These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

In vit o biological control of Fusarium oxysporum- r causing wilt in Capsicum annuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma Viride, T. harzianum, T. Koningii, T. aureoviride and T. pseudokoningii were evaluated for their in vitro antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of wilt disease in sweet peppers (Capsicum annum). Among the Trichoderma species T. viride showed the best performance in vitro biological control of Fusarium oxysporum followed by T. harzianum, T. aureoviride,

Irfan Yousaf Sahi; A. N. Khalid

2007-01-01

2

Genetic transformation of the fungal plant wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been developed. The system employs plasmids which contain a bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) linked to Aspergillus regulatory sequences and which confer hygromycin B resistance in Fusarium. Transformation resulted from integration of the vectors into heterologous regions of the Fusarium genome and occurred at a frequency of

H. Corby Kistler; Ulla K. Benny

1988-01-01

3

Extracellular Chitinases of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi Causing Carnation Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such\\u000a as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging\\u000a to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied

Naosekpam Singh Ajit; Rajni Verma; V. Shanmugam

2006-01-01

4

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon  

PubMed Central

Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H. Corby

2014-01-01

5

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon.  

PubMed

Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

Ma, Li-Jun; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H Corby

2014-01-01

6

CANNABIS CLINIC Fusarium Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is caused by two closely-related fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cannabis. The disease was first described on hemp in Eastern Europe about 50 years ago, but is now found throughout the Northern hemisphere. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all cultivars of Cannabis that were tested are susceptible. Signs and symptoms, life history of

John M. McPartland; Karl W. Hillig

2004-01-01

7

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

2014-10-01

8

[Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].  

PubMed

Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was significantly higher than that of YM42. In conclusion, intercropping influenced the microbial activity and substrate utilization of soil microorganisms, altered the microbial community diversity in rhizosphere of faba bean, reduced the amount of F. oxysporum and disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt, and promoted faba bean growth. Effects of intercropping on disease control were influenced by the intercropped wheat variety, suggesting that the differences of root exudates of wheat were important factors that affected soil-borne diseases control in intercropping. PMID:25345048

Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

2014-07-01

9

Extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.  

PubMed

Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on different substrates. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing media showed enhanced growth and enzyme production with increased anti-fungal activity against the pathogen. Furthermore, the cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing media also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth. Both the strains and their cell-free culture filtrate from chitin-amended media showed the formation of lytic zones on chitin agar, indicating chitinolytic ability. Extracellular proteins of highly antagonistic bacterial strain were isolated from cell-free extracts of media amended with chitin and fungal cell wall. These cell-free conditioned media contained one to seven polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed two isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 43 and 18.5 kDa. Further plate assay for mycelial growth inhibition showed the 43-kDa protein to be antifungal. The foregoing studies clearly established the significance of chitinases in the antagonism of fluorescent pseudomonads, showing avenues for possible exploitation in carnation wilt management. PMID:16550458

Ajit, Naosekpam Singh; Verma, Rajni; Shanmugam, V

2006-04-01

10

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

11

Microbial Antagonism at the Root Level Is Involved in the Suppression of Fusarium Wilt by the Combination of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudomonas putida WCS358.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two biological control agents, nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudomonas putida WCS358, were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium wilt of flax grown in nutrient solution and for suppression of the population density and metabolic activity of the causal organism F. oxysporum f. sp. lini strain Foln3GUS on root surfaces. Due to the presence of an introduced gusA reporter gene construct in Foln3GUS, the pathogen expressed beta-glucuronidase activity that was related to its carbon metabolism. At a Fo47 to Foln3GUS inoculum ratio of 100:1, both the population density of the pathogen and the beta-glucuronidase activity on and in flax roots were reduced by the nonpathogenic strain, and Fusarium wilt was suppressed. At a Fo47 to Foln3GUS inoculum ratio of 10:1, Fo47 decreased the severity of Fusarium wilt to a smaller extent and it also reduced beta-glucuronidase activity without reducing the density of Foln3GUS on flax roots. At a nonpathogenic to pathogenic Fusarium strains ratio of 10:1, the addition of P. putida WCS358 further suppressed Fusarium wilt and the density of the pathogen at the root level, whereas a mutant of WCS358 deficient in pseudobactin production had no significant effect. Iron availability to WCS358 on flax roots, assessed by ice-nucleation activity conferred from a transcriptional fusion (pvd-inaZ) of an ice-nucleation reporter gene to an iron-regulated promoter, was sufficiently low to allow pseudobactin production. P. putida WCS358 did not reduce the severity of Fusarium wilt of flax when inoculated without Fo47, and it did not improve disease suppression achieved by high inoculum doses of Fo47 (a Fo47 to Foln3GUS ratio of 100:1). Together, these data provide evidence that (i) suppression of Fusarium wilt of flax by Fo47 is related to reductions in the population density and metabolic activity of the pathogen on the root surface; (ii) WCS358 can enhance the biological control activity of Fo47, but this enhancement depends on the population of Fo47 relative to the pathogen; and (iii) pseudobactin contributes to suppression of Fusarium wilt by the combination of Fo47 and WCS358 on roots in which conditions are conducive to pseudobactin production by the bacterium. PMID:18944664

Duijff, B J; Recorbet, G; Bakker, P A; Loper, J E; Lemanceau, P

1999-11-01

12

Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. putida WCS358 had no effect on disease severity when inoculated on its own but significantly improved the control achieved with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. In contrast, a siderophore-negative mutant of WCS358 had no effect on disease severity even in the presence of Fo47b10. Since the densities of both bacterial strains at the root level were similar, the difference between the wild-type WCS358 and the siderophore-negative mutant with regard to the control of fusarium wilt was related to the production of pseudobactin 358. The production of pseudobactin 358 appeared to be responsible for the increased suppression by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 relative to that with Fo47b10 alone. PMID:1444411

Lemanceau, P; Bakker, P A; De Kogel, W J; Alabouvette, C; Schippers, B

1992-01-01

13

Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.  

PubMed

Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. putida WCS358 had no effect on disease severity when inoculated on its own but significantly improved the control achieved with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. In contrast, a siderophore-negative mutant of WCS358 had no effect on disease severity even in the presence of Fo47b10. Since the densities of both bacterial strains at the root level were similar, the difference between the wild-type WCS358 and the siderophore-negative mutant with regard to the control of fusarium wilt was related to the production of pseudobactin 358. The production of pseudobactin 358 appeared to be responsible for the increased suppression by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 relative to that with Fo47b10 alone. PMID:1444411

Lemanceau, P; Bakker, P A; De Kogel, W J; Alabouvette, C; Schippers, B

1992-09-01

14

Influence of Temperature and Inoculum Density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on Suppression of Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Rhizosphere Bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 on suppression of Fusarium wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cv. PV 61 by seed and soil treatments with rhizobacteria isolated from the chickpea rhizosphere were studied in a model system. Disease development over a range of temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and inoculum densities (25 to 1,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil) was described by the Gompertz model. The Gompertz relative rate of disease progress and final amount of disease increased exponentially and monomolecularly, respectively, with increasing inoculum densities. Disease development was greater at 25 degrees C compared with 20 and 30 degrees C. At 20 and 30 degrees C, disease development was greater at 250 to 1,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil compared with 25 to 100 chlamydospores per gram of soil. At 25 degrees C, increasing inoculum densities of the pathogen did not influence disease. Nineteen Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp. out of 23 bacterial isolates tested inhibited F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in vitro. Pseudomonas fluorescens RGAF 19 and RG 26, which did not inhibit the pathogen, showed the greatest Fusarium wilt suppression. Disease was suppressed only at 20 or 30 degrees C and at inoculum densities below 250 chlamydospores per gram of soil. Bacterial treatments increased the time to initial symptoms, reduced the Gompertz relative rate of disease progress, and reduced the overall amount of disease developed. PMID:18944039

Landa, B B; Navas-Cortés, J A; Hervás, A; Jiménez-Díaz, R M

2001-08-01

15

Wilting of date palm branches by Fusarium oxysporum in south of Iran and its control managements with soil solarization method.  

PubMed

Wilting of some branches in nurseries and orchards of date palm were studied in south of Iran including Ahvaz and Abadan cities in 2005-2006 years. Different infected plants were visited and samples showing symptoms including wilting or death of branches collected from various areas and transferred to laboratory. Samples were cultured in common media (PDA) and different fungi were studied and identified. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Fusarium oxysporum which caused wilting of some branches of date palm seedling or trees in studied areas. Results showed that the disease caused main losses where date palm cuttings were cultured in infected soils, previously cropped to susceptible plants. Since chemical control was not managed the disease, soil disinfestations by soil solarization method was carried in Ahvaz as the warmer climate in studied areas to control the pathogen. Application of this method reduced population density of the pathogen from 1800 CFU -g/soil to 600 after 5 week. This method was simple, effective, non negative side and economic which can be used in nearly warm areas. PMID:18396818

Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M; Ashrafi, S J

2007-01-01

16

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana. PMID:24743270

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

17

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

18

Characterization of the formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by DNA fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive DNA sequences FOLR1 to FOLR4. The four FOLR clones were chosen from a genomic library made from F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. Total DNAs from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to other plants were digested with EcoRV and hybridized with 32P-labeled FOLR probes. The strains were clearly distinguishable at the formae specialis level on the basis of FOLR DNA fingerprints. Fifty-two fingerprint types were detected among the 56 strains by using all FOLR probes. These probes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the DNA fingerprint types by the unweighted pair group method using averages and parsimony analysis. The fingerprint types detected in each of the formae speciales cucumerinum, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae were grouped into a single cluster. However, two different genetic groups occurred in the formae specialis melonis. The two groups also differed in pathogenicity: one group caused wilts of muskmelon and oriental melon, while the second was pathogenic only to muskmelon. The fingerprint types of different formae speciales pathogenic to plants other than cucurbits were distinguishable from one another and from the fingerprints of the cucurbit-infecting strains. These results suggest that the cucurbit-infecting formae speciales are intraspecific variants distinguishable at the DNA level and in their host range. Images PMID:8085813

Namiki, F; Shiomi, T; Kayamura, T; Tsuge, T

1994-01-01

19

Fusarium Wilt in Cotton - a New Record in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1993 Fusarium oxysporum was consistently isolated from the vascular system of wilted cotton plants from the Brookstead\\/Cecil Plains area of the Darling Downs (Queensland). Pathogenicity studies and re-isolation from the apical region of inoculated seedlings indicated that it was a true vascular wilt pathogen and confirmed that it was Fusarium oxysporum fsp, vasinfectum. This appears to be the

JK Kochman

1995-01-01

20

Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum causing tomato wilt disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to apply ?- irradiation in a breeding program of Trichoderma harzianum to enhance its biocontrol ability against F. oxysporum through increasing their production of antifungal metabolites (i.e., hydrolytic enzymes,antibiotics and total phenols) under salt stress conditions. Exposing a wild-type culture of the mycoparasitic fungus T. harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 & Th50M11).Under

Hassan Abdel-Latif; A. Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

21

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization on Microbial Community in Rhizosphere Soil and Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is caused by soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and was infected with wilt disease. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus etunicatium) on the microbial community in the rhizosphere soil and Fusarium wilt in tomato (cv. Oogatafukuju).

Lixuan Ren; Yunsheng Lou; Kazunori Sakamoto; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Yoshimiki Amemiya; Qirong Shen; Guohua Xu

2010-01-01

22

Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible ‘Brazil’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant ‘Nongke No.1’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang I’ were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were selected to validate through quantitative real time PCR method. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of these selected genes corroborate with their respective protein abundance after pathogen infection. Conclusions This report is the first to use proteomic profiling to study the molecular mechanism of banana roots infected with Foc4. The differentially regulated proteins involved in different defense pathways are likely associated with different resistant levels of the three banana cultivars. PMID:24070062

2013-01-01

23

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

2005-08-01

24

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

2005-01-01

25

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

26

Biocontrol of vascular wilt and corm rot of gladiolus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli using plant growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc-based formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strain S2BC-2 (Bacillus atrophaeus) and strain mixture, S2BC-2 + TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia), inhibitory to the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (FOG), were developed for corm dressing and soil application in gladiolus. In comparison to the individual strain, the strain mixture recorded maximum spike and corm production of 100 and 150%, respectively with less

Veerubommu Shanmugam; Nandina Kanoujia; Markandey Singh; Sukhjinder Singh; Ramdeen Prasad

2011-01-01

27

20082009 Fusarium wilt trial results  

E-print Network

of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by Fov is more severe when fields are co-infested with the root-knot nematode strategies for this disease complex consist of the use of nematicides, rotation with non-host crops, soil impact Fusarium wilt via reducing nematode damage (3). Likewise, crop rotation affects M. incognita more

Mukhtar, Saqib

28

In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

2014-03-01

29

Galleria mellonella as model host for the trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease, affects a wide range of plant species and can produce disseminated infections in humans. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate FGSC 9935 causes disease both on tomato plants and immunodepressed mice, making it an ideal model for the comparative analysis of fungal virulence on plant and animal hosts. Here we tested

Gesabel Y. Navarro-Velasco; Rafael C. Prados-Rosales; Almudena Ortíz-Urquiza; Enrique Quesada-Moraga; Antonio Di Pietro

30

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-09-01

31

Control of Fusarium oxysporum by baking soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking soda (NaHCO3) or KHCO3 was found capable of significantly reducing the mycelial growth of Fusarium species. In Czapek Dox broth with baking soda or KHCO3 at as low as 0.2g\\/100mL, for example, the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum 950 was inhibited by greater than 95%. The bicarbonate component of baking soda was responsible for the inhibitory effect.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

2003-01-01

32

Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica on Cicer arietinum.  

PubMed

Interaction of Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied on Fusarium wilt-susceptible (JG 62 and K 850) and resistant (JG 74 and Avrodhi) chickpea cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, inoculation of M. javanica juveniles prior to F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri caused greater wilt incidence in susceptible cultivars and induced vascular discoloration in roots of resistant cultivars. Nematode reproduction was greatest (P = 0.05) at 25 degrees C. Number of galls and percentage of root area galled increased when the temperature was increased from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Wilt incidence was greater at 20 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Chlorosis of leaves and vascular discoloration of plants did not occur at 15 degrees C. The nematode enhanced the wilt incidence in wilt-susceptible cultivars only at 25 degrees C. Interaction between the two pathogens on shoot and root weights was significant only at 20 degrees C, and F. o. ciceri suppressed the nematode density at this temperature. Wilt incidence was greater in clayey (48% clay) than in loamy sand (85% sand) soils. The nematode caused greater plant damage on loamy sand than on clayey soil. Fusarium wilt resistance in Avrodhi and JG 74 was stable in the presence of M. javanica across temperatures and soil types. PMID:19274140

Maheswari, T U; Sharma, S B; Reddy, D D; Haware, M P

1997-03-01

33

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-01-01

34

Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

2014-04-01

35

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

36

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review)  

E-print Network

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review) JM Kraft US Department of Agriculture January 1995) Summary - Pea wilt was first described in 1925 and the pathogen identified as Fusarium discusses what little is known about seed transmission of the pea wilt pathogen. Résumé - Fusariose du pois

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Biological control of fusarium wilt of cucumber by chitinolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two chitinolytic bacterial strains, Paenibacillus sp. 300 and Streptomyces sp. 385, suppressed Fusarium wilt of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in nonsterile, soilless potting medium. A mixture of the two strains in a ratio of 1:1 or 4:1 gave significantly (P < 0.05) better control of the disease than each of the strains used individually or than mixtures in other ratios. Several formulations were tested, and a zeolite-based, chitosan-amended formulation (ZAC) provided the best protection against the disease. Dose-response studies indicated that the threshold dose of 6 g of formulation per kilogram of potting medium was required for significant (P < 0.001) suppression of the disease. This dose was optimum for maintaining high rhizosphere population densities of chitinolytic bacteria (log 8.1 to log 9.3 CFU/g dry weight of potting medium), which were required for the control of Fusarium wilt. The ZAC formulation was suppressive when added to pathogen-infested medium 15 days before planting cucumber seeds. The formulation also provided good control when stored for 6 months at room temperature or at 4 degrees C. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase enzymes were produced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. Partial purification of the chitinases, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining, revealed the presence of five bands with molecular masses of 65, 62, 59, 55, and 52 kDa in the case of Paenibacillus sp. 300; and three bands with molecular masses of 52, 38, and 33 kDa in the case of Streptomyces sp. 385. Incubation of cell walls of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum with partially purified enzyme fractions led to the release of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAGA). NAGA content was considerably greater when pooled enzyme fractions (64 to 67) from Paenibacillus sp. were used, because they contained high beta-1,3-glucanase activity in addition to chitinase activity. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by a combination of these two bacteria may involve the action of these hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:18944809

Singh, P P; Shin, Y C; Park, C S; Chung, Y R

1999-01-01

38

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-12-01

39

Intercropping with aerobic rice suppressed Fusarium wilt in watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon is susceptible to Fusarium wilt in successively mono-cropped soil. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of intercropping with aerobic rice on Fusarium wilt in watermelon. The tested soil was classified as a loam soil, previously planted with watermelon and collected from Hexian county, Anhui province, China. The results obtained are listed as follows: (1) 66.7% of

Lixuan Ren; Shiming Su; Xingming Yang; Yangchun Xu; Qiwei Huang; Qirong Shen

2008-01-01

40

Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother. PMID:25383318

Carvalho, Vania O.; Vicente, Vania A.; Werner, Betina; Gomes, Renata R.; Fornari, Gheniffer; Herkert, Patricia F.; Rodrigues, Cristina O.; Abagge, Kerstin T.; Robl, Renata; Camina, Ricardo H

2014-01-01

41

Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

Jimenez-Fernandez, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jimenez-Diaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortes, Juan A.

2013-01-01

42

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt  

PubMed Central

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-01-01

43

Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5?×?10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:22729873

Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

2012-11-01

44

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels. PMID:24998294

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N; Schenk, Peer M

2014-01-01

45

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels. PMID:24998294

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N.; Schenk, Peer M.

2014-01-01

46

The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth  

PubMed Central

Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth. PMID:19851506

Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

47

Host perception of jasmonates promotes infection by Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales that produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonates.  

PubMed

Three pathogenic forms, or formae speciales (f. spp.), of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana below ground, instigating symptoms of wilt disease in leaves above ground. In previous reports, Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid or salicylic acid or insensitive to ethylene or jasmonates exhibited either more or less wilt disease, than the wild-type, implicating the involvement of hormones in the normal host response to F.?oxysporum. Our analysis of hormone-related mutants finds no evidence that endogenous hormones contribute to infection in roots. Mutants that are deficient in abscisic acid and insensitive to ethylene show no less infection than the wild-type, although they exhibit less disease. Whether a mutant that is insensitive to jasmonates affects infection depends on which forma specialis (f. sp.) is infecting the roots. Insensitivity to jasmonates suppresses infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F.?oxysporum f. sp. matthioli, which produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonate (JA-Ile/Leu), respectively, in culture filtrates, whereas insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. raphani, which produces no detectable JA-Ile/Leu. Furthermore, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on wilt disease of tomato, and the tomato pathogen F.?oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces no detectable jasmonates. Thus, some, but not all, F.?oxysporum pathogens appear to utilize jasmonates as effectors, promoting infection in roots and/or the development of symptoms in shoots. Only when the infection of roots is promoted by jasmonates is wilt disease enhanced in a mutant deficient in salicylic acid biosynthesis. PMID:24387225

Cole, Stephanie J; Yoon, Alexander J; Faull, Kym F; Diener, Andrew C

2014-08-01

48

Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici in substrates and roots by PCR.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne fungus that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of plant species. Basil is recognized as an ecological niche for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici (FOB) and this fungus is now present in most countries where basil is cultivated. The rapid identification of the species affecting basil plants is necessary to define a successful method for crop protection. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR method for the rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici in substrates. The specificity of the primers used was tested using the DNA extracted directly from substrate samples. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici was artificially inoculated with decreasing amounts in a commercial substrate (sphagnum peat moss) and in a mixture with 40% of municipal compost, after steam disinfestation. Basil seeds (cv. Fine verde) were sown in pots that were laid on a bench in the greenhouse. At time 0 and after 7, 14 and 21 days from the inoculation, substrate and root samples were collected and prepared for microbial analysis and for the DNA extraction. DNA extraction was carried out using NucleoSpin Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel, Germany). PCR amplification for the specific detection was carried out using primer sets Bik 1 (5'-ATT CAA GAG CTA AAG GTC C-3') and Bik 4 (5'-TTT GAC CAA GAT AGA TGC C-3') for the first PCR, while primers Bik 1 + Bik 2 (5'-AAA GGT AGT ATA TCG GAG G-3') for the nested PCR to increase detection sensitivity. Disease incidence was also assessed 21 days after seeding. The results showed the presence of amplified fragments of the expected size when the concentration of F. oxysporum f.sp. basilici was at least 3.5 Log CFU g(-1) by using DNA extract directly from substrate, before roots were infected by the pathogen. The detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici by PCR method developed in this study is certainly simple and fast and can be useful for its reliable detection in substrate samples, but not to guarantee that the substrate is totally free of pathogens. PMID:25151841

Pugliese, M; Ferrocino, I; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2013-01-01

49

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM STRAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms (bacteria, yeast and fungi) play an important role in toxic metals remediation through reduction of metal ions, this was considered interesting as nanofactories. Recently, it was found that aqueous chloroaurate ions may be reduced extracellularly using Fusarium oxysporum, to generate extremely stable gold or silver nanoparticles in water. These particles can b e incorporated in materials and cloth becoming

P. D. Marcato; G. I. H. De Souza; O. L. Alves; E. Esposito; N. Durán

50

A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinum×C. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated molecular marker map of the chickpea genome was established using 130 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross\\u000a between a cultivar resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. &. Hans f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Snyd & Hans, and an accession of Cicer reticulatum (PI 489777), the wild progenitor of chickpea. A total of 354

P. Winter; A.-M. Benko-Iseppon; B. Hüttel; M. Ratnaparkhe; A. Tullu; G. Sonnante; T. Pfaff; M. Tekeoglu; D. Santra; V. J. Sant; P. N. Rajesh; G. Kahl; F. J. Muehlbauer

2000-01-01

51

Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber with improvement of growth and mineral uptake using some antagonistic formulations.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt disease in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is widespread, responsible for serious economic losses. Amongst totally 15 isolates of Fusarium spp., obtained from different localities of Sohag governorate, Egypt, only the identified isolates as F. oxysporum were pathogenic on cucumber Denmark Beta-Alpha cv. and caused wilt symptoms. Totally 22 isolates of Trichoderma spp., B. subtilis and Pseudomonas spp., were obtained from rhizosphere of cucumber and some available commercial formulations and then tested for antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum (FO5) in vitro. The highest inhibitory effect on growth of FO5 was observed by isolate Trichodex of T. harzianum (89.29%) followed by Th4 of T. harzianum, Serenade and MBI 600 of B. subtilis, PS3 of Pseudomonas spp., and Treico and Tv2 of T. viride. Pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of formulated antagonists as seed treatment on Fusarium wilt incidence, growth and mineral uptake of cucumber. Results showed that all tested formulations significantly reduced percent of wilted plants and disease severity, and improved plant growth by increasing length of shoot and root, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root system, and number of leaves and flowers per plant compared with untreated control. They also significantly increased nutrient contents of plant shoot including N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Magnesium content in shoot slightly not significantly increased. Formulation of Trichodex was the most effective ones followed by Serenade, Th4 and PS3. PMID:23878960

Moharam, Moustafa H A; Negim, Osama O

2012-01-01

52

Use of a Nitrate-Nonutilizing Mutant and Selective Media to Examine Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional Fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. Therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. Colony forming units of the pathogen were countable after soil-dilution plating onto nit mutant-selective media MMCPA, CMP, and CGMBP. Colony forming units of wild-type Fusarium spp. were countable using a wildtype Fusarium-selective medium, GMBP. By combining nit mutant- and wild-type-selective media, the population densities of pathogenic and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum in the same soil could be measured selectively. This method was useful in studying population dynamics of the pathogen after different soil treatments. Soil disinfested with hot water or chloropicrin was amended with the nit mutant pathogen, and subsequent changes in population densities of the pathogen were compared with those in nontreated field soil. The pathogen rapidly proliferated in disinfested soil and wilt developed faster than in nontreated soil. When a nonpathogenic isolate of F. oxysporum was added at high density to sterilized soil prior to the pathogen, growth of the pathogen was greatly suppressed. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum could not, however, reduce the density of preexisting pathogen. PMID:18944103

Takehara, Toshiaki; Kuniyasu, Katsuto; Mori, Mitsutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

53

Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, the RFO1 QTL appears to interact with three other loci, RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6, and is attributed to the gene At1g79670. Results When resistance to FOM was mapped in a new BC1 population, in which the loss-of-function mutant of At1g79670 replaced wild type as the Col-0 parent, RFO1’s major effect and RFO1’s interaction with RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6 were absent, showing that At1g79670 alone accounts for the RFO1 QTL. Resistance of two QTLs, RFO3 and RFO5, was independent of RFO1 and was reproduced in the new BC1 population. In analysis of a third BC1 population, resistance to a second pathogen, F. oxysporum forma specialis conglutinans race 1 (FOC1), was mapped and the major effect locus RFO7 was identified. Conclusions Natural quantitative resistance to F. oxysporum is largely specific to the infecting forma specialis because different RFO loci were responsible for resistance to FOM and FOC1. The mapping of quantitative disease resistance traits in BC1 populations, generated from crosses between sequenced Arabidopsis accessions, can be a routine procedure when genome-wide genotyping is efficient, economical and accessible. PMID:24172069

2013-01-01

54

A novel thermophilic endoglucanase from a mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermophilic endoglucanase (EGt) was extracted from a mesophilic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum L19). We invoked conventional kinetic enzyme reactions using the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as substrate.\\u000a EGt displayed optimal activity at 75C when kept running 30 min in the temperature range of 30–85C. Thermal stability curve\\u000a measured at 70C suggested that its half-life time is 15.1

Shuyan Liu; Xinyuan Duan; Xuemei Lu; Peiji Gao

2006-01-01

55

Mutations of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani by TCMTB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon screening several fungicides, a few Fusarium oxysporum isolates and one Rhizoctonia solani isolate showed a distinct\\u000a and sudden decrease in sensitivity to TCMTB (2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole). The screening was carried out in Petri\\u000a dishes using an agar medium, mixed with the test fungicides, in the center of which a mycelial piece of the test fungus was\\u000a placed. In several TCMTB-containing plates,

A. Vanachter; E. van Wambeke

1977-01-01

56

Identification of the main toxins isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 2 and their relation with isolates' pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is a pathogen of field pea inducing severe vascular wilt worldwide. Plant resistance to races 1, 5, and 6, producing wilt symptoms, is conferred by a single dominant gene, while resistance to race 2, which gives near-wilt symptoms, have been recently showed to be quantitative. Among the virulence factors reported to play a role in the infection process, toxin production is one of the best studied. Thus, five race 2 isolates have been investigated for toxin production in vitro and their relation to isolates' pathogenicity. All the isolates produced different amounts of fusaric and 9,10-dehydrofusaric acids. The content of the two toxins has been quantitated and correlated with the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of isolates on field pea. Results suggested that toxin production is an important determinant of Fop race 2 pathogenicity. PMID:24568659

Bani, Moustafa; Rispail, Nicolas; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego; Cimmino, Alessio

2014-03-26

57

New Fusarium wilts on vegetable crops in Italy.  

PubMed

Three Fusarium wilts recently observed in Italy on lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wild (Diplo taxis spp.) and cultivated (Eruca sativa) rocket and lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria) emerged as major production problems in Lumbardy (north-western Italy). Aspects of biology and epidemiology of the three diseases and some possibilities of disease management are discussed. PMID:15756819

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2004-01-01

58

Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

1999-02-01

59

[Biodegradation of agricultural plant residues by Fusarium oxysporum strains].  

PubMed

The cellulolytic and endoglucanase activity of Fusarium oxysporum strains isolated from soil and plants in the media with plant waste as carbon source has been studied. It was established that the majority of studied strains were able to hydrolyze the filter paper, husk of sunflower seeds, wheat straw and corn stalks. Cellulolytic activity depended on the strain of microscopic fungi, type of substrate and duration of cultivation. The maximum cellulase activity 1 U/ml and the concentration of reducing sugars -0.875 mg/ml were found in soil strain F. oxysporum 420 in the medium with corn stalks. Endoglucanase activity of plant pathogenic strains was higher than that of soil ones. PMID:25199344

Chepchak, T P; Kurchenko, I N; Iur'eva, E M

2014-01-01

60

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

61

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2009-01-01

62

MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S.; Han, Cliff S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

63

MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S; Han, Cliff S; Stajich, Jason E; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A

2014-10-01

64

Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1? (EF-1?) and ?-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

2004-01-01

65

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

66

A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive-negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The Fusarium oxysporum species complex consists of fungal pathogens that cause serial vascular wilt disease on more than 100 cultivated species throughout the world. Gene function analysis is rapidly becoming more and more important as the whole-genome sequences of various F. oxysporum strains are being completed. Gene-disruption techniques are a common molecular tool for studying gene function, yet are often a limiting step in gene function identification. In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10?F capacitance, 300? resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1?g of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95 transformants per ?g DNA. And after positive-negative selection, the transformants were efficiently screened by PCR, screening efficiency averaged 85%: 90% (RdRP1), 85% (RdRP2) and 77% (RdRP3). This gene-disruption strategy should pave the way for high throughout genetic analysis in F. oxysporum. PMID:24755311

Liang, Liqin; Li, Jianqiang; Cheng, Lin; Ling, Jian; Luo, Zhongqin; Bai, Miao; Xie, Bingyan

2014-11-01

67

Mapping the I-3 gene for resistance to Fusarium wilt in tomato: application of an I-3 marker in tomato improvement and progress towards the cloning of I-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), is an economically damaging disease that results in huge losses in Australia and other countries worldwide. The I-3 gene, which confers resistance to Fol race 3, has been described in wild tomato, Lycopersicon pennellii, accessions LA716 and PI414773.We are pursuing the isolation of I-3 from

G. T. T. Lim; G.-P. Wang; M. N. Hemming; S. Basuki; D. J. McGrath; B. J. Carroll; D. A. Jones

2006-01-01

68

THE PATHOGENICITY AND DNA POLYMORPHISM OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ORIGINATING FROM DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, GYPSOPHILA SPP. AND SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Fusarium oxysporum pathogenic isolates originating from Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila paniculata, G. repens and non-pathogenic strains obtained from soil was screened for pathogenicity and genetic variation. RAPD analysis con- ducted with arbitrary 10-mer primers gave 23 RAPD markers resulted from the DNA polymorphism. Clustering analysis based on RAPD fingerprint data revealed several distinct groups within F. oxysporum which

M. Werner; L. Irzykowska

69

Construction of a mitotic linkage map of Fusarium oxysporum based on Foxy -AFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of the first mitotic linkage map of the asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum, based on a population of 32 parasexual fusion products, is reported. Molecular markers were developed using a modified AFLP technique which combines a Foxy -specific primer with standard adapter primers. The retroposon Foxy is abundantly present and highly variable in location in F. oxysporum isolates: 43% of

H. A. S. Teunissen; M. Rep; P. M. Houterman; B. J. C. Cornelissen; M. A. Haring

2003-01-01

70

Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-01-01

71

Wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work on wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ethiopia is reviewed. The five important wilt\\/root rot diseases in Ethiopia are wilt, dry root rot, wet root rot, black root rot and collar rot, which are caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, F. solani and Sclerotium rolfsii respectively. Of these, dry root

S. P. S. Beniwal; S. Ahmed; D. Gorfu

1992-01-01

72

Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2–5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD50 value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value. PMID:22783146

Osman, Awad G.; Elhussein, Adil A.; Mohamed, Afrah T.

2012-01-01

73

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

74

Combined use of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 with reduced fungicide application for the control of tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and suppressed the Fusarium wilt of tomato. The chemical fungicide, benomyl, did not suppress the disease incidence at low concentrations. However, the disease incidence was decreased by the combined application of benomyl at low concentrations with strain LRB3W1. Combined application of benomyl with the bacterium was more effective than treatment with the bacterium alone. The survival of strain LRB3W1 was not influenced by the presence of benomyl. This combined use of the biocontrol bacterium, strain LRB3W1, and a fungicide, benomyl, should be an attractive approach for suppressing tomato wilt. PMID:16789550

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2006-06-01

75

Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses. PMID:19230952

Shi, Kai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Yun-Long; Yu, Jing-Quan

2009-05-01

76

Expression Analysis of Defense-Related Genes in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) after Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Infection and Following Chemical Elicitation using a Salicylic Acid Analog and Methyl Jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is considered as a major threat for commercial cotton production worldwide. Relative expression ratios of two key pathogenesis-related\\u000a (PR) genes (PR-3 and PR-10) and a detoxification gene (GST18) were compared between a fully susceptible (“LACTA”) and a partially field-resistant (“EMERALD”) cultivar after challenging\\u000a with an Australian Fov isolate,

Antonios G. Zambounis; Mairi S. Kalamaki; Eleni E. Tani; Epameinondas J. Paplomatas; Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

77

Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.  

PubMed

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae. PMID:24502207

Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

2014-08-01

78

An RFLP marker in tomato linked to the Fusarium oxysporum resistance gene I2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locus, I2, which in tomato confers resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2, was introgressed into Lycopersicon esculentum from the wild species L. pimpinellifolium (P.I. 126915). We searched for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between nearly isogenic lines (NILs) in clones that map to the region introgressed from the wild species. Since I2 maps to chromosome 11,

M. Sarfatti; J. Katan; R. Fluhr; D. Zamir

1989-01-01

79

[Biological characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum and inhibitory effects of five fungicides].  

PubMed

The mycelium growth and sporulation in different temperature, pH value and light conditions were detected by using the crossing and haemocytometer method. The toxicity of five fungicides to Fusarium oxysporum was tested by mycelia growth method, so as to provide the reference for prevention and control against F. oxysporum. The optimum temperature and pH value of F. oxysporum to grow and spore were 28 degrees C and 6-7. Alternating light and darkness promoted growth and sporulation of bacterial colony. As for five fungicides, the EC50 of tebuconazole was 10.02 mg x L(-1), 92.50 times as much as carbendazim. The EC50 of myclobutanil and Fuxing was 91.23, 96.68 mg x L(-1), respectively. Tebuconazole showed the most tremendous inhibitory effect and control efficiency on F. oxysporum. PMID:25039169

Shao, Qing-Song; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Xiao-Fang; Hu, Run-Huai; Li, Ming-Yan

2014-04-01

80

Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the resistance of banana plants to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection when supplied with Si. PMID:24350769

Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

2014-06-01

81

Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P = 0.010 and P = 0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe(3+) ions in porphyrin complexes (g = 2.3, g = 2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn(2+) concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum. PMID:21957331

Dobosz, Bernadeta; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Waskiewicz, Agnieszka; Irzykowska, Lidia; Bocianowski, Jan; Karolewski, Zbigniew; Kostecki, Marian; Kruczynski, Zdzislaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Weber, Zbigniew; Golinski, Piotr

2011-09-01

82

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.  

PubMed

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutum × G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense × G. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19 % of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

2013-05-01

83

Efficacy of Various Fungal and Bacterial Biocontrol Organisms for Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larkin, R. P., and Fravel, D. R. 1998. Effi cacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organ- isms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis. 82: 1022-1028. Numerous fungi and bacteria, including existing biocontrol strains with known activity against soilborne fungal pathogens as well as isolates collected from the roots and rhizosphere of to- mato plants growing in

Robert P. Larkin; Deborah R. Fravel

1998-01-01

84

Evidence for an expanded host range of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of four isolates ofFusarium oxysporum obtained from infected cultivated rocket (Eruca vesicaria) and wild (sand) rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) was tested on the following cruciferous hosts: stock, radish, wild and cultivated rockets, and various species in the cabbage\\u000a tribe: cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.sabauda), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var.gemmifera), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica), turnip (Brassica rapa

Angelo Garibaldi; Giovanna Gilardi; Maria Lodovica Gullino

2006-01-01

85

Effects of antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum on functional groups of indigenous bacteria in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before planning the commercial use of microorganisms, genetically manipulated or not, in agricultural environments, their behavior and potential impact on soil ecosystems should be carefully studied as part of risk assessment. The influence of added inoculum of antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum strains, genetically manipulated (T26\\/6) or not (233\\/1) on nitrogen and carbon functional groups were evaluated in three soils from different

Monica Mezzalama; Raquel Ghini; Paola Ruffa; Roberto Arnbrosoli; Angelo Garibaldi

1997-01-01

86

Combination therapy of disseminated Fusarium oxysporum infection with terbinafine and amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of disseminated infection with Fusarium oxysporum following chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukemia is reported. Antifungal treatment was successful with a 13-day course of oral terbinafine 250 mg t.i.d. in combination with amphotericin B deoxycholate 1.0–1.5 mg\\/kg qd and subsequently intravenous liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg\\/kg qd. Preceding monotherapy with amphotericin B deoxycholate 1.0–1.5 mg\\/kg qd had not stopped the progression of infection.

A. Rothe; M. Seibold; Th. Hoppe; H. Seifert; A. Engert; C. Caspar; M. Karthaus; G. Fätkenheuer; U. Bethe; K. Tintelnot; O. A. Cornely

2004-01-01

87

Isolation, Identification, and Culture Optimization of a Novel Glycinonitrile-Hydrolyzing Fungus— Fusarium oxysporum H3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial transformation of glycinonitrile into glycine by nitrile hydrolase is of considerable interest to green chemistry.\\u000a A novel fungus with high nitrile hydrolase was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Fusarium oxysporum H3 through 18S ribosomal DNA, 28S ribosomal DNA, and the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, together with morphology\\u000a characteristics. After primary optimization of culture conditions including

Jin-Song Gong; Zhen-Ming Lu; Jing-Song Shi; Wen-Fang Dou; Hong-Yu Xu; Zhe-Min Zhou; Zheng-Hong Xu

88

Fusarium oxysporum degradation and detoxification of a new textile-glycoconjugate azo dye (GAD).  

PubMed

Degradation and detoxification of textile dyes are of interest due to the huge environmental impact of such chemicals. An isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was used to degrade and to detoxify a new chemical class of textile dyes called Glycoconjugate Azo Dye (GAD). After 6 d of growth in a liquid batch culture, the fungus degraded the dye and the culture medium at the end of incubation period showed a ˜100% detoxification compared to the initial dye solution. Increasing the initial fungal inoculum, the dye was totally decolourized after 24 h of incubation. The degradation ability was found to be common among various isolates of F. oxysporum suggesting this as a specific trait of this species. Degrading rate was enhanced in concomitancy to the glucose depletion and the beginning of the stationary phase of growth, suggesting that the shift from the primary to the secondary metabolism may be the trigger of the degradation pathway. The Daphnia magna acute toxicity test demonstrated a strong detoxification of GAD-4 by F. oxysporum, resulting in non-toxic metabolite production. Fusarium oxysporum could, therefore, be taken into consideration to develop new remediation strategies of textile effluents. PMID:21215952

Porri, Aimone; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Guazzelli, Lorenzo; Forti, Maurizio; Catelani, Giorgio; Valentini, Giorgio; Bazzichi, Agostino; Franceschi, Massimiliano; Vannacci, Giovanni

2011-01-01

89

Construction of cDNA expression library of watermelon for isolation of ClWRKY1 transcription factors gene involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNAs are very important for genome annotation and functional analysis of genes. The number of full-length cDNAs from watermelon remains limited. Here we report first the construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library from Fusarium wilt stressed watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar PI296341 root tissues using the SMART method. The titer of primary cDNA library and amplified library was 2.21 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/ml, respectively and the rate of recombinant was above 85%. The size of insert fragment ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. In this study, we first cloned a gene named ClWRKY1, which was 1981 bp long and encoded a protein consisting of 394 amino acids. It contained two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ClWRKY1 expression levels reached maximum level at 12 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The full-length cDNA library of watermelon root tissues is not only essential for the cloning of genes which are known, but also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes that might be involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt. PMID:25296501

Yang, Bing-Yan; Huo, Xiu-Ai; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Cui-Xia; Duan, Hui-Jun

2014-08-01

90

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis?lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radicis?cucumerinum V03?2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well?known non?pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non?compatible pathogen Forc V03?2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3?week?old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox. PMID:21255375

Validov, Shamil Z.; Kamilova, Faina D.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

2011-01-01

91

Isolation and characterization of an exopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 and race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt is an economically devastating disease that affects banana production. Although Cavendish banana cultivars are resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 (FOC1) and maitain banana production after Gros Michel was destructed by race 1, a new race race 4 (FOC4) was found to infect Cavendish. Results An exopolygalacturonase (PGC2) was isolated and purified from the supernatant of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). PGC2 had an apparent Mr of 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 51.7 kDa by mass spectrometry. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. PGC2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. To obtain adequate amounts of protein for functional studies between the PGC2 proteins of two races of the pathogen, pgc2 genes encoding PGC2 from race 4 (FOC4) and race 1 (FOC1), both 1395 bp in length and encoding 465 amino acids with a predicted amino-terminal signal sequence of 18 residues, were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC2 products, r-FOC1-PGC2 and r-FOC4-PGC2, were expressed and purified as active extracellular proteins. Optimal PGC2 activity was observed at 50°C and pH 5. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC1-PGC2 were 0.43 mg.mL-1 and 94.34 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC4-PGC2 were 0.48 mg.mL-1 and 95.24 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. Both recombinant PGC2 proteins could induce tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that PGC2 is the first exoPG reported from the pathogen FOC, and we have shown that fully functional PGC2 can be produced in the P. pastoris expression system. PMID:21920035

2011-01-01

92

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1  

PubMed Central

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Anderson, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

93

Transformation of Fusarium oxysporum by particle bombardment and characterisation of the resulting transformants expressing a GFP transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium is the causative agent of a variety of economically significant vascular wilt diseases of vegetables, flowers and field crops. The completion of the first Fusarium genome and the availability of an EST database now provides a platform for both forward and reverse genetic approaches to ascribe gene function in this phytopathogen. To underpin these strategies effective gene transfer procedures

Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud; Byung-Wook Yun; Lucy A. Harrier; Gary J. Loake

2004-01-01

94

A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W  

PubMed Central

During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ?meaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-01-01

95

A wilt of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims) caused by Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wilt of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims) is widespread in Zimbabwe. Fusarium solani was consistently isolated from discoloured vascular tissue of plants obtained from several farms. All isolates of the fungus were pathogenic. The possible role of Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica in the wilt disease was investigated because it was frequently isolated from the stem base

D. L. Cole; T. R. Hedges; T. Ndowora

1992-01-01

96

Incidence of Fusarium wilt of cotton as affected by pathogen propagule type, age and source  

E-print Network

on pathogen population dynamics DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY LITERATURE CITED Page Vl VI I IX 20 20 28 30 37 37 44 48 58 67 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) APPENDIX A Effect of drying on inoculum propagule populations Introduction Materials... the inoculum age experiment 45 46 49 50 10 Effect of inoculum drying and method of population determination on the apparent number of colony forming units (cfu) of two different formac specialis of Fusarium oxysporum 81 11 Comparison of V-8-juice agar...

McEntee, James Philip

2012-06-07

97

Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable. PMID:24516465

Hafizi, R.; Salleh, B.; Latiffah, Z.

2013-01-01

98

Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incognita had a greater effect alone than did either of the other pathogens. The length of split roots was reduced by the infection of M. incognita and A. tumefaciens or F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The number of galls induced by nematodes on roots was higher where the bacterium was applied and lower where the fungus was applied to the opposite split root. PMID:19283119

El-Sherif, A G; Elwakil, M A

1991-04-01

99

Wilts of the Watermelon and Related Crops: Fusarium Wilts of Cucurbits.  

E-print Network

by different laboratcry helpers, who, because of the war, did not remaill long enough with t!ie work. In this connection, however, inention should he made of the ~alutzble assistance renclered by Mr. Albert Johnson, fornlerlp a graduate student of the Texas... later, is caused by a Fuearium which is distinct from the fungus that causes wilt of the watermelon. The scope of the present work attempted to answer the following poir,ts relative to wilt diseases of cucurbits and other crops: (1) Is Necos...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1920-01-01

100

Studies of a New Fusarium Wilt of Spinach in Texas.  

E-print Network

as pathogenic to spinach, as is Fusarium soZuni. Results of these inoculations are shown in Fig. 2, a-h. Pusarium solani, according to Sherbakofl (6), is usually found on rotted potato tubers and on decaying organic matter. It is surprising, therefore... Storage potatoes from Idaho. . 22 March 20, 1925. Sixty per cent of tubers from College Stat~on, Texas. Variety unknown. show very sllght infection around inoculated area, causlng dry rat. Fusarium solani from Irish potatoes storaBe potatoes from Idaho...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1926-01-01

101

Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.  

PubMed

In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates. PMID:23315087

Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

2013-04-01

102

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

103

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il; Kim, Byung-Sup

2014-06-01

104

Local origin of two vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Australia  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum from geographically widespread native Gossypium populations, including a cotton growing area believed to be the center of origin of VCG 01111 and VCG 01112 of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) in Australia, was determined using glasshouse bioassays and AFLPs. Five lineages (A–E) were identified among 856 isolates. Of these, 12% were strongly pathogenic on cotton, 10% were weakly pathogenic and designated wild Fov, while 78% were nonpathogenic. In contrast to the occurrence of pathogenic isolates in all five lineages in soils associated with wild Gossypium, in cotton growing areas only three lineages (A, B, E) occurred and all pathogenic isolates belonged to two subgroups in lineage A. One of these contained VCG 01111 isolates while the other contained VCG 01112 isolates. Sequence analyses of translation elongation factor-1?, mitochondrial small subunit rDNA, nitrate reductase and phosphate permease confirmed that Australian Fov isolates were more closely related to lineage A isolates of native F. oxysporum than to Fov races 1–8 found overseas. These results strongly support a local evolutionary origin for Fov in Australian cotton growing regions.

Wang, Bo; Brubaker, Curt L; Summerell, Brett A; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

2010-01-01

105

Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-06-01

106

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt and Fusarium Wilt by a Burkholderia nodosa Strain Isolated from Kalimantan Soils, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to suppress bacterial wilt of tomato (BWT) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum using biocontrol agents (BCAs) isolated from soils in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Five isolates were selected from 270 isolates as better performing BCAs through screening four times using a pumice medium. The isolates selected were identified as Burkholderia nodosa, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia terricola according to 16S rDNA sequences, fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization patterns. Among them, B. nodosa G5.2.rif1 had significant suppressive effects on Fusarium wilt of tomato (FWT) and spinach (FWS) as well as BWT. When B. nodosa G5.2rif1 was inoculated into a pumice medium in combination with sucrose, it showed even more stable disease suppression for BWT, but not for FWS. This suppression was considered to mainly occur through competition for nutrients. In two times greenhouse experiments for BWT using pots comparable in size to those used commercially, B. nodosa G5.2rif1 significantly suppressed the disease index by 33-79%, with no inhibitory effects on the growth, yield and quality of tomatoes. PMID:21558699

Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

2008-01-01

107

Antagonistic actions of Pythium oligandrum and Trichoderma harzianum against phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible biological control of damping-off fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium ultimum by Pythium oligandrum or Trichoderma harzianum was in vitro investigated. Results of comparing the antagonistic activity of P. oligandrum and T. harzianum in dual plates against the tested phytopathogens indicated different degrees of antagonism. After 12 days of incubation colony of the phytopathogenic fungus was completely overgrown by

Momein H. El-Katatny; Hani M. A. Abdelzaher; Mahmoud A. Shoulkamy

2006-01-01

108

Effector gene screening allows unambiguous identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races and discrimination from other formae speciales  

Microsoft Academic Search

During infection of tomato, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes several unique proteins, called 'secreted in xylem' (Six) proteins, into the xylem sap. At least some of these proteins promote virulence towards tomato and among them, all predicted avirulence proteins that can trigger disease resistance in tomato have been found. In this study, a large, worldwide collection of

B. Lievens; P. M. Houterman; M. Rep

2009-01-01

109

Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism. Results Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher biomass to xylose yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth on glucose revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source. Conclusions Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics. PMID:24649884

2014-01-01

110

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits. PMID:23717215

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

111

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.  

PubMed

Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2010-09-01

112

Phylogenetic relationship between different race representative populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in respect of translation elongation factor-1?, ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer region genes.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1? (TEF-1?), ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1?, ?-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1?, the groups generated by ?-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1? partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately. PMID:24639029

Dubey, Sunil C; Priyanka, Kumari; Singh, Vivek

2014-06-01

113

Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fusarium oxysporum by Optimizing Physicocultural Conditions  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) by fungi is emerging as an important branch of nanotechnology due to its ecofriendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. In order to increase the yield of biosynthesized SNPs of desired shape and size, it is necessary to control the cultural and physical parameters during the synthesis. We report optimum synthesis of SNPs on malt extract glucose yeast extract peptone (MGYP) medium at pH 9–11, 40–60°C, and 190.7 Lux and in sun light. The salt concentrations, volume of filtrate and biomass quantity were found to be directly proportional to the yield. The optimized conditions for the stable and rapid synthesis will help in large scale synthesis of monodispersed SNPs. The main aim of the present study was to optimize different media, temperature, pH, light intensity, salt concentration, volume of filtrate, and biomass quantity for the synthesis of SNPs by Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:24222751

Birla, Sonal S.; Gaikwad, Swapnil C.; Gade, Aniket K.; Rai, Mahendra K.

2013-01-01

114

Response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Defence responses of embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini. The infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. The concentration of H2O2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. This was probably a consequence of oxidative burst as well as H2O2 generation by the invading necrotrophic fungal pathogen. EPR-based analyses detected the presence of free radicals with g1 and g2 values of 2.0052 +/- 0.0004 and 2.0031 +/- 0.0005, respectively. Concentrations of the radicals 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 50% higher than in the control. The values of the spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. However, inoculated embryo axes possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. A twofold increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was evidenced in embryo axes infected with F. oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. lupini, as compared to the control 48-96 h after inoculation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity 96 h after inoculation was 80% higher than in the control. Furthermore, EPR-based analyses revealed a higher concentration of Mn2+ ions after 72 h for inoculated embryo axes, as compared to the control. On the other hand, no increase was detected in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (products of lipid peroxidation) in infected embryo axes. The protective mechanisms induced in lupine embryo axes in response to F. oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini were compared with responses to infections with pathogenic fungi elicited in other plant families. PMID:15246062

Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Koz?owska, Monika

2004-06-01

115

Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.  

PubMed

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-01-01

116

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.  

PubMed

In recent years, Bacillus species have received considerable attention for the biological control of many fungal diseases. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 was tested for its potential use against a variety of plant pathogens. Our screen for genes involved in the biosynthesis of antifungal agents revealed that the fen and bmy gene clusters are present in the Q-426 genome. Lipopeptides such as bacillomycin D, fengycin A, and fengycin B were purified from the bacterial culture broth and subsequently identified by ESI-mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration of fengycin A against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hansen O-27 was determined to be 31.25??g?ml(-1) . However, exposure of fungal cells to 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A did not allow permeation of fluorescein diacetate into the cytoplasm through the cell membrane. Moreover, leakage of intracellular inorganic cations, nucleic acid and protein were also not detected, indicating that the fungal cell membrane is not the primary target of action for fengycin A. Profound morphological changes were observed in the F. oxysporum strain and spore germination was completely inhibited, suggesting that 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A acts, at least, as a fungistatic agent. PMID:23553741

Zhao, Pengchao; Quan, Chunshan; Wang, Yingguo; Wang, Jianhua; Fan, Shengdi

2014-05-01

117

Enhanced ethanol production from brewer's spent grain by a Fusarium oxysporum consolidated system  

PubMed Central

Background Brewer's spent grain (BG), a by-product of the brewing process, is attracting increasing scientific interest as a low-cost feedstock for many biotechnological applications. BG in the present study is evaluated as a substrate for lignocellulolytic enzyme production and for the production of ethanol by the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum under submerged conditions, implementing a consolidated bioconversion process. Fermentation experiments were performed with sugar mixtures simulating the carbohydrate content of BG in order to determine the utilization pattern that could be expected during the fermentation of the cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysate of BG. The sugar mixture fermentation study focused on the effect of the initial total sugar concentration and on the effect of the aeration rate on fermenting performance of F. oxysporum. The alkali pretreatment of BG and different aeration levels during the ethanol production stage were studied for the optimization of the ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Results Enzyme yields as high as 550, 22.5, 6.5, 3225, 0.3, 1.25 and 3 U per g of carbon source of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-D-glucosidase, xylanase, feruloyl esterase, ?-D-xylosidase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase respectively, were obtained during the growth stage under optimized submerged conditions. An ethanol yield of 109 g ethanol per kg of dry BG was obtained with alkali-pretreated BG under microaerobic conditions (0.01 vvm), corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield based on total glucose and xylose content of BG. Conclusion The enzymatic profile of the extracellular extract from F. oxysporum submerged cultures using BG and corn cob as the carbon source was proved efficient for a successful hydrolysis of BG. The fermentation study carried out using sugar mixtures simulating BG's carbohydrates content and consecutively alkali-pretreated and untreated BG, indicates that BG hydrolysis is the bottleneck of the bioconversion process. However, a considerable bioconversion yield was achieved (60% of the theoretical) making this bioprocess worthy of further investigation for a potential commercial application. PMID:19208239

Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

2009-01-01

118

EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN  

E-print Network

content and fertility, and can support the growth of soil-borne pathogens. Some growers choose to apply or to increase organic matter and improve soil fertility. The objective of this on-farm study was to determine, fusarium wilt incidence was not affected by soil treatment. Single applications of organic amendments

Ma, Lena

119

Murine Model for Fusarium oxysporum Invasive Fusariosis Reveals Organ-Specific Structures for Dissemination and Long-Term Persistence  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum causes life-threatening invasive fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism of infection in mammalian hosts is largely unknown. In the present study we show that the symptoms of disseminated fusariosis caused by F. oxysporum in immunosuppressed mice are remarkably similar to those reported in humans. Distinct fungal structures were observed inside the host, depending on the infected organ. Invasive hyphae developed in the heart and kidney, causing massive colonization of the organs. By contrast, chlamydospore-like survival structures were found in lung, spleen and liver. Systemically infected mice also developed skin and eye infections, as well as thrombosis and necrosis in the tail. We further show that F. oxysporum can disseminate and persist in the organs of immunocompetent animals, and that these latent infections can lead to lethal systemic fusariosis if the host is later subjected to immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:24587124

Schafer, Katja; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A. R.; MacCallum, Donna

2014-01-01

120

Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays.\\u000a In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4).

Veerubommu Shanmugam; Kamini Atri; Samriti Gupta; Nandina Kanoujia; Digvijay Singh Naruka

2011-01-01

121

Sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the wool cuticle-degrading enzyme encoding genes in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1.  

PubMed

Two protease-like proteins, KrtA and KrtC, were identified in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1. Genes coding these proteins, krtA and krtC, were isolated and characterized. Recombinant KrtA (rKrtA) and KrtC (rKrtC) were successfully expressed in Aspergillus oryzae and secreted. The combination of rKrtA and rKrtC completely removed the cuticle of wool fibers. PMID:24360406

Chaya, Etsushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Karita, Shuichi; Hanya, Akira; Yoshino-Yasuda, Shoko; Kitamoto, Noriyuki

2014-06-01

122

Extracellular chitin deacetylase production in solid state fermentation by native soil isolates of Penicillium monoverticillium and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Extracellular chitin deacetylase production by native soil isolates of Penicillium monoverticillium CFR 2 and Fusarium oxysporum CFR 8 in solid state fermentation (SSF) using commercial wheat bran (CWB) and shrimp processing by-products (SPP) as solid substrate has been studied. P. monoverticillium produced maximum chitin deacetylase activity of 547.7?±?45 and 390.2?±?31 units/g initial dry substrate (U/g IDS) at 96 h of incubation in CWB and SPP media, respectively. While, F. oxysporum produced maximum chitin deacetylase activity of 306.4?±?22 U/g IDS at 72 h of incubation in CWB medium and 220.1?±?20 U/g IDS at 120 h of incubation in SPP medium. Along with chitin deacetylase, P. monoverticillium and F. oxysporum produced other chitin degrading enzymes such as endo-chitinase and ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase. P. monoverticillium produced maximum activity (U/g IDS) of endo-chitinase 4.6?±?0.20 at 120 h incubation and ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase 82.6?±?03 at 120 h incubation in CWB medium. While, F. oxysporum produced maximum activity (U/g IDS) of endo-chitinase 7.8?±?0.20 at 144 h incubation and ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase 38.3?±?02 at 120 h incubation in CWB medium. Production of extracellular chitin deacetylase by P. monoverticillium CFR 2 and F. oxysporum CFR 8 in SSF is being reported for the first time. PMID:25114353

Suresh, P V; Sakhare, P Z; Sachindra, N M; Halami, P M

2014-08-01

123

Relation of Cotton Root Rot and Fusarium Wilt to the Acidity and Alkalinity of the Soil.  

E-print Network

of the soil. Laboratory studies of the growth of the fungus on culture media showed that it grew best at about the neutral point, pH 7.0, and that it would not grow so well in more acid or in more alkaline media. Cotton fields in 16 counties of Texas were... examined, and the acidity or alkalinity of the soil studied in relation to the pres- ence of cotton root rot and also of Fusarium wilt. Root rot was found in acid soils (pH 5.5-6.4) as well as in neutral (pH 6.5-7.4) and alkaline soils (pH 7...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

1928-01-01

124

Extracellular xylanases from two pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris: enzyme production in culture and purification and characterization of a major isoform as an alkaline endo-beta-(1,4)-xylanase of low molecular weight.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of chickpea, comprises eight pathogenic races and two pathotypes. Races 0 and 5, representative of the least virulent yellowing pathotype and the most virulent wilt pathotype, respectively, produced extracellular xylanases when grown on minimal medium supplemented with either 1% commercial birchwood xylan or 0.3% chickpea cell walls. The pattern of extracellular proteins analysed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the two media presented some minor but distinctive differences between fungal races. By preparative isoelectrofocusing, the xylanase activity in cell wall-culture filtrates could be resolved into basic and neutral fractions with pI values around to 10 and 8, respectively, whereas the xylan-culture filtrates contained an additional acidic fraction of pI around 4. A common major xylanase was purified 7-fold to homogeneity by cation-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The purified xylanase has a molecular weight of 21.6 kDa, optimum pH and temperature of 5.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively, pI in the range of 8.2 to 9.0, and Km and Vmax values of 2.24 mg ml(-1) (birchwood xylan as substrate) and 1200 nkat mg(-1) protein (72 U mg(-1) protein), respectively. The enzyme has an endo mode of action, hydrolysing xylan to xylobiose and higher short-chain xylooligosaccharides without forming free xylose. PMID:15928976

Jorge, Inmaculada; de la Rosa, Olga; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2005-07-01

125

Fot 1 insertions in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome provide diagnostic PCR targets for detection of the date palm pathogen.  

PubMed

Populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar Fot 1 hybridization patterns. In order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several DNA clones containing a copy of the transposable element Fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. Regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences were used to design PCR primers that amplify the DNA regions at several Fot 1 insertion sites. When tested on a large sample of Fusarium isolates, including 286 F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates, 17 other special forms, nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates from palm grove soils, and 8 other Fusarium species, the primer pair TL3-FOA28 allowed amplification of a 400-bp fragment found only in F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. Sequence analysis showed that one of the Fot 1 copies was truncated, lacking 182 bp at its 3' terminus. The primer pair BI03-FOA1 amplified a 204-bp fragment which overlapped the Fot 1 truncated copy and its 3' site of insertion in the F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome and identified 95% of the isolates. The primer pairs BIO3-FOA1 and TL3-FOA28 used in PCR assays thus provide a useful diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates. PMID:9464402

Fernandez, D; Ouinten, M; Tantaoui, A; Geiger, J P; Daboussi, M J; Langin, T

1998-02-01

126

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles from different cellular fractions of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The addition of varying concentrations of precursor gold salt to different cellular fractions of Fusarium oxysporum, viz., the culture filtrate and the intracellular extract obtained in the growing and resting phase of the cells had a profound influence on the size, shape, and state of aggregation of the nanoparticles. Multiply-twinned nanoparticles were obtained when the culture filtrate was used for synthesizing nanoparticles while mostly irregular shapes were obtained with the intracellular extract. The time taken for the formation of gold nanoparticles in the culture filtrate of resting cells was very less (< 30 min) while it took more than 8 h when the intracellular extract was used for synthesis of nanoparticles. There was a reduction in size of the nanoparticles with decreasing concentration of the gold salt from 1 mM to 0.05 mM. With the intracellular extract, the initial rate of increase in surface plasmon absorption maximum was linearly proportional to the initial concentration of the gold salt used. Gold nanoparticles were also obtained with the heat-inactivated culture filtrate which suggests alternatively the role of peptides and amino acids besides proteins in reducing and/or stabilizing the nanoparticles. PMID:24734569

Deepa, Kannan; Panda, Tapobrata

2014-05-01

127

Control of Fusarium Wilt of Radish by Combining Pseudomonas putida Strains that have Different Disease-Suppressive Mechanisms.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the field has given variable results. By combining specific strains of microorganisms, multiple traits antagonizing the pathogen can be combined and this may result in a higher level of protection. Pseudomonas putida WCS358 suppresses Fusarium wilt of radish by effectively competing for iron through the production of its pseudobactin siderophore. However, in some bioassays pseudobactin-negative mutants of WCS358 also suppressed disease to the same extent as WCS358, suggesting that an, as yet unknown, additional mechanism may be operative in this strain. P. putida strain RE8 induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt. When WCS358 and RE8 were mixed through soil together, disease suppression was significantly enhanced to approximately 50% as compared to the 30% reduction for the single strain treatments. Moreover, when one strain failed to suppress disease in the single application, the combination still resulted in disease control. The enhanced disease suppression by the combination of P. putida strains WCS358 and RE8 is most likely the result of the combination of their different disease-suppressive mechanisms. These results demonstrate that combining biocontrol strains can lead to more effective, or at least, more reliable biocontrol of fusarium wilt of radish. PMID:18942986

de Boer, Marjan; Bom, Peter; Kindt, Frodo; Keurentjes, Joost J B; van der Sluis, Ientse; van Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

2003-05-01

128

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

2013-01-01

129

In vitro efficacy of Hyptis suaveolens L. (Poit.) essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder & Hansen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyptis\\u000a suaveolens L. (Poit.) essential oil was tested in vitro on the growth and morphogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder & Hansen, which causes Fusarium corm rot and yellows in various susceptible cultivars of gladiolus. The fungitoxicity of the oil was measured by percentage radial growth inhibition using the poisoned food technique (PF)\\u000a and volatile activity assay (VA).

Abhishek Tripathi; Neeta Sharma; Vinay Sharma

2009-01-01

130

Analysis of the inter- and extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain was screened and found to be successful for the inter- and extracellular production of platinum nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formation was visually observed, over time, by the colour of the extracellular solution and/or the fungal biomass turning from yellow to dark brown, and their concentration was determined from the amount of residual hexachloroplatinic acid measured from a standard curve at 456 nm. The extracellular nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles of varying size (10-100 nm) and shape (hexagons, pentagons, circles, squares, rectangles) were produced at both extracellular and intercellular levels by the Fusarium oxysporum. The particles precipitate out of solution and bioaccumulate by nucleation either intercellularly, on the cell wall/membrane, or extracellularly in the surrounding medium. The importance of pH, temperature and hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) concentration in nanoparticle formation was examined through the use of a statistical response surface methodology. Only the extracellular production of nanoparticles proved to be statistically significant, with a concentration yield of 4.85 mg l-1 estimated by a first-order regression model. From a second-order polynomial regression, the predicted yield of nanoparticles increased to 5.66 mg l-1 and, after a backward step, regression gave a final model with a yield of 6.59 mg l-1.

Riddin, T. L.; Gericke, M.; Whiteley, C. G.

2006-07-01

131

Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides.  

PubMed

Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

Freire, E S; Campos, V P; Pinho, R S C; Oliveira, D F; Faria, M R; Pohlit, A M; Noberto, N P; Rezende, E L; Pfenning, L H; Silva, J R C

2012-12-01

132

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar ‘Brazilian’ in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of ‘Yueyoukang 1’ and ‘Brazilian’ and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that ‘Yueyoukang 1’ had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than ‘Brazilian’. Expression patterns of genes involved in ‘Plant-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in ‘Brazilian’ but down-regulated in ‘Yueyoukang 1’, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was found to differ from that in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

133

Influence of Soil Fumigation on the Fusarium-Root-knot Nematode Disease Complex of Cotton in California.  

PubMed

For control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the pathogenic wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, on cotton, soil fumigants were applied in the field at conventional and higher rates. Conventional rates suppressed Fusarium wilt but higher rates gave quicker early growth, better stands, less stand loss over the season, a lower percentage of plants infected with wilt, fewer plants with vascular discoloration, and fewer nematodes. The best treatment about doubled the yields of untreated controls in one experiment and quadrupled them in another. PMID:19305846

Jorgenson, E C; Hyer, A H; Garber, R H; Smith, S N

1978-07-01

134

Toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. Unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in Morocco and Algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Fao). Controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. Breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. Few naturally resistant cultivars with a mediocre fruit quality (dates) are known. Conventional and non-conventional methods are under development and have to use the simplest and easiest methods to screen for resistant individuals. The use of pathogen toxins as selective agents at the tissue culture step might be a source of variability that can lead to the selection of individuals with suitable levels of resistance to the toxin and/or to the pathogen among the genetic material available. Foa produces toxins such as fusaric, succinic, 3-phenyl lactic acids and their derivatives, marasmins and peptidic toxins. These toxins can be used bulked or separately as selective agents. The aim of this contribution was to give a brief overview on toxins and their use as a mean to select resistant lines and to initiate a discussion about the potential use of this approach for the date palm-Foa pathosystem. This review does not pretend to be comprehensive or exhaustive and was prepared mainly to highlight the potential use of Foa toxins for selecting date palm individuals with a suitable resistance level to bayoud using toxin-based selective media. PMID:16125651

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El Idrissi-Tourane, Abdelmalek; El Hassni, Majida; Daayf, Fouad; El Hadrami, Ismaïl

2005-08-01

135

The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.  

PubMed

With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. ?gnt2 mutants had ?alterations in cell wall properties related to terminal ?or ?-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. ?gnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity. PMID:24416097

López-Fernández, Loida; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M Isabel G

2013-01-01

136

The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, Encoding a Putative N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase, Is Involved in Cell Wall Architecture and Virulence  

PubMed Central

With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. ?gnt2 mutants had ?alterations in cell wall properties related to terminal ?or ?-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. ?gnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity. PMID:24416097

Lopez-Fernandez, Loida; Ruiz-Roldan, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

2013-01-01

137

EFFECT OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM EXUDATE ON THE GROWTH AND VIABILITY OF SCENEDESMUS ACUTUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The influence of exudate of F. oxysporum on the viability, produc- tivity and the content of some ingredients of S. acutus cells was studied. It was established that the fungal exudate stimulates cell growth (6.6%) and enhances the content of proteins (13%), lipids (7.6%) and pigments (4.8%). Furthermore, it was found that treatment with fungal exudate resulted in en-

Irina Puneva; Tonka Toncheva-Panova; Milka Bozhkova

138

Risk Levels of Invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in Areas Suitable for Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivation under Various Climate Change Projections  

PubMed Central

Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication. PMID:24340100

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

2013-01-01

139

Discovery of a linoleate 9S-dioxygenase and an allene oxide synthase in a fusion protein of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating plant pathogen that oxidizes C?? fatty acids sequentially to jasmonates. The genome codes for putative dioxygenase (DOX)-cytochrome P450 (CYP) fusion proteins homologous to linoleate diol synthases (LDSs) and the allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Aspergillus terreus, e.g., FOXB_01332. Recombinant FOXB_01332 oxidized 18:2n-6 to 9S-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid by hydrogen abstraction and antarafacial insertion of molecular oxygen and sequentially to an allene oxide, 9S(10)-epoxy-10,12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid, as judged from nonenzymatic hydrolysis products (?- and ?-ketols). The enzyme was therefore designated 9S-DOX-AOS. The 9S-DOX activity oxidized C?? and C?? fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series to hydroperoxides at the n-9 and n-7 positions, and the n-9 hydroperoxides could be sequentially transformed to allene oxides with only a few exceptions. The AOS activity was stereospecific for 9- and 11-hydroperoxides with S configurations. FOXB_01332 has acidic and alcoholic residues, Glu???-Val-Leu-Ser???, at positions of crucial Asn and Gln residues (Asn-Xaa-Xaa-Gln) of the AOS and LDS. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that FOXB_01332 and AOS of A. terreus differ in catalytically important residues suggesting that AOS of A. terreus and F. oxysporum belong to different subfamilies. FOXB_01332 is the first linoleate 9-DOX with homology to animal heme peroxidases and the first 9-DOX-AOS fusion protein. PMID:24082064

Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

2013-12-01

140

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

141

Primary Metabolism of Chickpea Is the Initial Target of Wound Inducing Early Sensed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race I  

PubMed Central

Background Biotrophic interaction between host and pathogen induces generation of reactive oxygen species that leads to programmed cell death of the host tissue specifically encompassing the site of infection conferring resistance to the host. However, in the present study, biotrophic relationship between Fusarium oxysporum and chickpea provided some novel insights into the classical concepts of defense signaling and disease perception where ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation followed by hypersensitive responses determined the magnitude of susceptibility or resistant potentiality of the host. Methodology/Principal Findings Microscopic observations detected wound mediated in planta pathogenic establishment and its gradual progression within the host vascular tissue. cDNA-AFLP showed differential expression of many defense responsive elements. Real time expression profiling also validated the early recognition of the wound inducing pathogen by the host. The interplay between fungus and host activated changes in primary metabolism, which generated defense signals in the form of sugar molecules for combating pathogenic encounter. Conclusions/Significance The present study showed the limitations of hypersensitive response mediated resistance, especially when foreign encounters involved the food production as well as the translocation machinery of the host. It was also predicted from the obtained results that hypersensitivity and active species generation failed to impart host defense in compatible interaction between chickpea and Fusarium. On the contrary, the defense related gene(s) played a critical role in conferring natural resistance to the resistant host. Thus, this study suggests that natural selection is the decisive factor for selecting and segregating out the suitable type of defense mechanism to be undertaken by the host without disturbing its normal metabolism, which could deviate from the known classical defense mechanisms. PMID:20140256

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sengupta, Anindita; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

2010-01-01

142

Native soil bacteria isolates in Mexico exhibit a promising antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

PubMed

Sinaloa state accounts for 23% of Mexico's tomato production. One constraint on this important crop is the Fusarium crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which has been reported to reduce crop yield by up to 50%. In this study, we set out to identify bacterial populations which could be used to control this disease through natural antagonism. Five tomato rhizospheric soil samples were collected, dried for 1-week, and homogenized. Sub-samples were used to prepare an aqueous solution used to isolate microorganisms in pure cultures. Organisms were purified and grown separately, and used to generate a collection of 705 bacterial isolates. Thirty-four percent from this bank (254 strains) was screened against Forl, finding 27 bacteria displaying in vitro Forl growth inhibition levels from 5% to 60%. These isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and their 16Sr DNA sequences showed that they are closely related to seven species and they were putatively designated as: B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, B. megaterium, and B. pumilus. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Two B. subtilis isolates (144 and 151) and one B. cereus isolate (171) showed the best antagonistic potential against FCRRT when evaluated on seedlings. Plate and activity assays indicate that these isolates include a diverse repertoire of functional antagonistic traits that might explain their ability to control FCRRT. Moreover, bacteria showed partial hemolytic activity, and future research will be directed at ensuring that their application will be not harmful for humans and effective against Forl in greenhouse or field conditions. PMID:23417777

Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; López-Rivera, Raquel; Figueroa-Lopez, Alejandro Miguel; Mancera-López, María Elena; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Apodaca-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

2013-02-18

143

Effect of certain fungal and bacterial phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted under field condition in microplots to explore the feasibility of using certain fungal and bacterial\\u000a phosphate solubilizing microoganisms (PSMs) through soil application and root-dip treatment to manage wilt of tomato caused\\u000a by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Aspergillus awamori and A. niger were cultured on potato dextrose broth, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. striata were cultured

M. R. Khan; S. M. Khan; F. A. Mohiddin

144

Isolation, purification and characterization of vinblastine and vincristine from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum isolated from Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and (1)H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. PMID:24066024

Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

2013-01-01

145

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and 1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. PMID:24066024

Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

2013-01-01

146

Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.  

PubMed

Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and ?-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates. PMID:21503737

Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

2011-03-01

147

Fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5.  

PubMed

Trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. However, some antagonistic mechanisms of Trichoderma are not well characterized. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We further tested whether these mechanisms were inducible and upregulated in presence of FOC. The results were as follows: T-E5 heavily parasitized FOC by coiling and twisting the entire mycelium of the pathogen in dual cultures. T-E5 growing medium conditioned with deactivated FOC (T2) showed more proteins and higher cell wall-degrading enzyme activities than T1, suggesting that FOC could induce the upregulation of exoenzymes. The presence of deactivated FOC (T2') also resulted in the upregulation of VOCs that five and eight different types T-E5-derived VOCs were identified from T1' and T2', respectively. Further, the excreted VOCs in T2' showed significantly higher antifungal activities against FOC than T1'. In conclusion, mycoparasitism of T-E5 against FOC involved mycelium contact and the production of complex extracellular substances. Together, these data provide clues to help further clarify the interactions between these fungi. PMID:25135494

Zhang, Fengge; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2014-10-01

148

Extracellular biosynthesis of CdTe quantum dots by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and their anti-bacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for semiconductor [quantum dots (Q-dots)] nanoparticles has fuelled significant research in developing strategies for their synthesis and characterization. They are extensively investigated by the chemical route; on the other hand, use of microbial sources for biosynthesis witnessed the highly stable, water dispersible nanoparticles formation. Here we report, for the first time, an efficient fungal-mediated synthesis of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots at ambient conditions by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum when reacted with a mixture of CdCl2 and TeCl4. Characterization of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was carried out by different techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. CdTe nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fungal based fabrication provides an economical, green chemistry approach for production of highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots.

Syed, Asad; Ahmad, Absar

2013-04-01

149

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last few decades nanoparticles have attracted and emerged as a field in biomedical research due to their incredible applications. The current research was focused on extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell free culture supernatant of strain GP-23. It was found that the strain GP-23 belonged to Bacillus species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution, after 24 h it turned to brown color solution with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, EDX and AFM. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 7-21 nm. It was stable in aqueous solution for five months period of storage at room temperature under dark condition. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum at the concentration of 8 ?g ml-1. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide.

Gopinath, V.; Velusamy, P.

2013-04-01

150

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

151

REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-01-01

152

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in “Egusi” melon ( Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of “Egusi” melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer “Egusi”\\u000a resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two “Egusi” genotypes, ‘Ejagham’ and NHC1-130, were transformed with\\u000a Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary

Valentine Otang Ntui; Gunaratnam Thirukkumaran; Pejman Azadi; Raham Sher Khan; Ikuo Nakamura; Masahiro Mii

2010-01-01

153

Land use intensification affects soil microbial populations, functional diversity and related suppressiveness of cucumber Fusarium wilt in China’s Yangtze River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of soil microbial diversity in agricultural soils is critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality. The\\u000a aim of this study was to investigate the influence of land use intensification on soil microbial diversity and thus the level\\u000a of soil suppressiveness of cucumber Fusarium wilt. We examined three typical microbial populations, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Fuasarium

Weishou Shen; Xiangui Lin; Nan Gao; Huayong Zhang; Rui Yin; Weiming Shi; Zengqiang Duan

2008-01-01

154

Ability of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Fo47 To Induce Resistance against Pythium ultimum Infection in Cucumber  

PubMed Central

The influence exerted by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by Pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of Pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of cellulose with an exoglucanase-gold complex showed that the cellulose component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. A similar antagonistic process was observed at the root cell surface. Most striking and interesting was the finding that mycoparasitism, as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of Fo47 hyphae within nearly empty cells of the pathogen, occurred not only at the root surface but also within the invaded root tissues. The specific labeling pattern obtained with the exoglucanase-gold complex confirmed that Fo47 successfully penetrated cells of the pathogen, both in the rhizosphere and inside the root tissues. Pythium cells that could evade the first defensive line in the rhizosphere could penetrate the root epidermis, but their growth was restricted to the outermost tissues. Positive correlations between Fo47 treatment and induced resistance to infection by P. ultimum in cucumber were confirmed by (i) the reduction of pathogen viability; (ii) the elaboration of newly formed barriers, a phenomenon which was not seen in Fo47-free plants, where the pathogen proliferated in all root tissues within a few days; and (iii) the occlusion of intercellular spaces with a dense material likely enriched in phenolics. Taken together, our observations provide the first convincing evidence that Fo47 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on P. ultimum through a combination of antibiosis and mycoparasitism, in addition to being a strong inducer of plant defense reactions. PMID:12147506

Benhamou, Nicole; Garand, Chantal; Goulet, Alain

2002-01-01

155

Salicylic acid is a modulator of catalase isozymes in chickpea plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.  

PubMed

The relationship between salicylic acid level catalases isoforms chickpea cv. ICCV-10 infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Pathogen-treated chickpea plants showed high levels of SA compared with the control. Two isoforms of catalases in shoot extract (CAT-IS and CAT-IIS) and single isoform in root extract (CAT-R) were detected in chickpea. CAT-IS and CAT-R activities were inhibited in respective extracts treated with pathogen whereas, CAT-IIS activity was not inhibited. These isoforms were purified and their kinetic properties studied in the presence or absence of SA. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE of CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R was found to be 97, 40 and 66 kDa respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that Km and V(max) of CAT-IS were 0.2 mM and 300 U/mg, 0.53 mM and 180 U/mg for CAT-IIS and 0.25 mM and 280 U/mg for CAT-R, respectively. CAT-IS and CAT-R were found to be more sensitive to SA and 50% of their activities were inhibited at 6 and 4 ?M respectively, whereas CAT-IIS was insensitive to SA up to 100 ?M. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified catalases were used to quantitate SA binding; the estimated K(d) value for CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R found to be 2.3 ?M, 3.1 mM and 2.8 ?M respectively. SA is a modulator of catalase isozymes activity, supports its role in establishment of SAR in chickpea plants infected with the pathogen. PMID:22245913

Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

2012-03-01

156

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

157

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

158

Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551, an Indigenous Greek Isolate Studied as a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum. PMID:23762841

Kanini, Grammatiki S.; Katsifas, Efstathios A.; Savvides, Alexandros L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.

2013-01-01

159

Analysis of the defence-related mechanism in cucumber seedlings in relation to root colonization by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum CS-20.  

PubMed

A defence response can be induced by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum CS-20 in several crops, but the molecular mechanism has not been clearly demonstrated. In the present study, we analysed the defence mechanism of a susceptible cucumber cultivar (Cucumis sativus L. 9930) against a pathogen (F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum) through the root precolonization of CS-20. A challenge inoculation assay indicated that the disease severity index (DSI) was reduced, ranging from 18.83 to 61.67 in comparison with the pathogen control. Root colonization analysis indicated that CS-20 clearly did not appear to influence the growth of cucumber seedlings. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that CS-20-mediated defence response was activated by PR3, LOX1 and PAL1 and the pathogen-mediated resistance response was regulated by PR1 and PR3. Moreover, both nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum were able to upregulate NPR1 expression. In contrast to a pathogen, CS-20 can activate the Ca(2+) /CaM signal transduction pathway, and the gene expression of both CsCam7 and CsCam12 increased significantly. The gene expression analysis indicated that CS-20 strongly enhanced the expression of PR3, LOX1, PAL1, NPR1, CsCam7 and CsCam12 after inoculation. Overall, the defence response induced by CS-20 can be controlled by multiple genes in the cucumber plant. PMID:24810367

Pu, Xiaoming; Xie, Bingyan; Li, Peiqian; Mao, Zhenchuan; Ling, Jian; Shen, Huifang; Zhang, Jingxin; Huang, Ning; Lin, Birun

2014-06-01

160

p-Coumaric Acid Influenced Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities and the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen  

PubMed Central

Background Autotoxicity of cucumber root exudates or decaying residues may be the cause of the soil sickness of cucumber. However, how autotoxins affect soil microbial communities is not yet fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The aims of this study were to study the effects of an artificially applied autotoxin of cucumber, p-coumaric acid, on cucumber seedling growth, rhizosphere soil microbial communities, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (a soil-borne pathogen of cucumber) growth. Abundance, structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed with real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods. Soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C (MBC) were determined to indicate the activity and size of the soil microflora. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (0.1–1.0 µmol/g soil) decreased cucumber leaf area, and increased soil dehydrogenase activity, MBC and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community abundances. p-Coumaric acid also changed the structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, with increases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and fungal taxa Sordariomycete, Zygomycota, and decreases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and fungal taxon Pezizomycete. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased Fusarium oxysporum population densities in soil. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that p-coumaric acid may play a role in the autotoxicity of cucumber via influencing soil microbial communities. PMID:23118972

Zhou, Xingang; Wu, Fengzhi

2012-01-01

161

FEM1, a Fusarium oxysporum glycoprotein that is covalently linked to the cell wall matrix and is conserved in filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

As part of an investigation of the cell wall structure of plant pathogenic, filamentous fungi, we set out to characterize covalently bound cell wall glycoproteins (CWPs) of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. N-terminal sequencing of an abundant 60-kDa CWP led to the cloning of the corresponding gene, which we have designated FEM1 (Fusarium extracellular matrix protein). The gene contains an ORF encoding a primary translation product of 212 amino acids, including an N-terminal 17-amino acid secretion signal sequence. Furthermore, FEM1p contains two potential N-glycosylation sites, and is rich in serine and threonine residues (29%) that could serve as O-glycosyl addition sites. At its C-terminus the protein contains a 22-amino acid sequence with the characteristics of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor addition signal. A mutant FEM1 protein lacking this GPI anchor addition signal is not retained in the fungal cell wall but released into the culture medium, indicating that in the wild-type protein this sequence functions to anchor the protein to the extracellular matrix. Southern analysis shows that FEM1 is present as a single-copy gene in all formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested and in F. solani. Database searches show that FEM1p homologous sequences are present in other filamentous fungi as well. PMID:11370861

Schoffelmeer, E A; Vossen, J H; van Doorn, A A; Cornelissen, B J; Haring, M A

2001-03-01

162

Development of Quantitative Proteomics Using iTRAQ Based on the Immunological Response of Galleria mellonella Larvae Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum Microconidia  

PubMed Central

Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at 37°C over expressed many more proteins than other treatments. PMID:25379782

Muñoz-Gómez, Amalia; Corredor, Mauricio; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Peláez, Carlos

2014-01-01

163

Role of chemotaxis toward fusaric acid in colonization of hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 is an excellent competitive colonizer of tomato root tips after bacterization of seed or seedlings. The strain controls tomato foot and root rot (TFRR) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Under biocontrol conditions, fungal hyphae were shown to be colonized by WCS365 bacteria. Because chemotaxis is required for root colonization by WCS365 cells, we studied whether chemotaxis also is required for hyphae colonization. To that end, an in vitro assay was developed to study hyphae colonization by bacteria. The results indicated that cells of the cheA mutant FAJ2060 colonize hyphae less efficiently than cells of wild-type strain WCS365, when single strains were analyzed as well as when both strains were applied together. Cells of WCS365 show a chemotactic response toward the spent growth medium of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, but those of its cheA mutant, FAJ2060, did not. Fusaric acid, a secondary metabolite secreted by Fusarium strains, appeared to be an excellent chemo-attractant. Supernatant fluids of a number of Fusarium strains secreting different levels of fusaric acid were tested as chemo-attractants. A positive correlation was found between chemo-attractant activity and fusaric acid level. No chemotactic response was observed toward the low fusaric acid-producer FO242. Nevertheless, the hyphae of FO242 still were colonized by WCS365, suggesting that other metabolites also play a role in this process. The possible function of hyphae colonization for the bacterium is discussed. PMID:15553244

de Weert, Sandra; Kuiper, Irene; Lagendijk, Ellen L; Lamers, Gerda E M; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

2004-11-01

164

Effect of Nanoencapsulated Vitamin B1 Derivative on Inhibition of Both Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

PubMed Central

Nanoencapsulation of thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS), a vitamin B1 derivative, was proved to effectively inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (F. oxysporum), as well as mycelial growth. The average diameter of nanoparticles was measured as 136 nm by being encapsulated with an edible encapsulant, lecithin, whose encapsulation efficiency was about 55% in containing 200 ppm of TDS concentration: the 100 ppm TDS nanoparticle solution showed a mycelial growth inhibition rate of 59%. These results were about similar or even better than the cases of treating 100 ppm of dazomet, a positive antifungal control (64%). Moreover, kinetic analysis of inhibiting spore germination were estimated as 6.6% reduction of spore germination rates after 24 h treatment, which were 3.3% similar to the case of treating 100 ppm of a positive control (dazomet) for the same treatment time. It was also found that TDS itself could work as an antifungal agent by inhibiting both mycelial growth and spore germination, even though its efficacy was lower than those of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles especially played a more efficient role in limiting the spore germination, due to their easy penetration into hard cell membranes and long resident time on the surface of the spore shell walls. In this work, it was first demonstrated that the nanoparticle of TDS not a harmful chemical can control the growth of F. oxysporum by using a lower dosage than commercial herbicides, as well as the inhibiting mechanism of the TDS. However, field trials of the TDS nanoparticles encapsulated with lecithin should be further studied to be effectively used for field applications. PMID:23429270

Cho, Jeong Sub; Seo, Yong Chang; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

165

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

166

Treatment with the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum Triggers Induction of Defense-Related Reactions in Tomato Roots When Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence exerted by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum in triggering plant defense reactions was investigated using an experimental system in which tomato plants were infected with the crown and root rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. To assess the antagonistic potential of P. oligandrum against F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the interaction between the two fungi was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). SEM investigations of the interaction region between the fungi demonstrated that collapse and loss of turgor of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici hyphae began soon after close contact was established with P. oligandrum. Ultrastructural observations confirmed that intimate contact between hyphae of P. oligandrum and cells of the pathogen resulted in a series of disturbances, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and, finally, complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of chitin with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)/ovomucoid-gold complex showed that, except in the area of hyphal penetration, the chitin component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. Interestingly, the same antagonistic process was observed in planta. The specific labeling patterns obtained with the exoglucanase-gold and WGA-ovomucoid-gold complexes confirmed that P. oligandrum successfully penetrated invading cells of the pathogen without causing substantial cell wall alterations, shown by the intense labeling of chitin. Cytological investigations of samples from P. oligandrum-inoculated tomato roots revealed that the fungus was able to colonize root tissues without inducing extensive cell damage. However, there was a novel finding concerning the structural alteration of the invading hyphae, evidenced by the frequent occurrence of empty fungal shells in root tissues. Pythium ingress in root tissues was associated with host metabolic changes, culminating in the elaboration of structural barriers at sites of potential fungal penetration. Striking differences in the extent of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici colonization were observed between P. oligandrum-inoculated and control tomato plants. In control roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissues, whereas in P. oligandrum-colonized roots pathogen growth was restricted to the outermost root tissues. This restricted pattern of pathogen colonization was accompanied by deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. These host reactions appeared to be amplified compared to those seen in nonchallenged P. oligandrum-infected plants. Most hyphae of the pathogen that penetrated the epidermis exhibited considerable changes. Wall appositions contained large amounts of callose, in addition to be infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged P. oligandrum-inoculated tomato roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and intercellular spaces. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing P. oligandrum-inoculated roots was preserved at a time when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations provide the first convincing evidence that P. oligandrum has the potential to induce plant defense reactions in addition to acting as a mycoparasite. PMID:18945162

Benhamou, N; Rey, P; Chérif, M; Hockenhull, J; Tirilly, Y

1997-01-01

167

A novel tissue-specific plantain beta-1,3-glucanase gene that is regulated in response to infection by Fusarium oxysporum fsp. cubense.  

PubMed

A new full-length beta-1,3-glucanase cDNA, MpGlu, was isolated from a plantain (Musa paradisica) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. Recombinant GST-MpGlu protein, expressed in E. coli, hydrolyzed (1-->3),(1-->6)-beta-glucan of Laminaria digitata and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum fsp. cubense (race 4) suggesting that it is a beta-1,3-glucanase. Southern blot analysis indicated that there is one copy of MpGlu in the plantain genome. MpGlu gene expression was detected in plantain leaves, peel, and pulp by RT-PCR. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of MpGlu was up-regulated by Fusarium infection. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that 28 residues at the N-terminal end are necessary for extracellular secretion, while 32 residues at the C-terminal end are necessary to target the protein into vacuoles. PMID:17530180

Jin, Xiaoli; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Jinfa

2007-09-01

168

Chitinase-gold complex used to localize chitin ultrastructurally in tomato root cells infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicislycopersici , compared with a chitin specific gold-conjugated lectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A cytochemical technique for the ultrastructural localization of chitin in tomato root cells infected byFusarium oxysporum f. sp.radicis-lycopersici is reported. Chitinase was complexed to colloidal gold and thin sections were incubated with the enzyme-gold complex. This technique yielded a more uniform distribution of gold particles over the fungus wall, compared to that obtained with the lectin-gold technique. Both techniques revealed

H. Chamberland; P. M. Charest; G. B. Ouellette; F. J. Pauze

1985-01-01

169

Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, ?ukasz; Naro?na, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-10-01

170

Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of ?-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. PMID:25178062

Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, S?awomir; Marczak, ?ukasz; Nowak, Witold; Naro?na, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Malu?ki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

2014-01-01

171

Fusarium pathogenomics.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed that the Fusarium genome is compartmentalized into regions responsible for primary metabolism and reproduction (core genome), and pathogen virulence, host specialization, and possibly other functions (adaptive genome). Genes involved in virulence and host specialization are located on pathogenicity chromosomes within strains pathogenic to tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and pea (Fusarium 'solani' f. sp. pisi). The experimental transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici into a nonpathogen transformed the latter into a tomato pathogen. Thus, horizontal transfer may explain the polyphyletic origins of host specificity within the genus. Additional genome-scale comparative and functional studies are needed to elucidate the evolution and diversity of pathogenicity mechanisms, which may help inform novel disease management strategies against fusarial pathogens. PMID:24024636

Ma, Li-Jun; Geiser, David M; Proctor, Robert H; Rooney, Alejandro P; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trail, Frances; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2013-01-01

172

Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)–Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium. PMID:23580752

Xu, Chunxiang

2013-01-01

173

Identification of an exo-ß-1,3-D-galactanase from Fusarium oxysporum and the synergistic effect with related enzymes on degradation of type II arabinogalactan.  

PubMed

An exo-ß-1,3-D-galactanase (Fo/1,3Gal) was purified from the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum 12S. A cDNA encoding Fo/1,3Gal was isolated by in vitro cloning. Module sequence analysis revealed a "GH43_6" domain and a "CBM35_galactosidase-like" domain in Fo/1,3Gal. The recombinant enzyme (rFo/1,3Gal) expressed in Pichia pastoris degraded ß-1,3-galactan and ß-1,3-galactobiose (Gal2), and released only galactose (Gal). In contrast, the enzyme did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl ß-D-galactopyranoside, ß-1,4-Gal2, or ß-1,6-Gal2. The enzyme also showed low activity towards native type II arabinogalactans such as larchwood arabinogalactan (LWAG) and gum arabic. Using LWAG as substrate, rFo/1,3Gal released Gal, ß-1,6-Gal2, ß-1,6-galactotriose (Gal3), and ß-1,6-Gal3 substituted with a single arabinofuranose residue accompanied with unidentified oligosaccharides, indicating that the enzyme can by-pass the branching points of ß-1,3-galactan backbones. A time course analysis of products released by rFo/1,3Gal on LWAG revealed that ß-1,6-Gal2 is the main side chain in LWAG and that the activity of rFo/1,3Gal was decreased when degrees of polymerization of side chains increase. rFo/1,3Gal worked synergistically with three other recombinant F. oxysporum enzymes (ß-1,6-galactanase, ß-L-arabinopyranosidase, and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase) that degrade side chains, on the degradation of LWAG. However, the synergism was much lower than anticipated, probably because LWAG have longer side chains than the three enzymes used are able to remove or ß-1,3-galactan main chain is interrupted with glycosidic linkages that are different from the ß-1,3-galactosyl linkage. Affinity gel electrophoresis revealed that rFo/1,3Gal specifically bound to ß-1,3-galactan. PMID:23429923

Okawa, Mizuho; Fukamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

2013-11-01

174

Identification and characterization of an anti-fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium protease from the Bacillus subtilis strain N7.  

PubMed

A newly discovered alkaline antifungal protease named P6 from Bacillus subtilis N7 was purified and partially characterized. B. subtilis N7 culture filtrates were purified by 30-60% (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single band of 41.38 kDa. Peptide sequence of protease P6 was determined using a 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOF™ Analyzer System. Self-Formed Adaptor PCR (SEFA-PCR) was used to amplify the 1,149 bp open read frame of P6. Dimensional structure prediction using Automatic Modeling Mode software showed that the protease P6 consisted of two ?-barrel domains. Purified P6 strongly inhibited spore and mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium (FOC) by causing hypha lysis when the concentration was 25 ?g/ml. Characterization of the purified protease indicated that it had substrate specificity for gelatin and was highly active at pH 8.0-10.6 and 70°C. The P6 protease was inhibited by EDTA (2 mmol/L), phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 1 mmol/L), Na(+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+) (5 mmol/L each) and H2O2 (2%, v/v). However, protease activity was activated by Ca(2+), K(+), Mn(2+) (5 mmol/L each), mercaptoethanol (2%, v/v) and Tween 80 (1%, v/v). In addition, activity was also affected by organic solvents such as acetone, normal butanol and ethanol, but not hexane (25%, v/v each). PMID:23812816

Luo, Yi; Sun, Lifei; Zhu, Zhen; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2013-06-01

175

Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP, based on fractional factorial design. Three optimum conditions for producing the maximum SQR-T037 biomass and 6PAP yield were predicted by central composite design and validated. Bioorganic fertilizer containing 8.46 log(10) ITS copies g(-1) dry weight of SQR-T037 and 1291.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight of 6PAP, and having the highest (p<0.05) biocontrol efficacy, was achieved at 36.7 fermentation days, 25.9°C temperature, 7.6% inoculum content, 41.0% vinegar-production residue, 20.0% rice straw and 39.0% cattle dung. This is a way to offer a high value-added use for agro-industrial wastes. PMID:21190841

Chen, Lihua; Yang, Xingming; Raza, Waseem; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fengge; Shen, Qirong

2011-02-01

176

Comparison of RAPD, AFLP, and EF-1? Sequences for the Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium oxysporum and Its formae speciales in Korea  

PubMed Central

Although Fursarium oxysporum causes diseases in economically important plant hosts, identification of F. oxysporum formae speciales has been difficult due to confusing phenotypic classification systems. To resolve these complexity, we evaluated genetic relationship of nine formae speciales of F. oxysporum with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1?) gene. In addition, the correlation between mycotoxin content of fusaric acid and isolates based on molecular marker data was evaluated using the modified Mantel's test. According to these result, these fusaric acid-producing strains could not identify clearly, and independent of geographic locations and host specificities. However, in the identification of F. oxysporum formae speciales, especially, AFLP analysis showed a higher discriminatory power than that of a the RAPD and EF-1? analyses, all three techniques were able to detect genetic variability among F. oxysporum formae speciales in this study. PMID:24039470

Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Song-Jin; Kim, Mun-Ok; Huh, Man-Kyu; Lee, Tae-Ho

2006-01-01

177

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

178

Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

2014-05-01

179

Genetic Diversity of Human Pathogenic Members of the Fusarium oxysporum Complex Inferred from Multilocus DNA Sequence Data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses: Evidence for the Recent Dispersion of a Geographically Widespread Clonal Lineage and Nosocomial Origin  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. Although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in San Antonio, Tex., and from patients and the water system in a Houston, Tex., hospital during the 1990s, little is known about their genetic relatedness and population structure. This study was conducted to investigate the global genetic diversity and population biology of a comprehensive set of clinically important members of the F. oxysporum complex, focusing on the 33 isolates from patients at the San Antonio hospital and on strains isolated in the United States from the water systems of geographically distant hospitals in Texas, Maryland, and Washington, which were suspected as reservoirs of nosocomial fusariosis. In all, 18 environmental isolates and 88 isolates from patients spanning four continents were genotyped. The major finding of this study, based on concordant results from phylogenetic analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphisms, is that a recently dispersed, geographically widespread clonal lineage is responsible for over 70% of all clinical isolates investigated, including all of those associated with the pseudoepidemic in San Antonio. Moreover, strains of the clonal lineage recovered from patients were conclusively shown to genetically match those isolated from the hospital water systems of three U.S. hospitals, providing support for the hypothesis that hospitals may serve as a reservoir for nosocomial fusarial infections. PMID:15528703

O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Magnon, Karen C.; Cox, Patricia A.; Revankar, Sanjay G.; Sanche, Stephen; Geiser, David M.; Juba, Jean H.; van Burik, Jo-Anne H.; Padhye, Arvind; Anaissie, Elias J.; Francesconi, Andrea; Walsh, Thomas J.; Robinson, Jody S.

2004-01-01

180

[Features of interaction bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus LBK1 from plants varieties/hybrids cucumber and sweet pepper and with fungus Fusarium oxysporum Scelecht].  

PubMed

The article presents the results of studying the impact of bacterial strain M. luteus LBK1, stimulating the growth and development of plant varieties/hybrids of cucumber and sweet pepper on the intensity of sporulation of the fungus F. oxysporum Scelecht--fusariose rot pathogen. PMID:24800513

Parfeniuk, A; Sterlikova, O; Beznosko, I; Krut', V

2014-01-01

181

Cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. Here we describe that cerebroside C is produced in diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. In addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside A, B, or C was detected in other soilborne phytopathogens, such as Pythium and Botrytis. Treatment of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), melon (Cucumis melo), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with cerebroside B resulted in resistance to infection by each pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum. Induction of pathogenesis-related genes and H(2)O(2) production by treatment with cerebroside B were observed in tomato root tissues. The cerebroside elicitor showed no antifungal activity against F. oxysporum in vitro, indicating that the cerebroside elicitor activates defense mechanisms to confer resistance to Fusarium disease. These results suggest that cerebroside functions as a non-race-specific elicitor in a wide range of plant-phytopathogenic fungus interactions. Additionally, cerebroside elicitor serves as a potential biologically derived control agent. PMID:18943100

Umemura, Kenji; Tanino, Shigeki; Nagatsuka, Tadako; Koga, Jinichiro; Iwata, Michiaki; Nagashima, Kenji; Amemiya, Yoshimiki

2004-08-01

182

The Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding protein AHL19 mediates verticillium wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Verticillium spp. are destructive soilborne fungal pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in a wide range of plant species. Verticillium wilts are particularly notorious, and genetic resistance in crop plants is the most favorable means of disease control. In a gain-of-function screen using an activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant collection, we identified four mutants, A1 to A4, which displayed enhanced resistance toward the vascular wilt species Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum but not to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Further testing revealed that mutant A2 displayed enhanced Ralstonia solanacearum resistance, while mutants A1 and A3 were more susceptible toward Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Identification of the activation tag insertion site in the A1 mutant revealed an insertion in close proximity to the gene encoding AHL19, which was constitutively expressed in the mutant. AHL19 knock-out alleles were found to display enhanced Verticillium susceptibility whereas overexpression of AHL19 resulted in enhanced Verticillium resistance, showing that AHL19 acts as a positive regulator of plant defense. PMID:21864046

Yadeta, Koste A; Hanemian, Mathieu; Smit, Patrick; Hiemstra, Jelle A; Pereira, Andy; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P H J

2011-12-01

183

Enhanced Control of Cucumber Wilt Disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by Altering the Regulation of Its DegU Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan

2014-01-01

184

Enhanced control of cucumber wilt disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by altering the regulation of Its DegU phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qirong

2014-05-01

185

Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent?  

PubMed Central

Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans. PMID:24432236

Campos-Macias, Pablo; Arenas-Guzman, Roberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Francisca

2013-01-01

186

Hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid by Fusarium species.  

PubMed

A novel compound, 1 beta-hydroxydehydroabietic acid has been obtained by the microbial transformation of dehydroabietic acid, using cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and F. moniliforme. Its antibacterial activity was also tested. PMID:9276983

Tapia, A A; Vallejo, M D; Gouiric, S C; Feresin, G E; Rossomando, P C; Bustos, D A

1997-09-01

187

Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process. PMID:24282097

Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2014-04-01

188

Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato in Florida Using Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate commercial formulations of two beneficial fungi, Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices, for the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Tomato seeds cv. \\

L. E. Datnoff; S. Nemec; K. Pernezny

1995-01-01

189

Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

2014-05-01

190

Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

2013-01-01

191

Identification and characterization of a highly variable region in mitochondrial genomes of fusarium species and analysis of power generation from microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) project, power generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was analyzed looking for a novel system for both energy generation and sustainability. The results suggest the possibility of generating electricity from different organic substances, which include agricultural and industrial by-products. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates usable electrons at 30°C using both submerged and solid state cultures. In the MFC biocathode experiment, most of the CO2 generated at the anodic chamber was converted into bicarbonate due the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the Gluconobacter sp.33 strain. These findings demonstrate the possibility of generation of electricity while at the same time allowing the biomimetic sequestration of CO2 using bacterial CA. In the mitochondrial genomes project, the filamentous fungal species Fusarium oxysporum was used as a model. This species causes wilt of several important agricultural crops. A previous study revealed that a highly variable region (HVR) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three species of Fusarium contained a large, variable unidentified open reading frame (LV-uORF). Using specific primers for two regions of the LV-uORF, six strains were found to contain the ORF by PCR and database searches identified 18 other strains outside of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The LV-uORF was also identified in three isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex. Interestingly, several F. oxysporum isolates lack the LV-uORF and instead contain 13 ORFs in the HVR, nine of which are unidentified. The high GC content and codon usage of the LV-uORF indicate that it did not co-evolve with other mt genes and was horizontally acquired and was introduced to the Fusarium lineage prior to speciation. The nonsynonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) ratio of the LV-uORFs (0.43) suggests it is under purifying selection and the putative polypeptide is predicted to be located in the mitochondrial membrane. Growth assays indicate that F. oxysporum strains containing the LV-uORF are able to tolerate high concentrations of zinc chloride, whereas those having the alternative HVR configuration are inhibited. This work suggests that fungal mitochondria can acquire additional genes and possibly novel functions and will guide studies that aim to assess the functional roles of hypothetical mitochondrial ORFs in filamentous fungi.

Hamzah, Haider Mousa

192

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

2013-01-01

193

Pathogenicity of two species of Fusarium on some cultivars of bean in greenhouse.  

PubMed

Twenty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from the infected roots of bean in different farms of east Azarbaijan and Tehran Provinces and their pathogenicity determined. Most isolates of the fungi were identified as F. oxysporun. They caused root rot, yellowing and wilting of bean in the field. In this test, the roots of 6 cultivars of bean seedlings soaked in suspension of the 7 isolates of the fungi (a1, Gogan, a2, Bilverdi, a3, Savojbolagh-Hashtgerd, a4, field of Agr. Coll. a5, Khomein, a6, Ramjin of F. oxysporum and a7 of F. solani of Varamin, Iran) for 5 minute (106 spores/ml.) then transplanted into the sterilized soil in 4 pots (as replication). For control (a8) the roots soaked in distilled water. The results showed that percentage average of necrotic roots and crowns of isolates al, a2, a3, a5, a6, a7 was %20.31 in group a, a4 was %43.52 in group b and a8 was %2.77 in group c after 3 weeks. The isolate a4 (from the field of Agricultural College, Karaj) was more infectious than the other because it caused wilting, yellowing the leaves and decreased the growth very soon, followed by a5 with %25.32 rate was more pathogenic. Bean cultivar Goli-Red was more tolerant with %10.02 than the others of 16.29 (Naz Red) to 25.15 percent of necrotic the roots & stems. PMID:16637191

Faraji, M; Okhovvat, S M

2005-01-01

194

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province.  

PubMed

Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. PMID:25183948

Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

2014-09-01

195

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. PMID:25183948

Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

2013-01-01

196

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants  

PubMed Central

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2014-01-01

197

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.  

PubMed

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-01-01

198

Cottons Resistant to Wilt and Root Knot and the Effect of Potash Fertilizer in East Texas.  

E-print Network

to the respective isolates of the 6 BULLETIN NO. 627, TEXAS AGRlCULTURAL EXPER,IIVIEK STATIOS SYMPTOMS OF F'USARIUM WIL!F wilt fungus, although there was much difference in the virulence of dif- ferent isolates. Apparently one species of Fusarium caused...) separated cotton varieties on the basis of their resistance to root knot and stated Wilt is caused by a parasitic fungus named Fusarium vasinfectum Atk. It enters cotton roots from the soil and grows mainly in the water- , that resistance to root knot...

Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

1943-01-01

199

Bronze Wilt of Cotton  

E-print Network

,? ?red wilt? and ?antho- cyanosis? in other countries. The disease occurs on short-season varieties of Upland and Pima cotton. Bronze wilt was first recognized as a problem in Mississippi and Louisiana in 1995, and in Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee and North... State University, Texas A&M University, University of Tennessee, Texas Cooperative Extension, University of Tennessee, University of Missouri, and University of Arkansas. Table 1. Stages of development, or levels of severity, of Bronze Wilt. Stage...

Bell, Alois A.; Nichols, Robert L.; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-02-12

200

Chiral Phosphinate Degradation by the Fusarium Species: Scope and Limitation of the Process  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable capacities of fungal strains of Fusarium oxysporum (DSMZ 2018) and Fusarium culmorum (DSMZ 1094) were tested towards racemic mixture of chiral 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl) acetic acid—a compound with two stereogenic centres. The effectiveness of decomposition was dependent on external factors such as temperature and time of the process. Optimal conditions of complete mineralization were established. Both Fusarium species were able to biodegrade every isomer of tested compound at 30°C, but F. culmorum required 10 days and F. oxysporum 11 days to accomplish the process, which was continuously monitored using the 31P NMR technique. PMID:24324893

Brzezinska-Rodak, Malgorzata

2013-01-01

201

The I2C family from the wilt disease resistance locus I2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.  

PubMed Central

Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex I2C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the I2 F. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. The genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolated resistance genes that contain a nucleotide binding motif and leucine-rich repeats. Importantly, the presence of I2C antisense transgenes abrogated race 2 but not race 1 resistance in otherwise normal plants. Expression of the complete sense I2C-1 transgene conferred significant but partial resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. All members of the I2C gene family have been mapped genetically and are dispersed on three different chromosomes. Some of the I2C members cosegregate with other tomato resistance loci. Comparison within the leucine-rich repeat region of I2C gene family members shows that they differ from each other mainly by insertions or deletions. PMID:9144960

Ori, N; Eshed, Y; Paran, I; Presting, G; Aviv, D; Tanksley, S; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

1997-01-01

202

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

SciTech Connect

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-18

203

Identification and Characterization of Wilt and Salt Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Chickpea through High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5? RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress. PMID:25295754

Deokar, Amit Atmaram; Bhardwaj, Ankur R.; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Jain, Pradeep Kumar

2014-01-01

204

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran.  

PubMed

Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20-35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran. PMID:23961146

Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Reddy, K R N; Abbasi, S

2011-10-01

205

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reliable, eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials is an important aspect of nanotechnology today. One approach that shows immense potential is based on the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using biological micro-organisms such as bacteria. In this laboratory, we have concentrated on the use of fungi in the intracellular production of metal nanoparticles. As part of our investigation,

Absar Ahmad; Priyabrata Mukherjee; Satyajyoti Senapati; Deendayal Mandal; M. Islam Khan; Rajiv Kumar; Murali Sastry

2003-01-01

206

Mechanistic and structural studies of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum  

E-print Network

. , Rojkind, M. , Henson, E. , Furfine, C. , and Gallop, P. M. (1965) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 109, 548-559. Porter, D. J. T. , Voet, J. G. , and Bright, G. J. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4400- Porter, D. J. T. , and Bright, G. J. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252.... , Rojkind, M. , Henson, E. , Furfine, C. , and Gallop, P. M. (1965) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 109, 548-559. Porter, D. J. T. , Voet, J. G. , and Bright, G. J. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4400- Porter, D. J. T. , and Bright, G. J. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252...

Heasley, Carl J

2012-06-07

207

Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-01-01

208

Diversity of fusarium species from highland areas in malaysia.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-12-01

209

Identification of simple sequence repeat markers associated with wilt resistance in pigeonpea.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out with the objective of identifying markers for Fusarium wilt resistance in pigeonpea using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and bulk segregant analysis (BSA). The wilt resistant (ICPL 87119) and wilt susceptible (T. Vishakha-1) genotypes were crossed and their F2 population was used for marker analysis. Although, the parents were surveyed with 76 SSR primers to identify the polymorphic markers, only 26 primers were found polymorphic between the parents under study. The polymorphic information content scores of SSR markers ranged between 0.077 to 0.333, with an average of 0.18 per marker. These 26 primers were selected for BSA, which indicated that five SSR primers (PFW 26, PFW 31, PFW 38, PFW 56, and PFW 70) were able to distinguish the resistant and susceptible bulks and parents for wilt resistance. Hence, these five SSR markers can be utilized further for identification of wilt resistant genotypes of pigeon pea and for development of new wilt resistant varieties of pigeonpea. PMID:25204073

Khalekar, Ganesh D; Akhare, Amrapali A; Gahukar, Santosh J; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Kumar, Mithlesh

2014-09-01

210

Pythium oligandrum in the control of Fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.  

PubMed

Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of P. oligandrum may reduce Fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm3 caused inhibition of tulip root growth. PMID:12425035

Skrzypczak, C

2001-01-01

211

Resistance to top yellows and fusarium wilt in peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruim dertig jaar lang werd topvergeling, een virusziekte van erwten, tuin- en veldbonen, aangeduid met “voetziekte”. Van L. Quantz (Braunschweig), die deze ziekte met “Blattroll” betitelde, werd in 1954 vernomen, dat de verspreiding er van uitsluitend door bladluizen geschiedt.

N. Hubbeling

1956-01-01

212

A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to assess Fusarium diversity in asparagus.  

PubMed

In North America, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) production suffers from a crown and root rot disease mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum. Many other Fusarium species are also found in asparagus fields, whereas accurate detection and identification of these organisms, especially when processing numerous samples, is usually difficult and time consuming. In this study, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed to assess Fusarium species diversity in asparagus plant samples. Fusarium-specific PCR primers targeting a partial region of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene were designed, and their specificity was tested against genomic DNA extracted from a large collection of closely and distantly related organisms isolated from multiple environments. Amplicons of 450 bp were obtained from all Fusarium isolates, while no PCR product was obtained from non-Fusarium organisms. The ability of DGGE to discriminate between Fusarium taxa was tested over 19 different Fusarium species represented by 39 isolates, including most species previously reported from asparagus fields worldwide. The technique was effective to visually discriminate between the majority of Fusarium species and/or isolates tested in pure culture, while a further sequencing step permitted to distinguish between the few species showing similar migration patterns. Total genomic DNA was extracted from field-grown asparagus plants naturally infested with different Fusarium species, submitted to PCR amplification, DGGE analysis and sequencing. The two to four bands observed for each plant sample were all affiliated with F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum or F. solani, clearly supporting the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of this approach for the study of Fusarium diversity from asparagus plants samples. PMID:15590089

Yergeau, E; Filion, M; Vujanovic, V; St-Arnaud, M

2005-02-01

213

Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University;); Mary L. Powelson (Oregon State University;)

2000-08-01

214

Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of Fusarium spp. in atmospheric dust and rainfall dust, samples were collected during September 2007, and July, August, and October 2008. The results reveal the prevalence of airborne Fusarium species coming from the atmosphere of the South East coast of Spain. Five different Fusarium species were isolated from the settling dust: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. dimerum, and F. proliferatum. Moreover, rainwater samples were obtained during significant rainfall events in January and February 2009. Using the dilution-plate method, 12 fungal genera were identified from these rainwater samples. Specific analyses of the rainwater revealed the presence of three species of Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. equiseti. A total of 57 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from both rainwater and atmospheric rainfall dust sampling were inoculated onto melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Piñonet and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. San Pedro. These species were chosen because they are the main herbaceous crops in Almeria province. The results presented in this work indicate strongly that spores or propagules of Fusarium are able to cross the continental barrier carried by winds from the Sahara (Africa) to crop or coastal lands in Europe. Results show differences in the pathogenicity of the isolates tested. Both hosts showed root rot when inoculated with different species of Fusarium, although fresh weight measurements did not bring any information about the pathogenicity. The findings presented above are strong indications that long-distance transmission of Fusarium propagules may occur. Diseases caused by species of Fusarium are common in these areas. They were in the past, and are still today, a problem for greenhouses crops in Almería, and many species have been listed as pathogens on agricultural crops in this region. Saharan air masses dominate the Mediterranean regions. The evidence of long distance dispersal of Fusarium spp. by atmospheric dust and rainwater together with their proved pathogenicity must be taken into account in epidemiological studies. PMID:20820862

Palmero, D; Rodríguez, J M; de Cara, M; Camacho, F; Iglesias, C; Tello, J C

2011-01-01

215

Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.  

PubMed

Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage. PMID:24668026

Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

2014-06-01

216

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

217

[Impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population in soybean rhizosphere].  

PubMed

The impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population abundance and diversity, pathogenicity and phylogeny in soybean field were analyzed by using isolation, morphological identification, pathogenicity test, sequencing analysis and molecular marker with restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The soybean field was located at the Hailun Experimental Station of Agricultural Ecology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Northeast China and had been under a long-term rotation experiment designed to two treatments, i. e., long-term continuous cropping (LCC) of soybean for 20 years and short-term continuous cropping (SCC) for 3 years. In SCC field, the population density of Fusarium spp. was 6.0 x 10(4) CFU x g(-1), in which F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides possessing high pathogenicity and F. solani possessing moderate pathogenicity were the dominant species. In LCC field, the population density of Fusarium population and the dominance index of dominant species were significantly lower than that in SCC. The population density of F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. solani were only 36% , 32% and 22% of that in SCC, and F. verticillioide with highest pathogenicity was absent. The diversity and evenness index of Fusarium population were significantly higher than that in SCC. F. tricinctum, F. lateritium and F. avenaceum, just isolated from LCC, possessing a distant genetic relationship with Fusarium isolates possessing high pathogenicity based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, were non-pathogenicity for soybean. Thus, it seemed that LCC of soybean could cause the inhibition of soil Fusarium population size, alteration of Fusarium community composition and genetic diversity, and even the decline of pathogenicity for soybean root rot disease of Fusarium population. PMID:24830251

Wei, Wei; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Si-Jia; Li, S

2014-02-01

218

Water relations of rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri Lush.) citrus seedlings infected with Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rough lemon citrus seedlings were inoculated withFusarium solani and evaluated for changes in water relations of leaves, stems, and roots. Inoculated seedlings had decreased leaf stomatal\\u000a conductance, lower leaf water potential, lower water content, and higher leaf osmotic values compared to healthy plants. Visible\\u000a wilt symptoms occurred as early as 24 h after inoculation. Transpiration and root conductivity were lower

S. Nemec; J. Syversten; Y. Levy

1986-01-01

219

Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 and two bacilli isolates MR-11(2) and MRF, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. EM85 produced antifungal antibiotics (Afa+), siderophore (Sid+), HCN (HCN+) and fluorescent pigments (Flu+) besides exhibiting plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of organic acids and IAA. While MR-11(2) produced siderophore (Sid+), antibiotics (Afa+) and antifungal volatiles (Afv+), MRF exhibited the production of antifungal antibiotics (Afa+) and siderophores (Sid+). Bacillus spp. MRF was also found to produce organic acids and IAA, solubilized tri-calcium phosphate and fixed nitrogen from the atmosphere. All three isolates suppressed the diseases caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. A Tn5:: lacZ induced isogenic mutant of the fluorescent Pseudomonas EM85, M23, along with the two bacilli were evaluated for in situ disease suppression of maize. Results indicated that combined application of the two bacilli significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the Macrophomina-induced charcoal rots of maize by 56.04%. Treatments with the MRF isolate of Bacillus spp. and Tn5:: lacZ mutant (M23) of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 significantly reduced collar rots, root and foot rots, and wilting of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. graminearum (P = 0.05) compared to all other treatments. All these isolates were found very efficient in colonizing the rhizotic zones of maize after inoculation. Evaluation of the population dynamics of the fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 using the Tn5:: lacZ marker and of the Bacillus spp. MRF and MR-11(2) using an antibiotic resistance marker revealed that all the three isolates could proliferate successfully in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of maize, both at 30 and 60 days after seeding. Four antifungal compounds from fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, one from Bacillus sp. MR-11(2) and three from Bacillus sp. MRF were isolated, purified and tested in vitro and in thin layer chromatography bioassays. All these compounds inhibited R. solani, M. phaseolina, F. moniliforme, F. graminearum and F. solani strongly. Results indicated that antifungal antibiotics and/or fluorescent pigment of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, and antifungal antibiotics of the bacilli along with the successful colonization of all the isolates might be involved in the biological suppression of the maize root diseases. PMID:11716210

Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

2001-01-01

220

Reduction of Fusarium rot and maintenance of fruit quality in melon using eco-friendly hot water treatment.  

PubMed

Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi and quality deterioration. Hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and economic environment-friendly approach for managing postharvest decay and maintaining fruit quality. In this study, the effects of HWT (45 °C for 10, 15, 20, and 25 min) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum, in vivo Fusarium rot, and natural decay of melon were investigated. HWT inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of F. oxysporum. Protein impairment and ATP consumption triggered by HWT contributed to the inhibitory effect. Results of in vivo studies showed that HWT effectively controlled Fusarium rot and natural decay of melon. Correspondingly, HWT induced a significant increase in content of total phenolic compounds and lignin of melon. These findings indicate that the effects of HWT on Fusarium rot may be associated with the direct fungal inhibition and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. Importantly, HWT used in this study had beneficial effects on fruit quality as well. HWT may represent an effective non-chemical approach for management of postharvest Fusarium rot. PMID:25030787

Sui, Yuan; Droby, Samir; Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Yongsheng

2014-12-01

221

CURRENT UNDERSTANDING OF OAKS AND OAK WILT  

E-print Network

populace, and is prominent in literature � often as a symbol of strength or character. There are many susceptibility of red oaks to both oak wilt and sudden oak death (SOD), these differences in wood anatomy may

Harrington, Thomas C.

222

PCR detection assays for the trichothecene-producing species Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium poae, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium sporotrichioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of small-grain cereals with the fungal species Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. equiseti is an important source of trichothecenes, Zearalenone and other mycotoxins which cause serious diseases in human and animals. Additionally, these species contribute to Fusarium Head Blight, a disease which produces important losses in cereal yield. Early detection and control of these

Miguel Jurado; Covadonga Vázquez; Belén Patiño; M. Teresa González-Jaén

2005-01-01

223

Mycotoxins biosynthesized by plant-derived Fusarium isolates.  

PubMed

There is little information on secondary metabolites produced by Fusaria infecting crop plants other than cereals. Many members of Fusarium genus have the ability to colonise perennial crops with only scarce infection or disease symptoms or with no symptoms at all while still being detectable. Even in case of such asymptomatic infection, significant mycotoxin contamination of the plant tissues is possible. The aim of this study was to characterise the spectrum of Fusarium species isolates obtained from different plant hosts (like asparagus, garlic, pineapple, banana, rhubarb, peppers, rice, maize, wheat, and oncidium) and evaluate their ability to biosynthesize the most common mycotoxins in vitro. Among the F.proliferatum isolates, up to 57 % of them biosynthesized fumonisins at very high mass fractions, amounting to above 1000 ?g g(-1), while other Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides, F. lactis, F. polyphialydicum, F. concentricum, F. temperatum, and F. fujikuroi formed fumonisins mostly at much lower level. Only F. ananatum and F. oxysporum did not produce these toxins. Co-occurrence of FBs with other mycotoxins [moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA)] was often observed and it was mainly F. proliferatum species that formed both mycotoxins (0.4 ?g g(-1) to 41.1 ?g g(-1) BEA and 0.1 ?g g(-1) to 158.5 ?g g(-1) MON). PMID:23334038

Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; St?pie?, ?ukasz

2012-12-01

224

EBR1 genomic expansion and its role in virulence of Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of Fusarium oxysporum revealed that pathogenic forms of this fungus harbour supernumerary chromosomes with a wide variety of genes, many of which likely encode traits required for pathogenicity or niche specialization. Specific transcription factor gene families are expanded on these chromosomes including the EBR1 family (Enhanced Branching). The significance of the EBR1 family expansion on supernumerary chromosomes and whether EBR1 paralogues are functional is currently unknown. EBR1 is found as a single copy in F.graminearum and other fungi but as multiple paralogues in pathogenic F.oxysporum strains. These paralogues exhibit sequence and copy number variation among different host-specific strains and even between more closely related strains. Relative expression of the EBR1 paralogues depends on growth conditions and on the presence of the single EBR1 gene in the core genome. Deletion of EBR1 in the core genome in different F.oxysporum strains resulted in impaired growth, reduced pathogenicity and slightly reduced biocontrol capacities. To identify genes regulated by EBR1, the transcriptomes of wild-type and ?ebr1 strains were compared for both F.oxysporum and F.graminearum. These studies showed that in both species, EBR1 regulates genes involved in general metabolism as well as virulence. PMID:24237614

Jonkers, Wilfried; Xayamongkhon, Henry; Haas, Matthew; Olivain, Chantal; van der Does, H Charlotte; Broz, Karen; Rep, Martijn; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Kistler, H Corby

2014-07-01

225

Infection of Tubercles of the Parasitic Weed Orobanche aegyptiaca by Mycoherbicidal Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

Progression of the infection by host?specific strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium arthrosporioides of Orobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) tubercles attached to tomato roots was tracked using light, confocal and electron microscopy. Mycelia transformed with the gene for green fluorescent protein were viewed using a confocal microscope. Fungal penetration was preceded by a rapid loss of starch, with approx. 10 % remaining at 9 h and no measurable starch at 24 h. Penetration into the Orobanche tubercles began by 12 h after inoculation. Hyphae penetrated the outer six cell layers by 24 h, reaching the centre of the tubercles by 48 h and infecting nearly all cells by 72 h. Most of the infected tubercles were dead by 96 h. Breakdown of cell walls and the disintegration of cytoplasm in and around the infected cells occurred between 48 and 96 h. Lignin?like material increased in tubercle cells of infected tissues over time, but did not appear to be effective in limiting fungal penetration or spread. Callose, suberin, constitutive toxins and phytoalexins were not detected in infected tubercles, suggesting that there are no obvious defence mechanisms to overcome. Both Fusarium spp. pathogenic on Orobanche produced fumonisin?like ceramide synthase inhibitors, while fusaric acid was produced only by F. oxysporum in liquid culture. The organisms do not have sufficient virulence for field use (based on glasshouse testing), suggesting that virulence should be transgenically enhanced or additional isolates sought. PMID:12466097

COHEN, BARRY A.; AMSELLEM, ZIVA; LEV?YADUN, SIMCHA; GRESSEL, JONATHAN

2002-01-01

226

Toxicity of abiotic stressors to Fusarium species: differences in hydrogen peroxide and fungicide tolerance.  

PubMed

Stress sensitivity of three related phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides) to different oxidative, osmotic, cell wall, membrane, fungicide stressors and an antifungal protein (PAF) were studied in vitro. The most prominent and significant differences were found in oxidative stress tolerance: all the three F. graminearum strains showed much higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and, to a lesser extent, to menadione than the other two species. High sensitivity of F. verticillioides strains was also detectable to an azole drug, Ketoconazole. Surprisingly, no or limited differences were observed in response to other oxidative, osmotic and cell wall stressors. These results indicate that fungal oxidative stress response and especially the response to hydrogen peroxide (this compound is involved in a wide range of plant-fungus interactions) might be modified on niche-specific manner in these phylogenetically related Fusarium species depending on their pathogenic strategy. Supporting the increased hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of F. graminearum, genome-wide analysis of stress signal transduction pathways revealed the absence one CatC-type catalase gene in F. graminearum in comparison to the other two species. PMID:24939687

Nagygyörgy, Emese D; Kovács, Barbara; Leiter, Eva; Miskei, Márton; Pócsi, István; Hornok, László; Adám, Attila L

2014-06-01

227

Mycotoxin production by fusarium species isolated from bananas.  

PubMed

The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

Jimenez, M; Huerta, T; Mateo, R

1997-02-01

228

Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas  

PubMed Central

The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

1997-01-01

229

Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease: shifts in root microbiome associated with reduction of pathogen root colonization.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease was induced by incubating sandy soil with debris of wild rocket (WR; Diplotaxis tenuifolia) under field conditions. We studied microbial dynamics in the roots of cucumber seedlings following transplantation into WR-amended or nonamended soil, as influenced by inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. Disease symptoms initiated in nonamended soil 6 days after inoculation, compared with 14 days in WR-amended soil. Root infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Target numbers were similar 3 days after inoculation for both WR-amended and nonamended soils, and were significantly lower (66%) 6 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive (WR-amended) soil. This decrease in root colonization was correlated with a reduction in disease (60%) 21 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive soil. Fungal community composition on cucumber roots was assessed using mass sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer gene fragments. Sequences related to F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp. 14005, Chaetomium sp. 15003, and an unclassified Ascomycota composed 96% of the total fungal sequences in all samples. The relative abundances of these major groups were highly affected by root inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, with a 10-fold increase in F. oxysporum sequences, but were not affected by the WR amendment. Quantitative analysis and mass-sequencing methods indicated a qualitative shift in the root's bacterial community composition in suppressive soil, rather than a change in bacterial numbers. A sharp reduction in the size and root dominance of the Massilia population in suppressive soil was accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of specific populations; namely, Rhizobium, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Streptomyces spp. Composition of the Streptomyces community shifted significantly, as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulting in an increase in the dominance of a specific population in suppressive soils after only 3 days. This shift was related mainly to the increase in Streptomyces humidus, a group previously described as antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi. Thus, suitable soil amendment resulted in a shift in the root's bacterial communities, and infection by a virulent pathogen was contained by the root microbiome, leading to a reduced disease rate. PMID:22950737

Klein, Eyal; Ofek, Maya; Katan, Jaacov; Minz, Dror; Gamliel, Abraham

2013-01-01

230

Methyl bromide alternatives for weed and soilborne disease management in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field trials were conducted to examine the efficacy of methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives in the control of Cyperus rotundus L. (purple nutsedge) and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder & Hansen (Fusarium wilt) in fresh market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Various treatments compared combinations of soil fumigants and herbicides based on methyl bromide, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene, metam sodium, dazomet,

James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos

2004-01-01

231

Integrated Management of Verticillium Wilt in Cotton  

E-print Network

the germination of microsclerotia. The fungus infects through the roots, invades the vascular system resulting). Discoloration of the vascular system (Fig. 3) can be observed on infected plants. Younger bolls may abscise to transport s water and nutrients. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt may be observed on relatively young plants

Behmer, Spencer T.

232

Oligandrin, the elicitin-like protein produced by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum , induces systemic resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligandrin, the elicitin-like protein produced by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum, crab shell chitosan and crude glucans, isolated from P. oligandrum cell walls were applied to decapitated tomato plants and evaluated for their potential to induce defence mechanisms in root tissues infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. A significant decrease in disease incidence was monitored in oligandrin- and chitosan-treated plants

Nicole Benhamou; Richard R Bélanger; Patrice Rey; Yves Tirilly

2001-01-01

233

Two rhizobacterial strains, individually and in interactions with Rhizobium sp., enhance fusarial wilt control, growth, and yield in pigeon pea.  

PubMed

A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, RRLJ 04, and a Bacillus cereus strain, BS 03, were tested both individually and in combination with a Rhizobium strain, RH 2, for their ability to enhance plant growth and nodulation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) under gnotobiotic, greenhouse and field conditions. Both of the rhizobacterial strains exhibited a positive effect on growth in terms of shoot height, root length, fresh and dry weight, nodulation and yield over the non-treated control. Co-inoculation of seeds with these strains and Rhizobium RH 2 also reduced the number of wilted plants, when grown in soil infested with Fusarium udum. Gnotobiotic studies confirmed that the suppression of wilt disease was due to the presence of the respective PGPR strains. Seed bacterization with drug-marked mutants of RRLJ 04 and BS 03 confirmed their ability to colonize and multiply along the roots. The results suggest that co-inoculation of these strains with Rhizobium strain RH 2 can be further exploited for enhanced growth, nodulation and yield in addition to control of fusarial wilt in pigeon pea. PMID:25224506

Dutta, Swarnalee; Morang, Pranjal; Kumar S, Nishanth; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-09-01

234

Fusarium oxysporum homogenates and jasmonate induce limited sanguinarine accumulation in Argemone mexicana cell cultures.  

PubMed

In vitro cultures of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae) were induced from leaves of mature plants. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine, was the main alkaloid in the cultures, even in the absence of inducers of secondary metabolism. The accumulation of this metabolite was increased by adding methyl jasmonate and fungal elicitors, although in a limited fashion in comparison to other sanguinarine-producing species. Evidence of a transport mechanism, which may be related to the magnitude of the response, was obtained based on the fluorescent properties of bezophenathridines in the elicited cultures. PMID:20349332

Trujillo-Villanueva, Karen; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Monforte-González, Miriam; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

2010-07-01

235

Fusarium oxysporum homogenates and jasmonate induce limited sanguinarine accumulation in Argemone mexicana cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro cultures of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae) were induced from leaves of mature plants. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine, was the main alkaloid in the\\u000a cultures, even in the absence of inducers of secondary metabolism. The accumulation of this metabolite was increased by adding\\u000a methyl jasmonate and fungal elicitors, although in a limited fashion in comparison to other sanguinarine-producing species.\\u000a Evidence of

Karen Trujillo-Villanueva; Jorge Rubio-Piña; Miriam Monforte-González; Felipe Vázquez-Flota

2010-01-01

236

Verticillium wilt of cauliflower in Belgium.  

PubMed

Since several years commercial cauliflower in Belgium is severely affected by a vascular wilt disease. Plants wilt and a vascular discoloration of the cauliflower stems can be observed. The pathogen causes significant yield and quality losses. The first objective of this study was to isolate and characterise the causal agent of this disease. Verticillium species could be isolated out of the vascular tissue of symptomatic cauliflower plants. Morphological and physiological characteristics indicated that the isolates from cauliflower could be identified as the new and brassica-related species V. longisporum. Secondly, the susceptibility of several cauliflower cultivars to V. longisporum was evaluated by way of field experiments in naturally infested soil. At harvest, vascular discoloration was evaluated by a visual score. These experiments pointed to considerable differences between cultivars in their susceptibility to V. longisporum. The final goal of this study was to find a way to control the wilt disease on cauliflower. A field experiment showed that vascular discoloration of cauliflower was significantly reduced when soil was incorporated with broccoli residues, two Brassica green manures (B. juncea or B. nigra) or two commercial biological products based on Talaromyces flavus or Trichoderma sp.. PMID:12701428

Debode, J; Spiessens, K; De Rooster, L; Höfte, M

2002-01-01

237

Production of fumonisin B and C analogues by several fusarium species.  

PubMed

Six strains of Fusarium verticillioides, two of F. oxysporum, one strain of F. proliferatum, and a strain of an unidentified species were cultured on maize patties and rice and evaluated for their ability to simultaneously produce fumonisin B (FB) and C (FC) series analogues. Fumonisins were quantified by LC-MS-MS using positive ion electrospray ionization. FC1 provided characteristic fragment ions at m/z 690, 672, 654, 532, 514, and 338 corresponding to sequential loss of H2O and tricarboxylic acid moieties from the alkyl backbone, while FC3 and FC4 provided equivalent product ions 16 and 32 amu lower than the corresponding FC1 fragments, respectively. All isolates cultured on maize produced FC4. All isolates except for that of F. proliferatum also produced FC1, and three of the six strains of F. verticillioides produced FC3. All isolates except those of F. oxysporum produced detectable amounts of FB1, FB2, and FB3. Isolates that produced fumonisin B analogues produced at least 10 fold more of the B series analogues than they did of the C series analogues. The results confirm that at least some strains of F. oxysporum produce FC, but not FB, fumonisin analogues and also suggest that the genetics and physiological regulation of fumonisin production may be more complicated than previously envisaged since some strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum as well as the strain of the unidentified species can simultaneously produce both FB and FC analogues. PMID:15941327

Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Vismer, Hester F; Rheeder, John P; Lee, Yin-Won; Leslie, John F; Marasas, Walter F O

2005-06-15

238

Identification of Fusarium species in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections by in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes.  

PubMed

Fusarium has recently emerged as an opportunistic pathogen of humans, but the histological differentiation of Fusarium from Aspergillus and Scedosporium is particularly difficult because these fungi may induce similar clinical features and exhibit filamentous development in host tissues. Thus, there is a need to establish rapid and reliable methods that are applicable to pathological diagnoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate and establish in situ hybridization (ISH) using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting the 28S rRNA to identify Fusarium species in tissue sections. This technique was validated using both formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pulmonary tissues from mice infected with seven different species of fungi and cell blocks from fungal cultures of 30 strains. As a result, strong positive signals were observed within fungal organisms present in tissues of the lung from mice infected with Fusarium solani. Furthermore, this probe reacted strongly with both F. solani and Fusarium oxysporum in sections from cell blocks. Although some cross-reactivity occurred with the Pseudallescheria boydii in sections from cell blocks, the signal intensity was low and most hyphae were not reactive. In conclusion, it was confirmed that ISH with PNA probes is accurate and is a valuable tool for identifying Fusarium spp. among organisms that have identical morphological features in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. PMID:21106796

Shinozaki, Minoru; Okubo, Yoichiro; Sasai, Daisuke; Nakayama, Haruo; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Ide, Tadashi; Wakayama, Megumi; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2011-03-01

239

Fusarium keratitis in Brazil: genotyping, in vitro susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to describe clinical characteristics and determine correlations between clinical outcomes and antifungal susceptibility among molecularly characterized ocular Fusarium isolates in Brazil. Methods Forty-one Fusarium isolates obtained from 41 eyes of 41 patients were retrieved from the ophthalmic microbiology laboratory at São Paulo Federal University and grown in pure culture. These isolates were genotyped and antifungal susceptibilities determined for each isolate using a broth microdilution method. The corresponding medical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcomes. Results The 41 isolates were genotypically classified as Fusarium solani species complex (36 isolates, 88%), Fusarium oxysporum species complex (two isolates, 5%), Fusarium dimerum species complex (one isolate, 2%) and two isolates that did not group into any of the species complexes. Final best corrected visual acuity varied from 20/20 to light perception and was on average 20/800 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) 1.6). A history of trauma was the most common risk factor, being present in 21 patients (51%). Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary in 22 patients (54%). Amphotericin B had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) value (2 ?g/mL) and voriconazole had the highest (16 ?g/mL). There was an association between a higher natamycin MIC and need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.005). Conclusion Trauma was the main risk factor, and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary in 54% of patients. Amphotericin B had the lowest MIC90 (2 ?g/mL) of the three antifungal agents tested. There was an association between higher natamycin MIC levels and corneal perforation, emphasizing the need for antifungal susceptibility testing and tailoring of antifungal strategies. PMID:24039389

Oechsler, Rafael A; Yamanaka, Tiago M; Bispo, Paulo JM; Sartori, Juliana; Yu, Maria Cecilia Zorat; Melo, Analy Salles A; Miller, Darlene; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa

2013-01-01

240

Biocontrol of fusarium crown and root rot and promotion of growth of tomato by paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.  

PubMed

In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

Xu, Sheng Jun; Kim, Byung Sup

2014-06-01

241

Regulation by light in Fusarium.  

PubMed

The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

2010-11-01

242

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

243

Gibberellin biosynthesis and gibberellin oxidase activities in Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium konzum and Fusarium subglutinans strains.  

PubMed

Several isolates of three Fusarium species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex were characterized for their ability to synthesize gibberellins (GAs): Fusarium sacchari (mating population B), Fusarium konzum (mating population I) and Fusarium subglutinans (mating population E). Of these, F. sacchari is phylogenetically related to Fusarium fujikuroi and is grouped in the Asian clade of the complex, while F. konzum and F. subglutinans are only distantly related to Fusarium fujikuroi and belong to the American clade. Variability was found between the different F. sacchari strains tested. Five isolates (B-12756; B-1732, B-7610, B-1721 and B-1797) were active in GA biosynthesis and accumulated GA(3) in the culture fluid (2.76-28.4 microg/mL), while two others (B-3828 and B-1725) were inactive. GA(3) levels in strain B-12756 increased by 2.9 times upon complementation with ggs2 and cps-ks genes from F. fujikuroi. Of six F. konzum isolates tested, three (I-10653; I-11616; I-11893) synthesized GAs, mainly GA(1), at a low level (less than 0.1 microg/mL). Non-producing F. konzum strains contained no GA oxidase activities as found for the two F. subglutinans strains tested. These results indicate that the ability to produce GAs is present in other species of the G. fujikuroi complex beside F. fujikuroi, but might differ significantly in different isolates of the same species. PMID:20570295

Troncoso, Claudia; González, Ximena; Bömke, Christiane; Tudzynski, Bettina; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Rojas, M Cecilia

2010-08-01

244

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

245

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

246

RNA silencing is required for Arabidopsis defence against Verticillium wilt disease  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in eukaryotes that plays an important role in various biological processes including regulation of gene expression. RNA silencing also plays a role in genome stability and protects plants against invading nucleic acids such as transgenes and viruses. Recently, RNA silencing has been found to play a role in defence against bacterial plant pathogens in Arabidopsis through modulating host defence responses. In this study, it is shown that gene silencing plays a role in plant defence against multicellular microbial pathogens; vascular fungi belonging to the Verticillium genus. Several components of RNA silencing pathways were tested, of which many were found to affect Verticillium defence. Remarkably, no altered defence towards other fungal pathogens that include Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, but also the vascular pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was recorded. Since the observed differences in Verticillium susceptibility cannot be explained by notable differences in root architecture, it is speculated that the gene silencing mechanisms affect regulation of Verticillium-specific defence responses. PMID:19098131

Ellendorff, Ursula; Fradin, Emilie F.; de Jonge, Ronnie; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2009-01-01

247

First report of diseases of Ixodia achillaeoides in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilting, yellowing, and dying plants of Ixodia achillaeoides have been observed in commercial plantings in South Australia since 1990. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that Meloidogyne sp., Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, E tabacinum, Phytophthora cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Oidium sp. and Botrytis sp. are pathogens of Ixodia. Pratylenchus sp. have been found in both the roots of stunted plants and in surrounding soil,

B. H. Hall; M. K. Jones; T. J. Wicks; G. Walker; G. Barth

1996-01-01

248

Corolla wilting facilitates delayed autonomous self-pollination in Pedicularis dunniana (Orobanchaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes associated with corolla wilting may serve as a mechanism for effecting self-pollination. Low pollinator visitation, high seed production and a corolla that persists after anthesis indicates that Pedicularis dunniana is autogamous. Delayed autonomous self-pollination is facilitated by corolla wilting. Wilting of the upper lip (galea) brought the pollen laden anthers into contact with the stigma resulting in the

S.-G. Sun; Y.-H Guo; R. W. Gituru; S.-Q. Huang

2005-01-01

249

Variations in defense related enzyme activities in tomato during the infection with bacterial wilt pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was focused on the role of defense-related enzymes in imparting resistance in tomato against bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Twenty different tomato cultivars were collected from private seed agencies and screened for resistance to bacterial wilt disease, using artificial inoculation technique under greenhouse conditions. Involvement of defense related enzymes in bacterial wilt pathogenesis was studied in resistant,

S. C. Vanitha; S. Umesha

2008-01-01

250

Ice Nucleation Activity in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum†  

PubMed Central

Twenty fungal genera, including 14 Fusarium species, were examined for ice nucleation activity at ?5.0°C, and this activity was found only in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum. This characteristic is unique to these two species. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was compared with ice nucleation activity of a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Cumulative nucleus spectra are similar for both microorganisms, while the maximum temperatures of ice nucleation were ?2.5°C for F. avenaceum and ?1.0°C for the bacteria. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was stable at pH levels from 1 to 13 and tolerated temperature treatments up to 60°C, suggesting that these ice nuclei are more similar to lichen ice nuclei than to bacterial ones. Ice nuclei of F. avenaceum, unlike bacterial ice nuclei, pass through a 0.22-?m-pore-size filter. Fusarial nuclei share some characteristics with the so-called leaf-derived nuclei with which they might be identified: they are cell free and stable up to 60°C, and they are found in the same kinds of environment. Highly stable ice nuclei produced by fast-growing microorganisms have potential applications in biotechnology. This is the first report of ice nucleation activity in free-living fungi. PMID:16348770

Pouleur, Stéphan; Richard, Claude; Martin, Jean-Guy; Antoun, Hani

1992-01-01

251

Transposition of the miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1 in the wheat pathogen Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

High-throughput methods are needed for functional genomics analysis in Fusarium culmorum, the cause of crown and foot rot on wheat and a type B trichothecene producer. Our aim was to develop and test the efficacy of a double-component system based on the ability of the impala transposase to transactivate the miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1 of Fusarium oxysporum. We report, for the first time, the application of a tagging system based on a heterologous transposon and of splinkerette-polymerase chain reaction to identify mimp1 flanking regions in the filamentous fungus F.?culmorum. Similar to previous observations in Fusarium graminearum, mimp1 transposes in F.?culmorum by a cut-and-paste mechanism into TA dinucleotides, which are duplicated on insertion. mimp1 was reinserted in open reading frames in 16.4% (i.e. 10 of 61) of the strains analysed, probably spanning throughout the entire genome of F.?culmorum. The effectiveness of the mimp1/impala double-component system for gene tagging in F.?culmorum was confirmed phenotypically for a putative aurofusarin gene. This system also allowed the identification of two genes putatively involved in oxidative stress-coping capabilities in F.?culmorum, as well as a sequence specific to this fungus, thus suggesting the valuable exploratory role of this tool. PMID:22897438

Spanu, Francesca; Pasquali, Matias; Scherm, Barbara; Balmas, Virgilio; Marcello, Angela; Ortu, Giuseppe; Dufresne, Marie; Hoffmann, Lucien; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Migheli, Quirico

2012-12-01

252

Lentil Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal diseases of lentils are the most important biological constraint to productivity. Ascochyta lentis (ascochyta blight) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (fusarium wilt) are the major fungal pathogens that can cause severe losses in most lentil growing regions of the world.\\u000a Fungal diseases such as botrytis grey mould (Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), stemphylium blight (Stemphylium

Paul Taylor; Kurt Lindbeck; Weidong Chen; Rebecca Ford

253

High resolution genetic and physical mapping of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 reveals almost continuous microsynteny with grape chromosome 12 but interspersed microsynteny with duplications on Arabidopsis chromosomes 1 , 2 and 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato I-3 gene introgressed from the Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA716 confers resistance to race 3 of the fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. We have improved the high-resolution map of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 with the development and mapping of 31 new PCR-based markers. Recombinants recovered from L. esculentum cv. M82 × IL7-2 F2 and (IL7-2 × IL7-4) × M82

G. T. T. Lim; G.-P. Wang; M. N. Hemming; D. J. McGrath; D. A. Jones

2008-01-01

254

Cytological aspects of compost-mediated induced resistance against fusarium crown and root rot in tomato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential of a pulp and paper mill residues compost for the control of crown and root rot of greenhouse-grown tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was ultrastructurally investigated. Peat moss amended with compost substantially reduced disease-associated symptoms. Addition of Pythium oligandrum to either peat moss alone or peat moss amended with compost resulted in a considerable reduction in disease incidence compared with controls grown in peat moss alone. Histological and cytological observations of root samples from Fusarium-inoculated plants revealed that the beneficial effect of compost in reducing disease symptoms is associated with increased plant resistance to fungal colonization. One of the most prominent facets of compost-mediated induced resistance concerned the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures, likely laid down to prevent pathogen ingress toward the vascular elements, included callose-enriched wall appositions and osmiophilic deposits around the sites of potential pathogen ingress. Invading hyphae, coated by the osmiophilic material, showed marked cellular disorganization. The use of the wheat germ agglutinin-ovomucoid-gold complex provided evidence that the wall-bound chitin was altered in severely damaged hyphae. A substantial increase in the extent and magnitude of the cellular changes induced by compost was observed when P. oligandrum was supplied to the potting substrate. This finding corroborates the current concept that amendment of composts with specific antagonists may be a valuable option for amplifying their beneficial properties in terms of plant disease suppression. PMID:18942956

Pharand, Benoît; Carisse, Odile; Benhamou, Nicole

2002-04-01

255

Functional analysis of the carS gene of Fusarium fujikuroi.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a model system in the investigation of the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites, such as gibberellins, bikaverin, and carotenoids. Carotenoid-overproducing mutants, generically called carS, are easily obtained in this fungus by standard mutagenesis procedures. Here we report the functional characterization of gene carS, responsible for this mutant phenotype. The identity of the gene was demonstrated through the finding of mutations in six independent carS mutants and by the complementation of one of them. The F. fujikuroi carS gene was able to restore the control of carotenogenesis in a similar deregulated mutant of Fusarium oxysporum, but only partially at the transcription level, indicating an unexpected complexity in the regulation of the pathway. Due to the pleiotropic characteristics of this mutation, which also modifies the production of other secondary metabolites, we did a screening for carS-regulated genes by subtracted cDNA hybridization. The results show that the carS mutation affects the regulation of numerous genes in addition to those of carotenogenesis. The expression of the identified genes was usually enhanced by light, a regulatory effect also exhibited by the carS gene. However, in most cases, their mRNA levels in carS mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting a regulation that affects mRNA availability rather than mRNA synthesis. PMID:23543145

Rodríguez-Ortiz, Roberto; Limón, M Carmen; Avalos, Javier

2013-04-01

256

SOUTHERN BACTERIAL WILT OF FIELD TOMATOES IN SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Sm., the causal agent of southern bacterial wilt of tomato, was found in Kent County in six fields of processing tomatoes set with trans - plants imported from Georgia, USA. Infection ranged from 1 to 470, and only limited secondary spread o ccurred in two of the six fields. T his is the first report of

R. E. C. Layne; C. D. McKeen

257

Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie, 1971). Under experimental conditions however, it is common practice to maintain the virus by mechanical inoculation onto susceptible host plants.Repeated passages of

Oliveira Resende de R

1993-01-01

258

Interaction between Mycotoxin Producing Fusarium Species in  

E-print Network

1 Interaction between Mycotoxin Producing Fusarium Species in Different Oat Cultivars Tania Tajrin Online publication : http://stud.epsilon.slu.se #12;2 Abstract Oat is the third most important cereal crop in Sweden and Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease makes the oat grain incompatible for animal

259

Analysis of Phylogenetic Relationship of Cylindrocarpon lichenicola and Acremonium falciforme to the Fusarium solani Species Complex and a Review of Similarities in the Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections Caused by These Fungi  

PubMed Central

An emerging pattern of similarity in medical case reports led to a project to compare the phylogenetic affinities of two well-known tropical fungal opportunistic pathogens, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola and Acremonium falciforme, to members of the Fusarium solani species complex. C. lichenicola and A. falciforme, despite their deviating conidial morphologies, were shown via sequencing of the ribosomal large subunit to be well instituted within a clade mainly consisting of typical F. solani strains and other species until recently considered variants of F. solani. The original name Fusarium lichenicola C. B. Massalongo is reestablished, and the new combination F. falciforme is made. Recognition of these species as fusaria is necessary for correct interpretation of current and future molecular diagnostic tests. Reevaluation of species morphology in light of the molecular findings showed that certain features, especially elongate filiform conidiophores with integrated terminal phialides, facilitate correct microscopic classification of these atypical Fusarium species. There is a strong and underrecognized overlap in the spectra of cases caused by members of the F. solani clade, particularly ocular infections, mycetomas, and, in the neutropenic host, disseminated and other serious systemic infections. A novel synthesis of case reports shows that patients from areas with warm climates may develop a distinctive fusarial intertrigo caused by F. solani, Fusarium lichenicola, or Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:12149344

Summerbell, R. C.; Schroers, H.-J.

2002-01-01

260

Degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical, DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate], by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) was investigated. The DEHP-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e. almost 70% of the initial DEHP (500 mg\\/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded DEHP disappeared within the initial 15 min. With the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more

Y.-H. Kim; J. Lee; S.-H. Moon

2003-01-01

261

Genes Up-Regulated in Tolerant Cavendish Banana Roots in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection1  

E-print Network

Programme, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK Keywords: catalase, defence-associated genes (catalase 2, pectin acetyl esterase (PAE), PR-1 and PR-3) were selected for expression profile, xylanase inhibitor, peroxidase, catalase 2, metallothionein, response regulator 6 and tripsin inhibitor

262

Interaction between root lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus and two species of Fusarium on growth and development of maple seedlings.  

PubMed

Producing healthy seedlings and distributing them to far areas, is one of the most important factor for developing forests. Because of easy planting, rapid growth and good wood quality, Acer velutinum is the most useful species, among the softwood and hardwood trees. Growth and development of the nurseries were effected by different pests and diseases, the nematodes are one of these agents. They are not actively surveyed in the forest nurseries in Iran. On a survey of maple seedling in the forest nurseries Pratylenchus vulnus, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum were identified. The interaction between these two fungi and nematode were studied in randomized complete block design with four replications and six treatments. For mass production and multiplication of the nematodes, they were sterilized with Streptomycin Sulfate, they were reared on carrot disc culture. The nematodes were then added to each pot. The results showed a highly significant difference (p = 0.01) between different treatments. In the treatment with nematodes alone growth of seedlings was minimum and population density of nematodes in soil and root tissue was maximum. In this treatments 75% of seedlings were died and seedling average height were 2.25 cm. In the treatments with nematode and fungi together the population of nematodes were decreased and the growth of seedlings were increased, in comparison with nematode alone. F. oxysporum showed more antagonistic effect on nematodes than F. solani. In the nematode + F. oxysporum treatment, 25% of seedlings were died and seedling average height was 12.75 cm. In the nematode + F. solani treatment, 50% of seedlings were died and the seedling average height was 5.5 cm. This is the first report of pathogenecity of Pratylenchus vulnus and its interaction whit fungi on maple seedlings in Iran. PMID:12696440

Kheiri, A; Borhani, A; Okhovat, M; Pourjam, E

2002-01-01

263

Relative resistance of potato cultivars to bacterial wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one potato cultivars were evaluated for reaction to infection byPseudomonas solanacearum Sm. under high disease pressure in a field plot near Tifton, Georgia during the spring of 1978 and 1979. Plots were infested\\u000a by clipping beds of thickly seeded tomato plants with a rotary mower contaminated with the wilt baterium in 1975, 1976, 1977\\u000a and 1978. The plants were incorporated

C. A. Jaworski; R. E. Webb; R. W. Goth; S. C. Phatak

1980-01-01

264

Agricultural factors affecting Verticillium wilt in olive orchards in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is often related to intensive modern farming of highly productive cultivars, planted at high densities, usually irrigated,\\u000a and under a mechanised system. The effects of agricultural factors associated with olive orchards were investigated in an\\u000a important olive-growing area in southern Spain, as

E. Rodríguez; J. M. García-garrido; P. A. García; M. Campos

2008-01-01

265

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

266

Development of PCR assays to Tri7 and Tri13 trichothecene biosynthetic genes, and characterisation of chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis are major causal agents of Fusarium Head Blight (scab) which is a disease of global significance in all cereal growing areas. These fungi produce trichothecene mycotoxins, principally nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Genes Tri13 and Tri7 from the trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster convert DON to NIV (Tri13) and NIV to 4-acetyl-NIV (Tri7). We

Elizabeth A. Chandler; Duncan R. Simpson; Martha A. Thomsett; Paul Nicholson

2003-01-01

267

A Genetic and Biochemical Approach to Study Trichothecene Diversity in Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trichothecenes T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are natural fungal products that are toxic to both animals and plants. Their importance in the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. on crop plants has inspired efforts to understand the genetic and biochemical mechanisms leading to trichothecene synthesis. In order to better understand T-2 toxin biosynthesis by Fusarium sporotrichioides and DON biosynthesis by F.

Daren W. Brown; Susan P. McCormick; Nancy J. Alexander; Robert H. Proctor; Anne E. Desjardins

2001-01-01

268

Effect of Trichothecenes Produced by Fusarium graminearum during Fusarium Head Blight Development in Six Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a complex cereal disease associated with trichothecene production; these mycotoxins are factors of aggressiveness in wheat. Six species (bread and durum wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oats) were submitted to point inoculations with two isogenic strains of Fusarium graminearum; a wild strain (Tri5 +) produced trichothecenes and the mutated strain (Tri5 -) did not. The

François Langevin; François Eudes; André Comeau

2004-01-01

269

Soil Compaction as the Possible Cause of Wilting and Premature Ripening of Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

VEVERKA K., K ?ÍŽKOVÁ I., PALICOVÁ J. (2006): Soil compaction as the possible cause of wilting and premature ripening of sunflower. Plant Protect. Sci., 42: 112-117. Brown patches of the size from several square metres to hectares or individual dying plants appeared in other - wise green stands. Affected plants wilt and ripen sooner than healthy ones, causing them to

KAREL VEVERKA

2006-01-01

270

Recovery Plan for Laurel Wilt on Redbay and Other Forest Species  

E-print Network

Recovery System (NPDRS) called for in Homeland Security Presidential Directive Number 9 (HSPD-9 wilt is a destructive vascular disease of trees in the laurel family (Lauraceae). It is caused of water in the tree, induces a black discoloration in the outer sapwood and causes the leaves to wilt

Harrington, Thomas C.

271

Lack of Control by Early Pistillate Ethylene of the Accelerated Wilting of Petunia hybrida Flowers  

PubMed Central

Well before pollen tube penetration, ethylene has begun to disseminate from pollinated styles of Petunia hybrida flowers. Previous stigmatic application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) completely prevented this ethylene synthesis, indicating that the endogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in pollen is not readily converted on the stigma. Compared to other flower parts, the capacity of the ethylene forming enzyme was largest in the stigma. When applied to the stigma, ACC caused ethylene synthesis, but did not accelerate wilting, unless high concentrations (20 nanomols) were used. Upon pollination or stigma wounding, the early ethylene evolved exclusively from the gynoecium, much later followed by the synthesis of corolla ethylene. Employing wideneck Erlenmeyer flasks, the competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, norbornadiene, was applied to entire flowers in situ, with delaying effects on wound-induced wilting. In contrast, norbornadiene treatment of styles alone, using capillaries, could not postpone wilting. Pollination with foreign pollen species did not lead to accelerated corolla wilting, notwithstanding considerable synthesis of ethylene during the first 5 hours. In situ treatment of the stigma with AVG considerably delayed wound- and pollination-induced wilting. Removal of the entire AVG-treated style 6 hours after stigma wounding still allowed for the postponement of the accelerated wilting, even at very low concentrations of AVG. It is concluded that early stylar ethylene does not play a role in the acceleration of wilting but that, much later, corolla ethylene does, induced by a mobile wilting factor from the stigma, which is ACC. PMID:16664633

Hoekstra, Folkert A.; Weges, Roelf

1986-01-01

272

Characteristics of Ralstonia Solanacearum Strains of Potato Wilt Disease from Nepal and Thailand1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of strains of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of potato bacterial wilt disease from Nepal and Thailand was performed based on pathogenicity, biochemical\\/physiological and serological tests. Fifteen R. solanacearum strains isolated from wilt infected potato plants and tubers grown in Nepal were characterized as race 3, biovar II based on the pathogenicity on different host plants, hypersensitive re action

Shambhu P Dhital; N Thaveechai; Sundar K Shrestha

273

6 CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2010 Without a doubt, oak wilt is the most devastating disease of  

E-print Network

, and once infected, these trees can be killed in just a few weeks. Oak wilt is caused by a fungus and across root grafts to neighboring trees. In stands where susceptible oaks are prevalent, the fungus will continue to spread from root system to root system killing trees, resulting in an oak wilt disease center

Aukema, Brian

274

2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT  

E-print Network

dollars. Anoka County had nearly 3 million oak trees and 990 active infection centers in 2008. If oak wilt2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT IN ANOKA, or discontinued. Few analyses have attempted to carefully quantify those damages, especially for forest pests. Oak

Fried, Jeremy S.

275

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog® Microplate Assay  

PubMed Central

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 µL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of GN2 microtitre plates. On the basis of average well colour development and number of positive wells, the pathogens were divided into two groups, (i) PA and FORL and (ii) PC, PCP and FS. Group (i) was characterised by a short lag-phase, a rapid exponential phase involving almost all carbon sources offered and a long stationary phase, while group (ii) had a more extended lag-phase and a slower utilisation rate of the carbon sources offered. The three isolates in group (ii) differed significantly during their exponential phase. The lowest utilisation rate of carbon sources and number of sources utilised was found for PCP. Of the major group of carbon sources, six carbohydrates, three carboxylic acids and four amino acids were rapidly used by all isolates tested at an early stage. The carbon sources gentibiose, ?-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline persisted to the end of the exponential phase.Moreover, similarities between the metabolic profiles of the tested pathogen and the those of the resident microflora could also be found. These findings are of great importance as regards the role of the resident microflora in the biocontrol. PMID:19294012

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W

2009-01-01

276

The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean  

PubMed Central

Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean. PMID:24454689

Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

2014-01-01

277

Genome sequence of the tobacco bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum is a causal agent of plant bacterial wilt with thousands of distinct strains in a heterogeneous species complex. Here we report the genome sequence of a phylotype IB strain, Y45, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in China. Compared with the published genomes of eight strains which were isolated from other hosts and habitats, 794 specific genes and many rearrangements/inversion events were identified in the tobacco strain, demonstrating that this strain represents an important node within the R. solanacearum complex. PMID:21994922

Li, Zefeng; Wu, Sanling; Bai, Xuefei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Jianfei; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Bingguang; Lu, Xiuping; Fan, Longjiang

2011-11-01

278

Fusarium Infections in Immunocompromised Patients  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections in humans, including superficial, locally invasive, and disseminated infections. The clinical form of fusariosis depends largely on the immune status of the host and the portal of entry, with superficial and localized disease occurring mostly in immunocompetent patients and invasive and disseminated disease affecting immunocompromised patients. Risk factors for severe fusariosis include prolonged neutropenia and T-cell immunodeficiency, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with severe graft-versus-host disease. The most frequent presentation of disseminated fusariosis is a combination of characteristic cutaneous lesions and positive blood cultures, with or without lung or sinus involvement. The prognosis is poor and is determined largely by degree of immunosuppression and extent of infection, with virtually a 100% death rate among persistently neutropenic patients with disseminated disease. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy. Treatment options include the lipid formulations of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Prevention of fusarial infection among high-risk patients should be considered. PMID:17934079

Nucci, Marcio; Anaissie, Elias

2007-01-01

279

Influence of Climatic Factors on Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of small-grain cereals, ear rot of maize, seedling blight and foot rot of cereals are important diseases throughout the world. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale (formerly known as F. nivale) predominantly cause Fusarium diseases of small-grain cereals. Maize is predominantly attacked by F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans.

F. M. Doohan; J. Brennan; B. M. Cooke

2003-01-01

280

Diversity of endophytic fungi from different verticillium-wilt-resistant Gossypium hirsutum and evaluation of antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae in vitro.  

PubMed

Cotton plants were sampled and ranked according to their resistance to Verticillium wilt. In total, 642 endophytic fungi isolates representing 27 genera were recovered from Gossypium hirsutum root, stem, and leaf tissues, but were not uniformly distributed. More endophytic fungi appeared in the leaf (391) compared with the root (140) and stem (111) sections. However, no significant difference in the abundance of isolated endophytes was found among resistant cotton varieties. Alternaria exhibited the highest colonization frequency (7.9%), followed by Acremonium (6.6%) and Penicillium (4.8%). Unlike tolerant varieties, resistant and susceptible ones had similar endophytic fungal population compositions. In three Verticillium-wilt-resistant cotton varieties, fungal endophytes from the genus Alternaria were most frequently isolated, followed by Gibberella and Penicillium. The maximum concentration of dominant endophytic fungi was observed in leaf tissues (0.1797). The evenness of stem tissue endophytic communities (0.702) was comparatively more uniform than the other two tissues. Eighty endophytic fungi selected from 27 genera were evaluated for their inhibition activity against highly virulent Verticillium dahliae isolate Vd080 in vitro. Thirty-nine isolates exhibited fungistasis against the pathogen at varying degrees. Seven species, having high growth inhibition rates (?75%), exhibited strong antifungal activity against V. dahliae. The antifungal activity of both volatile and nonvolatile metabolites was also investigated. The nonvolatile substances produced by CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-325 (Fusarium solani), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), and CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus) completely inhibited V. dahliae growth. These findings deepen our understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions and provide a platform for screening G. hirsutum endophytes with biocontrol potential. PMID:24836187

Li, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Ling-Fei; Feng, Zi-Li; Zhao, Li-Hong; Shi, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, He-Qin

2014-09-01

281

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2007-01-01

282

Production of trichothecene mycotoxins by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum on barley and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat cultivars (Stoa, MN87150, SuMai-3, YMI-6, Wheaton) and barley cultivars (Robust, Excel, Chevron, M69) were inoculated in the field with isolates ofFusarium graminearum andF. culmorum. The diseased (Fusarium head blight) kernels were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV).F. culmorum produced all three trichothecenes on all cultivars tested whereasF. graminearum only produced DON and 15-ADON. There was no

C. J. Mirocha; Weiping Xie; Yichun Xu; R. D. Wilcoxson; R. P. Woodward; R. H. Etebarian; G. Behele

1994-01-01

283

Production of Fumonisin Analogs by Fusarium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fumonisins, a family of food-borne carcinogenic myco- toxins, were first isolated in 1988 (21) from cultures of Fusar- ium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (previously known as Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon). During the same year, the structures of the fumonisins were elucidated (6) and fumonisin B1 was shown to cause equine leukoencephalomalacia (34). There have been numerous publications dealing with this group

John P. Rheeder; Walter F. O. Marasas; Hester F. Vismer

2002-01-01

284

Icebergs and species in populations of Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Accepted for publication August 2001 and published electronically 22 October 2001) ''Why is the name of the pathogen I work on changing?'' is a common question raised by plant pathologists. Species in the genus Fusarium (and the authors of this article) often are the target for such questions. Species descriptions, even very thorough ones, usually rely on a limited set

John F. Leslie; Kurt A. Zeller; Brett A. Summerell

2001-01-01

285

A model for multiseasonal spread of verticillium wilt of lettuce.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease in lettuce, and the pathogen is seedborne. Even though maximum seed infestation rates of <5% have been detected in commercial lettuce seed lots, it is necessary to establish acceptable contamination thresholds to prevent introduction and establishment of the pathogen in lettuce production fields. However, introduction of inoculum into lettuce fields for experimental purposes to determine its long term effects is undesirable. Therefore, we constructed a simulation model to study the spread of Verticillium wilt following pathogen introduction from seed. The model consists of four components: the first for simulating infection of host plants, the second for simulating reproduction of microsclerotia on diseased plants, the third for simulating the survival of microsclerotia, and the fourth for simulating the dispersal of microsclerotia. The simulation results demonstrated that the inoculum density-disease incidence curve parameters and the dispersal gradients affect disease spread in the field. Although a steep dispersal gradient facilitated the establishment of the disease in a new field with a low inoculum density, a long-tail gradient allowed microsclerotia to be dispersed over greater distances, promoting the disease spread in fields with high inoculum density. The simulation results also revealed the importance of avoiding successive lettuce crops in the same field, reducing survival rate of microsclerotia between crops, and the need for breeding resistance against V. dahliae in lettuce cultivars to lower the number of microsclerotia formed on each diseased plant. The simulation results, however, suggested that, even with a low seed infestation rate, the pathogen would eventually become established if susceptible lettuce cultivars were grown consecutively in the same field for many years. A threshold for seed infestation can be established only when two of the three drivers of the disease-(i) low microsclerotia production per diseased plant, (ii) long-tail dispersal gradient, and (iii) low microsclerotia survival between lettuce crops-are present. PMID:24624952

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

2014-09-01

286

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

PubMed

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

287

Visualization of Ralstonia solanacearum cells during biocontrol of bacterial wilt disease in tomato with Pythium oligandrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum (PO) can suppress bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) in tomato. To understand the primary biocontrol mechanisms of bacterial wilt by PO, we pretreated tomato plants with\\u000a sterile distilled water or preinoculated them with PO, followed by inoculation with RS, then observed PO and RS in fixed sections\\u000a of tomato tissues using a confocal

Akira Masunaka; Kazuhiro Nakaho; Masao Sakai; Hideki Takahashi; Shigehito Takenaka

2009-01-01

288

Watermelon wilt studies: seed-borne fusaria, fungicide trials, and host range of the pathogen  

E-print Network

etode ~Nloido yne . arenaria was present in the soil. Miltino and root necrosis was also was also observed to significantly increase in Charleston Gray. In- creased occurrence of wilt was observed to occur at intermediate pop- ulations of the fungus... etode ~Nloido yne . arenaria was present in the soil. Miltino and root necrosis was also was also observed to significantly increase in Charleston Gray. In- creased occurrence of wilt was observed to occur at intermediate pop- ulations of the fungus...

McLaughlin, Randy Joe

2012-06-07

289

The Brassicaceae-Specific EWR1 Gene Provides Resistance to Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Soil-borne vascular wilt diseases caused by Verticillium spp. are among the most destructive diseases worldwide in a wide range of plant species. The most effective means of controlling Verticillium wilt diseases is the use of genetic resistance. We have previously reported the identification of four activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutants which showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. Among these, one mutant also showed enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial vascular wilt pathogen. Cloning of the activation tag revealed an insertion upstream of gene At3g13437, which we designated as EWR1 (for Enhancer of vascular Wilt Resistance 1) that encodes a putatively secreted protein of unknown function. The search for homologs of Arabidopsis EWR1 (AtEWR1) in public databases only identified homologs within the Brassicaceae family. We subsequently cloned the EWR1 homolog from Brassica oleracea (BoEWR1) and show that over-expression in Arabidopsis results in V. dahliae resistance. Moreover, over-expression of AtEWR1 and BoEWR1 in N. benthamiana, a member of the Solanaceae family, results in V. dahliae resistance, suggesting that EWR1 homologs can be used to engineer Verticillium wilt resistance in non-Brassicaceae crops as well. PMID:24505441

Yadeta, Koste A.; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Hanemian, Mathieu; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2014-01-01

290

Antibody-mediated prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins in the field.  

PubMed

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. PMID:19325726

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-10-01

291

Fusarium keratitis and endophthalmitis associated with lens contact wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a Fusarium keratitis is a severe corneal infection that is usually seen in tropical and subtropical countries after a corneal trauma.\\u000a In 2005–2006, an epidemic of Fusarium keratitis, occurring predominantly among contact lens wearers, was observed in several countries. Case report We describe the clinical course of a Fusarium keratitis which failed to respond to systemic and local voriconazole treatment,

Julia Proença-Pina; Isabelle Ssi Yan Kai; Tristan Bourcier; Monique Fabre; Hervé Offret; Marc Labetoulle

2010-01-01

292

Effect of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines on soybean.  

E-print Network

??Fusarium virguliforme, the soilborne fungus which causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, and Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), are two economically important… (more)

Brzostowski, Lillian Frances

2010-01-01

293

Mass Spectrometric Identification of Isoforms of PR Proteins in Xylem Sap of Fungus-Infected Tomato1  

PubMed Central

The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during compatible or incompatible interactions. A new member of the PR-5 family was identified that accumulated early in both types of interaction. Other pathogenesis-related proteins appeared in compatible interactions only, concomitantly with disease development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using proteomics for the identification of known and novel proteins in xylem sap, and provides insights into plant-pathogen interactions in vascular wilt diseases. PMID:12376655

Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

2002-01-01

294

Survey of fumonisin production by Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), two structurally related mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity, were recently isolated from corn cultures of Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826. These toxins have been reported to be produced also by isolates of F. proliferatum. Contamination of foods and feeds by F. moniliforme has been associated with human esophageal cancer risk, and FB1 has been shown to be the causative agent of the neurotoxic disease leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Because of the toxicological importance of the fumonisins, the potential to produce FB1 and FB2 was determined in a study of 40 toxic Fusarium isolates representing 27 taxa in 9 of the 12 sections of Fusarium, as well as two recently described species not yet classified into sections. With the exception of one isolate of F. nygamai, fumonisin production was restricted to isolates of F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum, in the section Liseola. The F. nygamai isolate produced 605 micrograms of FB1 g-1 and 530 micrograms of FB2 g-1, and the identity of the toxins was confirmed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the production of the fumonisins by F. nygamai. PMID:2059033

Thiel, P G; Marasas, W F; Sydenham, E W; Shephard, G S; Gelderblom, W C; Nieuwenhuis, J J

1991-01-01

295

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r = 0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r = 0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r = 0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous detection of many Fusarium mycotoxins in each sample. In combination with real-time PCR analysis of seven toxigenic Fusarium spp., the results gave an overall picture of the presence of Fusarium and their toxins in Swedish oats and revealed significant annual and regional differences. This is the first study of the so-called emerging mycotoxins (e.g., ENNs, MON and BEA) in oats grown in Sweden. PMID:23962918

Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

2013-10-15

296

Activities of E1210 and Comparator Agents Tested by CLSI and EUCAST Broth Microdilution Methods against Fusarium and Scedosporium Species Identified Using Molecular Methods  

PubMed Central

Fusarium (n = 67) and Scedosporium (n = 63) clinical isolates were tested by two reference broth microdilution (BMD) methods against a novel broad-spectrum (active against both yeasts and molds) antifungal, E1210, and comparator agents. E1210 inhibits the inositol acylation step in glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, resulting in defects in fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Five species complex organisms/species of Fusarium (4 isolates unspeciated) and 28 Scedosporium apiospermum, 7 Scedosporium aurantiacum, and 28 Scedosporium prolificans species were identified by molecular techniques. Comparator antifungal agents included anidulafungin, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. E1210 was highly active against all of the tested isolates, with minimum effective concentration (MEC)/MIC90 values (?g/ml) for E1210, anidulafungin, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B, respectively, for Fusarium of 0.12, >16, >16, >8, >8, 8, and 4 ?g/ml. E1210 was very potent against the Scedosporium spp. tested. The E1210 MEC90 was 0.12 ?g/ml for S. apiospermum, but 1 to >8 ?g/ml for other tested agents. Against S. aurantiacum, the MEC50 for E1210 was 0.06 ?g/ml versus 0.5 to >8 ?g/ml for the comparators. Against S. prolificans, the MEC90 for E1210 was only 0.12 ?g/ml, compared to >4 ?g/ml for amphotericin B and >8 ?g/ml for itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Both CLSI and EUCAST methods were highly concordant for E1210 and all comparator agents. The essential agreement (EA; ±2 doubling dilutions) was >93% for all comparisons, with the exception of posaconazole and F. oxysporum species complex (SC) (60%), posaconazole and S. aurantiacum (85.7%), and voriconazole and S. aurantiacum (85.7%). In conclusion, E1210 exhibited very potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity against azole- and amphotericin B-resistant strains of Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium spp. Furthermore, in vitro susceptibility testing of E1210 against isolates of Fusarium and Scedosporium may be accomplished using either of the CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods, each producing very similar results. PMID:22083469

Duncanson, Frederick P.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Guarro, Josep; Jones, Ronald N.; Pfaller, Michael A.

2012-01-01

297

Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2?) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.

Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kang, Su Ran; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Dong June; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Sung, Chang Hyun; Kang, Han Sol; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

2013-01-01

298

Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

Mohanty, N K; Sahu, S

2014-09-01

299

Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient  

PubMed Central

Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

Mohanty, N. K.; Sahu, S.

2014-01-01

300

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

301

Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia  

E-print Network

Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia). This lethal vascular wilt disease is caused by an ambrosia beetle symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr

Harrington, Thomas C.

302

Disseminated Fusarium originating from toenail paronychia in a neutropenic patient  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a saprophytic organism that is found widely distributed in soil, subterranean and aerial plants, plant debris and other organic substrates. The organism can cause local tissue infections in immunocompetent patients such as onychomycosis, bone and joint infections, or sinusitis. Since the first case of disseminated Fusarium was described, the incidence of disseminated disease has increased significantly, particularly affecting those immunocompromised with hematological malignancies. We report here a 38 year-old hospitalized male with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed disseminated Fusarium infection, originating from a toenail paronychia, in the setting of neutropenia. Pathological diagnosis of Fusarium is difficult because the septate hyphae of Fusarium are difficult to distinguish from Aspergillus, which has a more favorable outcome. Cultures of potential sources of infection, as well as tissue cultures, are essential in identifying the organism and initiating early aggressive therapy. PMID:20486458

Bourgeois, Greg P.; Cafardi, Jennifer A.; Sellheyer, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A.

2010-01-01

303

[Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].  

PubMed

One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ? 1?g/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99?g/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5?g/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:24721273

Martinez, Mauro; Castañares, Eliana; Dinolfo, María I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastián A

2014-01-01

304

Fatal Fusarium solani infections in baby sharks.  

PubMed

The occurrence of fatal fusariosis in baby bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) born at the National Aquarium, Baltimore, Maryland, is reported. An atypical strain of Fusarium solani was cultured from the tissues of two of the infected sharks following postmortem examination. Histopathology revealed an apparent predilection of the fungus for hyaline cartilage. Invasion of the cartilage resulted in hyphae with a distorted morphology. In slide culture the fungus displayed the unusual characteristic of terminal chlamydoconidium generation on macroconidia; this may be of some taxonomic significance. PMID:2746438

Smith, A G; Muhvich, A G; Muhvich, K H; Wood, C

1989-01-01

305

Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host  

PubMed Central

Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2011-01-01

306

Evaluation of Fusarium head blight in barley infected by Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight, which is primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease in the barley field. A real-time PCR protocol was developed to evaluate the growth of this pathogen in the host plant tissues. All four strains harbored the gene encoding ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER (FgABC; FGSG_00541) as a single copy within their genomes. Our Southern blot result was identical with the genomic data for F. graminearum strain PH-1. Based on the crossing point (CP) values obtained in our TaqMan real-time PCR analysis, two standard curves describing the relationship among the CP value, FgABC copy number, and amount of fungal DNA were constructed. Chronological enumeration of fungal growth was coincided with the symptom development. PMID:23990309

Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Lee, Theresa; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-08-01

307

AFLP and SCAR Markers Linked to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Resistance in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a serious disease in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The breeding line 'Polalta' contains a single domi- nant gene conferring resistance to TSWV that was introgressed from N. alata Link & Otto. The resistance is tightly associated with an abnor- mal plant type, however, and traditional back- crossing has been ineffective in producing normal plants

H. Moon; J. S. Nicholson

308

Laurel Wilt Disease in Pinellas County Theresa Badurek, Urban Horticulture Extension Agent  

E-print Network

. Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus): sometimes up to a year after the tree has died. Sawdust are susceptible to laurel wilt. This is caused by an insect/disease complex and spread by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). See photos below of the beetle. This tiny little insect bores

Jawitz, James W.

309

First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearumon eucalypts in South Africa  

E-print Network

(GC) hybrid in Zululand, KwaZulu/Natal, showed signs of wilting. The vascular tissue of infected treesLog bacterial identi¢cation system. Inoculation trials were conducted on three E. grandis � E. camaldulensis There are over 1.5 million ha of exotic forest plantations in South Africa (DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS

310

Incidence of weed reservoirs and vectors of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus on southern Tasmanian lettuce farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrips species and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) alternate weed hosts were surveyed on two lettuce farms in southern Tasmania during 1994 and 1995. Only one known vector species, Thrips tabaci, was found at either site, comprising on average 36·8% of the total monthly catch. A major peak of thrips activity in the summer corresponded with an increase of disease

C. R. Wilson

1998-01-01

311

Antibacterial activity of Lansiumamide B to tobacco bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum).  

PubMed

Tobacco bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most serious diseases of tobacco in the area of tobacco cultivation. As there is no effective control method for tobacco bacterial wilt diseases, developing new antibacterial agents in tobacco will make great practical sense. The antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum of Lansiumamide B which is isolated from the seeds of Clausena lansium is reported in this paper for the first time. The bioassay results indicate that Lansiumamide B could completely inhibit the growth of R. solanacearum at the concentration of 125 mg/L in vitro, the EC50 and EC90 are 48.82 mg/L and 86.26 mg/L, respectively. The result of pot experiments indicates that the control efficiency of the Lansiumamide B on tobacco bacterial wilt are 95.84%, 91.67% and 86.38% at 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after treatment at the concentration of 100mg/kg, respectively, nearly 40 times higher than Streptomycin, a special fungicide to the disease, at 21 days after treatment with root irrigation method. These results suggest that Lansiumamide B has the potential of developing as a new type of plant-type fungicide on controlling the diseases of tobacco bacterial wilt. PMID:24512921

Li, Lichun; Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Ming; Hao, Wenbo; Han, Yun; Zhang, Guobin; Wan, Shuqing

2014-01-01

312

Real vs. acted emotional speech Janneke Wilting, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts  

E-print Network

are instructed to display specific emotions. The seminal work of Darwin (1872) and Ekman (1972), for instanceReal vs. acted emotional speech Janneke Wilting, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts Communication of actors is a popular method for researching the expression of emotion, little is known about the relation

Hirschberg, Julia

313

Draft genome sequence of Brevibacillus brevis strain X23, a biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum. PMID:23144389

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming; Zhou, Qingming

2012-12-01

314

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

315

Reduction of isoprene emissions from live oak (Quercus fusiformis) with oak wilt.  

PubMed

Many plants emit isoprene, a hydrocarbon that has important influences on atmospheric chemistry. Pathogens may affect isoprene fluxes, both through damage to plant tissue and by changing the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. Live oaks (Quercus fusiformis (Small) Sarg. and Q. virginiana Mill) are major emitters of isoprene in the southern United States, and oak populations in Texas are being dramatically reduced by oak wilt, a widespread fungal vascular disease. We investigated the effects of oak wilt on isoprene emissions from live oak leaves (Q. fusiformis) in the field, as a first step in exploring the physiological effects of oak wilt on isoprene production and the implications of these effects for larger-scale isoprene fluxes. Isoprene emission rates per unit dry leaf mass were 44% lower for actively symptomatic leaves than for leaves on healthy trees (P = 0.033). Isoprene fluxes were significantly negatively correlated with rankings of disease activity in the host tree (fluxes in leaves on healthy trees > healthy leaves on survivor trees > healthy leaves on the same branch as symptomatic leaves > symptomatic leaves; isoprene per unit dry mass: Spearman's rho = -0.781, P = 0.001; isoprene per unit leaf area: Spearman's rho = -0.652, P = 0.008). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 57 and 63%, respectively, in symptomatic relative to healthy leaves (P < 0.05); these reductions were proportionally greater than the reductions in isoprene emissions. Low isoprene emission rates in symptomatic leaves are most simply explained by physiological constraints on isoprene production, such as water stress as a result of xylem blockage, rather than direct effects of the oak wilt fungus on isoprene synthesis. The effects of oak wilt on leaf-level isoprene emission rates are probably less important for regional isoprene fluxes than the reduction in oak leaf area across landscapes. PMID:12651496

Anderson, Laurel J.; Harley, Peter C.; Monson, Russell K.; Jackson, Robert B.

2000-11-01

316

Characterization and management of soil-borne pathogens on strawberry and resistance mechanisms against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae / Xiangling Fang.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important berry crop worldwide. However, commercial strawberry production is severely threatened by soil-borne fungal and oomycete… (more)

Fang, Xiangling

2012-01-01

317

Fusarium Laboratory Workshop Kansas State University, Manhatten, Kansas State, USA  

E-print Network

year, KSU hosts the Fusarium Laboratory Workshop organized by Prof John Leslie and various of his of the prairie. Another social event highlight was the pool party at the Leslie home, where lemonade and beer

318

Production of neosolaniol by Fusarium tumidum.  

PubMed

Extracts from autoclaved maize culture of Fusarium tumidum strain R-5823 were toxic towards Artemia salina. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract led to the isolation of the toxic compound that was identified as the trichothecene toxin neosolaniol (NEOS) by 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and low-resolution electronic impact mass spectrometry. The amount of NEOS produced by the strain R-5823 was 300 mg/kg maize culture. NEOS was also detected by HPLC in cultures of four out of seven additional strains of F. tumidum and Gibberella tumida with different origin, in amounts ranging from 1 to 311 mg/kg. This is the first report on the production of a trichothecene toxin by F. tumidum. PMID:7566071

Altomare, C; Ritieni, A; Perrone, G; Fogliano, V; Mannina, L; Logrieco, A

1995-06-01

319

Bioactive Dihydronaphthoquinone Derivatives from Fusarium solani.  

PubMed

New dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives, karuquinone A (1), karuquinone B (2), and karuquinone C (3), were isolated from a fungal culture broth of Fusarium solani. The structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS, and IR). Three known compounds, javanicin (4), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2,4-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-6,9-dione (5), and 5-hydroxydihydrofusarubin C (6), were also isolated. The six isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Of these, karuquinone A exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity. Karuquinone B did not affect the proliferation of the cancer cell lines but did inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC. Additionally, we demonstrated that karuquinone A induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25163667

Takemoto, Kenji; Kamisuki, Shinji; Chia, Pei Thing; Kuriyama, Isoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Fumio

2014-09-26

320

Factors influencing pathogenicity of Fusarium tumidum on gorse (Ulex europaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors promoting pathogenicity of Fusarium tumidum on gorse (Ulex europaeus) were determined to develop a novel strategy for delivering this potential mycoherbicide using insects as vectors of inoculum. Fusarium tumidum sprayed as a suspension of 1×10 conidia mL on at least 50% of a gorse plant reduced shoot dry weight by 45% (P<0.05). A minimum of 910 viable conidia were

Emmanuel Yamoah; E. Eirian Jones; Graeme W. Bourdôt; David M. Suckling; Richard J. Weld; Alison Stewart

2008-01-01

321

Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity.  

PubMed

Recent developments in genomics have opened up for newer opportunities to study the diversity and classification of fungi. The genus Fusarium contains many plant pathogens that attack diverse agricultural crops. Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium species still remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy, given that the number of species recognized in the genus has been constantly changing in the last century due to the different taxonomic systems. This review focuses of various molecular-based techniques employed to study the diversity of Fusarium species causing diseases in major food crops. An introduction of fusarial diseases and their mycotoxins and molecular-marker-based methods for detection introduce the concept of marker application. Various well-known molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplification fragment length polymorphism, etc. to more modern ones such as DNA microarrays, DNA barcoding, and pyrosequencing and their application form the core of the review. Target regions in the genome which can be potential candidates for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole fungal community. This will be of extreme value for diagnosticians and researchers concerned with fungal biology, ecology, and genetics. PMID:21494869

Chandra, Nayaka S; Wulff, E G; Udayashankar, A C; Nandini, B P; Niranjana, S R; Mortensen, C N; Prakash, H S

2011-06-01

322

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Wheat is often infected by Fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important Fusarium toxin in Swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. However, less is known about the co-occurrence of DON and F. graminearum with other toxins and Fusarium species in Sweden. This study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in winter wheat (2009 and 2011) and spring wheat (2010 and 2011). DNA from seven species was quantified with qPCR and the toxin levels were quantified with a multitoxin analysis method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The method enabled detection of many fungal metabolites, including DON, zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), and enniatins (ENNs). It was found that Fusarium poae and Fusarium avenaceum were present in almost all samples. Other common Fusarium species were F. graminearum and F. culmorum, present in more than 70% of samples. Several species occurred at lower DNA levels in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse was true for F. graminearum and Fusarium langsethiae. The most prevalent toxins were ENNs, present in 100% of samples. DON was also common, especially in spring wheat, whereas ZEA and NIV were common in 2009 and in winter wheat, but less common in 2011 and in spring wheat. Only three samples of spring wheat contained T-2 or HT-2 above LOQ. Annual mean levels of several mycotoxins were significantly lower in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse applied for DON. The strongest correlations between mycotoxin and Fusarium DNA levels were found between F. avenaceum and ENNs (r(2) = 0.67) and MON (r(2) = 0.62), and F. graminearum and DON (r(2) = 0.74). These results show that several Fusarium species and toxins co-occur in wheat. The highest toxin levels were detected in spring wheat and DON and ENNs, the latter belonging to the group of so called "emerging toxins", which were the most prevalent toxins and those occurring at the highest levels. PMID:23962919

Lindblad, Mats; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Fredlund, Elisabeth

2013-10-15

323

First Report of Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2 Race 1 on Tomato in Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study aims to isolate and identify the causal pathogen of tomato bacterial wilt in Egypt. In 2008, tomato plants showing typical symptoms of bacterial wilt disease with no foliar yellowing were observed in Minia, Assiut and Sohag governorates, Egypt. When cut stems of symptomatic plants were submerged in water, whitish ooze was evident and longitudinal sections showed a brown discoloration in the vascular tissues. Bacteria were isolated on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride medium and fifteen isolates shown typical morphological and cultural characteristics were confirmed as Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 race 1. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates proved to be pathogenic to tomato plants, varied from 52 to 97% wilting. This is the first report of R. solanacearum biovar 2 race 1 causing bacterial wilt in tomato crop in Egypt. PMID:25289016

Seleim, Mohamed A. A.; Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A. M.; Abd-El-Moneem, Kenawy M.; Saead, Farag A.

2014-01-01

324

Spatialtemporal patterns of Ceratocystis wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil By M. A. Ferreira1,7  

E-print Network

of resistant clones may be the only management option. 1 Introduction Ceratocystis wilt is arguably the most of South America with a broad, but highly variable, host range (Baker et al. 2003; Thorpe et al. 2005

Harrington, Thomas C.

325

The effects of fungicides and cultivar resistance on associations among Fusarium head blight, deoxynivalenol, and fungal colonization of wheat grain.  

E-print Network

??Fusarium head blight (FHB), or head scab, incited predominantly by Fusarium graminearum, causes premature senescence of wheat spikes, kernel damage, and mycotoxin (especially deoxynivalenol, [DON])… (more)

Li, Cunyu

2009-01-01

326

Transcriptional Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana during Wilt Disease Caused by the Soil-Borne Phytopathogenic Bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is a common disease that causes severe yield and quality losses in many plants. In the present study, we used the model Ralstonia solanacearum-Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem to study transcriptional changes associated with wilt disease development. Susceptible Col-5 plants and RRS1-R-containing resistant Nd-1 plants were root-inoculated with R. solanacearum strains harbouring or lacking the matching PopP2 avirulence gene. Gene

Jian Hu; Xavier Barlet; Laurent Deslandes; Judith Hirsch; Dong Xin Feng; Imre Somssich; Yves Marco

2008-01-01

327

Development of a system for quantifying the rate of spread of oak wilt using remote sensing and geographic information systems  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR QUANTIFYING THE RATE OF SPREAD OF OAR WILT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Thesis by CHARLES WILLIAM WARE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Forestry DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR QUANTIFYING THE RATE OF SPREAD OF OAK WILT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPE1C INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Thesis...

Ware, Charles William

2012-06-07

328

Selection of wheat lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum by somaclonal variation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The screening wheat new lines which have the resistance to Fusarium graminearum were completed by in vitro induced mutation and cell screening. Four new lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum were obtained. The field inoculating determination in 19...

Sun Guangzu

1997-01-01

329

Responses of Quercus sapwood to infection with the pathogenic fungus of a new wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus serrata andQ. crispula wilt during the summer in wide areas along the Sea of Japan. Mass attacks of trees by an ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus) are characteristic before appearance of the wilting symptoms. This study investigated the pathogenic effects of a fungus\\u000a detected specifically in the wilting trees. This hyphomycete fungus,Raffaelea sp., has a distribution that correlates with the

Keiko Kuroda

2001-01-01

330

Differential susceptibility of pumpkins to bacterial wilt related to plant growth stage and cultivar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen jack-o'-lantern and three processing-pie pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivars were tested in the greenhouse and field for their susceptibility at different growth stages to Erwinia tracheiphila, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. The bacterium is vectored by cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum (F) and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber). Each variety was artificially inoculated with E. tracheiphila in the greenhouse at

Gerald E. Brust

1997-01-01

331

'Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum', a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato purple top wilt (PPT) is a devastating disease that occurs in various regions of North America and Mexico. At least three distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to three different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII and 16SrVI) have been associated with this disease. A new disease with symptoms similar to PPT was recently observed in Texas and Nebraska, USA. Two distinct phytoplasma

Ing-Ming Lee; Kristi D. Bottner; Gary Secor; Viviana Rivera-Varas

2006-01-01

332

The Pseudomonas Wilt bacterium: it's identification and role as a cotton pathogen  

E-print Network

THE PSEUDOMONAS WILT BACTERIUM - IT'S IDENTIFICATION AND ROLE AS A COTTON PATHOGEN A Thesis By Robert Scott Pore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Plant Pathology THESIS ABSTRACT The causal organism of Pseudomonas Milt of cotton was ~ bout to be tbo boooottuu booilluo ~ obtilt ~ Cobe cooed Prasmowski. Bacillus Milt was suggested as a more appropriate name...

Pore, Robert Scott

2012-06-07

333

Variability in the phloem restricted plant trypanosomes ( Phytomonas spp) associated with wilts of cultivated crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant trypanosomatids (Phytomonas spp) have been isolated from the crude sap of coconut tress and oil palm trees affected with Hartrot or Marchitex diseases in South America andAlpinia purpurata affected with wilt in the Caribbean. They are also commonly isolated from the fruits and latex of Euphorbiaceae or Asclepiadaceae. Thirty-fourPhytomonas stocks were studied by isoenzyme electrophoresis (11 loci) in order

Emmanuelle Muller; Daniel Gargani; Valérie Schaeffer; Jamie Stevens; Carmen Fernandez-Becerra; Manuel Sanchez-Moreno; Michel Dollet

1994-01-01

334

Verticillium systematics and evolution: how confusion impedes Verticillium wilt management and how to resolve it.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilts are important vascular wilt diseases that affect many crops and ornamentals in different regions of the world. Verticillium wilts are caused by members of the ascomycete genus Verticillium, a small group of 10 species that are related to the agents of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. Verticillium has a long and complicated taxonomic history with controversies about species boundaries and long overlooked cryptic species, which confused and limited our knowledge of the biology of individual species. We first review the taxonomic history of Verticillium, provide an update and explanation of the current system of classification and compile host range and geographic distribution data for individual species from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) GenBank records. Using Verticillium as an example, we show that species names are a poor vehicle for archiving and retrieving information, and that species identifications should always be backed up by DNA sequence data and DNA extracts that are made publicly available. If such a system were made a prerequisite for publication, all species identifications could be evaluated retroactively, and our knowledge of the biology of individual species would be immune from taxonomic changes, controversy and misidentification. Adoption of this system would improve quarantine practices and the management of diseases caused by various plant pathogens. PMID:24548214

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V

2014-06-01

335

Genetic dissection of Verticillium wilt resistance mediated by tomato Ve1.  

PubMed

Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins. PMID:19321708

Fradin, Emilie F; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C; Castroverde, Christian D M; Nazar, Ross N; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P H J

2009-05-01

336

Using the Ralstonia solanacearum Tat Secretome To Identify Bacterial Wilt Virulence Factors? †  

PubMed Central

To identify secreted virulence factors involved in bacterial wilt disease caused by the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, we mutated tatC, a key component of the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) secretion system. The R. solanacearum tatC mutation was pleiotropic; its phenotypes included defects in cell division, nitrate utilization, polygalacturonase activity, membrane stability, and growth in plant tissue. Bioinformatic analysis of the R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 genome predicted that this pathogen secretes 70 proteins via the Tat system. The R. solanacearum tatC strain was severely attenuated in its ability to cause disease, killing just over 50% of tomato plants in a naturalistic soil soak assay where the wild-type parent killed 100% of the plants. This result suggested that elements of the Tat secretome may be novel bacterial wilt virulence factors. To identify contributors to R. solanacearum virulence, we cloned and mutated three genes whose products are predicted to be secreted by the Tat system: RSp1521, encoding a predicted AcvB-like protein, and two genes, RSc1651 and RSp1575, that were identified as upregulated in planta by an in vivo expression technology screen. The RSc1651 mutant had wild-type virulence on tomato plants. However, mutants lacking either RSp1521, which appears to be involved in acid tolerance, or RSp1575, which encodes a possible amino acid binding protein, were significantly reduced in virulence on tomato plants. Additional bacterial wilt virulence factors may be found in the Tat secretome. PMID:17468289

Gonzalez, Enid T.; Brown, Darby G.; Swanson, Jill K.; Allen, Caitilyn

2007-01-01

337

Genetic Dissection of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Mediated by Tomato Ve11[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins. PMID:19321708

Fradin, Emilie F.; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C.; Castroverde, Christian D.M.; Nazar, Ross N.; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

2009-01-01

338

Structural and Functional Characterization of the TRI101 Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: KINETIC INSIGHTS TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

SciTech Connect

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat barley and rice. Thus far the gene of choice has been tri101 whose gene product catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the C3 hydroxyl moiety of several trichothecene mycotoxins. In vitro this has been shown to reduce the toxicity of the toxins by {approx}100-fold but has demonstrated limited resistance to FHB in transgenic cereal. To understand the molecular basis for the differences between in vitro and in vivo resistance the three-dimensional structures and kinetic properties of two TRI101 orthologs isolated from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum have been determined. The kinetic results reveal important differences in activity of these enzymes toward B-type trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol. These differences in activity can be explained in part by the three-dimensional structures for the ternary complexes for both of these enzymes with coenzyme A and trichothecene mycotoxins. The structural and kinetic results together emphasize that the choice of an enzymatic resistance gene in transgenic crop protection strategies must take into account the kinetic profile of the selected protein.

Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Rayment, Ivan (UWASH); (UW); (NCAUR)

2008-06-30

339

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplified MAT regions were obtained by inverse PCR. These data were used to develop diagnostic primers suitable for the clear amplification of conserved mating type sequences from any member of the genus Fusarium. By using these diagnostic primers, we identified mating types of 122 strains belonging to 22 species of Fusarium. The ? box and the HMG box from the mating type genes are transcribed in F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum. The novelty of the PCR-based mating type identification system that we developed is that this method can be used on a wide range of Fusarium species, which have proven or expected teleomorphs in different ascomycetous genera, including Calonectria, Gibberella, and Nectria. PMID:15294768

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Moretti, Antonio; Waalwijk, Cees; Olah, Brigitta; Hornok, Laszlo

2004-01-01

340

Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

There are several taxonomic systems available for identifying Fusarium species. The philosophy used in each taxonomic system is discussed as well as problems encountered in working with Fusarium species in culture. Fusarium species are toxigenic, and the mycotoxins produced by these organisms are often associated with animal and human diseases. The implications for the association of the carcinogens, fumonisins, produced by Fusarium moniliforme and other Fusarium species with human diseases are discussed. Foreign-body-associated fusarial infection such as keratitis in contact lens wearers, onychomycosis, skin infections, and disseminated multiorgan infections are discussed. Disseminated fusarial hyalohyphomycosis has emerged as a significant, usually fatal infection in the immunocompromised host. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression, the extent of the infection, and the presence of a removable focus such as an indwelling central venous catheter. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy, probably with one of the newer antifungal agents. Perhaps the use of such agents or the use of colony-stimulating factors may improve the outcome of this devastating infection. However, until new approaches for treatment develop, effective preventive measures are urgently needed. Images PMID:7834602

Nelson, P E; Dignani, M C; Anaissie, E J

1994-01-01

341

Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.  

PubMed Central

Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

2001-01-01

342

Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective

S. N. Chulze; M. L. Ramirez; A. Torres; J. F. Leslie

2000-01-01

343

In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv). Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a

Jiazheng Yuan; Mengxia Zhu; David A Lightfoot; M Javed Iqbal; Jack Y Yang; Khalid Meksem

2008-01-01

344

Fusarium-damaged kernels and deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-infected U.S. winter wheat.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum) production in many areas worldwide. FHB infection results in Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) that dramatically reduce grain yield and quality. More effective and accurate disease evaluation methods are imperative for successful identification of FHB-resistant sources and selection of resistant cultivars. To determine the relationships among different types of resistance, 363 (74 soft and 289 hard) U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FDK and DON concentration in greenhouse and field experiments. Single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR)-estimated FDK and DON were compared with visually estimated FDK and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy-estimated DON. Significant correlations were detected between percentage of symptomatic spikelets and visual FDK in the greenhouse and field, although correlations were slightly lower in the field. High correlation coefficients also were observed between visually scored FDK and SKNIR-estimated FDK (0.72, P < 0.001) and SKNIR-estimated DON (0.68, P < 0.001); therefore, both visual scoring and SKNIR methods are useful for estimating FDK and DON in breeding programs. PMID:24400658

Jin, Feng; Bai, Guihua; Zhang, Dadong; Dong, Yanhong; Ma, Lingjian; Bockus, William; Dowell, Floyd

2014-05-01

345

Conversion of fusaric acid to Fusarinol by Aspergillus tubingensis: a detoxification reaction.  

PubMed

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt diseases of plants and produces a potent phytotoxin fusaric acid (FA), which is also toxic to many microorganisms. An Aspergillus tubingensis strain with high tolerance to FA was isolated from soil and designated as CDRAt01. HPLC analysis of culture filtrates from A. tubingensis isolate CDRAt01 grown with the addition of FA indicated the formation of a metabolite over time that was associated with a decrease of FA. Spectral analysis and chemical synthesis confirmed the compound as 5-butyl-2-pyridinemethanol, referred to here as fusarinol. The phytotoxicity of fusarinol compared to FA was measured by comparing necrosis induced in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312) cotyledons. Fusarinol was significantly less phytotoxic than FA. Therefore, the A. tubingensis strain provides a novel detoxification mechanism against FA which may be utilized to control Fusarium wilt. PMID:24352475

Crutcher, Frankie K; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Stipanovic, Robert D; Duke, Sara E; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard J; Nichols, Robert L

2014-01-01

346

Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.  

PubMed

This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1?, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

2014-01-01

347

Microbial transformation of testosterone by Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium lini.  

PubMed

The microbial transformation of testosterone by the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium lini has been investigated for the first time. The bioconversion reactions observed from R. stolonifer included oxidation of a 17beta-hydroxyl group, a hydroxylation at equatorial 11alpha position, reduction of the double bond at C-4 with oxidation of the methylene at C-6 to the corresponding keto group, and lactonisation of ring D; the latter is the first report of this reaction by a Rhizopus species. Fusarium lini promoted 1-dehydrogenation of the steroid, which has been rarely observed in fungi cultures. The other routes of biotransformations included oxidation of the 17beta-hydroxyl group and the hydroxylation at 11alpha position. These reactions are not common for Fusarium species. PMID:19023814

Al-Aboudi, Amal; Mohammad, Mohammad Yasin; Musharraf, S Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

2008-01-01

348

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases. PMID:22837572

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

349

Disseminated Fusarium infection in a multiple trauma patient.  

PubMed

The hyalohyphomycetes (especially Fusarium sp.) have emerged as significant pathogens in severely immunocompromised patients. Human infections by Fusarium sp. can be superficial or limited to single organs in otherwise healthy patients. Such infections are rare and tend to respond well to therapy. By contrast, disseminated fusarial hylohyphomycosis affects the immunocompromised host and frequently is fatal. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression and the extent of the infection. These infections may be suspected clinically on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy. PMID:18364666

Testerman, George M; Steagald, Melinda K; Colquitt, Landon A; Maki, Anton

2008-03-01

350

Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi.  

PubMed

Exposure to mycotoxins occurs worldwide, even though there are geographic and climatic differences in the amounts produced and occurrence of these substances.Mycotoxins are secondary chemical metabolites of different fungi. They are natural contaminants of cereals, so their presence is often inevitable. Among many genera that produce mycotoxins, Fusarium fungi are the most widespread in cereal-growing areas of the planet. Fusarium fungi produce a diversity of mycotoxin types, whose distributions are also diverse. What is produced and where it is produced is influenced primarily by environmental conditions, and crop production and storage methods. The amount of toxin produced depends on physical (viz., moisture, relative humidity, temperature, and mechanical damage), chemical (viz., carbon dioxide,oxygen, composition of substrate, insecticides and fungicides), and biological factors (viz., plant variety, stress, insects, spore load, etc.). Moisture and temperature have a major influence on mold growth rate and mycotoxin production.Among the most toxic and prevalent fusaria) toxins are the following: zearalenone,fumonisins, moniliformin and trichothecenes (T-2/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol,diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol). Zearalenone (ZEA; ZON, F-2 toxin) isaphy to estrogenic compound, primarily a field contaminant, which exhibits estrogenic activity and has been implicated in numerous mycotoxicoses of farm animals,especially pigs. Recently, evidence suggests that ZEA has potential to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells. Fumonisins are also cancer-promoting metabolites,of which Fumonisin 8 I (FBI) is the most important. Moniliformin (MON) isalso highly toxic to both animals and humans. Trichothecenes are classified as gastrointestinal toxins, dermatotoxins, immunotoxins, hematotoxins, and gene toxins.T-2 and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, anguidine) are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene group. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and nivalenol although less toxic are important because they frequently occur at levels high enough to cause adverse effects.The presence of mycotoxins in the animal diet can produce significant production losses. Any considerable presence of mycotoxins, in major dietary components,confirms the need to adopt a continuous prevention and control program. Such programs are usually based on several common approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Major strategies include preventing fungal growth and therefore mycotoxin formation, reducing or eliminating mycotoxins from contaminated feedstuffs, or diverting contaminated products to low risk uses. Because of the complexity of their chemical structures, mycotoxins also present a major analytical challenge. They are also found in a vast array of feed matrices. Analysis is essential for determining the extent of mycotoxin contamination, for risk analysis, confirming the diagnosis of a mycotoxicosis and for monitoring mycotoxin mitigation strategies.For the future, adequately controlling the mycotoxin problem in the livestock economy will depend on implementing appropriate agricultural management policies,as well as augmenting production and storage systems and analysis methods.Only such policies offer the opportunity to bring solid and long-lasting economical results to the livestock industry that is afflicted with the mycotoxin problem. PMID:24162094

Nesic, Ksenija; Ivanovic, Snezana; Nesic, Vladimir

2014-01-01

351

Isoelectric focusing isozyme profiles and taxonomic distances among Fusarium species of the sections Arthrosporiella and Sporotrichiella.  

PubMed

Isozymes from 18 isolates representing seven species of the Fusarium sections Arthrosporiella and Sporotrichiella were compared by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. Of the six enzyme systems tested esterase and malate dehydrogenase showed the largest variation. A numerical analysis of the pI values determined for acid phosphatase, esterase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphoglucomutase resulted in a dendrogam demonstrating the taxonomical relationships of the seven species. Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium pallidoroseum were the two most closely related species. The high degree of isoenzyme dissimilarity among Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium poae, Fusarium tricinctum, the fungi that produce pyriform or citriform microconidia, suggests that they are distinct species and their reduction to a variety level is not reasonable. The taxonomical distinctness of Fusarium camptoceras, a lesser known and rarely occurring fungus was also proven. PMID:8304009

Pomázi, A; Hornok, L; Szécsi, A

1993-01-01

352

Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum  

PubMed Central

Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are predominant Fusarium-producing mycotoxins found in grains, which are mainly produced by Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. NIV is found in most of cereals grown in Korea, but the genetic basis for NIV production by F. asiaticum has not been extensively explored. In this study, 12 genes belonging to the trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster were compared at the transcriptional level between two NIV-producing F. asiaticum and four DON-producing F. graminearum strains. Chemical analysis revealed that time-course toxin production patterns over 14 days did not differ between NIV and DON strains, excluding F. asiaticum R308, which was a low NIV producer. Both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern analysis revealed that the majority of TRI gene transcripts peaked at day 2 in both NIV and DON producers, which is 2 days earlier than trichothecene accumulation in liquid medium. Comparison of the gene expression profiles identified an NIV-specific pattern in two transcription factor-encoding TRI genes (TRI6 and TRI10) and TRI101, which showed two gene expression peaks during both the early and late incubation periods. In addition, the amount of trichothecenes produced by both DON and NIV producers were correlated with the expression levels of TRI genes, regardless of the trichothecene chemotypes. Therefore, the reduced production of NIV by R308 compared to NIV or DON by the other strains may be attributable to the significantly lower expression levels of the TRI genes, which showed early expression patterns. PMID:25288983

Lee, Theresa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Shin, Jean Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Soohyung; Ryu, Jae-Gee

2014-01-01

353

Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum.  

PubMed

Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are predominant Fusarium-producing mycotoxins found in grains, which are mainly produced by Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. NIV is found in most of cereals grown in Korea, but the genetic basis for NIV production by F. asiaticum has not been extensively explored. In this study, 12 genes belonging to the trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster were compared at the transcriptional level between two NIV-producing F. asiaticum and four DON-producing F. graminearum strains. Chemical analysis revealed that time-course toxin production patterns over 14 days did not differ between NIV and DON strains, excluding F. asiaticum R308, which was a low NIV producer. Both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern analysis revealed that the majority of TRI gene transcripts peaked at day 2 in both NIV and DON producers, which is 2 days earlier than trichothecene accumulation in liquid medium. Comparison of the gene expression profiles identified an NIV-specific pattern in two transcription factor-encoding TRI genes (TRI6 and TRI10) and TRI101, which showed two gene expression peaks during both the early and late incubation periods. In addition, the amount of trichothecenes produced by both DON and NIV producers were correlated with the expression levels of TRI genes, regardless of the trichothecene chemotypes. Therefore, the reduced production of NIV by R308 compared to NIV or DON by the other strains may be attributable to the significantly lower expression levels of the TRI genes, which showed early expression patterns. PMID:25288983

Lee, Theresa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Shin, Jean Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Soohyung; Ryu, Jae-Gee

2014-03-01

354

76 FR 67581 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to prevent the spread of plant diseases such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Additional measures, including a serological...and spread of plant pests and diseases, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp., via the importation of Bromeliad...

2011-11-02

355

77 FR 31564 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV). We have prepared...treatment schedule to neutralize the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) on cottonseed...

2012-05-29

356

78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV). In a previous notice...treatment schedule to neutralize the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) on cottonseed...

2013-03-06

357

Genetic diversity among Fusarium graminearum strains from Ontario and Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to sample DNA markers from 72 strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat blighted kernels collected from Quebec (52 strains), Ontario (18 strains), and Prince Edward Island (2 strains). Sixty-five markers generated with eight RAPD primers showed that all strains were genetically distinct. Moreover, the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated

M. Dusabenyagasani; D. Dostaler; R. C. Hamelin

1999-01-01

358

Genome Sequence of Fusarium graminearum Isolate CS3005.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important fungal pathogens of wheat, barley, and maize worldwide. This announcement reports the genome sequence of a highly virulent Australian isolate of this species to supplement the existing genome of the North American F. graminearum isolate Ph1. PMID:24744326

Gardiner, Donald M; Stiller, Jiri; Kazan, Kemal

2014-01-01

359

Fungemia Due to Fusarium sacchari in an Immunosuppressed Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium sacchari was isolated repeatedly from the blood of an immunosuppressed host. The infection was treated successfully with a small dose of amphotericin B. The strain was resistant to this antifungal in vitro. MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations of six antifungals for the clinical isolate are provided. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving this fungus

JOSEP GUARRO; MARCIO NUCCI; TIYOMI AKITI; JOSEPA GENE ´; M. DA GLORIA C. BARREIRO; RENATO T. GONCALVES

360

Field performance of maize grown from Fusarium verticillioides -inoculated seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungus occupying dual roles in the maize plant. The fungus functions as an endophyte, a fungal\\/host interaction beneficial to the growth of some plants. At other times, the fungus may function as a mycotoxin producing pathogen. The advantages and\\/or disadvantages of the endophytic relationship must be established in order to target appropriate sites for controlling

I. E. Yates; N. W. Widstrom; C. W. Bacon; A. Glenn; D. M. Hinton; D. Sparks; A. J. Jaworski

2005-01-01

361

SHORT COMMUNICATION Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the Sultanate of Oman in the beginning of 2005 in plantations at Sohar in the Sultanate of Oman. The affected inflorescences were factor 1 . -tubulin Mango (Mangifera indica) is an important perennial crop in the Sultanate of Oman

362

Microbial Transformations of (+)-Isomenthol by Fusarium lini and Rhizopus stolonifer.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of (+)-isomenthol (1) by various strains of fungi was investigated. Fusarium lini has successfully converted compound 1 into a new metabolite, 5?-hydroxyisomenthol (2), and a known metabolite, 1?-hydroxyisomenthol (3), whereas incubation with Rhizopus stolonifer only yielded metabolite 3. The transformed metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of their spectral data. PMID:21720039

Gondal, Humaira Yasmeen; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Ahmed Abbas

2011-01-01

363

Microbial transformation of testosterone by Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium lini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial transformation of testosterone by the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium lini has been investigated for the first time. The bioconversion reactions observed from R. stolonifer included oxidation of a 17?-hydroxyl group, a hydroxylation at equatorial 11? position, reduction of the double bond at C-4 with oxidation of the methylene at C-6 to the corresponding keto group, and lactonisation

Amal Al-Aboudi; Mohammad Yasin Mohammad; S. Ghulam Musharraf; M. Iqbal Choudhary; Atta-ur-Rahman

2008-01-01

364

Genome Sequence of Fusarium graminearum Isolate CS3005  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important fungal pathogens of wheat, barley, and maize worldwide. This announcement reports the genome sequence of a highly virulent Australian isolate of this species to supplement the existing genome of the North American F. graminearum isolate Ph1. PMID:24744326

Stiller, Jiri; Kazan, Kemal

2014-01-01

365

Purdue extensionFusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) Purdue extension  

E-print Network

affected by seedling blight when planted. Infected seeds will have poor germination and the resulting.btny.purdue.edu In Indiana, Fusarium head blight of wheat (FHB), also called head scab, is caused mainly by the fungus and infect spikelets above or below the infection point. figure 2. A bleached wheat head symptomatic

366

Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize  

PubMed Central

Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg?1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize. PMID:22069750

Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne

2011-01-01

367

Haplotype diversity at fusarium head blight resistance QTLs in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) reduces grain yield and quality in common and durum wheat. Host FHB resistance is an effective control measure that is achieved by stacking multiple resistance genes into a wheat line. Therefore, breeders would benefit from knowing which resistance sources carry different resistance genes. A diverse collection of FHB-resistant and -susceptible wheat lines was characterized with microsatellite

C. A. McCartney; D. J. Somers; G. Fedak; W. Cao

2004-01-01

368

A novel rat contact lens model for Fusarium keratitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a new contact lens–associated fungal keratitis rat model and to assess the ability of non-invasive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to detect pathological changes in vivo in fungal keratitis. Methods We used SD-OCT to image and measure the cornea of Sprague Dawley rats. Fusarium infection was initiated in the rat eye by fitting Fusarium solani–soaked contact lenses on the experimental eye, while the control animals received contact lenses soaked in sterile saline. The fungal infection was monitored with periodic slit-lamp examination and in vivo SD-OCT imaging of the rat eye, and confirmed by histology, counting of viable fungi in the infected rat cornea, and PCR with specific primers for Fusarium sp. Results We imaged and measured the rat cornea with SD-OCT. Custom-made contact lenses were developed based on the OCT measurements. Incubation of contact lenses in a F. solani suspension resulted in biofilm formation. We induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis by fitting the rat eyes for 4 h with the Fusarium-contaminated contact lenses. The SD-OCT images of the cornea correlated well with the slit-lamp and histopathological results and clearly defined clinical signs of infection, namely, increased corneal thickening, loss of epithelial continuity, hyper-reflective areas representing infiltrates, and endothelial plaques characteristic of fungal infection. Moreover, in three cases, SD-OCT detected the infection without any clear findings on slit-lamp examination. Infection was confirmed with histological fungal staining, PCR, and microbiological culture positivity. Conclusions We developed a highly reproducible rat contact lens model and successfully induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in this model. The clinical presentation of contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in the rat model is similar to the human condition. SD-OCT is a valuable tool that non-invasively revealed characteristic signs of the fungal infection and could provide sensitive, objective monitoring in fungal keratitis. PMID:24379647

Abou Shousha, Mohamed; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Oechsler, Rafael A.; Iovieno, Alfonso; Maestre-Mesa, Jorge; Ruggeri, Marco; Echegaray, Jose J.; Dubovy, Sander R.; Perez, Victor L.; Miller, Darlene; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

2013-01-01

369

Effect of a rock dust amendment on disease severity of tomato bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Nutrients are important for growth and development of plants and microbes, and they are also important factors in plant disease control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rock dust used as a fertilizer in maintaining health of soil and tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. Four treatments-including M (commercial organic fertilizer), A (rock dust soil amendment), M + A (commercial organic fertilizer + rock dust soil amendment) and CK (blank control)--were examined for their effect on soil properties, soil enzymatic activity, plant growth and control efficacy against tomato bacterial wilt. Treatments A and M + A were significantly better than other treatments in changing soil pH, increasing it from acidic (pH 5.13) to nearly neutral (pH 6.81 and 6.70, respectively). Enzymatic activities in soil were notably influenced by the different treatments--particularly treatment M + A, which increased the activities of alkaline phosphatase, urease, catalase and sucrase to a greater extent in soil. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the effects of treatments A and M + A on tomato plant height, stem diameter and biomass. The effect of the four treatments on the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (in decreasing order) were M + A, A, M and CK. The replicate greenhouse experiments showed that the control efficacies of treatments M + A, A, and M against bacterial wilt were respectively 89.99, 81.11 and 8.89 % in first experiment and with the efficacies of 84.55, 74.36, and 13.49 % in the replicate; indicating that rock dust played a key role in the plant-soil interaction. The raised soil pH and Ca content were the key factors for the rock dust amendment controlling bacterial wilt under greenhouse conditions. PMID:22847260

Li, Jian-Gang; Dong, Yuan-Hua

2013-01-01

370

The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage.  

PubMed

On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. PMID:20338457

Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M

2010-04-01

371

Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

2014-09-01

372

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

373

Genome sequence of Kosakonia radicincitans UMEnt01/12, a bacterium associated with bacterial wilt diseased banana plant.  

PubMed

Kosakonia radicincitans (formerly known as Enterobacter radicincitans), an endophytic bacterium was isolated from the symptomatic tissues of bacterial wilt diseased banana (Musa spp.) plant in Malaysia. The total genome size of K. radicincitans UMEnt01/12 is 5 783 769 bp with 5463 coding sequences (CDS), 75 tRNAs, and 9 rRNAs. The annotated draft genome of the K. radicincitans UMEnt01/12 strain might shed light on its role as a bacterial wilt-associated bacterium. PMID:25047976

Suhaimi, Nurul Shamsinah Mohd; Yap, Kien-Pong; Ajam, Noni; Thong, Kwai-Lin

2014-09-01

374

Role of Deoxynivalenol in Aggressiveness of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum and in Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data available indicate that aggressiveness of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum depends on their deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol-producing capacity: toxin-producing ability correlated closely with the level of aggressiveness measured. This agrees well with other literature findings. However, the resistance of a cultivar influenced DON production significantly. In the most resistant genotypes, toxin contamination remained near zero, whereas the same

Ákos Mesterházy

2002-01-01

375

Quantification of Trichothecene-Producing Fusarium Species in Harvested Grain by Competitive PCR To Determine Efficacies of Fungicides against Fusarium Head Blight of Winter Wheat  

PubMed Central

We developed a PCR-based assay to quantify trichothecene-producing Fusarium based on primers derived from the trichodiene synthase gene (Tri5). The primers were tested against a range of fusarium head blight (FHB) (also known as scab) pathogens and found to amplify specifically a 260-bp product from 25 isolates belonging to six trichothecene-producing Fusarium species. Amounts of the trichothecene-producing Fusarium and the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested grain from a field trial designed to test the efficacies of the fungicides metconazole, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole to control FHB were quantified. No correlation was found between FHB severity and DON in harvested grain, but a good correlation existed between the amount of trichothecene-producing Fusarium and DON present within grain. Azoxystrobin did not affect levels of trichothecene-producing Fusarium compared with those of untreated controls. Metconazole and tebuconazole significantly reduced the amount of trichothecene-producing Fusarium in harvested grain. We hypothesize that the fungicides affected the relationship between FHB severity and the amount of DON in harvested grain by altering the proportion of trichothecene-producing Fusarium within the FHB disease complex and not by altering the rate of DON production. The Tri5 quantitative PCR assay will aid research directed towards reducing amounts of trichothecene mycotoxins in food and animal feed. PMID:11282607

Edwards, S. G.; Pirgozliev, S. R.; Hare, M. C.; Jenkinson, P.

2001-01-01

376

SouthAfricanJournalofScience http://www.sajs.co.za S Afr J Sci  

E-print Network

Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense from Cavendish bananas CharaCterisation of south afriCan isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense from Cavendish bananas Authors: Marinda Visser1 Tom Gordon2, Viljoen A. Characterisation of South African isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense from Cavendish

377

Recovery of Turgor by Wilted, Excised Cabbage Leaves in the Absence of Water Uptake 1  

PubMed Central

Cabbage leaves excised from a fully turgid plant wilt within 20 minutes to 2 hours (depending on plant age) with a loss of about 10% relative water content (RWC). If droughted for 2 to 4 days in a high relative humidity leaf chamber, they may acclimate, recovering their turgor without the absorption of water, in fact at a loss of 15 to 25% RWC. This turgor recovery in the absence of water uptake occurs only if (a) the rate of water loss is slow enough (about 1-5% RWC per day after the first 24 hours drought loss of about 15% RWC), (b) if the leaves are no longer growing actively. Osmotic adjustment accompanies the turgor adjustment, but cannot be the cause in the absence of water uptake. The recovery of turgor by wilted cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake cannot be explained by (a) transfer of reserve water from apoplast to symplast either from the cell walls or from the vessel lumens by cavitation or (b) metabolic loss of dry matter and gain of water. It can be explained by a contraction of the cell walls around the partially dehydrated protoplasts, until they regain their elastic extensibility. These proposed cell wall changes during drought acclimation are therefore the opposite of those occurring during growth. This hypothesis therefore explains the long recognized inverse relation between growth and acclimation. Two predictions of this hypothesis were tested and substantiated. PMID:16664982

Levitt, Jacob

1986-01-01

378

Resistance and Susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a model system for studying plant-bacterial interactions, because it is genetically one of the best characterized plant diseases. We demonstrate here that four different strains of R. solanacearum, two from radishes (Rd4 and Rd15) and two from tomato (Ps21 and Ps95), can infect 27 different ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, causing different responses. All ecotypes tested were highly susceptible to strain Rd15, which caused symptoms similar to those observed in tomato plants. For example, leaf drooping and discoloration developed just 3 days after inoculation, and plants completely wilted within 1 week. Strains Rd4 and Ps95 were less infectious than Rd15. With these two strains, a variety of disease responses were observed among different ecotypes at 2 weeks after inoculation; both susceptible and resistant ecotypes of A. thaliana were identified. Ps21 was the least infectious of the four strains and caused almost no symptoms in any of the ecotypes of Arabidopsis tested. Direct bacterial isolation and plant skeleton hybridization analysis from infected plants indicated that bacterial colonization was correlated with the severity of symptoms. Growth of bacteria was limited to the infection site in resistant plants, whereas the bacteria spread throughout susceptible plants by 1 week after inoculation. PMID:18944956

Yang, C H; Ho, G D

1998-04-01

379

The influence of Pratylenchus penetrans on the incidence and severity of verticillium wilt of potato.  

PubMed

The influence of Pratylenchus penetrans on the incidence and severity of Verticillium wilt was examined in the potato cultivars 'Kennebec', 'Katahdin', and 'Abnaki'. Single-stem plants were grown in soil maintained at a temperature of 22 +/- 1 C. Axenically cultured nematodes were suspended in water and introduced to the soil, at a rate of ca 5,000/25.4-cm pot, through holes made around each stem. Ten days after infestation with nematodes, conidial suspensions of Verticillium albo-atrum were introduced into the soil at a rate of ca 1,000,000/pot. Among Katahdin plants, the severity of foliar symptoms was increased in the presence of both pathogens 2 and 3 weeks after soil intestation. During the remaining 5 weeks, severity of foliar symptoms was not different between plants infected by both pathogens and those infected by Verticillium alone. Within the wilt-susceptible cultivar Kennebec and the resistant eultivar Abnaki, no effects on foliar symptom severity were observed. When plant heights, shoot weights, and tuber yields were analyzed, a Pratylenchus-Verticillium interaction was not evident within any of the cultivars tested. Nematode populations in roots and rhizosphere were suppressed in Kennebec and Katahdin plants in the presence of Verticillium. PMID:19305819

Burpee, L L; Bloom, J R

1978-01-01

380

Effect of fungicides on the complex of Fusarium species and saprophytic fungi colonizing wheat kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of wheat, often associated with mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is caused by various Fusarium species. The efficacy of fungicide sprays for the control of the disease and mycotoxins varies from being highly effective\\u000a to even increasing mycotoxin levels. The potential role of antagonistic fungi in this variability was investigated assessing\\u000a sensitivity of Fusarium species and

Carmen Müllenborn; Ulrike Steiner; Michael Ludwig; Erich-Christian Oerke

2008-01-01

381

Overexpression of defense response genes in transgenic wheat enhances resistance to Fusarium head blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species, is a major disease problem for wheat production worldwide. To combat this problem, large-scale\\u000a breeding efforts have been established. Although progress has been made through standard breeding approaches, the level of\\u000a resistance attained is insufficient to withstand epidemic conditions. Genetic engineering provides an alternative approach\\u000a to

Caroline A. Mackintosh; Janet Lewis; Lorien E. Radmer; Sanghyun Shin; Shane J. Heinen; Lisa A. Smith; Meagen N. Wyckoff; Ruth Dill-Macky; Conrad K. Evans; Sasha Kravchenko; Gerald D. Baldridge; Richard J. Zeyen; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2007-01-01

382

Identification of Fusarium from a patient with fungemia after multiple organ injury.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a filamentous fungus widely distributed in nature, which is an important opportunistic pathogen and could cause fusariosis both in plants and animals. In human, Fusarium could cause local and disseminated infections both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We describe here a case of a male patient suffered from multiple organ injury, whose blood fungal culture was positive. The isolate was confirmed as "Fusarium solani" according to the morphology of the fungus and the results of phenotypic and molecular identification. PMID:23703243

Kang, Yuli; Li, Li; Zhu, Junhao; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Qiangqiang

2013-08-01

383

Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell com-

Hiroaki Sugawara; Kenichi Shibuya; Toshihito Yoshioka; Teruyoshi Hashiba; Shigeru Satoh

2002-01-01

384

Water Relations of Turgor Recovery and Restiffening of Wilted Cabbage Leaves in the Absence of Water Uptake  

PubMed Central

A novel phenomenon in which wilted cabbage leaves appeared to regain positive turgor pressures without additional water uptake has been previously reported (J Levitt [1986] Plant Physiol 82: 147-153). These experiments were replicated and the biophysical nature of turgor recovery characterized. Leaf water potential and its components were assayed in hydrated, wilted, and desiccated leaves which appeared to regain turgor after wilting. The hypotheses that turgor recovery was due to an increased volumetric elastic modulus (?), or alternatively the result of solute redistribution were tested. Quantitative evidence that turgor recovery occurs in excised leaves was found. Leaf turgor pressure in hydrated leaves (?0.6 megapascal) decreased to zero upon wilting. After continued desiccation, turgor pressure returned to approximately 0.3 megapascal even though leaf relative water content declined. The ? of hydrated leaves was large and there was no evidence of an increased ? in the turgor-recovered leaves. Solute mobilization occurred during desiccation. The apoplastic osmotic potential decreased from ?0.15 to ?0.44 megapascal in hydrated and turgor-recovered leaves, respectively, and solutes were transported from the lamina to the midrib tissue. Solute redistribution coupled with the high ? may have resulted in localized turgor recovery in specific cells in the desiccated leaves. PMID:16667038

Weisz, P. Randall; Randall, H. C.; Sinclair, T. R.

1989-01-01

385

Genetic mapping reveals a single major QTL for bacterial wilt resistance in Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is a major disease of economically important forage crops such as ryegrasses and fescues. Targeted breeding based on seedling inoculation has resulted in cultivars with considerable levels of resistance. However, the mechanisms of inheritance of resistance are poorly understood and further breeding progress is difficult to obtain. This study aimed to

Bruno Studer; Beat Boller; Doris Herrmann; Eva Bauer; Ulrich K. Posselt; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2006-01-01

386

The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition

E. K. Chatzivassiliou; D. Peters; N. I. Katis

2007-01-01

387

J. For. Res. 4: 187-190 (1999) Susceptibility of Elite Acacia mearnsii Families to Ceratocystis Wilt in  

E-print Network

is a recently described fungal pathogen of A. meamsii in South Africa (De Beer, 1994; Wingfield el af., 1996 with diseases of these trees. No effective control measures cUITently existS for the control of Ceratocystis wilt, or any other fungal pathogen, of A. mearnsii. Clonal forestry with Eucalyptus spp. have, however

388

Shotgun Analysis of the Secretome of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight, caused predominately by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize the profile of proteins secreted by F. graminearum, the extracellular proteins were collectively obtained from F. graminearum culture supernatants and evaluated using one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 87 proteins have been identified, of which 63 were predicted as secretory proteins including those with known functions. Meanwhile, 20 proteins that are not homologous to genomic sequences with known functions have also been detected. Some of the identified proteins are possible virulence factors and may play extracellular roles during F. graminearum infection. This study provides a valuable dataset of F. graminearum extracellular proteins, and a better understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the pathogen. PMID:24426143

Ji, Xian-Ling; Yan, Mei; Yang, Zai-Dong; Li, An-Fei; Kong, Ling-Rang

2013-12-01

389

Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.  

PubMed

Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of ?-macrocarpene and ?-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

2014-06-01

390

Diagnosis of Fusarium keratitis in an animal model using the polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND—The purpose of this study was apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to diagnose Fusarium keratitis. Fusarium is the most common cause of fungal corneal infection in some parts of the world. It is often difficult to establish that a keratitis is due to fungal infection.?METHODS—Fusarium solani keratitis was induced in three eyes of three rabbits by injection of a suspension of the fungus into the anterior corneal stroma. In one rabbit the contralateral eye served as a control. From four to 28 days after inoculation, the corneas were scraped for culture, then scraped and swabbed for PCR analysis. The PCR was performed with primers directed against a portion of the Fusarium cutinase gene, and the presence or absence of this amplified target sequence was determined by agarose gel.?RESULTS—The amplified DNA sequence was detected in 25 of 28 samples from the corneas infected with Fusarium, for a sensitivity of 89%. Only three of the 14 samples from these eyes with Fusarium keratitis were positive by culture, for a sensitivity of 21%. Seven of eight control samples were negative by the PCR based test, for a specificity of 88%.?CONCLUSION—This PCR based test holds promise of being an effective method of diagnosing Fusarium keratitis as well as Fusarium infections at other sites.?? Keywords: keratitis; Fusarium; ulcer; cornea; polymerase chain reaction PMID:9602631

Alexandrakis, G.; Jalali, S.; Gloor, P.

1998-01-01

391

Isolation and structure elucidation of pentahydroxyscirpene, a trichothecene Fusarium mycotoxin.  

PubMed

Pentahydroxyscirpene, a novel trichothecene-type compound, was isolated from Fusarium-inoculated rice. The structure of pentahydroxyscirpene was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The conformation in solution was determined by NOESY experiments supported by quantum chemical calculations. In vitro toxicity tests showed that pentahydroxyscirpene inhibits protein synthesis as do other trichothecenes. PMID:24367932

Fruhmann, Philipp; Mikula, Hannes; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Varga, Elisabeth; Lumpi, Daniel; Stöger, Berthold; Häubl, Georg; Lemmens, Marc; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

2014-01-24

392

Double-Stranded RNA Mycovirus from Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in some fungi are associated with hypovirulence and have been used or proposed as biological control agents. We isolated 7.5-kb dsRNAs from 13 of 286 field strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from maize in Korea. One of these strains, DK21, was examined in more detail. This strain had pronounced morphological changes, including reduction in mycelial growth,

Yeon-Mee Chu; Jae-Jin Jeon; Sang-Jin Yea; Yong-Ho Kim; Sung-Hwan Yun; Yin-Won Lee; Kook-Hyung Kim

2002-01-01

393

Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium graminearum in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the inheritance of resistance in wheat to Fusarium graminearum, six resistant cultivars from China were crossed to two susceptible cultivars. The parents and their progenies were evaluated\\u000a in the greenhouse for resistance to the spread of scab within a spike. A central floret was inoculated by injecting a droplet\\u000a of inoculum at the time of anthesis. Inoculated plants

G.-H. Bai; G. Shaner; H. Ohm

2000-01-01

394

A Genetic Map of Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a genetic linkage map of Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) by crossing complemen- tary nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants of G. zeae strains R-5470 (from Japan) and Z-3639 (from Kansas). We selected 99 nitrate-utilizing (recombinant) progeny and analyzed them for amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). We used 34 pairs of two-base selective AFLP primers and identified 1048 polymor- phic markers that

J. E. Jurgenson; R. L. Bowden; K. A. Zeller; J. F. Leslie; N. J. Alexander; R. D. Plattner

395

A Genetic Map of Gibberellafijikuroi Mating Population A (Fusarium moniliforme)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a recombination-based map of the fungal plant pathogen Gibberellafujikuroi mating population A (asexual stage Fusarium moniliforme). The map is based on the segregation of 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, two auxotrophic genes (argl, nicl), mating type (matA+\\/matA-), female sterility (stel), spore-killer (Sk), and a gene governing the production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (fuml) among 121

Jin-rong Xu; John F. Leslie

1996-01-01

396

Evidence for natural resistance towards trifloxystrobin in Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 55 Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) strains isolated between 1969 and 2009 in Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, or the USA belonging to the three\\u000a known chemotypes (3-acetylated deoxynivalenol, 15-acetylated deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) were screened for their sensitivity\\u000a towards the fungicide trifloxystrobin using a liquid culture assay. None of the isolates was completely inhibited by trifloxystrobin\\u000a concentrations up

Tiphaine Dubos; Matias Pasquali; Friederike Pogoda; Lucien Hoffmann; Marco Beyer

2011-01-01

397

Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (?2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (?1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

2013-01-01

398

Identification of a Chitinase-modifying Protein from Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Chitinase-modifying proteins (cmps) are proteases secreted by fungal pathogens that truncate the plant class IV chitinases ChitA and ChitB during maize ear rot. cmp activity has been characterized for Bipolaris zeicola and Stenocarpella maydis, but the identities of the proteases are not known. Here, we report that cmps are secreted by multiple species from the genus Fusarium, that cmp from Fusarium verticillioides (Fv-cmp) is a fungalysin metalloprotease, and that it cleaves within a sequence that is conserved in class IV chitinases. Protein extracts from Fusarium cultures were found to truncate ChitA and ChitB in vitro. Based on this activity, Fv-cmp was purified from F. verticillioides. N-terminal sequencing of truncated ChitA and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of reaction products showed that Fv-cmp is an endoprotease that cleaves a peptide bond on the C-terminal side of the lectin domain. The N-terminal sequence of purified Fv-cmp was determined and compared with a set of predicted proteins, resulting in its identification as a zinc metalloprotease of the fungalysin family. Recombinant Fv-cmp also truncated ChitA, confirming its identity, but had reduced activity, suggesting that the recombinant protease did not mature efficiently from its propeptide-containing precursor. This is the first report of a fungalysin that targets a nonstructural host protein and the first to implicate this class of virulence-related proteases in plant disease. PMID:21878653

Naumann, Todd A.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Price, Neil P. J.

2011-01-01

399

Components of priming-induced resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat revealed by two distinct mutants of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Two mutants (tri6? and noxAB?) of the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum were assessed for their ability to prime immune responses in wheat (cv. Roblin) against challenge with pathogenic F.?graminearum. Priming treatments generated Fusarium head blight (FHB)-resistant wheat phenotypes and reduced the accumulation of fungal mycotoxins in infected tissues. Microarray analysis identified 260 transcripts that were differentially expressed during the priming period. Expression changes were observed in genes associated with immune surveillance systems, signalling cascades, antimicrobial compound production, oxidative burst, secondary metabolism, and detoxification and transport. Specifically, genes related to jasmonate, gibberellin and ethylene biosynthesis exhibited differential expression during priming. In addition, the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathways that lead to flavonoid, coumarin and hydroxycinnamic acid amide accumulation was also observed. This study highlights the utility of nonpathogenic mutants to both elicit and delineate stages of defence responses in wheat. PMID:24751103

Ravensdale, Michael; Rocheleau, Hélène; Wang, Li; Nasmith, Charles; Ouellet, Thérèse; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

2014-12-01

400

Mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolates from rice with Fusarium sheath rot disease.  

PubMed

Twenty samples of unpolished (rough) rice collected in Arkansas and Texas during the 1995 harvesting season from fields exhibiting Fusarium sheath rot disease or panicle blight were previously shown to include 8 samples positive for fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the range 2.2-5.2 ppm, and moniliformin (MON), but no beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol, its derivatives or zearalenone were detected. Fifteen cultures of F. proliferatum were established from the 20 rough rice samples. Single spore isolates of each culture were grown on rice and tested for the production of fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3, etc.), MON and BEA. All 15 isolates produced FB1, FB2, MON and BEA in culture on rice. No deoxynivalenol, its derivatives or zearalenone were detected. Seven cultures produced FB1 at > 50 ppm (range 80-230 ppm), with the rest producing FB1 in the range 14-43 ppm. FB2 was produced in the range 5-47 ppm, and those cultures which produced the most FB1 also produced the most FB2. Of the 15 cultures producing MON, 11 produced it at > 100 ppm in the range 188-6018 ppm, with the rest producing in the range 7-64 ppm. BEA was produced in the range 109-1350 ppm. Other derivatives of fumonisins, including FA1, FA2 and partially hydrolyzed FB1, as well as several unknown metabolites including a compound with MW 414, were identified in culture extracts by continuous flow fast atom bombardment with ion spray mass spectrometry (CF/FAB/MS). Further study is needed to identify the factors that control production of FB1, MON and BEA by F. proliferatum in culture and in field samples. PMID:10967968

Abbas, H K; Cartwright, R D; Xie, W; Mirocha, C J; Richard, J L; Dvorak, T J; Sciumbato, G L; Shier, W T

1999-01-01

401

New PCR Assays for the Identification of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium subglutinans, and Other Species of the Gibberella fujikuroi Complex  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans are important fungal pathogens of maize and other cereals worldwide. In this study, we developed PCR-based protocols for the identification of these pathogens targeting the gaoB gene, which codes for galactose oxidase. The designed primers recognized isolates of F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans that were obtained from maize seeds from several producing regions of Brazil but did not recognize other Fusarium spp. or other fungal genera that were either obtained from fungal collections or isolated from maize seeds. A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect the genomic DNA from F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans. This protocol could detect the DNA from these fungi growing in artificially or naturally infected maize seeds. Another multiplex reaction with a pair of primers developed in this work combined with a pre-existing pair of primers has allowed identifying F. subglutinans, F. konzum, and F. thapsinum. In addition, the identification of F. nygamai was also possible using a combination of two PCR reactions described in this work, and another described in the literature. PMID:22312242

Faria, Carla Bertechini; Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri Jose; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

2012-01-01

402

Establishment of an agroinoculation system for broad bean wilt virus 2.  

PubMed

We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV-2) isolate from gentian in Japan. The full-length RNA1 and RNA2 sequences, excluding poly(A) tails, were 5955 and 3600 nucleotides long, respectively. Analysis indicated that, in contrast to other BBWV-2 isolates, the 5' end of both RNA1 and RNA2 starts with a GUU sequence. We successfully inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana with BBWV-2 by infiltrating a mixed suspension of two Agrobacterium tumefaciens clones carrying binary vectors with the full-length RNA1 and RNA2 sequences. This is the first report on the efficient, easy and high-throughput use of agroinoculation for generating BBWV-2 infections. PMID:23404460

Atsumi, Go; Tomita, Reiko; Kobayashi, Kappei; Sekine, Ken-Taro

2013-07-01