelon cultivar than the susceptible cultivar, but the fungi population had the opposite pattern. Populations of Penicillium , Fusarium , and Aspergillus were significantly lower in the resistant cultivar than the susceptible cultivar at the fruiting and uprooting stages (p < 0.05). Pattern matching analysis generated the dendrogram of the DGGE results indicating the relatedness of the different resistant watermelon cultivars and their corresponding rhizosphere microbial communities. Further sequencing analysis of specific bands from DGGE profiles indicated that different groups of bacteria and fungi occurred in the rhizosphere of different watermelon cultivars. Our results demonstrated that plant genotype had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure, and the differences in the rhizosphere microbial community may contribute to the differences in resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. PMID:21529122

An, Meijun; Zhou, Xingang; Wu, Fengzhi; Ma, Yafei; Yang, Ping

2011-05-01

134

Control of Banana Wilt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME years ago I reported in these columns an unusually interesting and important field experiment on the control of Panama (wilt) disease of bananas (Fusarium oxysporum cubense), which I had seen while travelling in Honduras1. This consisted in flood-fallowing an area of about a hundred acres which had gone out of cultivation because of wilt disease. The area was empoldered

C. W. Wardlaw

1947-01-01

135

Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-12-01

136

THE PATHOGENICITY AND DNA POLYMORPHISM OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ORIGINATING FROM DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, GYPSOPHILA SPP. AND SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Fusarium oxysporum pathogenic isolates originating from Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila paniculata, G. repens and non-pathogenic strains obtained from soil was screened for pathogenicity and genetic variation. RAPD analysis con- ducted with arbitrary 10-mer primers gave 23 RAPD markers resulted from the DNA polymorphism. Clustering analysis based on RAPD fingerprint data revealed several distinct groups within F. oxysporum which

M. Werner; L. Irzykowska

137

Genetic Variation Among Vegetative Compatibility Groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Analyzed by DNA Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bentley, S., Pegg, K. G., Moore, N. Y., Davis, R. D., and Buddenhagen, I. W. 1998. Genetic variation among vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. Phytopathology 88:1283-1293. Genetic variation within a worldwide collection of 208 isolates of Fu- sarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, representing physiological r aces 1, 2, 3, and 4 and

S. Bentley; K. G. Pegg; N. Y. Moore; R. D. Davis; I. W. Buddenhagen

1998-01-01

138

Method for rapid production of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A soil broth made from the commercial potting mix Super Soil induced rapid production of chlamydospores in many isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. Eight of 12 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum produced chlamydospores within five days when grown in Super Soil broth. The chlamydospore-producing...

139

The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.  

PubMed

The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen. PMID:23617416

Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

2013-08-01

140

Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

141

Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

142

Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt.  

PubMed

The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their anta- gonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents. PMID:25774110

El Komy, Mahmoud H; Saleh, Amgad A; Eranthodi, Anas; Molan, Younes Y

2015-03-01

143

Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt  

PubMed Central

The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their anta- gonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents. PMID:25774110

El_Komy, Mahmoud H.; Saleh, Amgad A.; Eranthodi, Anas; Molan, Younes Y.

2015-01-01

144

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

2013-07-01

145

Studies of a New Fusarium Wilt of Spinach in Texas.  

E-print Network

by the onion maggot. With the latter, however, the chief injury is in the center of the plant though the outside leaves turn yellow and may even wilt. By cutting into such affected plants, one or more maggots may be found in the rotted center. Not infre...- quently the maggot injury opens the way to infection by Fusarium milt. In Texas, spinach is also found to be attacked by a Rhizoctonia, which causes numerous deep, dark lesions on the roots, and this results In 2t stunting of the plant. Like maggot...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1926-01-01

146

Stable integration and expression of a plant defensin in tomato confers resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides which belong to a group of pathogenasis related defense mechanism proteins. The proteins inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes and are highly stable under extreme environmental stresses. Tomato cultivation is affected by fungal disease such as Fusarium wilt. In order to overcome fungal damages, transgenic tomato plants expressing the Medicago sativa defensin gene MsDef1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter were developed. The Fusarium-susceptible tomato (Lycobersicum esculentum Mill) cultivar CastleRock was used for transformation to acquire fungal resistance. Hypocotyl with a part of cotyledon (hypocotyledonary) for young tomato seedlings were used as an explant material and transformation was performed using the biolistic delivery system. Bombarded shoots were selected on regeneration medium supplemented with hygromycin and suitable concentrations of BA, zeatin ripozide and AgNO(3). Putative transgenic plantlets of T(0) were confirmed by PCR analysis using primers specific for the transgene and the transformation frequency obtained was 52.3%. Transformation and transcription of transgenes were confirmed in T(1) by PCR, Southern hybridizations, and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The copy numbers of integrated transgene into tomato genome ranged between 1-3 copies. Greenhouse bioassay was performed on the transgenic T(1) and T(2) young seedlings and non-transgenic controls by challenging with a vigorous isolate of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. The level of fungal infectivity was determined using RT-PCR with tomatinase specific primers. Transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by fusarium than the control plants. These results indicated that overexpressing defensins in transgenic plants confer resistance to fungal pathogens. PMID:21844692

Abdallah, Naglaa A; Shah, Dilip; Abbas, Dina; Madkour, Magdy

2010-01-01

147

Panama Disease: Cell Wall Reinforcement in Banana Roots in Response to Elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race Four.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. Tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. Goldfinger and susceptible cv. Williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for resistance in breeding programs. Similarly, defense responses were induced by treatment of the plants with an elicitor preparation from the mycelial cell walls of the pathogen. Differences in the induction of lignin and callose deposition, phenolics, and the enzymes involved in cell wall strengthening; phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were determined. Root tissue of the tolerant cv. Goldfinger responded to the fungal elicitor through the strong deposition of lignin, preceded by the induction or activation of the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and polymerization thereof, whereas only slight increases were observed for the susceptible cv. Williams. No increase in callose content was observed for either clone. These results indicate an important role for cell wall strengthening due to the deposition of lignin as an inducible defense mechanism of banana roots against F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four. PMID:18944483

De Ascensao, A R; Dubery, I A

2000-10-01

148

The tomato xylem sap protein XSP10 is required for full susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease.  

PubMed

XSP10 is an abundant 10 kDa protein found in the xylem sap of tomato. The protein displays structural similarity to plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are involved in various physiological processes, including disease resistance, and some are able to bind and transfer diverse lipid molecules. XSP10 abundance in xylem sap declines upon infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), implying involvement of XSP10 in the plant-pathogen interaction. Here, the biochemical characterization of XSP10 with respect to fatty acid-binding properties is reported; a weak but significant binding to saturated fatty acids was found. Furthermore, XSP10-silenced tomato plants were engineered and it was found that these plants exhibited reduced disease symptom development upon infection with a virulent strain of Fol. Interestingly, the reduced symptoms observed did not correlate with an altered expression profile for known reporter genes of plant defence (PR-1 and WIPI). This work demonstrates that XSP10 has lipid-binding properties and is required for full susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium wilt. PMID:20974736

Krasikov, Vladimir; Dekker, Henk L; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L W

2011-01-01

149

The tomato xylem sap protein XSP10 is required for full susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease  

PubMed Central

XSP10 is an abundant 10?kDa protein found in the xylem sap of tomato. The protein displays structural similarity to plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are involved in various physiological processes, including disease resistance, and some are able to bind and transfer diverse lipid molecules. XSP10 abundance in xylem sap declines upon infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), implying involvement of XSP10 in the plant–pathogen interaction. Here, the biochemical characterization of XSP10 with respect to fatty acid-binding properties is reported; a weak but significant binding to saturated fatty acids was found. Furthermore, XSP10-silenced tomato plants were engineered and it was found that these plants exhibited reduced disease symptom development upon infection with a virulent strain of Fol. Interestingly, the reduced symptoms observed did not correlate with an altered expression profile for known reporter genes of plant defence (PR-1 and WIPI). This work demonstrates that XSP10 has lipid-binding properties and is required for full susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium wilt. PMID:20974736

Krasikov, Vladimir; Dekker, Henk L.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

2011-01-01

150

Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Fungi in the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex from Soybean Roots.  

PubMed

Isolates in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) from soybean range from nonpathogenic to aggressive pathogens causing seedling damping-off, wilt, and root rot. The objective of this research was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of isolates within the FOSC recovered predominantly from soybean roots and seedlings. Sequence analyses of the translation elongation factor (tef1?) gene and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and identification of the mating type loci were conducted for 170 isolates. Vegetative compatibility (VC) tests were conducted for 114 isolates. Isolate aggressiveness was tested using a rolled towel assay for 159 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the tef1? and mtSSU and PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS region separated the FOSC isolates into five clades, including F. commune. Both mating type loci, MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, were present in isolates from all clades. The VC tests were not informative, because most VC groups consisted of a single isolate. Isolate aggressiveness varied within and among clades; isolates in clade 2 were significantly less aggressive (P < 0.0001) when compared with isolates from the other clades and F. commune. The results from this study demonstrate the high levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity within the FOSC from soybean but further work is needed to identify characteristics associated with pathogenic capabilities. PMID:24983844

Ellis, Margaret L; Jimenez, David R Cruz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

2014-12-01

151

Identification of virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by large-scale transposon tagging.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screens are efficient tools for the dissection of complex biological processes, such as fungal pathogenicity. A transposon tagging system was developed in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by inserting the novel modified impala element imp160::gfp upstream of the Aspergillus nidulans niaD gene, followed by transactivation with a constitutively expressed transposase. A collection of 2072 Nia(+) revertants was obtained from reporter strain T12 and screened for alterations in virulence, using a rapid assay for invasive growth on apple slices. Seven strains exhibited reduced virulence on both apple slices and intact tomato plants. Five of these were true revertants showing the re-insertion of imp160::gfp within or upstream of predicted coding regions, whereas the other two showed either excision without re-insertion or no excision. Linkage between imp160::gfp insertion and virulence phenotype was determined in four transposon-tagged loci using targeted deletion in the wild-type strain. Knockout mutants in one of the genes, FOXG_00016, displayed significantly reduced virulence, and complementation of the original revertant with the wild-type FOXG_00016 allele fully restored virulence. FOXG_00016 has homology to the velvet gene family of A. nidulans. The high rate of untagged virulence mutations in the T12 reporter strain appears to be associated with increased genetic instability, possibly as a result of the transactivation of endogenous transposable elements by the constitutively expressed transposase. PMID:19161356

López-Berges, Manuel Sánchez; DI Pietro, Antonio; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Wahab, Hala Abdel; Vasnier, Christelle; Roncero, M Isabel G; Dufresne, Marie; Hera, Concepción

2009-01-01

152

[Identification of phenylacetic acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud, using GC-MS].  

PubMed

These studies are concerned with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a.), the causal agent of bayoud, the wilt disease of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Fungal secondary metabolites are chemical compounds identified in a limited number of species. They consist of toxins, antibiotics and antifungal agents. Among the metabolites we could isolate from the pathogen grown in a liquid medium, and then identify by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), phenylacetic acid has been distinguished. This compound is widely described in the literature as having antimicrobial, antifungal, phytotoxic properties and also endowed with hormonal activity similar to that of indole acetic acid (IAA). To date, this metabolite has never been reported in F. o. a. PMID:21146137

Ait Kettout, T; Rahmania, F

2010-01-01

153

Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses. PMID:19230952

Shi, Kai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Yun-Long; Yu, Jing-Quan

2009-05-01

154

Genetic and pathogenic variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from onion and Welsh onion in Japan.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of FOC is very limited. In this study, FOC was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 FOC isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1? (EF-1?) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that FOC isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades. PMID:25412011

Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-Ichi

2014-11-20

155

Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.  

PubMed

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae. PMID:24502207

Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

2014-08-01

156

Isolation and Heterologous Expression of a Polygalacturonase Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 1 and 4.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) represents a significant threat to banana (Musa spp.) production. Musa AAB is susceptible to Race 1 (FOC1) and Race 4 (FOC4), while Cavendish Musa AAA is found to be resistant to FOC1 but still susceptible to Race 4. A polygalacturonase (PGC3) was purified from the supernatant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4), which is the pathogen of Fusarium wilt. PGC3 had an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. The enzyme hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. The Km and Vmax values of PGC3 from FOC4 were determined to be 0.70 mg·mL-1 and 101.01 Units·mg·protein-1·min-1, respectively. Two pgc3 genes encoding PGC3 from FOC4 and FOC1, both genes of 1368 bp in length encode 456 amino-acid residues with a predicted signal peptide sequence of 21 amino acids. There are 16 nucleotide sites difference between FOC4-pgc3 and FOC1-pgc3, only leading to four amino acid residues difference. In order to obtain adequate amounts of protein required for functional studies, two genes were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC3, r-FOC1-PGC3 and r-FOC4-PGC3, were expressed and purified as active proteins. The optimal PGC3 activity was observed at 50 °C and pH 4.5. Both recombinant PGC3 retained >40% activity at pH 3-7 and >50% activity in 10-50 °C. Both recombinant PGC3 proteins could induce a response but with different levels of tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. In sum, our results indicate that PGC3 is an exo-PG and can be produced with full function in P. pastoris. PMID:25854430

Dong, Zhangyong; Wang, Zhenzhong

2015-01-01

157

Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

PubMed Central

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

158

The application of high-throughput AFLP's in assessing genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

E-print Network

responsible for a lethal disease in banana (Musa spp.) known as fusarium wilt, also referred to as Panama closely related cooking bananas (Moore et al. 1995; Waite & Stover 1960). Race 4 causes disease (Foc) is responsible for fusarium wilt of bananas. The pathogen consists of several variants

159

Survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores under solarization temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solarization is an effective soil treatment against race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Despite the lack of effective alternatives, solarization is rarely used in cotton because of its high cost. Use of solarization might be increased if soil temperatures could be used to predict redu...

160

NEW N-METHYL-4-HTYDROXY-2-PYRIDINONE ANALOGS FROM FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Fusarium oxysporum (N17B) resulted in the isolation and identification of three new N-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridinone analogs, 6-epi-oxysporidinone (3), dimethyl ketal of oxysporidinone (4), and N-demethylsambutoxin (5), along with the kno...

161

Dry heat and hot water treatments for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential of low- and high-temperature dry heat, and hot water treatments, for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was investigated. Naturally infected seeds from Louisiana were air-heated in incubators set at temperatures of 30, 35, and 40 degrees C for up to 24 we...

162

Fusarium oxysporum Adh1 has dual fermentative and oxidative functions and is involved in fungal virulence in tomato plants.  

PubMed

An alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adh1, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that adh1 is highly expressed in mycelia grown in potato dextrose liquid medium (PDB) under hypoxic conditions, as compared to mycelia grown under aerobic conditions. One spontaneous allyl alcohol-resistant (Ally(R)) mutant exhibited insertion of an incomplete F.oxysporum transposable element, while another mutant contained a short (13 nucleotide) deletion, in both cases interrupting the coding region of the adh1 gene. These mutations caused deficiency in Adh activity due to loss of the main constitutive isoform of Adh1, as well as alteration of different physiological parameters related to carbon and energy metabolism, including the ability to use ethanol as a carbon source under aerobic conditions; impaired growth under hypoxic conditions with glucose as the carbon source; and diminished production of ethanol in glucose-containing medium. Interestingly, the adh1 mutations resulted in a significant delay in fungal disease development in tomato plants. Complementation with the wild-type adh1 allele repaired all defects caused by mutation, indicating that the product of the adh1 gene has dual enzymatic functions (fermentative and oxidative), depending on culture conditions, and is also required for full fungal virulence. PMID:21704720

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Rangel Porras, Rosa Angelica; Meza Carmen, Victor; Gonzalez Hernandez, Gloria Angélica; Torres Guzman, Juan Carlos; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Roncero, M Isabel G; Gutierrez Corona, J Felix

2011-09-01

163

Proteomic identification of potential target proteins regulated by the SCF(F) (bp1) -mediated proteolysis pathway in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

F-box proteins function in the recruitment of proteins for SCF ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. Here, we studied the role of Fbp1, a nonessential F-box protein of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The ?fbp1 mutant showed a significant delay in the production of wilt symptoms on tomato plants and was impaired in invasive growth on cellophane membranes and on living plant tissue. To search for target proteins recruited by Fbp1, a combination of sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to compare proteins in mycelia of the wild-type and ?fbp1 mutant. The proteomic approach identified 41 proteins differing significantly in abundance between the two strains, 17 of which were more abundant in the ?fbp1 mutant, suggesting a possible regulation by proteasome degradation. Interestingly, several of the identified proteins were related to vesicle trafficking. Microscopic analysis revealed an impairment of the ?fbp1 strain in directional growth and in the structure of the Spitzenkörper, suggesting a role of Fbp1 in hyphal orientation. Our results indicate that Fbp1 regulates protein turnover and pathogenicity in F.?oxysporum. PMID:23855991

Miguel-Rojas, Cristina; Hera, Concepcion

2013-12-01

164

Fusarium oxysporum as a Multihost Model for the Genetic Dissection of Fungal Virulence in Plants and Mammals  

PubMed Central

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase, a pH response transcription factor, or a class V chitin synthase previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants were tested in the mouse model. The results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during the infection of tomato plants and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to study fungal virulence mechanisms in plant and mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:14977985

Ortoneda, Montserrat; Guarro, Josep; Madrid, Marta P.; Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Mayayo, Emilio; Di Pietro, Antonio

2004-01-01

165

Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.  

PubMed

We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:19329332

Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya

2009-07-01

166

New virulence groups in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli: the expression of the gene coding for the transcription factor ftf1 correlates with virulence.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains isolated from runner bean plants showing Fusarium wilt symptoms were characterized. The analysis of the genetic diversity of these strains and the comparison with strains formerly isolated from diseased common bean plants grown in the same region of Spain indicated a close genetic similarity among them. Pathogenicity assays carried out on runner bean plants showed virulence differences that allowed the classification of these strains into three groups: super virulent, highly virulent, and weakly virulent. However, all the analyzed strains behaved as highly virulent when inoculated on common bean plants, indicating that virulence is specific of the host-pathogen interaction. We also analyzed the number of copies and expression of the gene encoding the transcription factor ftf1, which has been shown to be specific of virulent F. oxysporum strains and highly up-regulated during plant infection. In planta real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression analysis showed that expression of ftf1 was correlated with the degree of virulence. The comparative analysis of the polymorphic copies of ftf1 detected in the strains here characterized and those detected in the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain 4287 indicates that some of the copies are likely nonfunctional. PMID:21091181

de Vega-Bartol, José J; Martín-Dominguez, Raúl; Ramos, Brisa; García-Sánchez, María-Asunción; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

2011-04-01

167

Antifungal Activity of (KW)n or (RW)n Peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)n-NH2, where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum, at 4–32 ?M. Furthermore, longer peptides displayed potent fungicidal activities against a variety of agronomical important filamentous fungi, including F. solani and F. oxysporum, at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, RW series peptides showed slightly higher fungicidal activities than KW peptides against the two strains. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that these short peptides would be good candidates for use as synthetic or transgenic antifungal agents. PMID:23203110

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Na, Hyungjong; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2012-01-01

168

Allelism of the Fcu-1 and Foc genes conferring resistance to fusarium wilt in cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of resistance toFusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum race 1 was determined in the cucumber cv. WIS-248 by analyzing segregation of F1, F2, and BC populations of crosses with the susceptible cv. Straight-8. Resistance was conferred by a single dominant gene. In an allelism test, it was proven that theFcu-1 gene, which confers resistance toF. oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum races 1 and 2

Demetrios John Vakalounakis

1996-01-01

169

Formation of fumonisins and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The principal aim of this study was to estimate the formation of fumonisins (FB(1) and FB(2)), moniliformin (MON), and ergosterol (ERG) by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum, while the formation of beauvericin (BEA) was estimated by the latter Fusarium species only. Moreover, the effect of temperature on the biosynthesis of mycotoxins was also evaluated. Fumonisins were formed by F. proliferatum, with the highest yield at 18 degrees C (720.0-1976.6 microg g(-1) for FB(1), 74.2-670.8 microg g(-1) for FB(2)) and only by three of four F. oxysporum strains at a very low level (0.02-4.77 microg g(-1) for FB(1), 0.02-2.15 microg g(-1) for FB(2)). The amount of MON formed by F. proliferatum was the highest (p < 0.001) at 32 degrees C (3056.87 microg g(-1)), while MON biosynthesis by F. oxysporum was lower 227.54 microg g(-1) (p < 0.001). BEA was produced by F. proliferatum with the highest level at 25 degrees C (p < 0.001). ERG-recognized as an indicator of fungal biomass development and as a consequence of mycotoxin formation-was found at the highest concentration at a biosynthesis temperature of 25 degrees C for F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum (p < 0.001). PMID:20455157

Waskiewicz, A; Golinski, P; Karolewski, Z; Irzykowska, L; Bocianowski, J; Kostecki, M; Weber, Z

2010-05-01

170

Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.  

PubMed

Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1. PMID:18058162

Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

2008-04-01

171

Incidence of Fusarium wilt of cotton as affected by pathogen propagule type, age and source  

E-print Network

occurs in Egypt, race 4 is found in India and the USSR, race 5 in the Sudan, and race 6 in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Recently, race 3 has also been identified in Israel (56). Hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum are hyaline and septate, producing... as affected by Vydate concentration 4 Effect of different inoculum types and plant parts as sources of inocu!um and on subsequent vascular browning and pathogen isolation 33 38 39 41 5 Comparison of inoculum source and type on Fusarium oxysporum...

McEntee, James Philip

1989-01-01

172

PENGIMBASAN KETAHANAN PISANG TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM DENGAN Burkholderia cepacia Induce resistence of banana against fusarium wilt by using  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fakultas Pertanian UGM Yogyakarta F usarium wilt of banana or Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxyspsorum f.sp. cubense is widespread in the tropics and subtropics. The disease control is difficult because the pathogen form chlamidospores in soil and can still alive for a long time. Although some disease controls have been done, an efficient and effective methods of control is

Salim Widono; Christanti Sumardiyono; Bambang Hadisutrisno

2003-01-01

173

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain Transcription Factor LBD20 Functions in Fusarium Wilt Susceptibility and Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling. PMID:22786889

Thatcher, Louise F.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Aitken, Elizabeth A.B.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2012-01-01

174

Isolation and expression of enolase gene in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a fungus responsible for the tomato disease known as fusariosis. Enolase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, is present during glycolysis. Enolase genes have been isolated from bacteria and fungi, among other organisms. In this research, a large portion of the enolase, eno, gene sequence was isolated from F. oxysporum and compared with those of other microorganisms, revealing a similarity of 51-69 %. We analyzed the copy number of the eno gene and determined that only a single copy is present in F. oxysporum, as in several fungi, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus oryzae. We also detected the expression of the eno gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during in vitro growth under two growth conditions where glucose was used as the carbon source, and we observed the same eno gene expression levels under both growth conditions. PMID:25349089

Macías-Sánchez, Karla Lizbeth; García-Soto, Jesús; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hernández-Monjaraz, Wendy; Caudillo-Pérez, César; Martínez-Cadena, Ma Guadalupe

2015-01-01

175

Mechanistic and structural studies of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the purification and the initial mechanistic studies of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysponim. Nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidative denitrification of a nitroalkane to the corresponding aidehyde or ketone...

Heasley, Carl J

1995-01-01

176

Varying Response of Sugar Beet Lines to Different Fusarium Oxysporum F. sp. Betae Isolates from the United States.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae, the cause of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet, were tested for their interaction with different sugar beet lines. In addition, two of these isolates were tested in the presence or absence of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii. Differen...

177

Targeted disruption of a G protein a subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a G protein ! subunit, was performed by standard PCR techniques and by screening a Fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the PCR product as a probe. The full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of G

Sona Jain; Kouichi Akiyama; Kenjiro Mae; Tomizo Ohguchi; Renkichi Takata

2002-01-01

178

Screening of fungal antagonists against yellows of cabbage caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of fungal antagonists against yellows of cabbage caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans was carried out. We obtained 78 seed-borne fungal isolates from 20 kinds of vegetable roots. Fifty-five soilborne fungal\\u000a isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots of seven vegetables. Twelve isolates were from field soil using a\\u000a baiting method. By in vitro and in vivo screening,

Ju-Young Park; Gen Okada; Masateru Takahashi; Hiroshi Oyaizu

2002-01-01

179

Alteration of substrate specificity of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FOD-F) from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (NBRC 9972) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of fructosyl-amino acids such as $$ N^{\\\\varepsilon }$$-fructosyl $$ N^{\\\\alpha }$$-benzyloxycarbonyl-lysine (FZK) and fructosyl valine (FV), which are model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood. Wild-type\\u000a FOD-F has high activities toward both substrates. We obtained a mutant FOD-F, which reacts

Maki Fujiwara; Jun-ichi Sumitani; Shinji Koga; Issei Yoshioka; Takuji Kouzuma; Shigeyuki Imamura; Takashi Kawaguchi; Motoo Arai

2007-01-01

180

Isolation, Identification, and Culture Optimization of a Novel Glycinonitrile-Hydrolyzing Fungus— Fusarium oxysporum H3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial transformation of glycinonitrile into glycine by nitrile hydrolase is of considerable interest to green chemistry.\\u000a A novel fungus with high nitrile hydrolase was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Fusarium oxysporum H3 through 18S ribosomal DNA, 28S ribosomal DNA, and the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, together with morphology\\u000a characteristics. After primary optimization of culture conditions including

Jin-Song Gong; Zhen-Ming Lu; Jing-Song Shi; Wen-Fang Dou; Hong-Yu Xu; Zhe-Min Zhou; Zheng-Hong Xu

181

Cloning, characterization and functional expression of an alkalitolerant type C feruloyl esterase from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothetical protein FoFaeC-12213 of Fusarium oxysporum was found to have high amino acid sequence identity with known type C feruloyl esterases (FAEs) containing a 13-amino acid\\u000a conserved region flanking the characteristic G-X-S-X-G motif of a serine esterase. The putative FAE from the genomic DNA was\\u000a successfully cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor secretion signal under the transcriptional

Maria Moukouli; Evangelos Topakas; Paul Christakopoulos

2008-01-01

182

Development of a molecular marker for specific detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the causal agent of Panama disease of banana. A rapid and reliable diagnosis is the foundation of integrated disease management\\u000a practices in commodity crops. For this diagnostic purpose, we have developed a reliable molecular method to detect Foc race\\u000a 4 isolates in Taiwan. By PCR amplification, the primer set Foc-1\\/Foc-2 derived from the sequence

Ying-Hong Lin; Jing-Yi Chang; En-Tzu Liu; Chih-Ping Chao; Jenn-Wen Huang; Pi-Fang Linda Chang

2009-01-01

183

BREEDING FOR FUSARIUM WILT RACE 4 RESISTANCE IN COTTON UNDER FIELD AND GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans represents a continuing threat to cotton production in the U.S. that warrants attention in plant breeding efforts. Several troubling developments concerning this pathogen (e.g., newly-recognized Australian FOV races and race 4 FOV identific...

184

Two in vitro assays to evaluate resistance in Linum usitatissimum to Fusarium wilt disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of in vitro seedling tests were developed to evaluate resistance in flax (Linum usitatissimum) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini. In the first test a solid medium was used. The second test was based on a liquid medium. Disease severity was assessed after three weeks, using the observed reduction of plant length as a scale. Both methods proved to

G. M. L. W. Kroes; E. Sommers; W. Lange

1998-01-01

185

Control of Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber Seedlings by Inoculation with an Arbuscular Mycorrhical Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of inoculation of cucumber at the germination stage with Glomus etunicatum BEG168 on plant yield and incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum inoculated 28 days after the start of the experiment. Inoculation with the AM fungus decreased both disease incidence and disease index. Mycorrhizal inoculation also increased P concentrations in

Zhipeng Hao; Peter Christie; Ling Qin; Changxian Wang; Xiaolin Li

2005-01-01

186

Progress report on a contemporary survey of the Fusarium wilt fungus in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the genetic and pathogenic diversity present in a pathogen population is required to effectively deploy resistant cultivars. The only pathogenic survey of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in the U.S. was conducted in 1983. Since then, new distributions of races 3, 4, and 8, and fou...

187

Infection by Meloidogyne artiellia does not break down resistance to races 0, 1a, and 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in chickpea genotypes.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia, coinfect chickpea crops in several countries of the Mediterranean Basin. The influence of root infection by M. artiellia on the reactions of chickpea genotypes with different reaction to infection with F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0, 1A, and 2 was investigated under controlled environmental conditions. Results demonstrated that co-infection of chickpea genotypes resistant to specific fungal races by M. artiellia did not influence the Fusarium wilt reaction of the plant, irrespective of the F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race assayed. However, in some of the assayed combinations, coinfection by both pathogens significantly affected the level of colonization by the fungus or reproduction of the nematode in the root system. Thus, coinfection of chickpea plants with Foc-0 and M. artiellia significantly decreased the level of colonization of the root system by F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in genotypes 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'PV 61', but not in 'ICC 14216 K' and 'UC 27'. Similarly, the nematode reproduction index was also significantly reduced by coinfection with Foc-0 in the four chickpea genotypes tested and inoculated with this race. Conversely, coinfection of chickpea plants with Foc-1A and M. artiellia significantly increased colonization of the root system by the fungus in all genotypes inoculated with this race, except for line BG 212. Altogether, we confirmed the complete resistance phenotype of 'UC 27' and 'ICC 14216 K' to Foc-0, and of 'ICC 14216 K' to Foc-1A and Foc-2, and demonstrated that this resistance was not modified by coinfection of the resistant plant with M. artiellia. PMID:18944296

Navas-Cortés, J A; Landa, B B; Rodríguez-López, J; Jiménez-Díaz, R M; Castillo, P

2008-06-01

188

Highly diverse endophytic and soil Fusarium oxysporum populations associated with field-grown tomato plants.  

PubMed

The diversity and genetic differentiation of populations of Fusarium oxysporum associated with tomato fields, both endophytes obtained from tomato plants and isolates obtained from soil surrounding the sampled plants, were investigated. A total of 609 isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained, 295 isolates from a total of 32 asymptomatic tomato plants in two fields and 314 isolates from eight soil cores sampled from the area surrounding the plants. Included in this total were 112 isolates from the stems of all 32 plants, a niche that has not been previously included in F. oxysporum population genetics studies. Isolates were characterized using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1? gene. A diverse population of 26 sequence types was found, although two sequence types represented nearly two-thirds of the isolates studied. The sequence types were placed in different phylogenetic clades within F. oxysporum, and endophytic isolates were not monophyletic. Multiple sequence types were found in all plants, with an average of 4.2 per plant. The population compositions differed between the two fields but not between soil samples within each field. A certain degree of differentiation was observed between populations associated with different tomato cultivars, suggesting that the host genotype may affect the composition of plant-associated F. oxysporum populations. No clear patterns of genetic differentiation were observed between endophyte populations and soil populations, suggesting a lack of specialization of endophytic isolates. PMID:25304514

Demers, Jill E; Gugino, Beth K; Jiménez-Gasco, María Del Mar

2015-01-01

189

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis-lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radiciscucumerinum V03-2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well-known non-pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non-compatible pathogen Forc V03-2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3-week-old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox. PMID:21255375

Validov, Shamil Z; Kamilova, Faina D; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

2011-01-01

190

Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size?=?554 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99%) genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 33,243 (37.71%) unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI), ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in banana. Conclusions This study generated a substantial amount of banana transcript sequences and compared the defense responses against Foc TR4 between resistant and susceptible Cavendish bananas. The results contribute to the identification of candidate genes related to plant resistance in a non-model organism, banana, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22863187

2012-01-01

191

Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 ?g g?¹ FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR. PMID:23702248

Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

2013-07-15

192

Functional characterization of the gene FoOCH1 encoding a putative ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt and has become one of the most destructive pathogens threatening the banana production worldwide. However, few genes related to morphogenesis and pathogenicity of this fungal pathogen have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the disrupted gene in a T-DNA insertional mutant (L953) of FOC with significantly reduced virulence on banana plants. The gene disrupted by T-DNA insertion in L953 harbors an open reading frame, which encodes a protein with homology to ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH1) in fungi. The deletion mutants (?FoOCH1) of the OCH1 orthologue (FoOCH1) in FOC were impaired in fungal growth, exhibited brighter staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Concanavalin A, had less cell wall proteins and secreted more proteins into liquid media than the wild type. Furthermore, the mutation or deletion of FoOCH1 led to loss of ability to penetrate cellophane membrane and decline in hyphal attachment and colonization as well as virulence to the banana host. The mutant phenotypes were fully restored by complementation with the wild type FoOCH1 gene. Our data provide a first evidence for the critical role of FoOCH1 in maintenance of cell wall integrity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. PMID:24503549

Li, Min-Hui; Xie, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Xiu; Ding, Zhao-Jian; Ling, Jin-Feng; Xi, Ping-Gen; Zhou, Jia-Nuan; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin; Jiang, Zi-De

2014-04-01

193

Impaired colonization and infection of tomato roots by the Deltafrp1 mutant of Fusarium oxysporum correlates with reduced CWDE gene expression.  

PubMed

The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici efficiently invades roots and colonizes vascular tissues of its host tomato. For these processes, the F-box protein Frp1 is required. The Fusarium oxysporum Deltafrp1 mutant was characterized in detail to uncover the cause of its colonization defect. Using growth assays, we could attribute poor root colonization to reduced assimilation of organic acids, amino acids (except proline), or polysaccharides, singly or in combination. External root colonization by the Deltafrp1 mutant is restored by the addition of 0.1% glucose or proline but infection still does not occur. This is due to the inability of the Deltafrp1 mutant to penetrate the roots, as demonstrated by the lack of expression of SIX1 in the Deltafrp1 strain, which is a gene exclusively expressed inside roots, and loss of cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) gene expression. Many of the metabolic defects of the Deltafrp1 strain can be attributed to reduced expression of the ICL1 (isocitrate lyase) gene. Strikingly, an Deltaicl1 mutant is still fully pathogenic and capable of external root colonization. We conclude that the inability of the Deltafrp1 strain to colonize and invade roots is not primarily due to metabolic defects but can be attributed to reduced expression of several CWDE genes. PMID:19348569

Jonkers, Wilfried; Rodrigues, Christopher D Andrade; Rep, Martijn

2009-05-01

194

Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes. PMID:24504695

Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

2014-05-01

195

HapX-Mediated Iron Homeostasis Is Essential for Rhizosphere Competence and Virulence of the Soilborne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ?hapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:22968717

López-Berges, Manuel S.; Capilla, Javier; Turrà, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

196

ChsVb, a Class VII Chitin Synthase Involved in Septation, Is Critical for Pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (?chsVb) and double (?chsV ?chsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus. PMID:17993572

Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

2008-01-01

197

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid sensitive and insensitive catalases in different genotypes of chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.  

PubMed

Differential expression of catalase isozymes in different genotypes of chickpea resistant genotypes- A1, JG-315, JG-11, WR-315, R1-315, Vijaya, ICCV-15017, GBS-964, GBM-10, and susceptible genotypes- JG-62, MNK, ICCV-08321, ICCV-08311, KW-104, ICCV-08123, ICC-4951, ICC-11322, ICC-08116 for wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. ciceri (Foc) was analyzed. Salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 concentrations were determined in control as well as in plants infected with F. ciceri and found that the high and low levels of salicylic acid and H2O2 in resistant and susceptible genotypes of chickpea respectively. Catalase isozyme activities were detected in the gel and found that no induction of new catalases was observed in all the resistant genotypes and their some of the native catalase isozymes were inhibited; whereas, induction of multiple catalase isozymes was observed in all the screened susceptible genotypes and their activities were not inhibited upon Foc or SA treatments. The above results support the possible role of these isozymes as a marker to identify which genotype of chickpea is expressing systemic acquired resistance. PMID:24431522

Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

2013-10-01

198

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1.  

PubMed

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2-3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2-4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Gaspar, Yolanda M; McKenna, James A; McGinness, Bruce S; Hinch, Jillian; Poon, Simon; Connelly, Angela A; Anderson, Marilyn A; Heath, Robyn L

2014-04-01

199

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1  

PubMed Central

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Anderson, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

200

Sphaerodes mycoparasitica sp. nov., a new biotrophic mycoparasite on Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum and F. oxysporum.  

PubMed

A new species, Sphaerodes mycoparasitica (Ascomycetes, Melanosporales), was isolated from isolates of Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium graminearum originating from wheat fields in Saskatchewan, and from Fusarium oxysporum originating from asparagus fields in Quebec, Canada. The species is characterized by a unique combination of ascospore size, shape (fusiform and triangular) and wall ornamentation (reticulate and smooth). Also, conidia are produced from simple phialides on the surface of ascoma peridial wall, on ascoma surrounding hyphae, and on irregularly branched conidiophores arising from hyphae. The closest relation of S. mycoparasitica is Sphaerodes quadrangularis, which has no detected anamorphic stage. The description of S. mycoparasitica, its phylogenetic position-based on DNA sequences of large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU)-as well as a key for all known Sphaerodes species are provided. PMID:19857813

Vujanovic, Vladimir; Goh, Yit Kheng

2009-10-01

201

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Are Associated with the Regulation of Physiological Traits and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen causing devastating vascular wilt disease of banana plants and has become a great concern threatening banana production worldwide. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of virulence determinants of this important fungal pathogen. In this study, we showed that null mutation of three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, designated as FoSlt2, FoMkk2 and FoBck1, respectively, led to substantial attenuation in fungal virulence on banana plants. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the essential role of MAP kinases in modulating the production of fusaric acid, which was a crucial phytotoxin in accelerating development of Fusarium wilt symptoms in banana plants. Additionally, we found that the MAP kinase FoSlt2 was required for siderophore biosynthesis under iron-depletion conditions. Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2. Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence. PMID:25849862

Ding, Zhaojian; Li, Minhui; Sun, Fei; Xi, Pinggen; Sun, Longhua; Zhang, Lianhui; Jiang, Zide

2015-01-01

202

A nitrogen response pathway regulates virulence functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the protein kinase TOR and the bZIP protein MeaB.  

PubMed

During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source-independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the DeltameaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

López-Berges, Manuel S; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-07-01

203

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Are Associated with the Regulation of Physiological Traits and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen causing devastating vascular wilt disease of banana plants and has become a great concern threatening banana production worldwide. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of virulence determinants of this important fungal pathogen. In this study, we showed that null mutation of three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, designated as FoSlt2, FoMkk2 and FoBck1, respectively, led to substantial attenuation in fungal virulence on banana plants. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the essential role of MAP kinases in modulating the production of fusaric acid, which was a crucial phytotoxin in accelerating development of Fusarium wilt symptoms in banana plants. Additionally, we found that the MAP kinase FoSlt2 was required for siderophore biosynthesis under iron-depletion conditions. Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2. Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence. PMID:25849862

Ding, Zhaojian; Li, Minhui; Sun, Fei; Xi, Pinggen; Sun, Longhua; Zhang, Lianhui; Jiang, Zide

2015-01-01

204

Cost benefit analyses of using grafted watermelon transplants for Fusarium wilt disease control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt continue to plague watermelon growers in intensive production areas where land resources are scarce and rotation of various crops is limited. Risk management alternatives, available to the farmer, have been reduced by the loss of soil fumigation chemicals s...

205

Soil mineralogy in relation to the spread of fusarium wilt of banana in central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A correlation has been established between the spread of Fusarium wilt of banana and the mineralogical composition of 67 soils from banana plantations in Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador. A swelling 3-layer silicate component that expanded beyond 14Å when made homoionic with K+, air dried, and then saturated with glycerol is present in all soils, except one,

G. Stotzky; R. Torrence Martin

1963-01-01

206

Fusarium verticillioides: A new cotton wilt pathogen in Uzbekistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An increase in wilt has been observed in cotton fields in Uzbekistan. This prompted us to conduct a survey of Uzbek cotton fields for wilt over a five year period beginning in 2007. Twenty-four regions with different soil types and ecologies were screened. In 9 regions, over 45% of the plants dem...

207

Chemical communication between the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant Cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. A strong antagonism between the endophyte P. variabile and Fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. A disorganization of the mycelium of F. oxysporum was thus noticed. Interestingly, the biological effect of the main secondary metabolites isolated from P. variabile against F. oxysporum did not account for this strong antagonism. However, a metabolomic approach of pure fungal strains and confrontation zones using the data analysis tool XCMS were analyzed and pointed out a competition-induced metabolite production by the endophyte in the presence of the phytopathogen. Subsequent MS/MS fragmentations permitted to identify one of the induced metabolites as 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and highlighted a negative modulation of the biosynthesis of beauvericin, one of the most potent mycotoxin of F. oxysporum, during the competition with the endophyte. PMID:23077591

Combès, Audrey; Ndoye, Idrissa; Bance, Caroline; Bruzaud, Jérôme; Djediat, Chakib; Dupont, Joëlle; Nay, Bastien; Prado, Soizic

2012-01-01

208

Chemical Communication between the Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium Variabile and the Phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant Cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. A strong antagonism between the endophyte P. variabile and Fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. A disorganization of the mycelium of F. oxysporum was thus noticed. Interestingly, the biological effect of the main secondary metabolites isolated from P. variabile against F. oxysporum did not account for this strong antagonism. However, a metabolomic approach of pure fungal strains and confrontation zones using the data analysis tool XCMS were analyzed and pointed out a competition-induced metabolite production by the endophyte in the presence of the phytopathogen. Subsequent MS/MS fragmentations permitted to identify one of the induced metabolites as 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and highlighted a negative modulation of the biosynthesis of beauvericin, one of the most potent mycotoxin of F. oxysporum, during the competition with the endophyte. PMID:23077591

Combès, Audrey; Ndoye, Idrissa; Bance, Caroline; Bruzaud, Jérôme; Djediat, Chakib; Dupont, Joëlle; Nay, Bastien; Prado, Soizic

2012-01-01

209

In vivo rearrangement of foreign DNA by Fusarium oxysporum produces linear self-replicating plasmids.  

PubMed Central

Particular combinations of fungal strains and transformation vectors allow for fungal rearrangement of normally integrative plasmids, resulting in the creation of linear self-replicating plasmids in Fusarium oxysporum. The rearrangement results in the addition of fungal DNA, including telomere consensus sequences, to plasmid termini. The mechanism by which this rearrangement occurs is unclear, but it has similarities to extrachromosomal gene amplification. A DNA fragment which allows for linear autonomous replication upon reintroduction to the fungus was subcloned and sequenced. This DNA sequence contains the repeated telomeric sequence TTAGGG flanked by a region of twofold symmetry consisting primarily of pUC12 DNA. Isolation and identification of this sequence is the first step toward development of vectors that function as artificial chromosomes in filamentous fungi. This sequence was shown to promote autonomous replication and enhance transformation in several strains of F. oxysporum, Nectria haematococca, and Cryphonectria parasitica. Images PMID:2345140

Powell, W A; Kistler, H C

1990-01-01

210

Transformation of Penicillium griseoroseum nitrate reductase mutant with the nia gene from Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A heterologous transformation system for Penicillium griseoroseum has been developed. This system is based on nia, the structural gene from Fusarium oxysporum encoding nitrate reductase. Penicillium griseoroseum niaD mutants have been selected from chlorate-resistant colonies. Among 24 chlorate-resistant colonies analyzed, 2 were confirmed to be niaD mutants. Transformation frequencies of 8 transformants/microgram of DNA were obtained. DNA hybridization analyses of five transformants showed distinct integration patterns of the plasmid and in all of them the integration occurred at tandem arrays. The transformation system established in this work will be useful for genetic studies of the pectinolytic complex genes from P. griseoroseum. PMID:9699303

de Queiroz, M V; Barros, A O; de Barros, E G; Guimarães, V; de Araújo, E F

1998-05-01

211

Dry heat treatment of Fusarium-infected cotton seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

212

Effectiveness of plant extracts on suppression of damping-off and wilt diseases of lupine ( Lupinus termis Forsik)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate water and organic solvent of plant extracts for protection of lupine plants against damping-off and wilt diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini Snyder & Hansen was isolated from diseased lupine roots collected from different locations of Minia, Assiut and New Valley governorates. Water leaf extracts

M. F. Abdel-Monaim; K. A. M. Abo-Elyousr; K. M. Morsy

2011-01-01

213

The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity and/or compensation of plant biomass does not depend on the degree of AM colonisation but more on the intercropping partner. PMID:23549903

Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

2013-10-01

214

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

215

Exploiting the inter-strain divergence of Fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol  

PubMed Central

Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. A targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. The microorganism studied was Fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. Strains of F. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. Using optimised solid-state straw culture conditions, experiments were conducted that compared fungal strains in terms of their growth, enzyme activities (cellulases, xylanase and alcohol dehydrogenase) and yield of bioethanol and the undesirable by-products acetic acid and xylitol. Significant inter-strain divergence was recorded in regards to the capacity of studied F. oxysporum strains to produce alcohol from untreated straw. No correlation was observed between bioethanol synthesis and either the biomass production or microbial enzyme activity. A strong correlation was observed between both acetic acid and xylitol production and bioethanol yield. The level of diversity recorded in the alcohol production capacity among closely-related microorganism means that a targeted screening of populations of selected microbial species could greatly improve bioprocessing yields, in terms of providing both new host strains and candidate genes for the bioethanol industry. PMID:22420408

2012-01-01

216

Nuclear Dynamics during Germination, Conidiation, and Hyphal Fusion of Fusarium oxysporum ? †  

PubMed Central

In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle. PMID:20543061

Ruiz-Roldán, M. Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A.

2010-01-01

217

Local origin of two vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Australia  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum from geographically widespread native Gossypium populations, including a cotton growing area believed to be the center of origin of VCG 01111 and VCG 01112 of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) in Australia, was determined using glasshouse bioassays and AFLPs. Five lineages (A–E) were identified among 856 isolates. Of these, 12% were strongly pathogenic on cotton, 10% were weakly pathogenic and designated wild Fov, while 78% were nonpathogenic. In contrast to the occurrence of pathogenic isolates in all five lineages in soils associated with wild Gossypium, in cotton growing areas only three lineages (A, B, E) occurred and all pathogenic isolates belonged to two subgroups in lineage A. One of these contained VCG 01111 isolates while the other contained VCG 01112 isolates. Sequence analyses of translation elongation factor-1?, mitochondrial small subunit rDNA, nitrate reductase and phosphate permease confirmed that Australian Fov isolates were more closely related to lineage A isolates of native F. oxysporum than to Fov races 1–8 found overseas. These results strongly support a local evolutionary origin for Fov in Australian cotton growing regions. PMID:25567943

Wang, Bo; Brubaker, Curt L; Summerell, Brett A; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

2010-01-01

218

A Two-locus DNA Sequence Database for Typing Plant and Human Pathogens Within the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex ...

219

Oil\\/mineral-salts medium designed for easy recovery of extracellular lipase from Fusarium oxysporum AM3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase production by the potato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum AM3 was investigated in a mineral medium using triolein and sodium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Medium design by factorial analysis of the medium components increased enzyme activity 9.4-folds over the standard medium. The simple medium composition promoted easy enzyme recovery to its homogeneity in a single step. The lipase

M. M. Camargo-de-Morais; M. M. D. Maia; F. F. S. Borba; K. G. Melo; C. M. S. O. Santos; E. R. A. Reis; M. A. Morais Jr; J. L. Lima-Filho

2003-01-01

220

Analysis of the inter- and extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain was screened and found to be successful for the inter-and extracellular production of platinum nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formation was visually observed, over time, by the colour of the extracellular solution and\\/or the fungal biomass turning from yellow to dark brown, and their concentration was determined from the amount of residual hexachloroplatinic acid measured from a standard curve

T L Riddin; M Gericke; C G Whiteley

2006-01-01

221

Plant Pathology and nematology Seed t ransmission of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Race 4 in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (atk.) W.C. Snyd. & h. n. hans. race 4, a biotype highly virulent on certain Pima cotton (Gossypium bar- badense l.) cultivars, was detected in California in 2001. the propensity of this disease to appear in isolated spots in previously uninfested fields has given rise to several hypotheses regarding potential mechanisms of disease dispersal. one

R. S. Bennett; R. B. Hutmacher; R. M. Davis

222

Hospedantes Asintomáticos de Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend. f. sp. radicis-lycopersici W.R. Jarvis y Shoemaker en Sinaloa, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed of one to nine genotypes of 20 crops was inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) and then incubated in water-agar; seedlings of all inoculated species were affected by Forl, with different level of severity, being the most susceptible: Lycopersicon esculentum, Capsicum annuum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Raphanus sativus, and Sorghum bicolor. Some plants of P. vulgaris and Zea mayz

Miguel Ángel Apodaca-Sánchez; Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Seiji Osada-Kawasoe; Roberto García-Espinosa; Agricultura del Valle del Fuerte; Juan José Ríos

223

Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism. Results Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher biomass to xylose yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth on glucose revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source. Conclusions Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics. PMID:24649884

2014-01-01

224

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits. PMID:23717215

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

225

Evolutionary relationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici isolates inferred from mating type, elongation factor-1alpha and exopolygalacturonase sequences.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous species complex of soilborne plant pathogens that comprises many different formae speciales, each characterized by a high degree of host specificity. In this study, the evolutionary relationships between different isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex have been examined, with a special emphasis on the formae speciales lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici, sharing tomato as host while causing different symptoms. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of a housekeeping gene, the elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, and a gene encoding a pathogenicity trait, the exopolygalacturonase (pgx4) gene, were conducted on a worldwide collection of F. oxysporum strains representing the most frequently observed vegetative compatibility groups of these formae speciales. Based on the reconstructed phylogenies, multiple evolutionary lineages were found for both formae speciales. However, different tree topologies and statistical parameters were obtained for the cladograms as several strains switched from one cluster to another depending on the locus that was used to infer the phylogeny. In addition, mating type analysis showed a mixed distribution of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 alleles in the F. oxysporum species complex, irrespective of the geographic origin of the tested isolates. This observation, as well as the topological conflicts that were detected between EF-1alpha and pgx4, are discussed in relation to the evolutionary history of the F. oxysporum species complex. PMID:19679185

Lievens, Bart; van Baarlen, Peter; Verreth, Christel; van Kerckhove, Stefan; Rep, Martijn; Thomma, Bart P H J

2009-10-01

226

Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-06-01

227

Identification of Indian pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris with gene specific, ITS and random markers.  

PubMed

In this study we demonstrate the synergistic use of gene-specific markers, ITS-RFLP, ISSR and AFLP for distinguishing Indian F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We also report for the first time that F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3, a wilt pathogen of chickpea in India, is actually F. proliferatum based on phylogenetic analysis with EF-1alpha sequence data. F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 1, 2 and 4 were easily distinguished from "race 3" (F. proliferatum) by PCR amplification with oligonucleotides designed from conserved regions of Hop78 transposon (Hop 78), cutinase (Cut), desaturase (Dst). F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 4 was distinguished with the xylanase 3 (xyl3) gene by absence of amplification product only in this race. The Xyl3 amplified-DNA fragment isolated and sequenced from F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 1 was similar to the F-xylanase (Xyl3) gene of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. A TELD motif, which is characteristic of the F-xylanases family, was detected within the deduced amino acid sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Similarly the F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Hop78 DNA fragment, which identified "race 3" (F. proliferatum), was homologous to the Hop78 transposon of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, including the 100 amino acid conserved domain and the characteristic CCHC motif. The internal transcribed spacer region-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) approach along with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) method also differentiated "race 3" (F. proliferatum). Races 1 and 2 were identified by unique AFLP patterns. Sequence characterization of race-specific AFLP products revealed significant homologies of these sequences with metabolically important genes. PMID:19623928

Gurjar, Gayatri; Barve, Maneesha; Giri, Ashok; Gupta, Vidya

2009-01-01

228

Rho1 and other GTP-binding proteins are associated with vesicles carrying glucose oxidase activity from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

In eucaryotic cells, the delivery of a secreted protein to the plasma membrane via vesicles must include transport, recognition, and fusion events. Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the secretory vesicles play a role in these events; these include the GTP-binding proteins, which are crucial components in this process. Fractions enriched with vesicles carrying glucose oxidase (GOX) activity from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a soilborne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt on tomato plants, were obtained using two successive sucrose gradients, the first a linear-log and the second an isopycnic gradient. In this study, we used the following Fusarium strains: a wild-type and a strain carrying a ?rho1 loss-of-function mutation (presenting dramatically reduced virulence). By ADP-ribosylation with C3 exotoxin, and Western blot analysis with specific antibodies, we identified the small GTPases Rho1, Rho4, Cdc42 and Rab8, and a heterotrimeric G? protein associated with vesicles carrying GOX activity. This was done for both strains, with the exception of Rho1, which was absent in the mutant strain; in addition, the levels of the Cdc42 protein were observed to be higher in the ?rho1 strain. These data indicate that three Rho proteins, Rho1, Rho4, and Cdc42, are present in secretory vesicles carrying GOX activity in F. oxysporum, and that Rho1 is not essential for the transport and secretion of, at least, cargo proteins carried in secretory vesicles, or Cdc42/Rho4 can fulfill its role in these events. PMID:21203842

Macías-Sánchez, Karla; García-Soto, Jesús; López-Ramírez, Adriana; Martínez-Cadena, Guadalupe

2011-03-01

229

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.  

PubMed

Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2010-09-01

230

Molecular defense responses in roots and the rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Plants face many different concurrent and consecutive abiotic and biotic stresses during their lifetime. Roots can be infected by numerous pathogens and parasitic organisms. Unlike foliar pathogens, root pathogens have not been explored enough to fully understand root-pathogen interactions and the underlying mechanism of defense and resistance. PR gene expression, structural responses, secondary metabolite and root exudate production, as well as the recruitment of plant defense-assisting "soldier" rhizosphere microbes all assist in root defense against pathogens and herbivores. With new high-throughput molecular tools becoming available and more affordable, now is the opportune time to take a deep look below the ground. In this addendum, we focus on soil-borne Fusarium oxysporum as a pathogen and the options plants have to defend themselves against these hard-to-control pathogens. PMID:25482759

Chen, Yi Chung; Kidd, Brendan N; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Schenk, Peer M

2014-01-01

231

Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fusarium oxysporum by Optimizing Physicocultural Conditions  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) by fungi is emerging as an important branch of nanotechnology due to its ecofriendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. In order to increase the yield of biosynthesized SNPs of desired shape and size, it is necessary to control the cultural and physical parameters during the synthesis. We report optimum synthesis of SNPs on malt extract glucose yeast extract peptone (MGYP) medium at pH 9–11, 40–60°C, and 190.7 Lux and in sun light. The salt concentrations, volume of filtrate and biomass quantity were found to be directly proportional to the yield. The optimized conditions for the stable and rapid synthesis will help in large scale synthesis of monodispersed SNPs. The main aim of the present study was to optimize different media, temperature, pH, light intensity, salt concentration, volume of filtrate, and biomass quantity for the synthesis of SNPs by Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:24222751

Birla, Sonal S.; Gaikwad, Swapnil C.; Gade, Aniket K.; Rai, Mahendra K.

2013-01-01

232

Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.  

PubMed

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-01-01

233

Evolution of virulence in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum using serial passage assays through susceptible cotton.  

PubMed

Fifty strains of Fusarium oxysporum, recovered from rhizosphere soil around native Gossypium species and found to be mildly virulent on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), were used to assay the propensity for evolution of virulence using serial passage assays through cotton. Only one lineage A strain, 2613, successfully completed 10 successive passages, while all others lost the ability to cause foliar disease symptoms at various stages during this process. Based on 46 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers generated with four EcoRI x MseI primer combinations, mutants were identified in offspring isolates from strain 2613 regardless of whether serial passages occurred in cotton or on water agar, suggesting the occurrence of spontaneous mutations. Significantly increased virulence was observed in the offspring isolates generated on cotton, while no increasing virulence was found in those obtained on water agar, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum is associated with the presence of cotton. No clear correlation was observed between the AFLP mutations and increased virulence in this study. PMID:18944080

Wang, B; Brubaker, C L; Tate, W; Woods, M J; Burdon, J J

2008-03-01

234

The velvet complex governs mycotoxin production and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on plant and mammalian hosts.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens provoke devastating losses in agricultural production, contaminate food with mycotoxins and give rise to life-threatening infections in humans. The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum attacks over 100 different crops and can cause systemic fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. Here we functionally characterized VeA, VelB, VelC and LaeA, four components of the velvet protein complex which regulates fungal development and secondary metabolism. Deletion of veA, velB and to a minor extent velC caused a derepression of conidiation as well as alterations in the shape and size of microconidia. VeA and LaeA were required for full virulence of F.?oxysporum on tomato plants and on immunodepressed mice. A critical contribution of velvet consists in promoting chromatin accessibility and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster for beauvericin, a depsipeptide mycotoxin that functions as a virulence determinant. These results reveal a conserved role of the velvet complex during fungal infection on plants and mammals. PMID:23106229

López-Berges, Manuel S; Hera, Concepción; Sulyok, Michael; Schäfer, Katja; Capilla, Javier; Guarro, Josep; Di Pietro, Antonio

2013-01-01

235

Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants  

PubMed Central

The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection. PMID:19259463

Athman, Shahasi Y.; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S.; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

2006-01-01

236

Comparative functional characterization of a novel benzoate hydroxylase cytochrome P450 of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

FoCYP53A19, a novel cytochrome P450 capable of performing benzoate hydroxylation, was identified and characterized from the ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Comparative functional analysis of FoCYP53A19 with the heterologous and homologous cytochrome P450 reductases (CPR) such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScCPR), Candida albicans (CaCPR) and F. oxysporum (FoCPR) revealed novel catalytic properties. The catalytic efficiency and substrate specificity of FoCYP53A19 were significantly influenced and altered by the source of the reductase employed. The yeast reconstitution system of FoCYP53A19 with ScCPR performed the hydroxylation of benzoic acid (BA) and demethylation of 3-methoxybenzoic acid (3-MBA); but when reconstituted with CaCPR, FoCYP53A19 performed only the essential hydroxylation of fungal benzoate catabolism. Remarkably, FoCYP53A19 with its homologous reductase FoCPR, not only demonstrated the improved conversion rates of BA and 3-MBA, but also exhibited activity toward the hydroxylation of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. The electron transfer compatibility and the coupling efficiency between the homologous FoCYP-FoCPR system are significant and it favored enhanced monooxygenase activity with broader substrate specificity. PMID:25659633

Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Jung, Eunok; Park, Hyun Ho; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yun, Hyungdon

2015-03-01

237

Identification of Immunity Related Genes to Study the Physalis peruviana – Fusarium oxysporum Pathosystem  

PubMed Central

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC–NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A.; López, Camilo E.; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-01-01

238

Lipolytic system of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The lipolytic profile of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici was studied by in silico search and biochemical enzyme activity analyses. Twenty-five structural secreted lipases were predicted based on the conserved pentapeptide Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly-, characteristic of fungal lipases, and secretion signal sequences. Moreover, a predicted lipase regulatory gene was identified in addition to the previously characterized ctf1. The transcription profile of thirteen lipase genes during tomato plant colonization revealed that lip1, lip3, and lip22 were highly induced between 21 and 96 h after inoculation. Deletion mutants in five lipase genes (lip1, lip2, lip3, lip5, and lip22) and in the regulatory genes ctf1 and ctf2 as well as a ?ctf1?ctf2 double mutant were generated. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression analyses of structural lipase genes in the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants indicated the existence of a complex lipase regulation network in F. oxysporum. The reduction of total lipase activity, as well as the severely reduced virulence of the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants, provides evidence for an important role of the lipolytic system of this fungus in pathogenicity. PMID:23718123

Bravo-Ruiz, Gustavo; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2013-09-01

239

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt and Fusarium Wilt by a Burkholderia nodosa Strain Isolated from Kalimantan Soils, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to suppress bacterial wilt of tomato (BWT) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum using biocontrol agents (BCAs) isolated from soils in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Five isolates were selected from 270 isolates as better performing BCAs through screening four times using a pumice medium. The isolates selected were identified as Burkholderia nodosa, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia terricola according to 16S rDNA sequences, fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization patterns. Among them, B. nodosa G5.2.rif1 had significant suppressive effects on Fusarium wilt of tomato (FWT) and spinach (FWS) as well as BWT. When B. nodosa G5.2rif1 was inoculated into a pumice medium in combination with sucrose, it showed even more stable disease suppression for BWT, but not for FWS. This suppression was considered to mainly occur through competition for nutrients. In two times greenhouse experiments for BWT using pots comparable in size to those used commercially, B. nodosa G5.2rif1 significantly suppressed the disease index by 33-79%, with no inhibitory effects on the growth, yield and quality of tomatoes. PMID:21558699

Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

2008-01-01

240

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects]. PMID:19536588

Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

2010-01-01

241

Formation of deglycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed Central

Two forms of alpha-L-fucosidase, deglycosylated and glycosylated, were found in the fucose-inducing culture broth of Fusarium oxysporum. Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase was also found in the same culture broth. The deglycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase was purified from the culture broth to homogeneity on polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. Purified deglycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase was compared in chemical composition and immunological homology with glycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase which had been reported previously (K. Yamamoto, Y. Tsuji, H. Kumagai, and T. Tochikura, Agric. Biol. Chem. 50: 1689, 1986). Both enzymes had nearly the same amino acid compositions and were immunologically identical. Glycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase had mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine residues. In contrast, the deglycosylated enzyme had only N-acetylglucosamine residues. These results suggest that the deglycosylated alpha-L-fucosidase is formed by the release of sugar chains from the glycosylated form by Fusarium endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Furthermore, various enzymatic properties were compared: the two alpha-L-fucosidases were found to exhibit similar catalytic activities and thermal stability profiles. The deglycosylated enzyme, however, was slightly unstable in the acidic pH range compared with the glycosylated enzyme. Images PMID:2111117

Tsuji, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tochikura, T

1990-01-01

242

Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system  

PubMed Central

Background Brewer's spent grain (BG), a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, ?-D-xylosidase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm), corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck of the bioconversion process. However, a considerable bioconversion yield was achieved (60% of the theoretical) making this bioprocess worthy of further investigation for a potential commercial application. PMID:19208239

Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

2009-01-01

243

Murine Model for Fusarium oxysporum Invasive Fusariosis Reveals Organ-Specific Structures for Dissemination and Long-Term Persistence  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum causes life-threatening invasive fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism of infection in mammalian hosts is largely unknown. In the present study we show that the symptoms of disseminated fusariosis caused by F. oxysporum in immunosuppressed mice are remarkably similar to those reported in humans. Distinct fungal structures were observed inside the host, depending on the infected organ. Invasive hyphae developed in the heart and kidney, causing massive colonization of the organs. By contrast, chlamydospore-like survival structures were found in lung, spleen and liver. Systemically infected mice also developed skin and eye infections, as well as thrombosis and necrosis in the tail. We further show that F. oxysporum can disseminate and persist in the organs of immunocompetent animals, and that these latent infections can lead to lethal systemic fusariosis if the host is later subjected to immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:24587124

Schäfer, Katja; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A. R.; MacCallum, Donna

2014-01-01

244

Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

2015-01-01

245

Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Conclusion Our data suggest that resistance against FOM in melon involves only limited transcriptional changes, and that wilting symptoms could derive, at least partially, from an active plant response. We discuss the pathogen-derived transcripts expressed in planta during the infection process and potentially related to virulence functions, as well as transcripts that are differentially expressed between the two FOM races grown in vitro. These transcripts provide candidate sequences that can be further tested for their ability to distinguish between races. Sequence data from this article have been deposited in GenBank, Accession Numbers: HO867279-HO867981. PMID:21338485

2011-01-01

246

Molecular characterization of races and vegetative compatibility groups in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and vegetative compatibility analyses were undertaken to assess genetic relationships among 52 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum of worldwide origin and representing race A, 3, or 4 on cotton plants. Ten distinct vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) were obtained, and isolates belonging to distinct races were never in the same VCG. Race A isolates were separated into eight VCGs, whereas isolates of race 3 were classified into a single VCG (0113), as were those of race 4 (0114). Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA (rDNA and mtDNA) RFLPs separated four rDNA haplotypes and seven mtDNA haplotypes. Race A isolates displayed the most polymorphism, with three rDNA haplotypes and four mtDNA haplotypes; race 4 isolates formed a single rDNA group but exhibited three mtDNA haplotypes, while race 3 isolates had unique rDNA and mtDNA haplotypes. Two mtDNA molecules with distinct sizes were identified; the first (45-kb mtDNA) was found in all race A isolates and seven race 4 isolates, and the second (55-kb mtDNA) was found in all race 3 isolates and in two isolates of race 4. These two mtDNA molecules were closely related to mtDNAs of F. oxysporum isolates belonging to other formae speciales (conglutinans, lycopersici, matthioli, and raphani). Isolates within a VCG shared the same rDNA and mtDNA haplotypes, with the exception of VCG0114, in which three distinct mtDNA haplotypes were observed. Genetic relationships among isolates inferred from rDNA or mtDNA site restriction data were different, and there was not a strict correlation between race and RFLPs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993090

Fernandez, D; Assigbese, K; Dubois, M P; Geiger, J P

1994-01-01

247

Soil microbial community structure in cucumber rhizosphere of different resistance cultivars to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Cucumber fusarium wilt is a common soil-borne disease. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the severity of disease and soil microbial ecology. In this work, culturable microbial populations, lipid fatty acid and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) from rhizosphere soils of four different cucumber cultivars were investigated. Comparatively higher actinomycetes, mycorrhizal colonization and higher ratios of bacteria to fungi were found in the two resistant cultivars compared with the two susceptible cultivars. CLPP analysis showed that catabolic diversity indices were higher in the presence of two resistant cultivars. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles suggested that fungal (18:2omega6,9c) PLFA was enriched in the rhizosphere soils of the two susceptible cultivars, but some bacterial (16:0 and 15:0a) PLFAs were found in a lower relative abundance in these soils. The neutral lipid fatty acid 16:1omega5, which is an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, was enriched in the rhizosphere soils of the two resistant cultivars. All the three methods suggested that plant genotype had a significant impact on the soil microbial community composition and activity, and the differences in the rhizosphere microbial community may result in the differences in the resistance to fusarium wilt. PMID:20370829

Yao, Huaiying; Wu, Fengzhi

2010-06-01

248

Fusarium-wilt suppressive soils from the Ch-teaurenard region : review of a 10-year study  

E-print Network

of Châteaurenard soils (Bouches-du-Rh6ne, France), suppressiveness may involve more than one mechanism. The purpose RECEPTIVITY Soil receptivity to soil-borne pathogens reflects the capacity of a soil to allow a pathogenFusarium-wilt suppressive soils from the Châ- teaurenard region : review of a 10-year study Claude

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Commercial and improved germplasm evaluations for Fusarium wilt, FOV race 1 with root-knot nematodes and race 4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant resistance is the most economic and effective strategy for Fusarium wilt control. To implement steps to develop resistant germplasm to this pathogen, existing commercial Acala, non-Acala Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Pima (G. barbadense) cultivars, as well as improved germplasm were ...

250

Combinatorial effect of endophytic and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against wilt disease of Capsicum annum L. caused by Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of biocontrol agents that are compatible with each other is a strategic approach to control the plant disease and pest. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of compatible endophytic bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis; EPCO16 and EPC5) and rhizobacterial strain (Pseudomonas fluorescens; Pf1) against chilli wilt disease caused by Fusarium solani. Our results showed that B.

S. Sundaramoorthy; T. Raguchander; N. Ragupathi; R. Samiyappan

251

DOI: 10.4308/hjb.17.1.5 Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria  

E-print Network

metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to suppress the disease was evaluated by soaking red chili seeds in the bacterial isolates solution for 30

Dwi Suryanto Siti Patonah

2009-01-01

252

Effect of organic amendments and solarisation on Fusarium wilt in susceptible banana plantlets, transplanted into naturally infested soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research since pathogenicity was first established in 1919, no cultural or chemical control strategy has proven effective against Fusarium wilt of bananas. The efficacy of cultural control is attributed to the suppression of pathogen activity. Yet, amending naturally infested soil with aged chicken manure has been shown to enhance disease severity, without any change in the activity of

N. NasirA; K. G. Pegg

253

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri Race 1 Induced Redox State Alterations Are Coupled to Downstream Defense Signaling in Root Tissues of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea–Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes. PMID:24058463

Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

2013-01-01

254

The effector protein Avr2 of the xylem-colonizing fungus Fusarium oxysporum activates the tomato resistance protein I-2 intracellularly.  

PubMed

To promote host colonization, many plant pathogens secrete effector proteins that either suppress or counteract host defences. However, when these effectors are recognized by the host's innate immune system, they trigger resistance rather than promoting virulence. Effectors are therefore key molecules in determining disease susceptibility or resistance. We show here that Avr2, secreted by the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), shows both activities: it is required for full virulence in a susceptible host and also triggers resistance in tomato plants carrying the resistance gene I-2. Point mutations in AVR2, causing single amino acid changes, are associated with I-2-breakingFol strains. These point mutations prevent recognition by I-2, both in tomato and when both genes are co-expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Fol strains carrying the Avr2 variants are equally virulent, showing that virulence and avirulence functions can be uncoupled. Although Avr2 is secreted into the xylem sap when Fol colonizes tomato, the Avr2 protein can be recognized intracellularly by I-2, implying uptake by host cells. PMID:19228334

Houterman, Petra M; Ma, Lisong; van Ooijen, Gerben; de Vroomen, Marianne J; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Takken, Frank L W; Rep, Martijn

2009-06-01

255

GTPase Rho1 regulates the expression of xyl3 and laccase genes in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The Rho1 protein is a GTPase that participates in cell wall biogenesis. We analyzed the transcript levels of laccase genes (lccl, lcc2, lcc3, lcc4, lcc5, and lcc9), and a xylanase gene (xyl3) in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain 4287 (wild type) and two mutant strains; rhol::hyg that lacks a functional Rho1, and rho1::hyg + rho1 (G14V) that has a constitutively active Rho1. The transcript levels of lcc2, lcc3, lcc5, and xyl3 differed among the three strains, but those of lcc1 and lcc9 did not. Xylanase activities were higher in rho1::hyg than in both the wild type and rho1::hyg + rho1 (G14V) . Laccase activities were significantly higher in the two mutants than in the wild type. Rho1 thus plays a role in regulating xyl3, lcc2, lcc3, and lcc5 at the transcriptional and/or translational level. PMID:25351810

Reyes-Medina, María Alejandra; Macías-Sánchez, Karla Lizbeth

2015-03-01

256

Nep1 Protein from Fusarium oxysporum Enhances Biological Control of Opium Poppy by Pleospora papaveracea.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The fungus Pleospora papaveracea and Nep1, a phytotoxic protein from Fusarium oxysporum, were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Four treatments consisting of a control, P. papaveracea conidia, Nep1 (5 mug/ml), and P. papaveracea conidia plus Nep1 (5 mug/ml) were used in detached-leaf and whole-plant studies. Conidia of P. papaveracea remained viable for 38 days when stored at 20 or 4 degrees C. Nep1 was stable in the presence of conidia for 38 days when stored at 4 degrees C or for 28 days at 20 degrees C. The presence of Nep1 did not affect conidia germination or appressoria formation. Nep1 was recovered from drops applied to opium poppy leaves in greenhouse and field studies 24 h after treatment. Opium poppy treated with the combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea had higher necrosis ratings than the other treatments. There were changes in the intercellular protein profiles, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and silver staining, due to application of treatments; the most intense occurred in response to the combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea. The combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea enhanced the damage caused to opium poppy more than either component alone. PMID:18944501

Bailey, B A; Apel-Birkhold, P C; Akingbe, O O; Ryan, J L; O'Neill, N R; Anderson, J D

2000-08-01

257

An RFLP marker in tomato linked to the Fusarium oxysporum resistance gene I2.  

PubMed

The locus, I2, which in tomato confers resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2, was introgressed into Lycopersicon esculentum from the wild species L. pimpinellifolium (P.I. 126915). We searched for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between nearly isogenic lines (NILs) in clones that map to the region introgressed from the wild species. Since I2 maps to chromosome 11, we used DNA clones from this chromosome as hybridization probes to Southern blots containing bound DNA of the NILs digested with 23 restriction enzymes. Of the 14 chromosome 11 clones, 9 exhibited polymorphism. These clones were further hybridized to "verification" filters that contained DNA from resistant and susceptible L. esculentum varieties digested with the enzymes that gave the polymorphism. One clone, TG105, was found to be associated with I2; 19 susceptible lines showed a different RFLP with this probe than 16 resistant lines, including the original L. pimpinellifolium accession used as a source for the resistance gene. These results together with our mapping analysis indicate that TG105 is closely linked to the resistance gene. PMID:24225839

Sarfatti, M; Katan, J; Fluhr, R; Zamir, D

1989-11-01

258

Galactose Oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum - Expression in E. coli and P. pastoris and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

A gene coding for galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum G12 was cloned together with its native preprosequence and a C-terminal His-tag, and successfully expressed both in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was subsequently purified and characterized. Among all tested substrates, the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was found with 1-methyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (2.2 mM?1 s?1). The Michaelis constant (Km) for D-galactose was determined to be 47 mM. Optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 7.0 and 40°C, respectively, and the enzyme was thermoinactivated at temperatures above 50°C. GalOx contains a unique metalloradical complex consisting of a copper atom and a tyrosine residue covalently attached to the sulphur of a cysteine. The correct formation of this thioether bond during the heterologous expression in E. coli and P. pastoris could be unequivocally confirmed by MALDI mass spectrometry, which offers a convenient alternative to prove this Tyr-Cys crosslink, which is essential for the catalytic activity of GalOx. PMID:24967652

Paukner, Regina; Staudigl, Petra; Choosri, Withu; Sygmund, Christoph; Halada, Petr; Haltrich, Dietmar; Leitner, Christian

2014-01-01

259

Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1, and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75, 83, and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1, and OPR, respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30–50% survival and OPR between 45 and 70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants. PMID:25654075

Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jose R.

2015-01-01

260

Isolation, identification, and culture optimization of a novel glycinonitrile-hydrolyzing fungus-Fusarium oxysporum H3.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of glycinonitrile into glycine by nitrile hydrolase is of considerable interest to green chemistry. A novel fungus with high nitrile hydrolase was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Fusarium oxysporum H3 through 18S ribosomal DNA, 28S ribosomal DNA, and the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, together with morphology characteristics. After primary optimization of culture conditions including pH, temperature, carbon/nitrogen sources, inducers, and metal ions, the enzyme activity was greatly increased from 326 to 4,313 U/L. The preferred carbon/nitrogen sources, inducer, and metal ions were glucose and yeast extract, caprolactam, and Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(2+), respectively. The maximum enzyme formation was obtained when F. oxysporum H3 was cultivated at 30 °C for 54 h with the initial pH of 7.2. There is scanty report about the optimization of nitrile hydrolase production from nitrile-converting fungus. PMID:21720838

Gong, Jin-Song; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jing-Song; Dou, Wen-Fang; Xu, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Min; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2011-10-01

261

Lipopolysaccharides of plant-growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r induce resistance in carnation to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of diseased plants could significantly be reduced when microconidia ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi were inoculated into the stem and viable-, heat-killed cells or purified LPS of the bacteriumPseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r were applied to the roots. Because the competition betweenF. o. dianthi and the bacterium could be excluded, the disease suppression seems to be due to an induced

R. Van Peer; B. Schippers

1992-01-01

262

Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

2013-01-01

263

Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose)) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

Ali, Shahin S; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-01-01

264

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

2013-01-01

265

Fine mapping of the tomato I-3 gene for fusarium wilt resistance and elimination of a co-segregating resistance gene analogue as a candidate for I-3.  

PubMed

The I-3 gene from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii confers resistance to race 3 of the devastating vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As an initial step in a positional cloning strategy for the isolation of I-3, we converted restriction fragment length polymorphism and conserved orthologue set markers, known genes and a resistance gene analogue (RGA) mapping to the I-3 region into PCR-based sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Additional PCR-based markers in the I-3 region were generated using the randomly amplified DNA fingerprinting (RAF) technique. SCAR, CAPS and RAF markers were used for high-resolution mapping around the I-3 locus. The I-3 gene was localised to a 0.3-cM region containing a RAF marker, eO6, and an RGA, RGA332. RGA332 was cloned and found to correspond to a putative pseudogene with at least two loss-of-function mutations. The predicted pseudogene belongs to the Toll interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich-repeat sub-class of plant disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of two RGA332 homologues in L. esculentum, DNA gel blot and PCR analysis suggests that no other homologues are present in lines carrying I-3 that could be alternative candidates for the gene. PMID:15045176

Hemming, M N; Basuki, S; McGrath, D J; Carroll, B J; Jones, D A

2004-07-01

266

A proteomic study of in-root interactions between chickpea pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia and the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the main soil-borne disease limiting chickpea production. Management of this disease is achieved mainly by the use of resistant cultivars. However, co-infection of a Foc-resistant plant by the fungus and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia (Ma) causes breakdown of the resistance and thus limits its efficacy in the control of Fusarium wilt. In this work we aimed to reveal key aspects of chickpea:Foc:Ma interactions, studying fungal- and nematode-induced changes in root proteins, using chickpea lines 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' that show similar resistant (Foc race 5) and susceptible (Ma) responses to either pathogen alone but a differential response after co-infection with both pathogens. 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' chickpea plants were challenged with Foc race 5 and Ma, either in single or in combined inoculations, and the root proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using three biological replicates. Pairwise comparisons of treatments indicated that 47 protein spots in 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 31 protein spots in 'ICC 14216K' underwent significant changes in intensity. The responsive protein spots tentatively identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS (27 spots for 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 15 spots for 'ICC 14216K') indicated that same biological functions were involved in the responses of either chickpea line to Foc race 5 and Ma, although common as well as line-specific responsive proteins were found within the different biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study at the root proteome level of chickpea response to a biotic stress imposed by single and joint infections by two major soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21640211

Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2011-09-01

267

Development of a mode of application of bioorganic fertilizer for improving the biocontrol efficacy to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

More effective ways of applying biocontrol products should be developed based both on the characteristics of the biocontrol\\u000a agents and the normal practices of the agricultural producer. A new system was developed to improve the biocontrol efficacy\\u000a of Fusarium wilt for watermelon production, and this system was tested in pot and field experiments. Biocontrol was achieved by applying\\u000a a novel

Ning LingChao; Chao Xue; Qiwei Huang; Xingming Yang; Yangchun Xu; Qirong Shen

2010-01-01

268

Involvement of clay type and pH in the mechanisms of soil suppressiveness to fusarium wilt of flax  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the influence of clay minerals and soil pH on the degree of soil suppressiveness, 25% (ww) kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and illite were added to a fusarium wilt-conducive soil (loam, pH 4.0) and 3 values of soil pH (pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0) were obtained by liming. The soil-clay mixtures were sown with wheat; after 6 and 30 weeks, respectively,

H. Höper; C. Steinberg; C. Alabouvette

1995-01-01

269

Analysis of the inter- and extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain was screened and found to be successful for the inter- and extracellular production of platinum nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formation was visually observed, over time, by the colour of the extracellular solution and/or the fungal biomass turning from yellow to dark brown, and their concentration was determined from the amount of residual hexachloroplatinic acid measured from a standard curve at 456 nm. The extracellular nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles of varying size (10-100 nm) and shape (hexagons, pentagons, circles, squares, rectangles) were produced at both extracellular and intercellular levels by the Fusarium oxysporum. The particles precipitate out of solution and bioaccumulate by nucleation either intercellularly, on the cell wall/membrane, or extracellularly in the surrounding medium. The importance of pH, temperature and hexachloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)) concentration in nanoparticle formation was examined through the use of a statistical response surface methodology. Only the extracellular production of nanoparticles proved to be statistically significant, with a concentration yield of 4.85 mg l(-1) estimated by a first-order regression model. From a second-order polynomial regression, the predicted yield of nanoparticles increased to 5.66 mg l(-1) and, after a backward step, regression gave a final model with a yield of 6.59 mg l(-1). PMID:19661593

Riddin, T L; Gericke, M; Whiteley, C G

2006-07-28

270

Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense isolates (Foc) of India by inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis.  

PubMed

To find out the genetic diversity of Indian Foc isolates of banana, a total of 107 isolates of Fusarium which includes 98 Foc isolates obtained from different banana growing regions of India and seven Foc isolates belong to all known VCGs obtained from Australia and two non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (npFo) isolates were subjected to ISSR analysis. In the initial screening of ISSR primers, out of 34, 10 primers which generated more polymorphic bands were selected for further analysis. The Phylogenetic analysis carried out based on the fingerprints obtained through ISSR analysis indicated the presence of wide genetic diversity among the Foc isolates of India and also its polyphyletic nature. Totally, seven different clusters were obtained and these clusters differentiated the Foc isolates of India based on the races/VCGs. Besides, the cluster analysis clearly distinguished the freshly emerged Foc strain obtained from cv. Grand Naine (Cavendish-AAA) and Poovan (Mysore-AAB) from the other Foc isolates. The non-pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates which have been included for comparison purpose also clustered separately. All these above said findings indicates for the first time the discriminatory power of ISSR to clearly distinguish and separate the Foc isolates according to its race/VCGs and also its virulence. This study would be useful not only to design and develop effective management strategies but also useful for quarantine purposes. PMID:21983913

Thangavelu, R; Kumar, K Muthu; Devi, P Ganga; Mustaffa, M M

2012-07-01

271

Analysis of the inter- and extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain was screened and found to be successful for the inter- and extracellular production of platinum nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formation was visually observed, over time, by the colour of the extracellular solution and/or the fungal biomass turning from yellow to dark brown, and their concentration was determined from the amount of residual hexachloroplatinic acid measured from a standard curve at 456 nm. The extracellular nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles of varying size (10-100 nm) and shape (hexagons, pentagons, circles, squares, rectangles) were produced at both extracellular and intercellular levels by the Fusarium oxysporum. The particles precipitate out of solution and bioaccumulate by nucleation either intercellularly, on the cell wall/membrane, or extracellularly in the surrounding medium. The importance of pH, temperature and hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) concentration in nanoparticle formation was examined through the use of a statistical response surface methodology. Only the extracellular production of nanoparticles proved to be statistically significant, with a concentration yield of 4.85 mg l-1 estimated by a first-order regression model. From a second-order polynomial regression, the predicted yield of nanoparticles increased to 5.66 mg l-1 and, after a backward step, regression gave a final model with a yield of 6.59 mg l-1.

Riddin, T. L.; Gericke, M.; Whiteley, C. G.

2006-07-01

272

Effector gene screening allows unambiguous identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races and discrimination from other formae speciales.  

PubMed

During infection of tomato, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes several unique proteins, called 'secreted in xylem' (Six) proteins, into the xylem sap. At least some of these proteins promote virulence towards tomato and among them, all predicted avirulence proteins that can trigger disease resistance in tomato have been found. In this study, a large, worldwide collection of F. oxysporum isolates was screened for the presence of seven SIX genes (SIX1-SIX7). The results convincingly show that identification of F. oxysporum formae speciales and races based on host-specific virulence genes can be very robust. SIX1, SIX2, SIX3 and SIX5 can be used for unambiguous identification of the forma specialis lycopersici. In addition, SIX4 can be used for the identification of race 1 strains, while polymorphisms in SIX3 can be exploited to differentiate race 2 from race 3 strains. For SIX6 and SIX7, close homologs were found in a few other formae speciales, suggesting that these genes may play a more general role in pathogenicity. Host specificity may be determined by the unique SIX genes, possibly in combination with the absence of genes that trigger resistance in the host. PMID:19799634

Lievens, Bart; Houterman, Petra M; Rep, Martijn

2009-11-01

273

Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:25277445

Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

2015-01-01

274

Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides.  

PubMed

Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

Freire, E S; Campos, V P; Pinho, R S C; Oliveira, D F; Faria, M R; Pohlit, A M; Noberto, N P; Rezende, E L; Pfenning, L H; Silva, J R C

2012-12-01

275

Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

2012-01-01

276

Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 3 by single-base extension method and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed allele specific (AS) SNP primers for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) race 3. FOV_BT_SNP_R3 and FOV_BT_AS_R3 primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial sequence alignment of the ß-tubulin (BT) gene from several FOV races. These ...

277

Biochemical markers as a useful tool for the early identification of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, race 1 resistance banana clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panama disease of banana (Musa spp) caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense (FOC), is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Chemical control is not economically effective and is also hazardous to the environment and human health. Breeding for disease resistance is an alternative strategy, which leads to the

M. Kavino; N. Kumar; T. Damodaran; S. Harish; D. Saravanakumar

2009-01-01

278

Cytological investigations on colonization of sorghum roots by the mycoherbicide Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae and its implications for Striga control using a seed treatment delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the potential Striga-mycoherbicide Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae (Foxy 2) by seed coating is an appropriate option for delivering and establishing the biocontrol agent in the rhizosphere, the infection zone of the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. Cytological investigations using light and transmission electron microscopy were performed to assess the pattern and extent of colonization of sorghum

Abuelgasim Elzein; Annerose Heller; Beninweck Ndambi; Michiel De Mol; Jürgen Kroschel; Georg Cadisch

2010-01-01

279

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar ‘Brazilian’ in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of ‘Yueyoukang 1’ and ‘Brazilian’ and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that ‘Yueyoukang 1’ had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than ‘Brazilian’. Expression patterns of genes involved in ‘Plant-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in ‘Brazilian’ but down-regulated in ‘Yueyoukang 1’, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was found to differ from that in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

280

A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion  

PubMed Central

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1–3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I–I3) in tomato. The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host. Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family. This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3. PMID:22952887

Inami, Keigo; Yoshioka-Akiyama, Chizu; Morita, Yasuaki; Yamasaki, Mutsuko; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

281

A genetic mechanism for emergence of races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: inactivation of avirulence gene AVR1 by transposon insertion.  

PubMed

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1-3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I-I3) in tomato. The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host. Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family. This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3. PMID:22952887

Inami, Keigo; Yoshioka-Akiyama, Chizu; Morita, Yasuaki; Yamasaki, Mutsuko; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

282

Diversity and chemotaxis of soil bacteria with antifungal activity against Fusarium wilt of banana.  

PubMed

The chemotactic response of bacteria to root exudates plays an important role in the colonization of bacteria in the rhizosphere. In this study, 420 strains of antifungal bacteria against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) were screened for chemotaxis based on a cheA molecular diagnostic method. A total of 124 strains with antifungal efficiencies of 27.26-67.14 % generated a characteristic band of cheA. The chemotaxis of 97 bacterial strains producing a cheA band was confirmed using the drop assay and swarm plate assay using catechol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, and asparagine as the attractants. A phylogenetic analysis based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the 124 chemotactic antagonists of Foc were affiliated with 18 species of Paenibacillaceae, Bacillaceae, Streptomycineae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The chemical composition of banana root exudates were analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds, including alkanes, alkenes, naphthalenes, benzenes, and alcohols, were evaluated. Five representative antagonists of Foc showed 1.76- to 7.75-fold higher chemotactic responses than the control to seven compounds in banana root exudates, as determination by capillary assays. PMID:22763749

Li, Ping; Ma, Li; Feng, Yun Li; Mo, Ming He; Yang, Fa Xiang; Dai, Hao Fu; Zhao, You Xing

2012-10-01

283

Discovery of a linoleate 9S-dioxygenase and an allene oxide synthase in a fusion protein of Fusarium oxysporum[S  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating plant pathogen that oxidizes C18 fatty acids sequentially to jasmonates. The genome codes for putative dioxygenase (DOX)-cytochrome P450 (CYP) fusion proteins homologous to linoleate diol synthases (LDSs) and the allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Aspergillus terreus, e.g., FOXB_01332. Recombinant FOXB_01332 oxidized 18:2n-6 to 9S-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid by hydrogen abstraction and antarafacial insertion of molecular oxygen and sequentially to an allene oxide, 9S(10)-epoxy-10,12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid, as judged from nonenzymatic hydrolysis products (?- and ?-ketols). The enzyme was therefore designated 9S-DOX-AOS. The 9S-DOX activity oxidized C18 and C20 fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series to hydroperoxides at the n-9 and n-7 positions, and the n-9 hydroperoxides could be sequentially transformed to allene oxides with only a few exceptions. The AOS activity was stereospecific for 9- and 11-hydroperoxides with S configurations. FOXB_01332 has acidic and alcoholic residues, Glu946-Val-Leu-Ser949, at positions of crucial Asn and Gln residues (Asn-Xaa-Xaa-Gln) of the AOS and LDS. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that FOXB_01332 and AOS of A. terreus differ in catalytically important residues suggesting that AOS of A. terreus and F. oxysporum belong to different subfamilies. FOXB_01332 is the first linoleate 9-DOX with homology to animal heme peroxidases and the first 9-DOX-AOS fusion protein. PMID:24082064

Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H.

2013-01-01

284

Evaluations of Shorter Exposures of Contact Lens Cleaning Solutions against Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex and Fusarium solani Species Complex To Simulate Inappropriate Usage?  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in contact lens users resulted in withdrawal of ReNu with MoistureLoc solution, although the exact cause of the outbreak remains enigmatic. We evaluated current and discontinued multipurpose cleaning solutions (MPSs; MoistureLoc, Equate, MultiPlus, and OptiFree Express) against plankton- and biofilm-derived cells of Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and F. solani species complex (FSSC). The methods included a traditional assay based on CFU counts and a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay based on percent cell subpopulation (PCS) stained with two fluorochromes (Sytox Red and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate). The tests were done with the respective manufacturers' recommended cleaning regimens (240 to 360 min) and under shorter exposures (15 to 60 min) to simulate inappropriate usage by the customers. FC assay measured PCS, which was available rapidly, in 5 to 7 h, whereas 24 to 48 h was needed for CFU counts, and there was good correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.97). FC assays allowed identification of injured fungal cells, which are likely to be missed with growth assays. In general, a time- and inoculum-dependent survival pattern was seen for both FOSC and FSSC cells, and biofilm-derived cells were more resistant than plankton-derived cells. MultiPlus and Equate produced 100% sterilization of fungi even under shorter exposures. However, biofilm FOSC and FSSC cells survived for up to 4 h in MoistureLoc solution and up to 6 h in OptiFree Express solution under shorter exposure times. This finding was enigmatic, as OptiFree Express is not associated with any outbreak of Fusarium keratitis. This study provides additional support for possible roles that improper lens cleaning regimens and fungal biofilms could play as predisposing factors for Fusarium keratitis. PMID:21300826

Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

2011-01-01

285

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-01-01

286

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.  

PubMed

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-01-01

287

Resistance in pepper plants induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici involves different defence-related genes.  

PubMed

Inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) protects pepper plants from subsequent infection with Phytophthora capsici. In the present paper, the level of local and systemic protection achieved by plants induced with FOL was evaluated by quantifying the pathogen biomass and using real-time PCR. Differences in the amount of pathogen were found in stems and roots between FOL-treated and untreated plants, while pathogen biomass could not be detected in leaves of induced plants. Five defence-related genes coding for a PR-1 protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a chitinase, a peroxidase and a sesquiterpene cyclase were up-regulated 48 h after treatment in all the tissues studied, and maximal mRNAs levels were found in leaves. PMID:19121115

Silvar, C; Merino, F; Díaz, J

2009-01-01

288

The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.  

PubMed

With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. ?gnt2 mutants had ?alterations in cell wall properties related to terminal ?or ?-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. ?gnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity. PMID:24416097

López-Fernández, Loida; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M Isabel G

2013-01-01

289

Solid-state cultures of Fusarium oxysporum transform aromatic components of olive-mill dry residue and reduce its phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The present study mainly investigated the ability of solid-state cultures of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain BAFC 738 to transform aromatic components to reduce the phytotoxicity in olive-mill dry residue (DOR), the waste from the two-phase manufacturing process. Lignin, hemicellulose, fats and water-soluble extractives contents of DOR colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks were reduced by 16%, 25%, 71% and 13%, respectively, while the cellulose content increased by 25%. In addition, the ethyl acetate-extractable phenolic fraction of the waste was reduced by 65%. However, mass-balance ultra-filtration and size-exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that the apparent removal of that fraction, mainly including 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl alcohol, was due to polymerization. Mn-peroxidase and Mn-independent peroxidase activities were found in F. oxysporum solid-state cultures, while laccase and aryl alcohol oxidase activities were not detected. Tests performed with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), soybean (Glycine maximum Merr.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown on soils containing 6% (w/w) of bioconverted DOR (kg soil)(-1) showed that the waste's phytotoxicity was removed by 20 weeks-old fungal cultures. By contrast, the same material exhibited a high residual toxicity towards lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). PMID:17207620

Sampedro, Inmaculada; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Ocampo, Juan A; Stazi, Silvia R; García-Romera, Inmaculada

2007-12-01

290

Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts.  

PubMed

The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ? 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus. PMID:24714966

Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmüller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

2014-04-01

291

Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology.  

PubMed

Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1-3 h for extraction time (X(1)), 80-100 °C for extraction temperature (X(2)), and 20-40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X(3)). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions. PMID:22754306

Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

2012-01-01

292

Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts  

PubMed Central

The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ? 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus . PMID:24714966

Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmüller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

2013-01-01

293

Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1), 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2), and 20–40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X3). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions. PMID:22754306

Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

2012-01-01

294

Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.  

PubMed

In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

2015-01-01

295

Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system  

PubMed Central

In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

2015-01-01

296

Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium–mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana. PMID:22745785

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2012-01-01

297

Toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. Unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in Morocco and Algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Fao). Controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. Breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. Few naturally resistant cultivars with a mediocre fruit quality (dates) are known. Conventional and non-conventional methods are under development and have to use the simplest and easiest methods to screen for resistant individuals. The use of pathogen toxins as selective agents at the tissue culture step might be a source of variability that can lead to the selection of individuals with suitable levels of resistance to the toxin and/or to the pathogen among the genetic material available. Foa produces toxins such as fusaric, succinic, 3-phenyl lactic acids and their derivatives, marasmins and peptidic toxins. These toxins can be used bulked or separately as selective agents. The aim of this contribution was to give a brief overview on toxins and their use as a mean to select resistant lines and to initiate a discussion about the potential use of this approach for the date palm-Foa pathosystem. This review does not pretend to be comprehensive or exhaustive and was prepared mainly to highlight the potential use of Foa toxins for selecting date palm individuals with a suitable resistance level to bayoud using toxin-based selective media. PMID:16125651

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El Idrissi-Tourane, Abdelmalek; El Hassni, Majida; Daayf, Fouad; El Hadrami, Ismaïl

2005-08-01

298

Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Products of a Non-Phenol-Chloroform Dna Extraction Method as Templates for Pcr Analysis of Some Fusarium oxysporum Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Fusarium oxysporum isolates, f.sp lycopersici Race 1 (Kis-1), Race 2 (880621a-1), Race 3 (Tomino-1c) and f.sp radicis lycopersici (MAFF 103044) were obtained from the stock of the Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan. They were cultured on Potat o Sucrose Agar (PSA) at 26.3°C and genomic DNAs were successfully extracted using a novel non

Olusegun Samuel Balogun

299

Risk Levels of Invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in Areas Suitable for Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivation under Various Climate Change Projections  

PubMed Central

Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication. PMID:24340100

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

2013-01-01

300

Effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on the soil-to-root translocation of heavy metals in tomato plants susceptible and resistant to the fungus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to gain an insight on the potential role of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the translocation of metals and metalloids from soil to plant roots in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Two varieties of tomato (one susceptible and another resistant to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were challenged with the fungus for different periods of time, and several elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were determined in roots and in soil substrate. Additionally, phenolic plant products were also analyzed for the evaluation of the plant response to biotic stress. In order to obtain representative results for plants cultivated in noncontaminated environments, the infected and control plants were grown in commercial soil with natural, relatively low metal concentrations, partly associated with humic substances. Using such an experimental design, a specific role of the fungus could be observed, while possible effects of plant exposure to elevated concentrations of heavy metals were avoided. In the infected plants of two varieties, the root concentrations of several metals/metalloids were increased compared to control plants; however, the results obtained for elements and for phenolic compounds were significantly different in the two plant varieties. It is proposed that both Lycopersicum esculentum colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the increase of metal bioavailability due to fungus-assisted solubilization of soil humic substances contribute to element traffic from soil to roots in tomato plant. PMID:21053907

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Landero Figueroa, Julio Alberto; Gutíerrez Corona, J Felix; Wrobel, Kazimierz

2010-12-01

301

Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant) x 24-125B-1 (susceptible). Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties using marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:22860000

Pottorff, Marti; Wanamaker, Steve; Ma, Yaqin Q; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

2012-01-01

302

Relations entre la fertilit pollinique et les gnes de rsistance au Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  

E-print Network

'aspect normal après coloration au carmin acétique) a été étudiée chez des hybrides hétérozygotes pour le gène I annexe, une observation du pollen après coloration permet en cours de sélection de repérer facilement et to the results, and to the incidence of race 1 of Fusarium, the best hybrid cultivars for protected cultivation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

304

Exploring MicroRNA-Like Small RNAs in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. To date, very little work focusing on small RNAs in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milRNAs were defined clearly. In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries were constructed and subsequently deep sequenced for investigating milRNAs and their potential cleavage targets on the genome level in the filamentous fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As a result, there is no intersection of conserved miRNAs found by BLASTing against the miRBase. Further analysis showed that the small RNA population of F. oxysporum shared many common features with the small RNAs from N. crassa and other fungi. According to the known standards of miRNA prediction in plants and animals, milRNA candidates from 8 families (comprising 19 members) were screened out and identified. However, none of them could trigger target cleavage based on the degradome data. Moreover, most major signals of cleavage in transcripts could not match appropriate complementary small RNAs, suggesting that other predominant modes for milRNA-mediated gene regulation could exist in F. oxysporum. In addition, the PAREsnip program was utilized for comprehensive analysis and 3 families of small RNAs leading to transcript cleavage were experimentally validated. Altogether, our findings provided valuable information and important hints for better understanding the functions of the small RNAs and milRNAs in the fungal kingdom. PMID:25141304

Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Zheng

2014-01-01

305

Exploring microRNA-like small RNAs in the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. To date, very little work focusing on small RNAs in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milRNAs were defined clearly. In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries were constructed and subsequently deep sequenced for investigating milRNAs and their potential cleavage targets on the genome level in the filamentous fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As a result, there is no intersection of conserved miRNAs found by BLASTing against the miRBase. Further analysis showed that the small RNA population of F. oxysporum shared many common features with the small RNAs from N. crassa and other fungi. According to the known standards of miRNA prediction in plants and animals, milRNA candidates from 8 families (comprising 19 members) were screened out and identified. However, none of them could trigger target cleavage based on the degradome data. Moreover, most major signals of cleavage in transcripts could not match appropriate complementary small RNAs, suggesting that other predominant modes for milRNA-mediated gene regulation could exist in F. oxysporum. In addition, the PAREsnip program was utilized for comprehensive analysis and 3 families of small RNAs leading to transcript cleavage were experimentally validated. Altogether, our findings provided valuable information and important hints for better understanding the functions of the small RNAs and milRNAs in the fungal kingdom. PMID:25141304

Chen, Rui; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Zheng

2014-01-01

306

Primary Metabolism of Chickpea Is the Initial Target of Wound Inducing Early Sensed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race I  

PubMed Central

Background Biotrophic interaction between host and pathogen induces generation of reactive oxygen species that leads to programmed cell death of the host tissue specifically encompassing the site of infection conferring resistance to the host. However, in the present study, biotrophic relationship between Fusarium oxysporum and chickpea provided some novel insights into the classical concepts of defense signaling and disease perception where ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation followed by hypersensitive responses determined the magnitude of susceptibility or resistant potentiality of the host. Methodology/Principal Findings Microscopic observations detected wound mediated in planta pathogenic establishment and its gradual progression within the host vascular tissue. cDNA-AFLP showed differential expression of many defense responsive elements. Real time expression profiling also validated the early recognition of the wound inducing pathogen by the host. The interplay between fungus and host activated changes in primary metabolism, which generated defense signals in the form of sugar molecules for combating pathogenic encounter. Conclusions/Significance The present study showed the limitations of hypersensitive response mediated resistance, especially when foreign encounters involved the food production as well as the translocation machinery of the host. It was also predicted from the obtained results that hypersensitivity and active species generation failed to impart host defense in compatible interaction between chickpea and Fusarium. On the contrary, the defense related gene(s) played a critical role in conferring natural resistance to the resistant host. Thus, this study suggests that natural selection is the decisive factor for selecting and segregating out the suitable type of defense mechanism to be undertaken by the host without disturbing its normal metabolism, which could deviate from the known classical defense mechanisms. PMID:20140256

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sengupta, Anindita; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

2010-01-01

307

Native soil bacteria isolates in Mexico exhibit a promising antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

PubMed

Sinaloa state accounts for 23% of Mexico's tomato production. One constraint on this important crop is the Fusarium crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which has been reported to reduce crop yield by up to 50%. In this study, we set out to identify bacterial populations which could be used to control this disease through natural antagonism. Five tomato rhizospheric soil samples were collected, dried for 1-week, and homogenized. Sub-samples were used to prepare an aqueous solution used to isolate microorganisms in pure cultures. Organisms were purified and grown separately, and used to generate a collection of 705 bacterial isolates. Thirty-four percent from this bank (254 strains) was screened against Forl, finding 27 bacteria displaying in vitro Forl growth inhibition levels from 5% to 60%. These isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and their 16Sr DNA sequences showed that they are closely related to seven species and they were putatively designated as: B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, B. megaterium, and B. pumilus. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Two B. subtilis isolates (144 and 151) and one B. cereus isolate (171) showed the best antagonistic potential against FCRRT when evaluated on seedlings. Plate and activity assays indicate that these isolates include a diverse repertoire of functional antagonistic traits that might explain their ability to control FCRRT. Moreover, bacteria showed partial hemolytic activity, and future research will be directed at ensuring that their application will be not harmful for humans and effective against Forl in greenhouse or field conditions. PMID:23417777

Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; López-Rivera, Raquel; Figueroa-Lopez, Alejandro Miguel; Mancera-López, María Elena; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Apodaca-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

2013-10-01

308

Comparative study of the bioconversion process using R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene as substrates for Fusarium oxysporum 152B.  

PubMed

This study compared the bioconversion process of S-(-)-limonene into limonene-1,2-diol with the already established biotransformation of R-(+)-limonene into ?-terpineol using the same biocatalyst in both processes, Fusarium oxysporum 152B. The bioconversion of the S-(-)-isomer was tested on cell permeabilisation under anaerobic conditions and using a biphasic system. When submitted to permeabilisation trials, this biocatalyst has shown a relatively high resistance; still, no production of limonene-1,2-diol and a loss of activity of the biocatalyst were observed after intense cell treatment, indicating a complete loss of cell viability. Furthermore, the results showed that this process can be characterised as an aerobic system that was catalysed by limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase, had an intracellular nature and was cofactor-dependent because the final product was not detected by an anaerobic process. Finally, this is the first report to characterise the bioconversion of R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene by cellular detoxification using ultra-structural analysis. PMID:25529726

Molina, Gustavo; Bution, Murillo L; Bicas, Juliano L; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Pastore, Gláucia M

2015-05-01

309

Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.  

PubMed

Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and ?-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates. PMID:21503737

Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

2011-03-01

310

Extracellular biosynthesis of CdTe quantum dots by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and their anti-bacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for semiconductor [quantum dots (Q-dots)] nanoparticles has fuelled significant research in developing strategies for their synthesis and characterization. They are extensively investigated by the chemical route; on the other hand, use of microbial sources for biosynthesis witnessed the highly stable, water dispersible nanoparticles formation. Here we report, for the first time, an efficient fungal-mediated synthesis of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots at ambient conditions by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum when reacted with a mixture of CdCl2 and TeCl4. Characterization of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was carried out by different techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. CdTe nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fungal based fabrication provides an economical, green chemistry approach for production of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots.

Syed, Asad; Ahmad, Absar

2013-04-01

311

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last few decades nanoparticles have attracted and emerged as a field in biomedical research due to their incredible applications. The current research was focused on extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell free culture supernatant of strain GP-23. It was found that the strain GP-23 belonged to Bacillus species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution, after 24 h it turned to brown color solution with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, EDX and AFM. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 7-21 nm. It was stable in aqueous solution for five months period of storage at room temperature under dark condition. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum at the concentration of 8 ?g ml-1. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide.

Gopinath, V.; Velusamy, P.

2013-04-01

312

Fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5.  

PubMed

Trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. However, some antagonistic mechanisms of Trichoderma are not well characterized. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We further tested whether these mechanisms were inducible and upregulated in presence of FOC. The results were as follows: T-E5 heavily parasitized FOC by coiling and twisting the entire mycelium of the pathogen in dual cultures. T-E5 growing medium conditioned with deactivated FOC (T2) showed more proteins and higher cell wall-degrading enzyme activities than T1, suggesting that FOC could induce the upregulation of exoenzymes. The presence of deactivated FOC (T2') also resulted in the upregulation of VOCs that five and eight different types T-E5-derived VOCs were identified from T1' and T2', respectively. Further, the excreted VOCs in T2' showed significantly higher antifungal activities against FOC than T1'. In conclusion, mycoparasitism of T-E5 against FOC involved mycelium contact and the production of complex extracellular substances. Together, these data provide clues to help further clarify the interactions between these fungi. PMID:25135494

Zhang, Fengge; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2014-10-01

313

Mutation of CRE1 in Fusarium oxysporum reverts the pathogenicity defects of the FRP1 deletion mutant.  

PubMed

The F-box protein Frp1 is required for pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards tomato. The Delta frp1 mutant is deficient in expression of genes for cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) and ICL1, encoding a key enzyme for the assimilation of C2 carbon sources. An explanation for the inability of the Delta frp1 mutant to express these genes may be found in constitutive carbon catabolite repression. Cre1 is the transcriptional repressor in filamentous fungi known to repress several CWDE genes and other genes required for assimilation of non-sugar carbon sources. Here, we demonstrate that Frp1 and Cre1 both control the repression/derepression state of such genes. The replacement of CRE1 with GST::CRE1 resulted in a derepressed phenotype in wild-type background, suggesting that this replacement affects Cre1 function. Strikingly, in the Delta frp1 mutant the replacement of CRE1 with GST::CRE1 restored pathogenicity, growth on ethanol and expression of ICL1 and CWDE genes. A GFP-Cre1 fusion protein is not degraded nor exported out of the nucleus during growth on ethanol, a derepressing carbon source, suggesting that Cre1 is not likely a target of Frp1 for degradation by the proteasome. We conclude that both proteins function together to regulate transcription of carbon source utilization genes. PMID:19912543

Jonkers, Wilfried; Rep, Martijn

2009-12-01

314

A nuclear localization for Avr2 from Fusarium oxysporum is required to activate the tomato resistance protein I-2.  

PubMed

Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to promote host colonization. During infection of tomato xylem vessels, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes the Avr2 effector protein. Besides being a virulence factor, Avr2 is recognized intracellularly by the tomato I-2 resistance protein, resulting in the induction of host defenses. Here, we show that AVR2 is highly expressed in root- and xylem-colonizing hyphae three days post inoculation of roots. Co-expression of I-2 with AVR2 deletion constructs using agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves revealed that, except for the N-terminal 17 amino acids, the entire AVR2 protein is required to trigger I-2-mediated cell death. The truncated Avr2 variants are still able to form homo-dimers, showing that the central region of Avr2 is required for dimerization. Simultaneous production of I-2 and Avr2 chimeras carrying various subcellular localization signals in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that a nuclear localization of Avr2 is required to trigger I-2-dependent cell death. Nuclear exclusion of Avr2 prevented its activation of I-2, suggesting that Avr2 is recognized by I-2 in the nucleus. PMID:23596453

Ma, Lisong; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Takken, Frank L W

2013-01-01

315

Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.  

PubMed

A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process. PMID:20618706

Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

2010-07-01

316

Fusarium Yellows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows, a disease caused by several Fusarium species, but primarily Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae, is a common problem in the western United States and also has been reported in several other parts of the world. The disease can cause significant reduction in yield and purity. The fungus...

317

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

318

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

319

REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-01-01

320

Increased resistance to fungal wilts in transgenic eggplant expressing alfalfa glucanase gene.  

PubMed

The wilt diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum are the major diseases of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In order to generate transgenic resistance against the wilt diseases, Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was performed to introduce alfalfa glucanase gene encoding an acidic glucanase into eggplant using neomycin phosphotransferase (npt-II) gene as a plant selection marker. The transgene integration into eggplant genome was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis and transgene expression by the glucanase activity and western blot analysis. The selected transgenic lines were challenged with V. dahliae and F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo growth conditions, and transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance against the wilt-causing fungi with a delay of 5-7 days in the disease development as compared to wild-type plants. PMID:24757318

Singh, Deepali; Ambroise, Annick; Haicour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2014-04-01

321

Resistance to wilt in chickpea. II. Further evidence for two genes for resistance to race 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of parents and F1, F2 and F3 generations of crosses of JG-62 (early-rilting) and C-104 (late-wilting) with resistant cultivars provide further evidence that resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is controlled by at least two genes, both of which must be present in homozygous recessive form for complete resistance. Singly, one

H. D. Upadhyaya; J. B. Smithson; M. P. Haware; J. Kumar

1983-01-01

322

Control of Verticillium Wilt of Tomato Plants with `Cycocel' ((2-Chloroethyl)trimethylammonium Chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is known that the severity of the wilt disease of tomato plants caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici can be reduced by treating plants with one of a variety of growth regulating substances, such as indolyl-3-acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid1. We have found that, when applied to tomato plants in suitable concentrations, these substances also

A. K. Sinha; R. K. S. Wood

1964-01-01

323

Induced resistance to Fusarial wilt of banana by menadione sodium bisulphite treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal agent of banana vascular wilt disease named Panama disease and one of the most serious threats to banana crops worldwide. A water-soluble addition compound of vitamin K3, menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), first studied as a plant growth regulator, has recently been shown to induce resistance against Panama disease. Effective fungicides

A. A. Borges; A. Borges-Pérez; M. Fernández-Falcón

2004-01-01

324

A novel ionic liquid-tolerant Fusarium oxysporum BN secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: Consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.  

PubMed

In this study, microbial communities from chemicals polluted microhabitats were cultured with the addition of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) to enrich for IL-tolerant microbes. A strain of Fusarium oxysporum BN producing cellulase from these enrichments was capable of growing in 10% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphinate, much higher than the normal IL concentrations in the lignocellulose regenerated from ILs. Cellulase secreted by the strain showed high resistance to ILs based on phosphate and sulfate radicals, evidencing of a high conformational stability in relevant media. Gratifyingly, F. oxysporum BN can directly convert IL-pretreated rice straw to bioethanol via consolidated bioprocessing (I-CBP). At optimum fermentation condition, a maximum ethanol yield of 0.125gethanolg(-1) of rice straw was finally obtained, corresponding to 64.2% of the theoretical yield. PMID:25625459

Xu, Jiaxing; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Lei; Xia, Jun; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Ning; Dai, Benlin; Wu, Bin

2015-04-01

325

The pqqC gene is essential for antifungal activity of Pseudomonas kilonensis JX22 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Strain JX22, exhibiting a broad range of antimicrobial activities to fungal pathogens, was isolated and classified as representing Pseudomonas kilonensis. In this study, the mutant JX22MT1 was obtained by the EZ-Tn5 transposon mutation and showed no antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici as compared with wild-type strain JX22. The pqqC gene was disrupted in the mutant. Antifungal activity at the wild-type level was restored from the mutant JX22MT1 with the introduction of the functional pqqC gene, which encodes pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthesis protein C. The results suggest that pqqC is essential for antifungal activity of P. kilonensis JX22 against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:24588744

Xu, Jianhong; Deng, Peng; Showmaker, Kurt C; Wang, Hui; Baird, Sonya M; Lu, Shi-En

2014-04-01

326

Ability of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Fo47 To Induce Resistance against Pythium ultimum Infection in Cucumber  

PubMed Central

The influence exerted by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by Pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of Pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of cellulose with an exoglucanase-gold complex showed that the cellulose component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. A similar antagonistic process was observed at the root cell surface. Most striking and interesting was the finding that mycoparasitism, as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of Fo47 hyphae within nearly empty cells of the pathogen, occurred not only at the root surface but also within the invaded root tissues. The specific labeling pattern obtained with the exoglucanase-gold complex confirmed that Fo47 successfully penetrated cells of the pathogen, both in the rhizosphere and inside the root tissues. Pythium cells that could evade the first defensive line in the rhizosphere could penetrate the root epidermis, but their growth was restricted to the outermost tissues. Positive correlations between Fo47 treatment and induced resistance to infection by P. ultimum in cucumber were confirmed by (i) the reduction of pathogen viability; (ii) the elaboration of newly formed barriers, a phenomenon which was not seen in Fo47-free plants, where the pathogen proliferated in all root tissues within a few days; and (iii) the occlusion of intercellular spaces with a dense material likely enriched in phenolics. Taken together, our observations provide the first convincing evidence that Fo47 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on P. ultimum through a combination of antibiosis and mycoparasitism, in addition to being a strong inducer of plant defense reactions. PMID:12147506

Benhamou, Nicole; Garand, Chantal; Goulet, Alain

2002-01-01

327

Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Extracellular Polysaccharide with Antioxidant Activity, from the Mangrove-Associated Fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Marine fungi are recognized as an abundant source of extracellular polysaccharides with novel structures. Mangrove fungi constitute the second largest ecological group of the marine fungi, and many of them are new or inadequately described species and may produce extracellular polysaccharides with novel functions and structures that could be explored as a source of useful polymers. The mangrove-associated fungus Fusarium oxysporum produces an extracellular polysaccharide, Fw-1, when grown in potato dextrose-agar medium. The homogeneous Fw-1 was isolated from the fermented broth by a combination of ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies showed that Fw-1 consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 1.33:1.33:1.00, and its molecular weight was about 61.2 kDa. The structure of Fw-1 contains a backbone of (1???6)-linked ?-D-galactofuranose residues with multiple side chains. The branches consist of terminal ?-D-glucopyranose residues, or short chains containing (1???2)-linked ?-D-glucopyranose, (1???2)-linked ?-D-mannopyranose, and terminal ?-D-mannopyranose residues. The side chains are connected to C-2 of galactofuranose residues of backbone. The antioxidant activity of Fw-1 was evaluated with the scavenging abilities on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals in vitro, and the results indicated that Fw-1 possessed good antioxidant activity, especially the scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals. The investigation demonstrated that Fw-1 is a novel galactofuranose-containing polysaccharide with different structural characteristics from extracellular polysaccharides from other marine microorganisms and could be a potential source of antioxidant. PMID:25627692

Chen, Yan-Li; Mao, Wen-Jun; Tao, Hong-Wen; Zhu, Wei-Ming; Yan, Meng-Xia; Liu, Xue; Guo, Tian-Tian; Guo, Tao

2015-04-01

328

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in “Egusi” melon ( Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of “Egusi” melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer “Egusi”\\u000a resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two “Egusi” genotypes, ‘Ejagham’ and NHC1-130, were transformed with\\u000a Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary

Valentine Otang Ntui; Gunaratnam Thirukkumaran; Pejman Azadi; Raham Sher Khan; Ikuo Nakamura; Masahiro Mii

2010-01-01

329

Targeting Iron Acquisition Blocks Infection with the Fungal Pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections. PMID:23853581

Leal, Sixto M.; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

2013-01-01

330

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

331

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

332

FEM1, a Fusarium oxysporum glycoprotein that is covalently linked to the cell wall matrix and is conserved in filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

As part of an investigation of the cell wall structure of plant pathogenic, filamentous fungi, we set out to characterize covalently bound cell wall glycoproteins (CWPs) of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. N-terminal sequencing of an abundant 60-kDa CWP led to the cloning of the corresponding gene, which we have designated FEM1 (Fusarium extracellular matrix protein). The gene contains an ORF encoding a primary translation product of 212 amino acids, including an N-terminal 17-amino acid secretion signal sequence. Furthermore, FEM1p contains two potential N-glycosylation sites, and is rich in serine and threonine residues (29%) that could serve as O-glycosyl addition sites. At its C-terminus the protein contains a 22-amino acid sequence with the characteristics of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor addition signal. A mutant FEM1 protein lacking this GPI anchor addition signal is not retained in the fungal cell wall but released into the culture medium, indicating that in the wild-type protein this sequence functions to anchor the protein to the extracellular matrix. Southern analysis shows that FEM1 is present as a single-copy gene in all formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested and in F. solani. Database searches show that FEM1p homologous sequences are present in other filamentous fungi as well. PMID:11370861

Schoffelmeer, E A; Vossen, J H; van Doorn, A A; Cornelissen, B J; Haring, M A

2001-03-01

333

Analysis of the defence-related mechanism in cucumber seedlings in relation to root colonization by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum CS-20.  

PubMed

A defence response can be induced by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum CS-20 in several crops, but the molecular mechanism has not been clearly demonstrated. In the present study, we analysed the defence mechanism of a susceptible cucumber cultivar (Cucumis sativus L. 9930) against a pathogen (F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum) through the root precolonization of CS-20. A challenge inoculation assay indicated that the disease severity index (DSI) was reduced, ranging from 18.83 to 61.67 in comparison with the pathogen control. Root colonization analysis indicated that CS-20 clearly did not appear to influence the growth of cucumber seedlings. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that CS-20-mediated defence response was activated by PR3, LOX1 and PAL1 and the pathogen-mediated resistance response was regulated by PR1 and PR3. Moreover, both nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum were able to upregulate NPR1 expression. In contrast to a pathogen, CS-20 can activate the Ca(2+) /CaM signal transduction pathway, and the gene expression of both CsCam7 and CsCam12 increased significantly. The gene expression analysis indicated that CS-20 strongly enhanced the expression of PR3, LOX1, PAL1, NPR1, CsCam7 and CsCam12 after inoculation. Overall, the defence response induced by CS-20 can be controlled by multiple genes in the cucumber plant. PMID:24810367

Pu, Xiaoming; Xie, Bingyan; Li, Peiqian; Mao, Zhenchuan; Ling, Jian; Shen, Huifang; Zhang, Jingxin; Huang, Ning; Lin, Birun

2014-06-01

334

Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551, an Indigenous Greek Isolate Studied as a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum. PMID:23762841

Kanini, Grammatiki S.; Katsifas, Efstathios A.; Savvides, Alexandros L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.

2013-01-01

335

Folyt1, a new member of the hAT family, is active in the genome of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

An active transposable element, Folyt1, has been isolated from the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene (nit 1) in two independent mutants (CO66 and CO108). Folyt1 was 2615 bp in length and contained 9-bp imperfect inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and 8 bp duplicated at the target site upon insertion. The element contained a long open reading frame interrupted by a single putative intron. The predicted amino acid sequence showed similarity to conserved domains of transposases from hobo, Ac, and Tam3 elements, which belong to the hAT family. The excision frequency of Folyt1 was determined to be less than 10(-5) in both mutants. These events restored the nit 1 wild-type allele without leaving footprints in all the revertants of strain CO66. Nevertheless, some revertants of strain CO108 showed a point mutation footprint at the target sequence. Expression of the Folyt1 transposase was detected by Northern analysis as a 2.1-kb transcript. The element exists in about 10 copies per genome in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and appears to be widely distributed among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. PMID:10413616

Gómez-Gómez, E; Anaya, N; Roncero, M I; Hera, C

1999-06-01

336

Phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin precludes Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in lycopersicon esculentum via induction of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway.  

PubMed

Binding of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (PDP) modulated activity of fungal endopolygalacturonase in silico. Induced fit docking study of PDP with endopolygalacturonase (1HG8) showed a bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with the protein at Lys 244 with a docking score of -3.6 and glide energy of -37.30 kcal/mol. Docking with endopolygalacturonase II (1CZF) resulted hydrogen bond formation with Lys 258 with a docking score of -2.3 and glide energy of -30.42 kcal/mol. It was hypothesized that this modulation favors accumulation of cell wall fragments (oligogalacturonides) which act as elicitors of plant defense responses. In order to prove the same, in vivo studies were carried out using a formulation developed from PDP (PDP 5EC) on greenhouse grown Lycopersicon esculentum L. The formulation was effective at different concentrations in reduction of seed infection, improvement of vigor and control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in L. esculentum. At a concentration of 2 %, PDP 5EC significant reduction in seed infection (95.83 %), improvement in seed vigor (64.31 %) and control of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection (96.15 %) were observed. Further application of PDP 5EC to L. esculentum challenged with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici significantly increased the activity of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and enhanced the total phenolic content when compared to the control. PMID:25374140

Sangeetha, S; Sarada, D V L

2015-01-01

337

Development of Quantitative Proteomics Using iTRAQ Based on the Immunological Response of Galleria mellonella Larvae Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum Microconidia  

PubMed Central

Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at 37°C over expressed many more proteins than other treatments. PMID:25379782

Muñoz-Gómez, Amalia; Corredor, Mauricio; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Peláez, Carlos

2014-01-01

338

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

339

Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.  

PubMed

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

340

Effect of Nanoencapsulated Vitamin B1 Derivative on Inhibition of Both Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

PubMed Central

Nanoencapsulation of thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS), a vitamin B1 derivative, was proved to effectively inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (F. oxysporum), as well as mycelial growth. The average diameter of nanoparticles was measured as 136 nm by being encapsulated with an edible encapsulant, lecithin, whose encapsulation efficiency was about 55% in containing 200 ppm of TDS concentration: the 100 ppm TDS nanoparticle solution showed a mycelial growth inhibition rate of 59%. These results were about similar or even better than the cases of treating 100 ppm of dazomet, a positive antifungal control (64%). Moreover, kinetic analysis of inhibiting spore germination were estimated as 6.6% reduction of spore germination rates after 24 h treatment, which were 3.3% similar to the case of treating 100 ppm of a positive control (dazomet) for the same treatment time. It was also found that TDS itself could work as an antifungal agent by inhibiting both mycelial growth and spore germination, even though its efficacy was lower than those of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles especially played a more efficient role in limiting the spore germination, due to their easy penetration into hard cell membranes and long resident time on the surface of the spore shell walls. In this work, it was first demonstrated that the nanoparticle of TDS not a harmful chemical can control the growth of F. oxysporum by using a lower dosage than commercial herbicides, as well as the inhibiting mechanism of the TDS. However, field trials of the TDS nanoparticles encapsulated with lecithin should be further studied to be effectively used for field applications. PMID:23429270

Cho, Jeong Sub; Seo, Yong Chang; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

341

Effect of Nanoencapsulated Vitamin B1 Derivative on Inhibition of Both Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani.  

PubMed

Nanoencapsulation of thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS), a vitamin B1 derivative, was proved to effectively inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (F. oxysporum), as well as mycelial growth. The average diameter of nanoparticles was measured as 136 nm by being encapsulated with an edible encapsulant, lecithin, whose encapsulation efficiency was about 55% in containing 200 ppm of TDS concentration: the 100 ppm TDS nanoparticle solution showed a mycelial growth inhibition rate of 59%. These results were about similar or even better than the cases of treating 100 ppm of dazomet, a positive antifungal control (64%). Moreover, kinetic analysis of inhibiting spore germination were estimated as 6.6% reduction of spore germination rates after 24 h treatment, which were 3.3% similar to the case of treating 100 ppm of a positive control (dazomet) for the same treatment time. It was also found that TDS itself could work as an antifungal agent by inhibiting both mycelial growth and spore germination, even though its efficacy was lower than those of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles especially played a more efficient role in limiting the spore germination, due to their easy penetration into hard cell membranes and long resident time on the surface of the spore shell walls. In this work, it was first demonstrated that the nanoparticle of TDS not a harmful chemical can control the growth of F. oxysporum by using a lower dosage than commercial herbicides, as well as the inhibiting mechanism of the TDS. However, field trials of the TDS nanoparticles encapsulated with lecithin should be further studied to be effectively used for field applications. PMID:23429270

Cho, Jeong Sub; Seo, Yong Chang; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

342

Tomato Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses to Fusarium Wilt and Tomato Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant–pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV). Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK) were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses. PMID:24804963

Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ferriello, Francesca; Tardella, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Sigillo, Loredana; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella

2014-01-01

343

Tomato genome-wide transcriptional responses to Fusarium wilt and Tomato Mosaic Virus.  

PubMed

Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant-pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV). Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK) were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses. PMID:24804963

Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ferriello, Francesca; Tardella, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Sigillo, Loredana; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella

2014-01-01

344

Effect of physicochemical parameters on nitrile-hydrolyzing potentials of newly isolated nitrilase of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopercisi ED-3.  

PubMed

In recent years, nitrilases from fungus have received increasing attention, and most of the studies are performed on nitrilases of bacterial origin. Frequently used methods are based on analytical methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography; therefore, an efficient, user friendly, and rapid method has been developed to screen nitrilase enzyme based on the principle of color change of a pH indicator. Phenol red amended with the minimal medium appears light yellow at neutral pH, which changes into pink with the formation of ammonia, indicating nitrilase activity in the reaction medium. A highly potent strain ED-3 identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopercisi (specific activity 17.5 µmol/Min/mg dcw) was isolated using this method. The nitrilase activity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopercisi ED-3 strain showed wide substrate specificity toward aliphatic nitriles, aromatic nitriles, and orthosubstituted heterocyclic nitriles. 4-Aminobenzonitrile was found to be a superior substrate among all the nitriles used in this study. This nitrilase was active within pH 5-10 and temperature ranging from 25 to 60 °C with optimal at pH 7.0 and temperature at 50 °C. The nitrilase activity was enhanced to several folds through optimization of culture and biotransformation conditions from 1,121 to 1,941 µmol/Min. PMID:24923632

Bura Gohain, Manorama; Talukdar, Shruti; Talukdar, Madhumita; Yadav, Archana; Gogoi, Binod Kumar; Bora, Tarun Chandra; Kiran, Shashi; Gulati, Arvind

2014-06-13

345

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more

Li-Jun Ma; H. Charlotte van der Does; Katherine A. Borkovich; Jeffrey J. Coleman; Marie-Josée Daboussi; Antonio di Pietro; Marie Dufresne; Michael Freitag; Manfred Grabherr; Bernard Henrissat; Petra M. Houterman; Seogchan Kang; Won-Bo Shim; Charles Woloshuk; Xiaohui Xie; Jin-Rong Xu; John Antoniw; Scott E. Baker; Burton H. Bluhm; Andrew Breakspear; Daren W. Brown; Robert A. E. Butchko; Sinead Chapman; Richard Coulson; Pedro M. Coutinho; Etienne G. J. Danchin; Andrew Diener; Liane R. Gale; Donald M. Gardiner; Stephen Goff; Kim E. Hammond-Kosack; Karen Hilburn; Aurélie Hua-van; Wilfried Jonkers; Kemal Kazan; Chinnappa D. Kodira; Michael Koehrsen; Lokesh Kumar; Yong-Hwan Lee; Liande Li; John M. Manners; Diego Miranda-Saavedra; Mala Mukherjee; Sook-Young Park; Robert H. Proctor; Aviv Regev; M. Carmen Ruiz-Roldan; Divya Sain; Sharadha Sakthikumar; Sean Sykes; David C. Schwartz; B. Gillian Turgeon; Ilan Wapinski; Olen Yoder; Sarah Young; Qiandong Zeng; Shiguo Zhou; James Galagan; Christina A. Cuomo; H. Corby Kistler; Martijn Rep

2010-01-01

346

Effect of mustard green manure and dried plant residue on chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were carried out in the green house at Amhara Regional Agriculture Research Institute (ARARI) Bahirdar, Ethiopia, to evaluate the potential of Brassica carinata cultivars, namely Holleta-l, S-67 and Yellow Dodola in 2007 and 2008. The effect of B. carinata (Ethiopian mustard) cultivars Holleta-1, S-67 and Yellow Dodola as green manure and Holleta-1 as dried plant residue on chickpea

Merkuz Abera; Seid Ahmad; Chemeda Fininsa; Parshotam K. Sakhuja; Getachew Alemayehu

2011-01-01

347

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

348

Fusarium pathogenomics.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed that the Fusarium genome is compartmentalized into regions responsible for primary metabolism and reproduction (core genome), and pathogen virulence, host specialization, and possibly other functions (adaptive genome). Genes involved in virulence and host specialization are located on pathogenicity chromosomes within strains pathogenic to tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and pea (Fusarium 'solani' f. sp. pisi). The experimental transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici into a nonpathogen transformed the latter into a tomato pathogen. Thus, horizontal transfer may explain the polyphyletic origins of host specificity within the genus. Additional genome-scale comparative and functional studies are needed to elucidate the evolution and diversity of pathogenicity mechanisms, which may help inform novel disease management strategies against fusarial pathogens. PMID:24024636

Ma, Li-Jun; Geiser, David M; Proctor, Robert H; Rooney, Alejandro P; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trail, Frances; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2013-01-01

349

Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (HV) strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the HV strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent (WV) strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The WV strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the HV strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2.

Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Tello, Vega; Casado-del Castillo, Virginia; Thon, Michael R.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

2015-01-01

350

Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, ?ukasz; Naro?na, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-10-01

351

Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of ?-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. PMID:25178062

Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, S?awomir; Marczak, ?ukasz; Nowak, Witold; Naro?na, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Malu?ki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

2014-01-01

352

Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)–Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium. PMID:23580752

Xu, Chunxiang

2013-01-01

353

De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. Results We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from banana roots infected with Foc Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR 4) at days 0, 2, 4, and 6. We generated over 26 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library using deep sequencing and assembled 25,158 distinct gene sequences by de novo assembly and gap-filling. The average distinct gene sequence length was 1,439 base pairs. A total of 21,622 (85.94%) unique sequences were annotated and 11,611 were assigned to specific metabolic pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used digital gene expression (DGE) profiling to investigate the transcriptional changes in the banana root upon Foc TR4 infection. The expression of genes in the Phenylalanine metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathways was affected by Foc TR4 infection. Conclusion The combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the banana root transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes during the response of banana genes to Foc TR4 infection. The assembled banana transcriptome provides an important resource for future investigations about the banana crop as well as the diseases that plague this valuable staple food. PMID:23170772

2012-01-01

354

Identification and characterization of an anti-fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium protease from the Bacillus subtilis strain N7.  

PubMed

A newly discovered alkaline antifungal protease named P6 from Bacillus subtilis N7 was purified and partially characterized. B. subtilis N7 culture filtrates were purified by 30-60% (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single band of 41.38 kDa. Peptide sequence of protease P6 was determined using a 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOF™ Analyzer System. Self-Formed Adaptor PCR (SEFA-PCR) was used to amplify the 1,149 bp open read frame of P6. Dimensional structure prediction using Automatic Modeling Mode software showed that the protease P6 consisted of two ?-barrel domains. Purified P6 strongly inhibited spore and mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium (FOC) by causing hypha lysis when the concentration was 25 ?g/ml. Characterization of the purified protease indicated that it had substrate specificity for gelatin and was highly active at pH 8.0-10.6 and 70°C. The P6 protease was inhibited by EDTA (2 mmol/L), phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 1 mmol/L), Na(+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+) (5 mmol/L each) and H2O2 (2%, v/v). However, protease activity was activated by Ca(2+), K(+), Mn(2+) (5 mmol/L each), mercaptoethanol (2%, v/v) and Tween 80 (1%, v/v). In addition, activity was also affected by organic solvents such as acetone, normal butanol and ethanol, but not hexane (25%, v/v each). PMID:23812816

Luo, Yi; Sun, Lifei; Zhu, Zhen; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2013-06-01

355

Isolation of Endophytic Actinomycetes From Roots and Leaves of Banana ( Musa Acuminata ) Plants and Their Activities Against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-two actinomycete strains were isolated from the interior of leaves and roots of healthy and wilting banana plants. Most of them were streptomycetes, Streptomyces griseorubiginosus-like strains were the most frequently isolated strains. Community analysis demonstrated increased actinomycete diversity in wilting leaves compared to that in healthy leaves, similar actinomycete communities were found in wilting and healthy roots.

Lixiang Cao; Zhiqi Qiu; Xin Dai; Hongming Tan; Yongcheng Lin; Shining Zhou

2004-01-01

356

Effect of organic amendments and solarisation on Fusarium wilt in susceptible banana plantlets transplanted into naturally infested soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Despite extensive research since pathogenicity was first established in 1919, no cultural or chemical control strategy has proven effective against Fusarium wiltof bananas. The efficacy of cultural control is attributed to the suppression of pathogen activity. Yet, amending naturally infested soil with aged chicken manure has been shown to enhance disease severity, without any change in the activity of

N. Nasir; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg

357

Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

2014-05-01

358

Effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on the degradation of humic acid associated with Cu, Pb, and Ni: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The intent of this work was to gain further insight on the fungus-assisted degradation/solubilization of humic acid and the related changes in metal-binding profiles. In the experimental design, Aldrich reagent humic acid (HA) or HA enriched with Cu, Pb, and Ni (HA(Me)) was added to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici cultures in vitro. The cultures were supplied by different carbon- and nitrogen-containing nutrients (glucose, Glc, or glutamate, Glu and ammonium, NH4+, or nitrate, NO3-, ions, respectively) in order to examine their possible effect on HA and HA(Me) decomposition. During the first 48 h of fungus growth, gradual acidification to pH 2 was observed in medium containing Glc + NH4+, while for other cultures, alkalinization to pH 9 occurred and then, the above conditions were stable up to at least 200 h. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with UV/Vis detection showed progressive degradation and solubilization of both HA and HA(Me) with the increasing time of fungus growth. However, the molecular mass distributions of HA-related soluble species were different in the presence of metals (HA(Me)) as referred to HA and were also influenced by the composition of growth medium. The solubilization of Pb, Cu, and Ni and their association with HA molecular mass fractions were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Under acidic conditions, relatively high concentrations of low-molecular-mass metallic species were found in culture supernatants, while in alkaline media, metal solubilization was generally poorer. In contrast to low pH culture, SEC-ICP-MS results obtained in alkaline supernatants indicated metal binding to degradation products of humic substances of MM > 5 kDa. In summary, the results of this study suggest that fungus-assisted degradation of HA and HA(Me) might be controlled using appropriate N- and C- sources required for fungus growth, which in turn would affect molecular mass distribution of soluble metallic species thus potentially influencing their actual bioaccessibility. PMID:19544055

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Landero Figueroa, Julio Alberto; Gutiérrez Corona, J Félix; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz

2009-08-01

359

Application of molecular markers for genetic discrimination of Fusarium wilt pathogen races affecting chickpea and pigeonpea in major regions of India.  

PubMed

(foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85%) were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. Twenty four RAPD primers generated a total of 226 bands (ranging 0.3 to 3.0 kb) in Fusarium udum with an average of 9.4 bands per primer and a total of 27 alleles were produced by twelve SSR primers with an average of 2.25 alleles per marker. All isolates amplified a single band ranging from 100 to 450 bp. The universal ITS primer pair amplified 650 bp bands in all fourteen fud isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and Hind III enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Fud isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using various markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in chickpea and pigeonpea taking into account the diversity in wilt pathogen. PMID:23273192

Datta, J; Lal, N

2012-01-01

360

Comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation of plant vascular wilt pathogens.  

PubMed

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J; Subbarao, Krishna V; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E; Thomma, Bart P H J; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D; Barbara, Dez J; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A; Dobinson, Katherine F; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-07-01

361

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

362

Genetic Diversity of Human Pathogenic Members of the Fusarium oxysporum Complex Inferred from Multilocus DNA Sequence Data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses: Evidence for the Recent Dispersion of a Geographically Widespread Clonal Lineage and Nosocomial Origin  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. Although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in San Antonio, Tex., and from patients and the water system in a Houston, Tex., hospital during the 1990s, little is known about their genetic relatedness and population structure. This study was conducted to investigate the global genetic diversity and population biology of a comprehensive set of clinically important members of the F. oxysporum complex, focusing on the 33 isolates from patients at the San Antonio hospital and on strains isolated in the United States from the water systems of geographically distant hospitals in Texas, Maryland, and Washington, which were suspected as reservoirs of nosocomial fusariosis. In all, 18 environmental isolates and 88 isolates from patients spanning four continents were genotyped. The major finding of this study, based on concordant results from phylogenetic analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphisms, is that a recently dispersed, geographically widespread clonal lineage is responsible for over 70% of all clinical isolates investigated, including all of those associated with the pseudoepidemic in San Antonio. Moreover, strains of the clonal lineage recovered from patients were conclusively shown to genetically match those isolated from the hospital water systems of three U.S. hospitals, providing support for the hypothesis that hospitals may serve as a reservoir for nosocomial fusarial infections. PMID:15528703

O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Magnon, Karen C.; Cox, Patricia A.; Revankar, Sanjay G.; Sanche, Stephen; Geiser, David M.; Juba, Jean H.; van Burik, Jo-Anne H.; Padhye, Arvind; Anaissie, Elias J.; Francesconi, Andrea; Walsh, Thomas J.; Robinson, Jody S.

2004-01-01

363

A comparison of wild-type, old and modern tomato cultivars in the interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AM) varies in plant cultivars. In the present study, we tested whether wild-type, old and modern tomato cultivars differ in the parameters of the AM interaction. Moreover, the bioprotective effect of AM against the soilborne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) was tested in the different cultivars. Ten tomato cultivars were inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae alone or in combination with Fol. At the end of the experiment, AM root colonization, Fusarium infection, and the plant fresh weight was determined. The tomato cultivars differed in their susceptibility to AMF and Fol, but these differences were not cultivar age dependent. In all the cultivars affected by Fol, mycorrhization showed a bioprotective effect. Independent of the cultivar age, tomato cultivars differ in their susceptibility to AMF and Fol and the bioprotective effect of mycorrhization, indicating that the cultivar age does not affect the AM parameters tested in this study. PMID:21674299

Steinkellner, Siegrid; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; García-Garrido, Jose M; Illana, Antonio; Ocampo, Juan A; Vierheilig, Horst

2012-04-01

364

Potassium Selectivity in Transported Volcanic Soils (Sorribas) under Banana Cultivation in Relation to Banana-Wilt Expression Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases for the microbiological nature of certain soils to suppress plant diseases caused by soil pathogens are well established. However, the microbial origin of the suppressiveness does not exclude edaphic factors and soil-management strategies, which need to be studied under field conditions. With respect to abiotic factors, we investigated the importance of potassium (K) selectivity on soil conduciveness and

Julia D. Domínguez-Hernández; Miguel A. Negrín-Medina; Carmen M. Rodríguez-Hernández

2010-01-01

365

Phytotoxic components produced by pathogenic Fusarium against morning glory.  

PubMed

A pathogenic isolate of Fusarium, F. oxysporum f. sp. batatas O-17 (PF), causes wilt disease in leaf etiolation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor). Extracts from PF cultures were screened for phytotoxic components using a growth inhibition assay with morning glory seedlings. The extracts were fractionated using differential solvent extraction and two active compounds, ergosterol and fusalanipyrone, were isolated from the less-polar fraction. Growth inhibition of morning glory seedlings showed a sigmoidal dose-response relationship, with fusalanipyrone exhibiting a two order of magnitude higher EC50 value than ergosterol (18 nM and 1.6 microM, respectively). Both compounds showed lower growth inhibition activity towards lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa). This study provides information on the phytotoxic components of PF and discusses the mechanism behind PFf-induced phytotoxicity. PMID:16402546

Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Saito, Fukuko; Miyagawa, Hisahi; Watanabe, Ken; Ueno, Tamio; Sakata, Kanzo; Ogawa, Kei

2005-01-01

366

Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

367

Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-12-01

368

The Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding protein AHL19 mediates verticillium wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Verticillium spp. are destructive soilborne fungal pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in a wide range of plant species. Verticillium wilts are particularly notorious, and genetic resistance in crop plants is the most favorable means of disease control. In a gain-of-function screen using an activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant collection, we identified four mutants, A1 to A4, which displayed enhanced resistance toward the vascular wilt species Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum but not to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Further testing revealed that mutant A2 displayed enhanced Ralstonia solanacearum resistance, while mutants A1 and A3 were more susceptible toward Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Identification of the activation tag insertion site in the A1 mutant revealed an insertion in close proximity to the gene encoding AHL19, which was constitutively expressed in the mutant. AHL19 knock-out alleles were found to display enhanced Verticillium susceptibility whereas overexpression of AHL19 resulted in enhanced Verticillium resistance, showing that AHL19 acts as a positive regulator of plant defense. PMID:21864046

Yadeta, Koste A; Hanemian, Mathieu; Smit, Patrick; Hiemstra, Jelle A; Pereira, Andy; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P H J

2011-12-01

369

[Study of availability of some hydrolytic and redox enzymes in strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) Snyd. and Hans. isolated from different habitats].  

PubMed

The work authors have used 52 strains of F. oxysporum for the collection of cultures of the Department of Physiology and Taxonomy of Micromycetes of IMV of the NAS of Ukraine. The strains were isolated from three habitats--grain cultures, cultivated and noncultivated soils of different regions of Ukraine. Activity of some hydrolytic (cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-glucosidase and amylase) and redox (monophenol-monooxygenase and peroxidase) enzymes of F. oxysporum strains. It has been shown that strains isolated from plant substrates produced more actively hydrolytic enzymes--cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase and beta-glucosidase. As to the degree of these enzymes activity the studied strains were distributed in the following order: strains from plants (P) > strains from cultivated soil (CS) > strains from noncultivated soils (NS). The soil strains NS > CS > P proved to be more active as to activity manifestation of the redox enzymes (monophenol-monooxygenase and peroxidase). PMID:11785419

Kurchenko, I M; Zhdanova, N M; Sokolova, O V

2001-01-01

370

Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomato plants treated with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63-28  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential ofPseudomonas fluorescensstrain 63-28 for inducing defence reactions in tomato plants inoculated with the vascular fungusFusarium oxysporumf.sp.radicis-lycopersiciwas studied by light and transmission electron microcopy, and further investigated by gold cytochemistry. In non-bacterized tomato plants the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the root tissues, causing severe damage including cell disorganization and cell wall alterations. Marked changes in the rate

P. M'piga; R. R. Bélanger; T. C. Paulitz; N. Benhamou

1997-01-01

371

Bacterial Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is caused by the bacterium Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens. This pathogen grows throughout the water conducting tissues of the plant and impedes water movement, resulting in a wilt. Symptom development is favored by temperatures greater than 90°F. Infection is often caused by the planting of infected seed, but the pathogen may also survive in infested crop debris. Wilt

Howard F. Schwartz; David H. Gent; Gary D. Franc; Robert M. Harveson

372

Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process. PMID:24282097

Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2014-04-01

373

Enhanced Control of Cucumber Wilt Disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by Altering the Regulation of Its DegU Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan

2014-01-01

374

First report of Fusarium decemcellulare causing inflorescence wilt, vascular and flower necrosis of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), longan (Dimocarpus longan) and mango (Mangifera indica)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan, mango and rambutan are very important fruit crops in Puerto Rico. During a disease survey in Puerto Rico conducted from 2008 to 2010, 50% of the inflorescences were affected with inflorescence wilt, flower and vascular necrosis at 70% of the fields of rambutan and longan at the USDA-ARS Rese...

375

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E; Bluhm, Burton H; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W; Butchko, Robert A E; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne G J; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R; Gardiner, Donald M; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C; Turgeon, B Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A; Kistler, H Corby; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-18

376

Effects of ¹?C-labelled precursor feeding on production of beauvericin, enniatins H, I, and MK1688 by Fusarium oxysporum KFCC11363P.  

PubMed

The effects of ¹?C-labelled precursor feeding on the production of cyclic hexadepsipeptides were investigated by the mycelium of F. oxysporum KFCC11363P producing beauvericin along with enniatins H, I, and MK1688. Most ¹?C-phenylalanine and ¹?C-valine were incorporated easily into the biosynthetic pathway of ¹?C-labelled beauvericin in vivo by the mycelium. However, only a small amount of ¹?C-labelled enniatins could be detected by feeding of ¹?C-valine. When L-valine was fed as a precursor to the mycelium at large scale, the level of beauvericin increased to maximum followed by enniatins H and I. Feeding of L-valine did not affect the production of enniatin MK1688. These results suggest that L-valine feeding led to the production of D-hydroxyisovaleic acid in the mycelium and specifically enhanced the production of cyclic hexadepsipeptides containing D-hydroxyisovaleic acid, such as beauvericin and enniatins H and I. PMID:22019403

Lee, Hee-Seok; Kim, Kyung-Ai; Seo, Dong-Geun; Lee, Chan

2012-01-01

377

Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato in Florida Using Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate commercial formulations of two beneficial fungi, Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices, for the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Tomato seeds cv. \\

L. E. Datnoff; S. Nemec; K. Pernezny

1995-01-01

378

Identification and characterization of a highly variable region in mitochondrial genomes of fusarium species and analysis of power generation from microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) project, power generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was analyzed looking for a novel system for both energy generation and sustainability. The results suggest the possibility of generating electricity from different organic substances, which include agricultural and industrial by-products. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates usable electrons at 30°C using both submerged and solid state cultures. In the MFC biocathode experiment, most of the CO2 generated at the anodic chamber was converted into bicarbonate due the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the Gluconobacter sp.33 strain. These findings demonstrate the possibility of generation of electricity while at the same time allowing the biomimetic sequestration of CO2 using bacterial CA. In the mitochondrial genomes project, the filamentous fungal species Fusarium oxysporum was used as a model. This species causes wilt of several important agricultural crops. A previous study revealed that a highly variable region (HVR) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three species of Fusarium contained a large, variable unidentified open reading frame (LV-uORF). Using specific primers for two regions of the LV-uORF, six strains were found to contain the ORF by PCR and database searches identified 18 other strains outside of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The LV-uORF was also identified in three isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex. Interestingly, several F. oxysporum isolates lack the LV-uORF and instead contain 13 ORFs in the HVR, nine of which are unidentified. The high GC content and codon usage of the LV-uORF indicate that it did not co-evolve with other mt genes and was horizontally acquired and was introduced to the Fusarium lineage prior to speciation. The nonsynonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) ratio of the LV-uORFs (0.43) suggests it is under purifying selection and the putative polypeptide is predicted to be located in the mitochondrial membrane. Growth assays indicate that F. oxysporum strains containing the LV-uORF are able to tolerate high concentrations of zinc chloride, whereas those having the alternative HVR configuration are inhibited. This work suggests that fungal mitochondria can acquire additional genes and possibly novel functions and will guide studies that aim to assess the functional roles of hypothetical mitochondrial ORFs in filamentous fungi.

Hamzah, Haider Mousa

379

Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

380

Beauvericin Production by Fusarium Species†  

PubMed Central

Beauvericin is a cyclohexadepsipeptide mycotoxin which has insecticidal properties and which can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. Beauvericin is produced by some entomo- and phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium proliferatum, F. semitectum, and F. subglutinans) and occurs naturally on corn and corn-based foods and feeds infected by Fusarium spp. We tested 94 Fusarium isolates belonging to 25 taxa, 21 in 6 of the 12 sections of the Fusarium genus and 4 that have been described recently, for the ability to produce beauvericin. Beauvericin was produced by the following species (with the number of toxigenic strains compared with the number of tested strains given in parentheses): Fusarium acuminatum var. acuminatum (1 of 4), Fusarium acuminatum var. armeniacum (1 of 3), F. anthophilum (1 of 2), F. avenaceum (1 of 6), F. beomiforme (1 of 1), F. dlamini (2 of 2), F. equiseti (2 of 3), F. longipes (1 of 2), F. nygamai (2 of 2), F. oxysporum (4 of 7), F. poae (4 of 4), F. sambucinum (12 of 14), and F. subglutinans (3 of 3). These results indicate that beauvericin is produced by many species in the genus Fusarium and that it may be a contaminant of cereals other than maize. PMID:9687479

Logrieco, A.; Moretti, A.; Castella, G.; Kostecki, M.; Golinski, P.; Ritieni, A.; Chelkowski, J.

1998-01-01

381

Beauvericin production by Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Beauvericin is a cyclohexadepsipeptide mycotoxin which has insecticidal properties and which can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. Beauvericin is produced by some entomo- and phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium proliferatum, F. semitectum, and F. subglutinans) and occurs naturally on corn and corn-based foods and feeds infected by Fusarium spp. We tested 94 Fusarium isolates belonging to 25 taxa, 21 in 6 of the 12 sections of the Fusarium genus and 4 that have been described recently, for the ability to produce beauvericin. Beauvericin was produced by the following species (with the number of toxigenic strains compared with the number of tested strains given in parentheses): Fusarium acuminatum var. acuminatum (1 of 4), Fusarium acuminatum var. armeniacum (1 of 3), F. anthophilum (1 of 2), F. avenaceum (1 of 6), F. beomiforme (1 of 1), F. dlamini (2 of 2), F. equiseti (2 of 3), F. longipes (1 of 2), F. nygamai (2 of 2), F. oxysporum (4 of 7), F. poae (4 of 4), F. sambucinum (12 of 14), and F. subglutinans (3 of 3). These results indicate that beauvericin is produced by many species in the genus Fusarium and that it may be a contaminant of cereals other than maize. PMID:9687479

Logrieco, A; Moretti, A; Castella, G; Kostecki, M; Golinski, P; Ritieni, A; Chelkowski, J

1998-08-01

382

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. PMID:25183948

Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

2013-01-01

383

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

2013-03-01

384

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

2013-01-01

385

Management options for Verticillium wilt Identification of fields infested with V. dahliae  

E-print Network

of Vascular Wilts in Cotton by Jason E. Woodward, Extension Plant Pathologist #12;Vascular wilts with seedling disease · Diseased plants exhibit a continuous discoloration of the vascular tissue (Fig. 1c to guidelines that can be used in selecting varieties to be planted in fields with a history of Fusarium and

Behmer, Spencer T.

386

Fusarium Race 4: Commercial cultivar screening for resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt (FOV) of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the past, damage from Fusarium has been notable only in areas with the combination of: (a) moderate to high populations of one or more sp...

387

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.  

PubMed

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-01-01

388

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants  

PubMed Central

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2014-01-01

389

Dissection of the fusarium I2 gene cluster in tomato reveals six homologs and one active gene copy.  

PubMed Central

The I2 locus in tomato confers resistance to race 2 of the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici. The selective restriction fragment amplification (AFLP) positional cloning strategy was used to identify I2 in the tomato genome. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone covering approximately 750 kb encompassing the I2 locus was isolated, and the AFLP technique was used to derive tightly linked AFLP markers from this YAC clone. Genetic complementation analysis in transgenic R1 plants using a set of overlapping cosmids covering the I2 locus revealed three cosmids giving full resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. These cosmids shared a 7-kb DNA fragment containing an open reading frame encoding a protein with similarity to the nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes. At the I2 locus, we identified six additional homologs that included the recently identified I2C-1 and I2C-2 genes. However, cosmids containing the I2C-1 or I2C-2 gene could not confer resistance to plants, indicating that these members are not the functional resistance genes. Alignments between the various members of the I2 gene family revealed two significant variable regions within the leucine-rich repeat region. They consisted of deletions or duplications of one or more leucine-rich repeats. We propose that one or both of these leucine-rich repeats are involved in Fusarium wilt resistance with I2 specificity. PMID:9634592

Simons, G; Groenendijk, J; Wijbrandi, J; Reijans, M; Groenen, J; Diergaarde, P; Van der Lee, T; Bleeker, M; Onstenk, J; de Both, M; Haring, M; Mes, J; Cornelissen, B; Zabeau, M; Vos, P

1998-01-01

390

Effect of Biocidal Treatments on Cation Exchange Capacity and Fusarium Blight of Soybean in Delaware Soils  

E-print Network

Effect of Biocidal Treatments on Cation Exchange Capacity and Fusarium Blight of Soybean soil characteristics and the pathogen and between biocidal treatments and physiochemical properties.3 x 104 viable spores per gram of dry soil of a pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolate. Treatments were

Sparks, Donald L.

391

Chiral phosphinate degradation by the fusarium species: scope and limitation of the process.  

PubMed

Biodegradable capacities of fungal strains of Fusarium oxysporum (DSMZ 2018) and Fusarium culmorum (DSMZ 1094) were tested towards racemic mixture of chiral 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl) acetic acid-a compound with two stereogenic centres. The effectiveness of decomposition was dependent on external factors such as temperature and time of the process. Optimal conditions of complete mineralization were established. Both Fusarium species were able to biodegrade every isomer of tested compound at 30°C, but F. culmorum required 10 days and F. oxysporum 11 days to accomplish the process, which was continuously monitored using the (31)P NMR technique. PMID:24324893

Kmiecik, Natalia; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezi?ska-Rodak, Ma?gorzata; Majewska, Paulina; Zyma?czyk-Duda, Ewa

2013-01-01

392

Activation of defense responses to Fusarium infection in Asparagus densiflorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense responses to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum were compared after root inoculation of the asparagus fern, Asparagus densiflorus vars. Myersii and Sprengeri, and cultivated asparagus, A. officinalis cv. Guelph Millennium. Both varieties of A. densiflorus exhibited a hypersensitive response with rapid death of epidermal cells within 8-24 h and restricted the fungal growth. In A. officinalis

Chenyang He; Tom Hsiang; David J. Wolyn

2001-01-01

393

Activation of Defense Responses to Fusarium Infection in Asparagus densiflorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense responses to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum were compared after root inoculation of the asparagus fern, Asparagus densiflorus vars. Myersii and Sprengeri, and cultivated asparagus, A. officinalis cv. Guelph Millennium. Both varieties of A. densiflorus exhibited a hypersensitive response with rapid death of epidermal cells within 8–24 h and restricted the fungal growth. In A. officinalis

Chenyang He; Tom Hsiang; David J. Wolyn

2001-01-01

394

Comparative Genomics Reveals Mobile Pathogenicity Chromosomes in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, strains of F. oxysporum exhibit wide host range and are pathogenic to both plant and animal species, reflecting remarkable genetic adapta...

395

FUSARIUM IN ACALA AND PIMA COTTON: SYMPTOMS AND DISEASE DEVELOPMENT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Within the past several years, some differences have been noted in the situation with the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Acala and Pima cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Typically, earlier-recognized races of this organism found in California cotton only caused significant crop ...

396

Update on Fusarium Race 4 Varietal Evaluations in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, differences have been noted in field situations with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vas infectum (FOV), in Acala and Pima cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Typically, earlier-recognized races of FOV only caused significant crop damage and yield impacts ...

397

Pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates to Striga hermonthica in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. is an important constraint to cereal crop production in Burkina Faso, of which sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the most important component. Native Fusarium species to use as bio-control agents to S. hermonthica has been investigated. Fifty one Fusarium isolates obtained from diseased plants of S. hermonthica were evaluated for their pathogenicity against Striga under controlled environmental conditions. Of 51 Fusarium isolates, 14 were pathogenic to S. hermonthica but their virulence differed. These 14 isolates were evaluated for their effects on Striga seed germination in the laboratory and their ability to kill emerged Striga plants growing in greenhouse pots. Spores of Fusarium sp. isolates 150a-M, 125b-Za, 6-Fa, Fusarium equiseti isolates 5-Kou, 31-Kom, 32-Or, 13-Ba and Fusarium oxysporum isolate 34-Fo reduced Striga germination by 78 to 96% compared to the untreated control. The study showed that at the rate of 33 mg mL(-1), metabolites of Fusarium sp. isolates 125b-Za, 6-Fa, F. equiseti 5-Kou and F. oxysporum 34-Fo prevented Striga seed germination. In addition to these four isolates, Fusarium sp. isolates 141b-O, 150a-M and F. equiseti isolate 32-Or were effective at 67 mg mL(-1). Percentage of Striga mortality ranged from 17-37% between 14 and 28 days after inoculation with spores of F. oxysporum 34-Fo and F. equiseti 5-Kou. Striga dry biomass was reduced by 84 and 78% for the respective isolates compared to the untreated control with Striga. Sorghum yield was improved by 84 and 99% with Fusarium sp. 6-Fa and F. oxysporum 34-Fo, respectively, compared to the control without Striga. The use of Fusarium spores and metabolites against Striga offers different possibilities of bio-herbicides formulation that can be combined with other controls methods in the integrated Striga management. Further studies will be carried out under field conditions to assess the efficacy and safety of these Fusarium isolates to environment and humans and evaluate low cost strategies for transfer to subsistence farmers. PMID:20464941

Yonli, D; Traoré, H; Sérémé, P; Hess, D E; Sankara, P

2010-03-01

398

TPCP: Ceratocystis wilt of Acacia mearnsii. CERATOCYSTIS WILT OF ACACIA  

E-print Network

TPCP: Ceratocystis wilt of Acacia mearnsii. CERATOCYSTIS WILT OF ACACIA MEARNSII INTRODUCTION known as Ceratocystis albofundus. Wilting of Acacia mearnsii is a common phenomenon, having been.up.ac.za/academic/fabi/tpcp/pamphlets/ceratocystis.htm (1 of 2) [2002/02/26 01:53:14] #12;TPCP: Ceratocystis wilt of Acacia mearnsii. Wood discolouration

399

Antifungal susceptibility of 44 clinical isolates of Fusarium species determined by using a broth microdilution method.  

PubMed Central

The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin B, natamycin, miconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine against 17 isolates of Fusarium solani, 14 isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, 10 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, and 3 isolates of Fusarium semitectum were determined by a broth microdilution method. Amphotericin B and natamycin were the most active agents tested and failed to show any inoculum size effect. In contrast, miconazole and itraconazole showed poor inhibitory and fungicidal activities, and the inoculum size had a major effect on the results. Flucytosine had no activity against any of the isolates tested. PMID:2817867

Reuben, A; Anaissie, E; Nelson, P E; Hashem, R; Legrand, C; Ho, D H; Bodey, G P

1989-01-01

400

Inoculation of tomato seedlings with Trichoderma Harzianum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and their effect on growth and control of wilt in tomato seedlings  

PubMed Central

A green house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing growth and control of a wilt pathogen caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato seedlings. The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. There were four treatments applied as follows; P52, AMF, AMF + P52 and a control. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements and disease assessment taken after 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Treatments that significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced heights and root dry weights were P52, AMF and a treatment with a combination of both P52 and AMF when compared the control. The treatment with both P52 and AMF significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced all growth parameters (heights; shoot and root dry weight) investigated compared to the control. Disease severity was generally lower in tomato plants grown with isolate P52 and AMF fungi either individually or when combined together, though the effect was not statistically significant (P? 0.05). A treatment combination of P52 + AMF had less trend of severity as compared to each individual fungus. T. harzianum and AMF can be used to enhance growth in tomato seedlings. PMID:24031662

Mwangi, Margaret W.; Monda, Ethel O.; Okoth, Sheila A.; Jefwa, Joyce M.

2011-01-01

401

Inoculation of tomato seedlings with Trichoderma Harzianum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and their effect on growth and control of wilt in tomato seedlings.  

PubMed

A green house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing growth and control of a wilt pathogen caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato seedlings. The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. There were four treatments applied as follows; P52, AMF, AMF + P52 and a control. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements and disease assessment taken after 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Treatments that significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced heights and root dry weights were P52, AMF and a treatment with a combination of both P52 and AMF when compared the control. The treatment with both P52 and AMF significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced all growth parameters (heights; shoot and root dry weight) investigated compared to the control. Disease severity was generally lower in tomato plants grown with isolate P52 and AMF fungi either individually or when combined together, though the effect was not statistically significant (P? 0.05). A treatment combination of P52 + AMF had less trend of severity as compared to each individual fungus. T. harzianum and AMF can be used to enhance growth in tomato seedlings. PMID:24031662

Mwangi, Margaret W; Monda, Ethel O; Okoth, Sheila A; Jefwa, Joyce M

2011-04-01

402

Copyright 2005 by the Genetics Society of America DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.042218  

E-print Network

wilt diseases. Ecotype Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (f to confer resistance to the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Godiard et al. 2003). In tomato TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 1, a Dominant Arabidopsis Disease-Resistance Gene, Is Not Race Specific Andrew C. Diener

Ausubel, Frederick M.

403

Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

404

Diversity of fusarium species from highland areas in malaysia.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-12-01

405

Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-01-01

406

Cotton Disease Research in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania is one of the largest producers of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Africa. The crop is raingrown by smallholders over a large ecologically diverse area with a variety of disease problems. The main diseases are Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Sny. & Hans.) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas malvacearum (E. F. Smith) Dowson). Fusarium wilt is

R. J. Hillocks

1981-01-01

407

Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

408

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reliable, eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials is an important aspect of nanotechnology today. One approach that shows immense potential is based on the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using biological micro-organisms such as bacteria. In this laboratory, we have concentrated on the use of fungi in the intracellular production of metal nanoparticles. As part of our investigation,

Absar Ahmad; Priyabrata Mukherjee; Satyajyoti Senapati; Deendayal Mandal; M. Islam Khan; Rajiv Kumar; Murali Sastry

2003-01-01

409

Identification and Characterization of Wilt and Salt Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Chickpea through High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on se