Note: This page contains sample records for the topic wilt fusarium oxysporum from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Role of fusaric acid in the virulence of cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid is a potent phytotoxin to cotton. It has also long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fusarium wilt for a number of plant species including cotton, tomato, watermelon, and flax. The Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) produce copious amount of ...

2

Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

3

Yield loss in susceptible cultivars of spring rapeseed due to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In 1999, reports of spring rapeseed plants (Brassica napus L.) exhibiting wilt symptoms were received by agricultural extension personnel from farmers near Fort Vermillion and Andrew, Alberta, Canada. Fungal colonies recovered from affected plants after surface disinfection were identified as Fusarium oxysporum by comparison of morphology on carnation leaf and potato dextrose agars with literature descriptions and reference cultures. Root-dip inoculation of young rapeseed plants with spore suspensions prepared from recovered F. oxysporum colonies resulted in rapid development of symptoms seen in the field. An initial estimate of yield loss in an affected field near Andrew was performed by removing all rapeseed plants from three 1 m2 quadrats. Each plant was evaluated according to a simple three point severity scale, and then the seed from each plant was individually threshed and weighed. Fully- and partially-wilted plants yielded 0.2 and 19.3% of asymptomatic plants, respectively. In 2000, wilt symptoms were observed at a plot research site near Ranfurly, Alberta. Disease symptoms were restricted to one B. napus cultivar, Nexera 705. A similar procedure to that used at Andrew in 1999 was applied at Ranfurly, except quadrat size was 2.5 m2, and replicated comparisons were made between Nexera 705 and an unaffected cultivar, Quantum. The average number of unaffected Quantum plants was 99.4%, while only 66.9% of Nexera 705 plants were asymptomatic. No Quantum plants were severely wilted, while 11.7% of Nexera 705 plants were wilted. Yield of Nexera 705 was 38.6% of Quantum. In 2004, the impact of fusarium wilt on yield of 6 susceptible and 9 resistant B. napus cultivars was determined at nine locations in western Canada. Cultivars were selected on the basis of survey results and agronomist's reports. Across all sites, yield of the most severely affected cultivar, 45A55, was 15.9% lower than the least severely affected cultivar 3455. At the most severely affected site, yield of the most severely affected cultivar, Bianca II, was 75.2% lower than the least severely affected cultivar, Option 501. Yield of wilt-susceptible (Canterra 1604) and resistant (Cougar CL) rapeseed was compared at a replicated large-plot (576 m2 per plot) experiment at Lavoy, Alberta in 2005. The susceptible variety was severely affected and yielded 44% of Cougar CL. PMID:18396801

Lange, R M; Gossmann, M; Büttner, C

2007-01-01

4

Control of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using leaf extract of Piper betle L.: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of crude chloroform extract of Piper betle L. (PbC) in controlling Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. It was observed that 1% (w\\/w) amendment of the PbC in soil was more efficient in reducing the Fusarium population in soil than carbendazim and

Irom Manoj Singha; Yelena Kakoty; Bala Gopalan Unni; Mohan Chandra Kalita; Jayshree Das; Ashok Naglot; Sawlang Borsingh Wann; Lokendra Singh

5

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

6

Suppression of fusarium wilts by fluorescent pseudomonads: Mechanisms and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are involved in the natural suppressiveness of some soils to fusarium wilts. These bacteria have been applied successfully to suppress fusarium wilts of various plant species grown in conducive soils and growing substrates. Suppression of fusarium wilts by fluorescent pseudomonads can be ascribed to direct and indirect effects against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum. Direct effects are expressed by a

P. Lemanceau; C. Alabouvette

1993-01-01

7

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

8

Efficacy of azoxystrobin and other strobilurins against Fusarium wilts of carnation, cyclamen and Paris daisy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strobilurins, azoxystrobin, kresoxym-methyl and trifloxystrobin, were tested in experimental trials carried out in the growth chamber or glasshouse against Fusarium wilts of carnation (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi), cyclamen (F. oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis) and Paris daisy (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi), in comparison with benomyl and in some experiments prochloraz. The three strobilurins controlled Fusarium wilt on carnation

M. Lodovica Gullino; Andrea Minuto; Giovanna Gilardi; Angelo Garibaldi

2002-01-01

9

Fungicides and some biological controller agents effects on the growth of fusarium oxysporum causing paprika wilt: Wirkung von fungiziden und einigen biologischen kontrollwirkstoffen auf das wachstum des paprikawelke verursachenden fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from both healthy and diseased paprika roots were tested to identify their mycoflora. Thirty-one species belonging to 16 genera were collected from rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples. The most frequently isolated fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium jensenii and Trichoderma harzianum. Fusarium oxysporum was the most common Fusarium species in the rhizoplane samples of

Youssuf Amh Gherbawy; Manal Yaser

2003-01-01

10

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

2005-08-01

11

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief review of research on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. race 4 in California is presented. Fusarium wilt has recently emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L.) growers in California. An es...

12

Discovery of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] is a soil-inhabiting fungus that can survive for long periods in the absence of a host, making it impractical to eradicate from infested fields. This cotton host specific forms of the fungus is comprised of different genotyp...

13

Combining Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Strains to Enhance Suppression of Fusarium Wilt of Radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by different mechanisms. Therefore, application of a mixture of these biocontrol strains, and thus of several suppressive mechanisms,

Marjan de Boer; Ientse van der Sluis; Leendert C. van Loon; Peter A. H. M. Bakker

1999-01-01

14

Compost induces protection against Fusarium oxysporum in sweet basil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants suffer frequently from wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici (FOB). No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. Sweet basil transplants were grown in either sphagnum peat (Europlant, Germany) or in compost, made by mixing the coarse fraction of cattle manure, chicken manure and wheat straw. The C\\/N ratio of

Reuven Reuveni; Michael Raviv; Arkady Krasnovsky; Lilya Freiman; Shlomit Medina; Anat Bar; Daniel Orion

2002-01-01

15

Integrated management strategies for tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria ?PGPR? such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

16

Bacillus subtilis SQR 9 can control Fusarium wilt in cucumber by colonizing plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is one of the major constraints on cucumber production worldwide. Several strategies have been used to control the causative\\u000a pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen, including soil solarization, fungicide seed treatment and biological control. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was successfully controlled by a newly isolated strain, Bacillus subtilis SQR 9, in

Yun Cao; Zhenhua Zhang; Ning Ling; Yujuan Yuan; Xinyan Zheng; Biao Shen; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

17

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent

Sylvie Mazurier; Thérčse Corberand; Philippe Lemanceau; Jos M Raaijmakers

2009-01-01

18

Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , based on sequences of IGS, MAT1 , and pg1 , are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three evolutionary lineages of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found among a worldwide sample of isolates based on phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. Each lineage consisted of isolates mainly belonging to a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and a single mating type (MAT). The first lineage (A1) was

Masato Kawabe; Yumiko Kobayashi; Gen Okada; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tohru Teraoka; Tsutomu Arie

2005-01-01

19

Elite-upland cotton germplasm-pool assessment of fusarium wilt (FOV) resistance in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance is currently the most economic and effective strategy for managing Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] disease. Over the past nine years, a new race of Fusarium (FOV race 4) has increasingly impacted cotton (Gossypium spp.) in production fields in the Sa...

20

Selective media for Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective media without pentachloronitrobenzene were developed for quantitative assays of Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum in soils. Media Fo-G1 and Fo-G2 were effective for naturally infested soils, Fo-W1 and Fo-W2 for wild-type isolates in soils\\u000a containing a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant, and Fo-N1 and Fo-N2 for nit mutants. Selective media were made using ammonium citrate dibasic, l-sorbose, econazole nitrate, 25% iminoctadine triacetate solution and

Norio Nishimura

2007-01-01

21

Incidence of Fusarium wilt in Cucumis sativus  L. is promoted by cinnamic acid, an autotoxin in root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, the pathogen causing Fusarium wilt in cucumber and cinnamic acid, a principal autotoxic component in the root exudates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), on plant growth, Photosynthesis and incidence of Fusarium wilt in cucumber were studied in order to elucidate the interaction of autotoxins and soil-borne pathogens in the soil sickness. F. oxysporum. f. sp. cucumerinum

S. F. Ye; J. Q. Yu; Y. H. Peng; J. H. Zheng; L. Y. Zou

2004-01-01

22

Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were isolated from wilted chickpea plants obtained from different districts and ‘wilt sickplots’ of central Ethiopia to assess variability in pathogenecity of the populations. Each isolate was tested on 10 different chickpea lines and eight improved chickpea varieties. Isolates showed highly significant variation in wilt severity on the differential lines and improved

Meki Shehabu; Seid Ahmed; Parshotam K. Sakhuja

2008-01-01

23

New genotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum from the Southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were collected from cotton plants (Gossypium spp.) with symptoms of Fusarium wilt to determine the composition of races present in the southeastern U.S. Analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor gene revealed four n...

24

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of spinach with compost amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different organic composts on the suppression of wilt disease of spinach caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae was evaluated in a continuous cropping system in both containers and in microplot field trials. Test soils infested with\\u000a the pathogen were amended with wheatbran, wheatbran and sawdust, coffee grounds, chicken manure, or mixture of different composts\\u000a with and

Gina M. Edurise Escuadra; Yoshimiki Amemiya

2008-01-01

25

In Search of Markers Linked to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 Resistance in Watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt in watermelon, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), is responsible for severe economic losses and is one of the most important soilborne pathogens limiting watermelon production in many areas of the world. FON, which attacks the vasculature system of watermelon...

26

GENOMIC LOCATION OF THE FW GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM WILT RACE 1 IN PEAS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to fusarium wilt of peas (Pisum sativum L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 1 is conferred by a single dominant gene, Fw. The gene was located in the pea genome by analyzing progenies from crosses involving genetic markers in all pea linkage groups. Reaction of the progeni...

27

Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL, and sequencing composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance is highly effective in limiting yield loss in cotton (Gossypium spp.) from Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans]. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 1 resistance by applying molec...

28

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton bre...

29

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana.

Huang, Y.H.; Wang, R.C.; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

2012-01-01

30

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-06-22

31

Germination of Fusarium oxysporum in root exudates from tomato plants challenged with different Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microconidia from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum to root exudates from tomato plants inoculated with different pathogenic and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains was studied. Root exudates from non-inoculated tomatoes highly stimulated the microconidial germination of the two\\u000a tomato pathogens, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici strain Fol 007 and F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici strain Forl 101587. In root exudates

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2008-01-01

32

Predisposition of Broadleaf Tobacco to Fusarium Wilt by Early Infection with Globodera tabacum tabacum or Meloidogyne hapla.  

PubMed

In greenhouse experiments, broadleaf tobacco plants were inoculated with tobacco cyst (Globodera tabacum tabacum) or root-knot (Meloidogyne hapla) nematodes 3, 2, or 1 week before or at the same time as Fusarium oxysporum. Plants infected with nematodes prior to fungal inoculation had greater Fusarium wilt incidence and severity than those simultaneously inoculated. G. t. tabacum increased wilt incidence and severity more than did M. hapla. Mechanical root wounding within 1 week of F. oxysporum inoculation increased wilt severity. In field experiments, early-season G. t. tabacum control by preplant soil application of oxamyl indirectly limited the incidence and severity of wilt. Wilt incidence was 48%, 23%, and 8% in 1989 and 64%, 60%, and 19% in 1990 for 0.0, 2.2, and 6.7 kg oxamyl/ha, respectively. Early infection of tobacco by G. t. tabacum predisposed broadleaf tobacco to wilt by F. oxysporum. PMID:19283018

Lamondia, J A

1992-09-01

33

MOLECULAR MAPPING OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS RACE 3 RESISTANCE GENE IN CHICKPEA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) and sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers linked closely to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea were identified and linkage between three wilt resistance genes was elucidated. The resistance to race 3 in chickpea germplasm acce...

34

Suppression of fusarium wilt of radish by co-inoculation of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and root-colonizing fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study, treatment of radish seed with the bacteriumPseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 suppressed fusarium wilt of radish (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) in a commercial greenhouse [Leemanet al., 1991b, 1995a]. In this greenhouse, the areas with fusarium wilt were localized or expanded very slowly, possibly due to disease suppressiveness of the soil. To study this phenomenon, fungi were isolated from

M. Leeman; F. M. Den Ouden; J. A. Van Pelt; C. Cornelissen; A. Matamala-Garros; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1996-01-01

35

Development and evaluation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, is an important soilborne pathogen in many areas of the world where spinach is grown. The pathogen is persistent in acid soils of maritime western Oregon and Washington, the only region of the USA suitable for commercial spi...

36

Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt on Cotton by Use of Endophytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy bacterial strains isolated from internal tissues of cotton, 49 strains with known biological control activity against Rhizoctonia solani in cotton, and 25 strains known to induce systemic resistance to Collectotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, were screened for biological control potential against vascular wilt of cotton caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The strains were introduced as endophytes

C. Chen; E. M. Bauske; G. Musson; R. Rodriguezkabana; J. W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

37

Genetic and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] causes a vascular wilt disease that significantly reduces yield in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Host-plant resistance can be highly effective in limiting FOV-induced yield loss. We conducted genetic and QTL analyses of FOV race 1 resistance by ...

38

Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1995-01-01

39

Assessment of Acala/Upland and Pima cottons response to Fusarium wilt disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease caused by the organism Fusarium oxysporum vas infectum (also called “FOV”) for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). This fungus is a soil-inhabiting organism. Certain forms of this pathog...

40

Laboratory Preparation of a New Antifungal Agent from Streptomyces olivaceus in Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis of Cucurbits in Greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In greenhouse cucurbits of Kerman Province, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyder and Hansen) causes root rot and fusarium wilt. To investigate for new biofungicides, antagonistic activity of soil Actinomycetes isolates were assayed against the pathogen from which Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The active strain was grown in aqueous

G. H. Shahidi Bonjar; P. Rashid Farrokhi; Shafii Bafti; S. Aghighi; M. J. Mahdavi; A. Aghelizadeh

2006-01-01

41

Efficacy of bacterial antagonists and different commercial products against Fusarium wilt on rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven experimental trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the bacterial strains Achromobacter xylosoxydans AM1 and Serratia sp. DM1 obtained from suppressive soils and from soilless used rockwool substrates (Pseudomonas putida FC6B, Pseudomonas sp. FC7B, Pseudomonas putida FC8B, Pseudomonas sp. FC9B and Pseudomonas sp. FC24B) against Fusarium wilt on rocket caused by Fusarium oxysporum ff. spp. raphani and

K. Srinivasan; G. Gilardi; A. Garibaldi; M. L. Gullino

2009-01-01

42

Controlling fusarium wilt disease of cucumber plants via antagonistic microorganisms in free and immobilized states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of cucumber wilt was isolated from a diseased cucumber plant, grown under green house conditions and identified as Fusarium oxysporum.Forty isolates of exospore-forming actinomycetes and endospore-forming bacteria (twenty isolates each) were randomly isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a healthy cucumber plant. Among these isolates, 8 actinomycetes and 6 spore-forming bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic activities against Fusarium

A. M. M. Hammad; M. A. O. El-Mohandes

1999-01-01

43

SCREENING OF CHICKPEA GERMPLASM AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 414 varieties\\/germplasm accessions originating from Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, NIAB, Faisalabad, BARI, Chakwal, AZRI, Bhakkar, NARC, Islamabad and ICARDA, Syria were evaluated for fusarium wilt. These were planted in a wilt sick plot developed at Pulses Research Institute, Faisalabad during the year 2002-03 and 2003-04. Each entry was sown in a single 3 meter long and

Munir Ahmad Chaudhry; Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Afzal

44

Microbial community responses associated with the development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum after 24-epibrassinolide applications to shoots and roots in cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FO), is one of the major diseases in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production. Root and foliar applications of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL), an immobile phytohormone with antistress activity,\\u000a were evaluated for their effects on the incidence of Fusarium wilt and changes in the microbial population and community in\\u000a roots of cucumber plants. EBL pre-treatment

Ju Ding; Kai Shi; Yan Hong Zhou; Jing Quan Yu

2009-01-01

45

Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic\\u000a sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length

X. Y. Zheng; D. W. Wolff; S. Baudracco-Arnas; M. Pitrat

1999-01-01

46

Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11). Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth

Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

2006-01-01

47

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum isolates recovered from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that...

48

Generation and characterization of reduced virulence Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici mutants through plasmid-vector insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity-impaired mutants, B02 and H15, of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycorpersici (FOL) were obtained using restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Disease severities of Fusarium wilt caused by these mutants were significantly reduced, and their disease development rates were correlated with their colonization rates in tomato vessels. Both B02 and H15 produced significantly smaller amounts of extracellular proteins as well as fusaric acid

Koji Morita; Soichiro Kimura; Masanori Saito; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Toshiyuki Usami; Yoshimiki Amemiya; Masahiro Shishido

2005-01-01

49

Search for sources of wide-spectrum resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici isolates in accessions of Ocimum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important plant genus, with many species used for food flavorings and for essential oils. Fusarium wilt\\u000a (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici, FOB) is the most important disease of basil (O. basilicum L.). Twenty-five accessions of O. basilicum, five of O. americanum and two of O. campechianum were initially evaluated for resistance to one FOB isolate (named

A. Reis; L. S. Boiteux; R. F. Vieira

2008-01-01

50

Biological, physiological and pathogenic variation in a genetically homogenous population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana and is divided into three races and 21 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs).\\u000a Within a VCG, Foc proved to be genetically homogenous. Previous studies on phenotypic characteristics were performed with isolates that represented\\u000a different races and VCGs from different banana-producing countries. The aim of this study was

S. Groenewald; N. van den Berg; W. F. O. Marasas; A. Viljoen

2006-01-01

51

Differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Phoenix canadensis (Canary Island Date Palm) by vegetative compatibility grouping and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island Date Palm) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc). The disease occurs worldwide, including Australia where hundreds of palms have been killed. Isolates of Foc were collected from fronds of diseased palms at sites around Sydney and different parts (non-frond) of individual palms within\\u000a a site. Three techniques were used to

L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

2002-01-01

52

Effect of acetochlor treatment on Fusarium wilt and sugar content in melon seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of soil with the herbicide acetochlor at 0.1–1µg g-1 significantly decreased incidence of wilt due toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.melonis in melon seedlings. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increased in leaves of inoculated and uninoculated melon plants following acetochlor treatment. The increase in sugar levels in stems and roots was less pronounced. Light intensity affected sugar content and disease incidence. The

R. Cohen; B. Blaier; A. A. Schaffer; J. Katan

1996-01-01

53

Intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. However, the conversion rate is low and significant amounts of acetic acid are produced as a by-product. In this study, the growth characteristics of F. oxysporum were evaluated in a minimal medium using glucose as the sole carbon source

Gianni Panagiotou; Silas Granato Villas-Bôas; Paul Christakopoulos; Jens Nielsen; Lisbeth Olsson

2005-01-01

54

A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foliar rating system was developed to assess the progress of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in seven banana cultivars differing in their resistance to race 1 of the pathogen. Plantlets were transplanted into unamended\\u000a soil naturally infested with the pathogen, soil amended with urea and soil amended with aged chicken manure. A corm

N. NasirA; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg; A. T. Lisle

2003-01-01

55

A simplified technique for grafting watermelon onto resistant cucurbit rootstocks for control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Nghe An Province, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistant cucurbit rootstocks provided an effective control measure for Fusarium wilt of watermelon caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in Nghe An province, Vietnam. The hybrid cultivar, Bulrojangsaeng (Lagenaria siceraria) was the most suitable rootstock on all criteria but the seed is expensive. Therefore, the local Bau trang cultivar (L. siceraria) was adopted by farmers as the preferred rootstock

V. T. DauA; N. V. Dang; D. H. Nguyen; L. T. Pham; T. T. M. Le; H. T. Phan; L. W. Burgess

2009-01-01

56

Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 ?g ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 ?g ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

2011-07-21

57

Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii in Lilium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil-born fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, causes bulb rot in lilies, which endangers its bulb production worldwide. The resistance of 44 species against Fusarium was scored under standardized test conditions. The Asiatic cultivars 'Orlito' and 'Connecticut King' were highly resistant, while 'Pirate' was highly susceptible. The resistance level of the Oriental hybrids such as 'Acapulco' and 'Stargazer' and

J. H. Lim; H. K. Rhee; Y. J. Kim; K. B. Lim; J. M. van Tuyl

58

Biosynthesis of fusaric acid by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetically unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen was first recognized in wilted and dead Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings in Australia in 1993. Since that time, the disease has spread rapidly with losses greater than 90 percent in some Australian fields where it was first disc...

59

Fusarium oxysporum hijacks COI1-mediated jasmonate signaling to promote disease development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although defense responses mediated by the plant oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) are often necessary for resistance against pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles, in this report we demonstrate that jasmonate signaling mediated through COI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for susceptibility to wilt disease caused by the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Despite compromised JA-dependent defense responses, the JA perception mutant coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1), but not JA biosynthesis mutants, exhibited a high level of resistance to wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum. This response was independent from salicylic acid-dependent defenses, as coi1/NahG plants showed similar disease resistance to coi1 plants. Inoculation of reciprocal grafts made between coi1 and wild-type plants revealed that coi1-mediated resistance occurred primarily through the coi1 rootstock tissues. Furthermore, microscopy and quantification of fungal DNA during infection indicated that coi1-mediated resistance was not associated with reduced fungal penetration and colonization until a late stage of infection, when leaf necrosis was highly developed in wild-type plants. In contrast to wild-type leaves, coi1 leaves showed no necrosis following the application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate, and showed reduced expression of senescence-associated genes during disease development, suggesting that coi1 resistance is most likely achieved through the inhibition of F. oxysporum-incited lesion development and plant senescence. Together, our results indicate that F. oxysporum hijacks non-defensive aspects of the JA-signaling pathway to cause wilt-disease symptoms that lead to plant death in Arabidopsis. PMID:19220788

Thatcher, Louise F; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2009-02-10

60

Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5?×?10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:22729873

Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

2012-06-24

61

A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secreted-in-xylem (SIX) proteins of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are secreted during infection of tomato and function in virulence or avirulence. F. oxysporum formae speciales have specific host ranges but the roles of SIX proteins in diverse hosts are unknown. We identified homologs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici SIX1, SIX4, SIX8, and SIX9 in the genome of Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176. A SIX4 homolog (termed Fo5176-SIX4) differed from that of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol-SIX4) by only two amino acids, and its expression was induced during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing Fo5176-SIX4 had increased disease symptoms with Fo5176. Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (?six4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. Full virulence was restored by complementation of ?six4 mutants with either Fo5176-SIX4 or Fol-SIX4. Thus, Fo5176-SIX4 contributes quantitatively to virulence on Arabidopsis whereas, in tomato, Fol-SIX4 acts in host specificity as both an avirulence protein and a suppressor of other race-specific resistances. The strong sequence conservation for SIX4 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Fo5176 suggests a recent common origin. PMID:21942452

Thatcher, Louise F; Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-02-01

62

Mode of action of a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain against Verticillium dahliae using Real Time QPCR analysis and biomarker transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is a devastating disease of a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant hosts. It is incited by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. Management strategies are mainly focused on preventive measures. In a previous study, the efficacy of a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain, designated as F2, isolated from a suppressive compost amendment, has been reported to reduce Verticillium

Iakovos S. Pantelides; Sotirios E. Tjamos; Ioannis A. Striglis; Iordanis Chatzipavlidis; Epaminondas J. Paplomatas

2009-01-01

63

Visualizing and quantifying Fusarium oxysporum in the plant host.  

PubMed

Host-specific forms of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of numerous plant species. I present a novel application of familiar methodology to visualize and quantify F. oxysporum in roots. Infection in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and cotton was detected with colorimetric reagents that are substrates for Fusarium spp.-derived arabinofuranosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities and without the need for genetic modification of either plant host or fungal pathogen. Similar patterns of blue precipitation were produced by treatment with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranoside, and these patterns were consistent with prior histological descriptions of F. oxysporum in roots. Infection was quantified in roots of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis using 4-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside. In keeping with an expectation that disease severity above ground is correlated with F. oxysporum infection below ground, elevated levels of arabinofuranosidase activity were measured in the roots of susceptible agb1 and rfo1 while a reduced level was detected in the resistant eir1. In contrast, disease severity and F. oxysporum infection were uncoupled in tir3. The distribution of staining patterns in roots suggests that AGB1 and RFO1 restrict colonization of the vascular cylinder by F. oxysporum whereas EIR1 promotes colonization of root apices. PMID:22894177

Diener, Andrew

2012-12-01

64

Auxin signaling and transport promote susceptibility to the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Currently, very little is known about the molecular or physiological processes that are activated in the host during infection and the roles these processes play in resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression profiles of F. oxysporum-infected Arabidopsis plants. Genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis as well as jasmonate-dependent defense were coordinately induced by F. oxysporum. Similarly, tryptophan pathway genes, including those involved in both indole-glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis, were upregulated in both the leaves and the roots of inoculated plants. Analysis of plants expressing the DR5:GUS construct suggested that root auxin homeostasis was altered during F. oxysporum infection. However, Arabidopsis mutants with altered auxin and tryptophan-derived metabolites such as indole-glucosinolates and camalexin did not show an altered resistance to this pathogen. In contrast, several auxin-signaling mutants were more resistant to F. oxysporum. Chemical or genetic alteration of polar auxin transport also conferred increased pathogen resistance. Our results suggest that, similarly to many other pathogenic and nonpathogenic or beneficial soil organisms, F. oxysporum requires components of auxin signaling and transport to colonize the plant more effectively. Potential mechanisms of auxin signaling and transport-mediated F. oxysporum susceptibility are discussed. PMID:21281113

Kidd, Brendan N; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Dombrecht, Bruno; Tekeoglu, Mücella; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Schenk, Peer M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2011-06-01

65

PCR-RAPD profiling of Fusarium spp. causing guava wilt disease in India.  

PubMed

Wilt is a serious disease of the guava crop in India. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani have been reported as causative agents of this disease. In this study, 42 isolates each of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani, were isolated from guava cultivars and characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Thirty RAPD primers were tested in the genome of Fusarium spp. and the number of scorable bands for corresponding primer ranged from 1-8 with an average of 5 bands per individual. DNA band size ranged from 200 bp to 5090 bp. A 0.21 per cent polymorphism was found in individual isolates of F. solani indicating that the 42 isolates were similar. However, a 2.58 percent polymorphism among individual isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii showed a higher level of genetic diversity. Cluster analysis of the RAPD band patterns clearly separated the isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii into three clusters. Two clusters were formed with F. solani isolates, showing a higher degree of similarity. Unique fingerprint profiles generated by the PCR-RAPD can be exploited for genetic characterization purposes. PMID:22428893

Gupta, V K

2012-01-01

66

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

67

Inoculum padronization for the production of cutinase by Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Cutinase is a versatile enzyme showing several interesting properties for application in industrial processes. The widespread use of this enzyme depends on the development of an efficient and low-cost production system. One of the most important steps in a fermentation process is the standardization of the inoculum characteristics. In this study, the production of cutinase by Fusarium oxysporum showed a statistically significant relationship with both the inoculum size and the inoculum PDA pH. The greatest activities were 19.1 U/mL at PDA pH 7.0 and 22.72 U/mL using an aliquot of 12.72 × 107 spores/mL. The macroscopic characteristics of the colonies of Fusarium oxysporum changed according to the variation of the medium pH, with the best results recorded in those colonies presenting a cotton white aspect.

Pio, Tatiana Fontes; Fraga, Laira Priscila; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

2008-01-01

68

BREEDING FOR FUSARIUM WILT (FOV) RACE 4 RESISTANCE IN COTTON.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans continues to threaten cotton production in the U.S. Several troubling developments with this pathogen (e.g., newly-recognized Australian FOV races) highlight the need for additional comprehensive research to protect our cotton industry aga...

69

Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.  

PubMed

Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçă" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), ?-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçă." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçă" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçă" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the concentrations of H(2)O(2) on roots and pigments on leaves significantly increased. The concentrations of TSP and LTGA derivatives as well as the PALs, PPOs, POXs, GLUs, and CHIs activities significantly increased on roots of plants from Grand Nain and "Maçă" from the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. Results of this study suggest that the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots of banana plants supplied with Si decreased due to an increase in the concentrations of H(2)O(2), TSP, and LTGA derivatives and greater activities of PALs, PPOs, POXs, GLUs, and CHIs. PMID:22784251

Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

2012-10-01

70

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Paprika in Korea  

PubMed Central

In the present study we first report in Korea the identification and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from rotten stems and roots of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) at Masan, Kyungsangnamdo in 2006. The fungal species produced white aerial mycelia accompanying with dark violet pigment on PDA. The optimal temperature and pH for the growth of the species was 25? and pH 7, respectively. Microscopic observation of one of isolates of the species shows that its conidiophores are unbranched and monophialides, its microconidia have oval-ellipsoidal shape with no septate and are of 3.0~11 × 1.5~3.5 µm sizes, its macroconidia are of 15~20 × 2.0~3.5 µm sizes and have slightly curved or slender shape with 2~3 septate. The results of molecular analysis show that the ITS rDNA of F. oxysporum from paprika shares 100% sequence identity with that of known F. oxysporum isolates. The identified species proved it's pathogenicity by causing rotting symptom when it was inoculated on paprika fruits. The growth of F. oxysporum from paprika was suppressed on PDA by agrochemicals such as benomyl, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin. The identified species has the ability of producing extracelluar enzymes that degrade cellobiose and pectin.

Cha, Sang-Do; Jeon, Young-Jae; Ahn, Geum-Ran; Han, Jae In; Han, Kap-Hoon

2007-01-01

71

Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall ?-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

Lee, Hyeseung; Damsz, Barbara; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Bressan, Ray A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

2010-01-01

72

Control biológico del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli en fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante la acción combinada de Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp .y Pseudomonas fluorescens Biological control of Phaseolus vulgaris bean vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli with combined Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrophospora colombiana, Trichodermasp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and a combination of these organisms were evaluated as antagonists in biologi- cal control of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.phaseoli on 'ICA Tundama' variety bean plants. The research was carried out in one of Corpoica's mesh-houses using a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, an absolute control treatment (no microorganisms present) and an infected control treatment (pathogen

Camila Avendańo; Germán Arbeláez

73

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2007-06-28

74

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

75

Intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. However, the conversion rate is low and significant amounts of acetic acid are produced as a by-product. In this study, the growth characteristics of F. oxysporum were evaluated in a minimal medium using glucose as the sole carbon source in aerobic, anaerobic and oxygen-limited batch cultivations. Under aerobic conditions the maximum specific growth rate was found to be 0.043 h(-1), and the highest ethanol yield (1.66 mol/mol) was found under anaerobic conditions. During the different phases of the cultivations, the intracellular profiles were determined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The profiles of the phosphorylated intermediates indicated that there was a high glycolytic flux at anaerobic growth conditions, characterized by high efflux of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, resulting in the highest ethanol production under these conditions. The amino acid profile clearly suggests that the TCA cycle was primarily active under aerobic cultivation. On the other hand, the presence of high levels of gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) under anaerobic conditions suggests a functional GABA bypass and a possible block in the TCA cycle at these conditions. PMID:15639104

Panagiotou, Gianni; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Christakopoulos, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

2004-11-11

76

The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.  

PubMed

The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen. PMID:23617416

Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

2013-08-01

77

Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2–5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD50 value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value.

Osman, Awad G.; Elhussein, Adil A.; Mohamed, Afrah T.

2012-01-01

78

The lateral organ boundaries domain transcription factor LBD20 functions in Fusarium wilt Susceptibility and jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling. PMID:22786889

Thatcher, Louise F; Powell, Jonathan J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-07-10

79

A Case of Primary Localized Cutaneous Infection Due to Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium is a ubiquitous hyalohyphomycete isolated from food, widespread in the environment (plants, soil) and present at all latitudes.\\u000a Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani are the most frequent pathogenic species, followed by F. moniliforme and F. chlamydosporum. Infections due to this mold may be disseminated or localized. Localized forms include cutaneous and subcutaneous infection,\\u000a onychomycosis, endophtalmitis, otitis, sinusitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis,

C. Romano; P. Caposciutti; A. Ghilardi; C. Miracco; M. Fimiani

2010-01-01

80

Role of the transcriptional activator xlnR of Fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.  

PubMed

Fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. The role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. Here, we have studied XlnR, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in Aspergillus spp. Transcription of the xlnR gene was activated by inducing carbon sources such as oat spelt xylan (OSX) and repressed by glucose. Targeted knockout of xlnR in F. oxysporum resulted in lack of transcriptional activation of structural xylanase genes, both in culture and during infection of tomato plants, as well as in dramatically reduced extracellular xylanase activity. By contrast, overexpression of xlnR under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter did not significantly increase xylanase activity, suggesting that XlnR is regulated not only at the transcriptional but also at the post-translational level. The deltaxlnR mutants were still fully virulent on tomato plants. Thus, XlnR, the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes, is not an essential virulence determinant in F. oxysporum. PMID:17722701

Calero-Nieto, Fernando; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hera, Concepcion

2007-08-01

81

Identification of virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by large-scale transposon tagging.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screens are efficient tools for the dissection of complex biological processes, such as fungal pathogenicity. A transposon tagging system was developed in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by inserting the novel modified impala element imp160::gfp upstream of the Aspergillus nidulans niaD gene, followed by transactivation with a constitutively expressed transposase. A collection of 2072 Nia(+) revertants was obtained from reporter strain T12 and screened for alterations in virulence, using a rapid assay for invasive growth on apple slices. Seven strains exhibited reduced virulence on both apple slices and intact tomato plants. Five of these were true revertants showing the re-insertion of imp160::gfp within or upstream of predicted coding regions, whereas the other two showed either excision without re-insertion or no excision. Linkage between imp160::gfp insertion and virulence phenotype was determined in four transposon-tagged loci using targeted deletion in the wild-type strain. Knockout mutants in one of the genes, FOXG_00016, displayed significantly reduced virulence, and complementation of the original revertant with the wild-type FOXG_00016 allele fully restored virulence. FOXG_00016 has homology to the velvet gene family of A. nidulans. The high rate of untagged virulence mutations in the T12 reporter strain appears to be associated with increased genetic instability, possibly as a result of the transactivation of endogenous transposable elements by the constitutively expressed transposase. PMID:19161356

López-Berges, Manuel Sánchez; DI Pietro, Antonio; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Wahab, Hala Abdel; Vasnier, Christelle; Roncero, M Isabel G; Dufresne, Marie; Hera, Concepción

2009-01-01

82

Panama Disease: Cell Wall Reinforcement in Banana Roots in Response to Elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race Four.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. Tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. Goldfinger and susceptible cv. Williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for resistance in breeding programs. Similarly, defense responses were induced by treatment of the plants with an elicitor preparation from the mycelial cell walls of the pathogen. Differences in the induction of lignin and callose deposition, phenolics, and the enzymes involved in cell wall strengthening; phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were determined. Root tissue of the tolerant cv. Goldfinger responded to the fungal elicitor through the strong deposition of lignin, preceded by the induction or activation of the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and polymerization thereof, whereas only slight increases were observed for the susceptible cv. Williams. No increase in callose content was observed for either clone. These results indicate an important role for cell wall strengthening due to the deposition of lignin as an inducible defense mechanism of banana roots against F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four. PMID:18944483

De Ascensao, A R; Dubery, I A

2000-10-01

83

Recovery of Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 Mutants Affected in Their Biocontrol Activity After Transposition of the Fot1 Element.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the biocontrol mechanisms by which the antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is active against Fusarium wilt, a Fot1 transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis approach was adopted to generate mutants affected in their antagonistic activity. Ninety strains in which an active Fot1 copy had transposed were identified with a phenotypic assay for excision and tested for their biocontrol activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. lini on flax in greenhouse experiments. Sixteen strains were affected in their capacity to protect flax plants, either positively (more antagonistic than Fo47) or negatively (less antagonistic). The molecular characterization of these mutants confirms the excision of Fot1 and its reinsertion in most of the cases. Moreover, we demonstrate that other transposable elements such as Fot2, impala, and Hop have no transposition activity in the mutant genomes. The phenotypic characterization of these mutants shows that they are affected neither in their in vitro growth habit nor in their competitiveness in soil compared with wild-type strain Fo47. These results show that mutants are not impaired in their saprophytic phase and suggest that the altered biocontrol phenotype should likely be expressed during the interaction with the host plant. PMID:18944018

Trouvelot, Sophie; Olivain, Chantal; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Migheli, Quirico; Alabouvette, Claude

2002-09-01

84

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by Fusarium oxysporum F3—growth characteristics and metabolite profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose by Fusarium oxysporum was investigated in the present study. It was found that F. oxysporum grow with a maximum specific growth rate of 0.023h?1 on cellulose at aerobic conditions and that it can produce ethanol with a volumetric productivity of 0.044g\\/L\\/h and a yield of 0.35g\\/g cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The cellulase

G. Panagiotou; P. Christakopoulos; L. Olsson

2005-01-01

85

Hairpin Plasmids from the Plant Pathogenic Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the biology of the hairpin plasmids from the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. R. solani\\u000a linear plasmid is single-stranded with covalently closed hairpin loops at each end. F. oxysporum\\u000a plasmid, however, has a clothespin structure, which includes a terminal hairpin and noncovalently\\u000a linked ends at the other terminus. We present the nucleotide sequence of the hairpin

Teruyoshi Hashiba; Atsushi Nagasaka

86

Responses of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum to exogenously added sinapic acid in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the influence of phenolic acids from plant root exudates on soil pathogens, we studied the effect of sinapic acid\\u000a added to chemically defined media on the growth and virulence factors of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Sinapic acid inhibited the growth and conidial formation and germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum by 6.7–8.8% and 11.2–37.3%, respectively. Mycotoxin

Hong-sheng Wu; Yang Wang; Wei Bao; Dong-yang Liu; Waseem Raza; Qi-wei Huang; Ze-sheng Mao; Qi-rong Shen

2009-01-01

87

Loss of function of the Fusarium oxysporum SNF1 gene reduces virulence on cabbage and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. Production of these enzymes in fungi is subject to carbon catabolite repression, a process that in yeast is mostly controlled by the SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1) gene. To elucidate the role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity, we cloned and disrupted its SNF1 homologue ( FoSNF1).

Manuel D. Ospina-Giraldo; Ewen Mullins; Seogchan Kang

2003-01-01

88

Expression Analysis of Defense-Related Genes in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) after Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Infection and Following Chemical Elicitation using a Salicylic Acid Analog and Methyl Jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is considered as a major threat for commercial cotton production worldwide. Relative expression ratios of two key pathogenesis-related\\u000a (PR) genes (PR-3 and PR-10) and a detoxification gene (GST18) were compared between a fully susceptible (“LACTA”) and a partially field-resistant (“EMERALD”) cultivar after challenging\\u000a with an Australian Fov isolate,

Antonios G. Zambounis; Mairi S. Kalamaki; Eleni E. Tani; Epameinondas J. Paplomatas; Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

89

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-05-20

90

Genetic variability of Fusarium wilt pathogen isolates of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) assessed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variability among 43 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, the chickpea wilt pathogen, collected from nine states of India including the four well-characterized races of the pathogen were assessed using the molecular markers, RAPDs and AFLP. Principal coordinate analysis of the similarity index data generated from the molecular marker studies mostly gave three different clusters: Of these two clusters represented race-1 and race-2, and the third cluster consisted of race-3 and race-4 pathogen isolates. In RAPDs a fourth cluster was seen which did not go with any of the four races of the pathogen. The molecular markers established the distinctness of race-1 and race-2 pathogen isolates and the close similarity of pathogen isolates of race-3 with that of race-4. AFLP was found to be more informative as it differentiated more number of the pathogen isolates with the known races with minimum of outliers. The high levels of DNA polymorphism observed with the molecular markers suggest the rapid evolution of new recombinants of the pathogen in the chickpea growing fields. PMID:12617504

Sivaramakrishnan, S; Kannan, Seetha; Singh, S D

2002-01-01

91

Fermentation performance and intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum cultivated on a glucose–xylose mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of aeration on the fermentation of a mixture of glucose and xylose by the naturally xylose fermenting fungus Fusarium oxysporum was studied in batch cultivations. The aeration level had considerable influence on the co-metabolism of glucose and xylose. Under anaerobic conditions xylose consumption was limited and xylitol was the main product of xylose metabolism. When the artificial electron

Gianni Panagiotou; Paul Christakopoulos; S. G. Villas-Boas; L. Olsson

2005-01-01

92

Hydrolytic potential of extracellular enzymes from a mutant strain of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential of extracellular enzymes of a mutant strain (NTG-19) of Fusarium oxysporum in hydrolysis of cellulosic materials was investigated. The enzyme preparation effectively hydrolyzed untreated as well as chemically pretreated sugarcane bagasse. About 95% hydrolysis could be achieved with sodium sulfite pretreated bagasse within 96 h. The enzymes exhibit appreciable stability during the course of hydrolysis.

R. C. Kuhad; M. Manchanda; A. Singh

1999-01-01

93

On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

94

Commercial detergents effective against conidia and chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current containment recommendations for limiting the spread of race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in California lack non-corrosive yet effective alternatives to bleach for sanitizing equipment used in farming operations. To find an equivalent to Farmcleanse, an Australian product recomm...

95

ULTRASTRUCTURE AND TIME COURSE OF MITOSIS IN THE FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitosis in Fusarium oxysporum Schlect . was studied by light and electron microscopy . The average times required for the stages of mitosis, as determined from measurements made on living nuclei, were as follows : prophase, 70 sec ; metaphase, 120 see ; anaphase, 13 sec ; and telophase, 125 sec, for a total of 5 .5 min. New postfixation

JAMES R. AIST; H. WILLIAMS

1972-01-01

96

Production, regulation, and some properties of lipase activity from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase activity produced during cultivation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in shake flasks was predominantly extracellular. Only a small amount was found in or on the mycelium. The fungus required peptone for significant lipase production. Addition of trimyristin, olive oil, Span 85, and oleic acid to growing shake-flask cultures, and the addition of olive oil and oleic acid to

Peter Rapp

1995-01-01

97

Growth substrates control the ability of Fusarium oxysporum to solubilize low-rank coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum to solubilize lignite was found to depend on the presence of a specific carbon source. When grown on glucose or another carbohydrate, the fungus is unable to solubilize coal but it produces the red dye bikaverin. In the coal-solubilizing state, which can be induced by cultivation in the presence of glutamate or gluconate,

U. Hölker; R. M. Fakoussa; M. Höfer

1995-01-01

98

Improved Colonization of East African Highland Musa Tissue Culture Plants by Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum inoculated into banana (Musa spp.) tissue culture plants can provide protection against banana weevils (Cosmopolites sordidus) and nematodes (Radopholus similis). The degree of control probably depends, in part, upon the level of endophyte establishment following inoculation. In this study, we compared three methods of inoculating endophytic fungi into eight week-old tissue culture plants: (1) Dipping the

P. Paparu; T. Dubois; C. S. Gold; B. Niere; E. Adipala; D. L. Coyne

2006-01-01

99

An RFLP marker in tomato linked to the Fusarium oxysporum resistance gene I2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locus, I2, which in tomato confers resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2, was introgressed into Lycopersicon esculentum from the wild species L. pimpinellifolium (P.I. 126915). We searched for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between nearly isogenic lines (NILs) in clones that map to the region introgressed from the wild species. Since I2 maps to chromosome 11,

M. Sarfatti; J. Katan; R. Fluhr; D. Zamir

1989-01-01

100

Hyperkeratotic Warty Skin Lesion of Foot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation.

Kaur, Ravinder; Maheshwari, Megha

2013-01-01

101

Hyperkeratotic Warty Skin Lesion of Foot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation. PMID:23716829

Kaur, Ravinder; Maheshwari, Megha

2013-03-01

102

The characterization of transaldolase gene tal from Pichia stipitis and its heterologous expression in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The 972 bp length of transaldolase gene tal was cloned from Pichia stipitis CICC1960, encoding a 323 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 35.36 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.20. Real time PCR analysis demonstrated that the mRNA transcript level of constitutive tal gene rise on xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose and sucrose as carbon source, respectively. Furthermore, the transcription of tal gene in P. stipitis on xylose was higher than on other carbon source, indicating that transaldolase plays a part in xylose utilization. To deeply study the tal gene biological function, it was expressed in Fusarium oxysporum CCTCC M209040. Recombinant transaldolase activity of transformant F. oxysporum M209040-Tal2 was about 0.52 U mg(-1) protein and was 1.57 times higher than that of the wild type F. oxysporum CCTCC M209040, indicating that the improvement of transaldolase activity in transformant was due to expression of the exogenous tal gene. Growth of transformant F. oxysporum M209040-Tal2 without selection pressure did not affect the level of hygromycin resistance of the transformants, suggesting that integrated tal gene was stable in mitosis. Fermentation trials of F. oxysporum M209040-Tal2 showed that the ethanol yield improved by 8.39 and 11.71% on glucose and xylose substrates, respectively, demonstrating that the expression of tal gene from P. stipitis CICC1960 in F. oxysporum CCTCC M209040 could improve ethanol production. PMID:20845075

Fan, Jin-xia; Yang, Qian; Liu, Zhi-hua; Huang, Xiao-mei; Song, Jin-zhu; Chen, Zhong-xiang; Sun, Yan; Liang, Qing; Wang, Shuang

2010-09-16

103

Sustainable Approaches for Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) is an important crop of Indian subcontinent and African countries, cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.\\u000a Fusarium wilt is one of the major yield and growth-limiting factors of pigeon pea. Along with nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, F. udum result in highly destructive wilt disease complex, which is a major constraint for the

Piyush Pandey; Abhinav Aeron; D. K. Maheshwari

104

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain Transcription Factor LBD20 Functions in Fusarium Wilt Susceptibility and Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling.

Thatcher, Louise F.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Aitken, Elizabeth A.B.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2012-01-01

105

Characterization of fusarium wilt-resistant and fusarium wilt-susceptible somaclones of banana cultivar rastali ( Musa AAB) by random amplified polymorphic DNA and retrotransposon markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two DNA fingerprinting techniques, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism\\u000a (IRAP), were used to characterize somaclonal variants of banana. IRAP primers were designed on the basis of repetitive and\\u000a genome-wide dispersed long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon families for assessing the somaclonal variation in 2Musa clones resistant and susceptible toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.cubense race 4. RAPD markers successfully

Asif Javed Muhammad; Fofina Yasmin Othman

2005-01-01

106

D-xylose Fermentation by 'Fusarium oxysporum' and Other Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Xylose fermentation was studied in order to provide the basis for an economically feasible ethanol production process using sugars derived from biomass. During the study 67 different yeast strains and 27 Fusarium strains were tested. The best strain for x...

M. L. Suihko

1984-01-01

107

Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

108

Effects of antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum on functional groups of indigenous bacteria in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before planning the commercial use of microorganisms, genetically manipulated or not, in agricultural environments, their behavior and potential impact on soil ecosystems should be carefully studied as part of risk assessment. The influence of added inoculum of antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum strains, genetically manipulated (T26\\/6) or not (233\\/1) on nitrogen and carbon functional groups were evaluated in three soils from different

Monica Mezzalama; Raquel Ghini; Paola Ruffa; Roberto Arnbrosoli; Angelo Garibaldi

1997-01-01

109

Mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphisms in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracts from 13 isolatesof Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.niveum, including 12 from widely separated geographic regions within the United States and representing the three races, and one\\u000a race 2 isolate from Israel, were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA and were also subjected to restriction endonucleases\\u000a analysis. None of the mtDNA from any isolate had a copurifying

D. H. kim; R. D. martyn; C. W. magill

1991-01-01

110

Synthesis of a natural gamma-butyrolactone from nerylacetone by Acremonium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum cultures.  

PubMed

Natural gamma-butyrolactone - (4R, 5R)-5-(4'-methyl-3'pentenyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-dihydrofuran-2-one (2) was isolated as the product of microbial transformation of nerylacetone (1) by fungal strains. This product was obtained as the enantiomer (+) in high yields 24% and 61% with ee=94% and 82% by the biotransformation in the cultures of Acremonium roseum AM336 and Fusarium oxysporum AM13 respectively. PMID:21485276

Gliszczy?ska, Anna; Switalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrze?czyk, Czes?aw

2011-03-01

111

Screenhouse and Field Persistence of Nonpathogenic Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa Tissue Culture Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted\\u000a screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots

Pamela Paparu; Thomas Dubois; Clifford S. Gold; Björn Niere; Ekwamu Adipala; Daniel Coyne

2008-01-01

112

Effect of inorganic ions on bud cell formation by Fusarium oxysporum in potato dextrose broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato dextrose broth (PDB), a well-known medium for cultivation of fungi, can be made from potato extract and glucose (handmade\\u000a PDB) or bought as a commercial powder (commercial PDB). Previously, we reported that bud cell formation and fungal biomass\\u000a of Fusarium oxysporum in handmade PDB are higher than in commercial PDB, and the presence of high molecular weight (>20 MDa) carbohydrates

Kenji Yokota; Takuma Teraoka; Hirofumi Suzuki; Keiichi Murakami; Eitaro Miwa; Kyoko Higuchi

2010-01-01

113

Structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide produced by fungus Fusarium oxysporum Y24-2.  

PubMed

The extracellular polysaccharide FO1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) of Ipomoea pes-caprae. Its structural characteristics were studied by chemical and methylation analyses, and 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results indicated that this exopolysaccharide consists of a disaccharide repeating unit with the following structure (n?111): [?2)-?-D-Galf(1?6)-?-D-Glcp(1?](n). PMID:23159374

Guo, Shoudong; Mao, Wenjun; Li, Yanling; Tian, Jinghui; Xu, Jian

2012-10-06

114

Production of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by fusarium oxysporum and F. moniliforme under different cultivation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-day incubation was most suitable for production of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes byFusarium on different culture media. Czapek’s medium favoured maximum production of polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase (Cx), peptone dextrose gave highest yields of pectin methyl galacturonase (PMG) withF. oxysporum. Cole’s medium was found to be poor for the enzyme production by both organisms. A positive correlation was observed between

A. Mehta; P. MEItTA

1985-01-01

115

Morphological changes of Fusarium oxysporum induced by CF66I, an antifungal compound from Burkholderia cepacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological effects of CF66I, an antifungal compound produced by Burkholderia cepacia, on growing hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum were studied by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 20 ?g\\/ml, CF66I strongly inhibited\\u000a growth and induced significant changes of the hyphal morphology. These changes included swelling of hyphae with considerable\\u000a thickening cell wall and abnormal chitin deposition, which was

Xin Li; Hui-Ying Yu; Yi-Feng Lin; Hong-Mei Teng; Lei Du; Guo-Gang Ma

2010-01-01

116

Reverse transcription of the pFOXC mitochondrial retroplasmids of Fusarium oxysporum is protein primed  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pFOXC retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating DNA molecules found in mitochondria of certain strains of the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and are among the first linear genetic elements shown to replicate via reverse transcription. The plasmids have a unique clothespin structure that includes a 5'-linked protein and telomere-like terminal repeats, with pFOXC2 and pFOXC3 having iterative copies of

Jeffrey T Galligan; Sarah E Marchetti; John C Kennell

2011-01-01

117

Cutinase production by Fusarium oxysporum in liquid medium using central composite design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to measure the production of cutinase by Fusarium oxysporum in the presence of several carbon and nitrogen sources (glycides, fatty acids and oils, and several organic and inorganic\\u000a nitrogen sources), trying to find a cost-effective substitute for cutin in the culture medium as an inducer of cutinase production.\\u000a The results were evaluated by

Tatiana Fontes Pio; Gabriela Alves Macedo

2008-01-01

118

Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

2011-05-06

119

Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-07-18

120

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.  

PubMed

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutum × G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense × G. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19 % of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

2013-03-08

121

Use of ELISA and GUS?transformed strains to study competition between pathogenic and non?pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum for root colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the ability of different strains of Fusarium oxysporum to colonize roots, and to analyze competition for root colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum, it was necessary to develop specific labelling techniques for quantification of root colonization. Two methods were selected: the production of polyclonal antibodies, and the use of GUS?transformed strains of F. oxysporum. The

A. Eparvier; C. Alabouvette

1994-01-01

122

Chemical Communication between the Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium Variabile and the Phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant Cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. A strong antagonism between the endophyte P. variabile and Fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. A disorganization of the mycelium of F. oxysporum was thus noticed. Interestingly, the biological effect of the main secondary metabolites isolated from P. variabile against F. oxysporum did not account for this strong antagonism. However, a metabolomic approach of pure fungal strains and confrontation zones using the data analysis tool XCMS were analyzed and pointed out a competition-induced metabolite production by the endophyte in the presence of the phytopathogen. Subsequent MS/MS fragmentations permitted to identify one of the induced metabolites as 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and highlighted a negative modulation of the biosynthesis of beauvericin, one of the most potent mycotoxin of F. oxysporum, during the competition with the endophyte.

Combes, Audrey; Ndoye, Idrissa; Bance, Caroline; Bruzaud, Jerome; Djediat, Chakib; Dupont, Joelle; Nay, Bastien; Prado, Soizic

2012-01-01

123

Variation and phylogeny of Fusarium oxysporum isolates based on nucleotide sequences of polygalacturonase genes.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of two endopolygalacturonase genes (pg1 and pg5) and two exopolygalacturonase genes (pgx1 and pgx4), which encode members of a major family of secreted cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), were compared to detect the extent of genetic variation among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. The nucleotide variation rate in exons was 0.23-0.93%, higher than that in introns (0.01-0.64%) and untranslated regions (UTRs) (0.07-0.25%), resulting in 0.05-0.31% variation in amino acids. pgx1 exhibited the most genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of the four genes, which reside on different chromosomes, revealed different evolutionary patterns for each. Our results suggest a biased evolution of the polygalacturonase genes of F. oxysporum, or alternatively, that the genes were acquired at different times during evolution. PMID:21566363

Hirano, Yasushi; Arie, Tsutomu

2009-01-01

124

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of watermelon commonly occurs in locations where the crop has been grown for many seasons. Its occurrence results\\u000a in a severely decreased watermelon crop. The goal of this study was to assess the capability of a new product (bio-organic\\u000a fertilizer) to control the wilt in Fusarium-infested soil. Pot experiments were conducted under growth chamber and greenhouse\\u000a conditions. The

Hong-sheng Wu; Xin-ning Yang; Jia-qin Fan; Wei-guo Miao; Ning Ling; Yang-chun Xu; Qi-wei Huang; Qirong Shen

2009-01-01

125

Biological synthesis of strontium carbonate crystals using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The total biological synthesis of SrCO3 crystals of needlelike morphology arranged into higher order quasi-linear superstructures by challenging microorganisms such as fungi with aqueous Sr2+ ions is described. We term this procedure "total biological synthesis" since the source of carbonate ions that react with aqueous Sr2+ ions is the fungus itself. We believe that secretion of proteins during growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for modulating the morphology of strontianite crystals and directing their hierarchical assembly into higher order superstructures. PMID:15274591

Rautaray, Debabrata; Sanyal, Ambarish; Adyanthaya, Suguna D; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2004-08-01

126

Epi-trichosetin, a new undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitor, produced by Fusarium oxysporum FKI-4553.  

PubMed

A new compound, designated epi-trichosetin (1), was isolated along with the known compound trichosetin (2) from the culture broth of Fusarium oxysporum FKI-4553 by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. The structure of 1 was elucidated by comparing various spectral data with those of 2, revealing that 1 was a stereoisomer of 2. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase activity of Staphylococcus aureus with IC50 values of 83 and 30??M, respectively, and showed antimicrobial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus. PMID:23715038

Inokoshi, Junji; Shigeta, Naoki; Fukuda, Takashi; Uchida, Ryuji; Nonaka, Kenichi; Masuma, Rokurou; Tomoda, Hiroshi

2013-05-29

127

Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.  

PubMed

In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates. PMID:23315087

Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

2013-01-12

128

The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity and/or compensation of plant biomass does not depend on the degree of AM colonisation but more on the intercropping partner. PMID:23549903

Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

2013-04-03

129

Dry heat treatment of Fusarium-infected cotton seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

130

Induced suppressiveness to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici in rockwool substrate used in closed soilless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomatoes grown in soilless systems can be seriously damaged byFusarium oxysporum Schlect f.sp.radicis lycopersici (Forl) causing Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR). FCRR suppression can be achieved through the use of chemicals, selected substrates,\\u000a composts and artificially introduced antagonistic microorganisms. This study evaluated the natural capacity of a used rockwool\\u000a to suppress FCRR infections. New and used rockwool, sampled from

Andrea Minuto; Francesca Clematis; Maria Lodovica Gullino; Angelo Garibaldi

2007-01-01

131

Crude extract of Fusarium oxysporum induces apoptosis and structural alterations in the skin of healthy rats.  

PubMed

We evaluate the biological and physicochemical effects of a Fusarium oxysporum crude extract (CE) on the skin of healthy rats. The CE is topically applied and subsequently the skin is collected after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The samples are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) and histomorphometric analysis. Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay) is performed to detect both the cells in apoptosis and proliferation. There is a thickening of the epidermis after 6, 12, and 24 h and dermis after 12 and 24 h of CE application. A reduction of the dermis thickness is observed at 3 and 6 h. The treated skin shows higher labeling intensity by TUNEL at 3 h, while a higher intensity by proliferating cell nuclear antigen occurs at 3 and 12 h. FTIR-PAS data support the histology observations showing an increase in the absorption peaks in the dermis after the application of the CE. F. oxysporum CE permeated through the epidermis and the dermis, reaching the subcutaneous tissue, inducing cell apoptosis, and causing physicochemical changes in the organic molecules located in the dermis. This is the first known study associating histopathological and physical chemistry changes on healthy skin after the application of F. oxysporum CE. PMID:24077666

de Paulo, Luis F; Coelho, Ana C; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Sato, Francielle; Rohling, Jurandir H; Natali, Maria Raquel M; Baesso, Mauro L; Hernandes, Luzmarina

2013-09-01

132

Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle. PMID:20543061

Ruiz-Roldán, M Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M Isabel G; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A

2010-06-11

133

LOCALIZATION OF ENZYMES IN THE MYCELIUM AND MICROCONIDIA OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM1  

PubMed Central

Maruyama, Yoshiharu (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) and Martin Alexander. Localization of enzymes in the mycelium and microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. J. Bacteriol. 84:307–312. 1962—Extracts prepared from mycelium and microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. cubense were fractionated into a soluble and four particulate fractions by differential centrifugation, and the distribution of several enzymes in the isolated cell constituents was examined. Succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, and a large amount of the reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) cytochrome c reductase and reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide cytochrome c reductase were associated with one of the particulate fractions prepared from the hyphae; fumarase and DPNH oxidase activities were largely found in the soluble and in a second particulate fraction. The highest recovery and concentration of diphosphopyridine nucleotidase was observed to be bound to a third type of hyphal granule. Aldolase, aconitase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and uricase were recovered entirely with the soluble mycelium constituents. Similar enzyme-distribution patterns were observed in microconidia. Several enzymatic activities of the mycelial extracts were compared with those in the extracts of microconidia.

Maruyama, Yoshiharu; Alexander, Martin

1962-01-01

134

Granular Pesta formulation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras for biological control of sunflower broomrape: efficacy and shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulation of fungal propagules encapsulated in a wheat-gluten matrix (termed ‘Pesta’) has proved to be a suitable technique for the development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras (FOO) as a bioherbicide for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana). To improve the efficacy of this fungus, 19 Pesta formulations, using two types of fungal spores and 8 adjuvants, used singly or in combinations,

Yasser M Shabana; D Müller-Stöver; J Sauerborn

2003-01-01

135

Validation of molecular markers for resistance among Pakistani chickpea germplasm to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA markers in chickpea have been identified against different races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (Foc), but validation of these markers is essential for their effective use in resistant breeding. In view of this, different simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were analysed in Pakistani ger...

136

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

137

Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to fusarium oxysporum 2 implicates tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling in susceptibility and resistance to root infection.  

PubMed

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits. PMID:23717215

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C

2013-05-23

138

Chronic infection due to Fusarium oxysporum mimicking lupus vulgaris: case report and review of cutaneous involvement in fusariosis.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old female presented with a 20-year-old lesion involving the right ear and preauricular area mimicking tuberculous lupus. Fusarium oxysporum infection was confirmed by biopsy studies and cultures. The biopsy specimen showed an unusually extensive dermal invasion with fungal hyphae. This is an uncommon clinical presentation for Fusarium infection in a healthy patient. When referred to us, the patient had received antifungal therapy with itraconazole without any benefit. Improvement was obtained with fluconazole therapy. The spectrum of cutaneous involvement related to Fusarium spp. includes toxic reactions, colonization, superficial indolent infection, deep cutaneous or subcutaneous infections and disseminated infection. PMID:11411917

Pereiro, M; Abalde, M T; Zulaica, A; Caeiro, J L; Flórez, A; Peteiro, C; Toribio, J

139

AGROBACTERIUM CONCENTRATIONS AND SEVERITY OF BRONZE WILT SYMPTOMS IN COTTON CULTIVARS TREATED WITH FUNGAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS AT PLANTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungi, Trichoderma virens (Isolates GV4 and GV6), Trichoderma koningii x T. virens fusant #12, Gliocladium catenulatum, Gliocladium roseum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani were trested for their ability to colonize roots, to affect Agrobacterium tumefaciens colonization and bronze wilt s...

140

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.  

PubMed

Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2010-06-15

141

ULTRASTRUCTURE AND TIME COURSE OF MITOSIS IN THE FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

PubMed Central

Mitosis in Fusarium oxysporum Schlect. was studied by light and electron microscopy. The average times required for the stages of mitosis, as determined from measurements made on living nuclei, were as follows: prophase, 70 sec; metaphase, 120 sec; anaphase, 13 sec; and telophase, 125 sec, for a total of 5.5 min. New postfixation procedures were developed specifically to preserve the fine-structure of the mitotic apparatus. Electron microscopy of mitotic nuclei revealed a fibrillo-granular, extranuclear Spindle Pole Body (SPB) at each pole of the intranuclear, microtubular spindles. Metaphase chromosomes were attached to spindle microtubules via kinetochores, which were found near the spindle poles at telophase. The still-intact, original nuclear envelope constricted around the incipient daughter nuclei during telophase.

Aist, James R.; Williams, P. H.

1972-01-01

142

Impala, a transposon from Fusarium oxysporum, is active in the genome of Penicillium griseoroseum.  

PubMed

An autonomous impala transposon trapped in Fusarium oxysporum by insertion within the niaD gene encoding nitrate reductase was introduced in the genome of the fungus Penicillium griseoroseum, a producer of pectinase enzymes. Through a phenotypic assay, we demonstrate that this element is able to excise from the niaD gene and to reinsert at new genomic positions. As in the original host, impala inserts into a TA site and footprints left by impala excisions are generally 5 bp. The fact that impala is able to transpose in P. griseoroseum offers the opportunity to develop a gene-tagging system based on this element with the objective to detect and clone genes related in pectinase production. PMID:12586410

de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Daboussi, Marie Josée

2003-01-28

143

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.  

PubMed

In recent years, Bacillus species have received considerable attention for the biological control of many fungal diseases. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 was tested for its potential use against a variety of plant pathogens. Our screen for genes involved in the biosynthesis of antifungal agents revealed that the fen and bmy gene clusters are present in the Q-426 genome. Lipopeptides such as bacillomycin D, fengycin A, and fengycin B were purified from the bacterial culture broth and subsequently identified by ESI-mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration of fengycin A against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hansen O-27 was determined to be 31.25??g?ml(-1) . However, exposure of fungal cells to 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A did not allow permeation of fluorescein diacetate into the cytoplasm through the cell membrane. Moreover, leakage of intracellular inorganic cations, nucleic acid and protein were also not detected, indicating that the fungal cell membrane is not the primary target of action for fengycin A. Profound morphological changes were observed in the F. oxysporum strain and spore germination was completely inhibited, suggesting that 50??g?ml(-1) of fengycin A acts, at least, as a fungistatic agent. PMID:23553741

Zhao, Pengchao; Quan, Chunshan; Wang, Yingguo; Wang, Jianhua; Fan, Shengdi

2013-04-01

144

Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.  

PubMed

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Marińo-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-07-03

145

Homologous overexpression of xylanase in Fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosics.  

PubMed

In an effort to increase ethanol productivity during the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosics by Fusarium oxysporum, we attempted the constitutive homologous overexpression of one of the key process enzymes, namely an endo-xylanase. The endo-?-1,4-xylanase 2 gene was incorporated into the F. oxysporum genome under the regulation of the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. The transformation was effected through Agrobacterium tumefaciens and resulted in 12 transformants, two of which were selected for further study due to their high extracellular xylanase activities under normally repressing conditions (glucose as sole carbon source). During natural induction conditions (growth on xylan) though, the extracellular enzyme levels of the transformants were only marginally higher (5-10%) compared to the wild type despite the significantly stronger xylanase 2 mRNA signals. SDS-PAGE verified enzyme assay results that there was no intracellular xylanase 2 accumulation in the transformants, suggesting the potential regulation in a post transcriptional or translational level. The fermentative performance of the transformants was evaluated and compared to that of the wild type in simple CBP systems using either corn cob or wheat bran as sole carbon sources. Both transformants produced approximately 60% more ethanol compared to the wild type on corn cob, while for wheat bran this picture was repeated for only one of them. This result is attributed to the high extracellular xylanase activities in the transformants' fermentation broths that were maintained 2-2.5-fold higher compared to the wild type. PMID:21237221

Anasontzis, George E; Zerva, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Panagiota M; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Diallinas, George; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

2011-01-13

146

Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.  

PubMed

The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection. PMID:19259463

Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

2006-12-01

147

Morphological changes of Fusarium oxysporum induced by CF66I, an antifungal compound from Burkholderia cepacia.  

PubMed

The morphological effects of CF66I, an antifungal compound produced by Burkholderia cepacia, on growing hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum were studied by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 20 ?g/ml, CF66I strongly inhibited growth and induced significant changes of the hyphal morphology. These changes included swelling of hyphae with considerable thickening cell wall and abnormal chitin deposition, which was indicative of the alterations in cell wall structure. Furthermore, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining indicated the loss of intracellular esterase activity. CF66I probably inhibits fungal growth by interfering with the cell metabolic pathways. At 120 ?g/ml, CF66I killed F. oxysporum (accompanied by propidium iodide permeation, intracellular cytoplasm leakage and crushing of hyphal tips), probably by direct damage to the cell membrane. Thus, there are two different antifungal mechanisms of CF66I, depending on its concentration, and further studies on this compound might be useful for us to develop a new class of antifungal agents. PMID:20495943

Li, Xin; Yu, Hui-Ying; Lin, Yi-Feng; Teng, Hong-Mei; Du, Lei; Ma, Guo-Gang

2010-05-22

148

The velvet complex governs mycotoxin production and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on plant and mammalian hosts.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens provoke devastating losses in agricultural production, contaminate food with mycotoxins and give rise to life-threatening infections in humans. The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum attacks over 100 different crops and can cause systemic fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. Here we functionally characterized VeA, VelB, VelC and LaeA, four components of the velvet protein complex which regulates fungal development and secondary metabolism. Deletion of veA, velB and to a minor extent velC caused a derepression of conidiation as well as alterations in the shape and size of microconidia. VeA and LaeA were required for full virulence of F.?oxysporum on tomato plants and on immunodepressed mice. A critical contribution of velvet consists in promoting chromatin accessibility and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster for beauvericin, a depsipeptide mycotoxin that functions as a virulence determinant. These results reveal a conserved role of the velvet complex during fungal infection on plants and mammals. PMID:23106229

López-Berges, Manuel S; Hera, Concepción; Sulyok, Michael; Schäfer, Katja; Capilla, Javier; Guarro, Josep; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-11-19

149

Gene transfer via pollen-tube pathway for anti-fusarium wilt in watermelon.  

PubMed

In order to obtain transgenic fusarium wilt resistant watermelon plants, squash DNA was introduced into the ovaries of watermelon plants via the pollen-tube pathway. The introduction of foreign genes into ovaries was accomplished using co-transformation with the CaMV35S-GUS as a marker. Transformed watermelon plants contained integrated copies of the GUS activity and the seeds of transformed progeny produced a blue color when stained with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl glucuronide, whereas seeds from untransformed control plants did not. Of 200 transformed seedlings, ten were wilt resistant. The presence of the GUS activity in the genome of stable transgenic seedlings was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Furthermore, the generation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints using primers with embedded restriction sites showed amplification products unique to these transgenic plants. Primers OPA-1 and OPA-9 gave distinct band patterns of genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction. PMID:9891853

Chen, W S; Chiu, C C; Liu, H Y; Lee, T L; Cheng, J T; Lin, C C; Wu, Y J; Chang, H Y

1998-12-01

150

Observations on the effect of lower-temperature dry heat treatments on Fusarium in cotton seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

151

Population Dynamics of Fusarium Oxysporum f. Sp. Radicis-lycopersici in Relation to the Onset of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici the causal agent of crown and root rot in tomato comprises two overlapping separate phases: monocyclic and polycyclic. Oversummering inoculum is the source of primary infection (the monocyclic phase) and the spread from plant to plant via root-to-root contact is the source of the secondary infection (the polycyclic phase). In the present work, relationships between

Yael Rekah; D. Shtienberg; J. Katan

2001-01-01

152

Corn seedling disease, fusaric acid as the wilt toxin and the need for biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) was first discovered during the laboratory culture of Fusarium heterosporum, and was one of the first fungal metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of wilt symptoms of plants especially under adverse conditions. In addition to a primary role in plant pathoge...

153

Factors affecting the specificity of ?-glucosidase from Fusarium oxysporum in enzymatic synthesis of alkyl- ?- d-glucosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum?-glucosidase has been used to catalyze the production of alkyl-?-d-glucosides from various disaccharides, based on the transglucosylation reaction, in the presence of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as glucosyl acceptors. Primary alcohols were found to be the best acceptors. The influence of the glucosyl donor concentration, as well as the enzyme specificity towards the cleaved glucosidic bond and the

M Makropoulou; P Christakopoulos; C Tsitsimpikou; D Kekos; F. N Kolisis; B. J Macris

1998-01-01

154

Cell Wall-Bound Phenolic Acid and Lignin Contents in Date Palm as Related to its Resistance to Fusarium Oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root cell walls of the resistant cultivars of the date palm were more resistant to the action of the cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDE) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis than those of the susceptible cultivars. Date palm roots contain four cell wall-bound phenolics identified as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid. The contents of p-coumaric acid

C. El Modafar; E. El Boustani

2001-01-01

155

On the mechanism of direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum: effect of cellulase and ?-glucosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the three main enzymes involved in cellulose saccharification, namely cellobiohydrolase, carboxymethylcellulase and ß-glucosidase, on the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated. Ethanol production was not affected when the activity of the former two enzymes was varied within a wide range. By contrast, ß-glucosidase markedly affected ethanol production showing an optimum level

Paul Christakopoulos; Basil J. Macris; Dimitris Kekos

1990-01-01

156

A model for signal transduction in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-linear cascade model is proposed to describe the signal transduction pathway in suspension cultures of Taxuschinensis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from Fusarium oxysporum. The oxidative burst intensity, which was defined as the amount of the free radicals including superoxide anion (O2 ·), H2O2 and OH- and measured by ESR spectrometry, was used as the signal characteristic and

Ying-Jin Yuan; Chun Li; Jin-Chuan Wu; Zong-Ding Hu

2002-01-01

157

Cloning of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum identifies a new member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily.  

PubMed

The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the respective aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. The sequences of several peptides from the fungal enzyme were used to design oligonucleotides for the isolation of a portion of the NAO gene from an F. oxysporum genomic DNA preparation. This sequence was used to clone the cDNA for NAO from an F. oxysporum cDNA library. The sequence of the cloned cDNA showed that NOA is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) superfamily. The members of this family share with NAO a mechanism that is initiated by proton removal from carbon, suggesting a common chemical reaction for this superfamily. NAO was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. Recombinant NAO has identical kinetic parameters to enzyme isolated from F. oxysporum but is isolated with oxidized FAD rather than the nitrobutyl-FAD found in the fungal enzyme. NAO purified from E. coli or from F. oxysporum has no detectable ACAD activity on short- or medium-chain acyl CoAs, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase are unable to catalyze oxidation of nitroalkanes. PMID:11867731

Daubner, S Colette; Gadda, Giovanni; Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

2002-02-26

158

Commercial and improved germplasm evaluations for Fusarium wilt, FOV race 1 with root-knot nematodes and race 4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant resistance is the most economic and effective strategy for Fusarium wilt control. To implement steps to develop resistant germplasm to this pathogen, existing commercial Acala, non-Acala Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Pima (G. barbadense) cultivars, as well as improved germplasm were ...

159

Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Fusarium oxysporum: An Efficient Tool for Insertional Mutagenesis and Gene Transfer.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) has long been used to transfer genes to a wide variety of plants and has also served as an efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis. In this paper, we report the construction of four novel binary vectors for fungal transformation and the optimization of an ATMT protocol for insertional mutagenesis, which permits an efficient genetic manipulation of Fusarium oxysporum and other phytopathogenic fungi to be achieved. Employing the binary vectors, carrying the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotrans-ferase gene (hph) under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter as a selectable marker, led to the production of 300 to 500 hygromycin B resistant transformants per 1 x 10(6) conidia of F. oxysporum, which is at least an order of magnitude higher than that previously accomplished. Transformation efficiency correlated strongly with the duration of cocultivation of fungal spores with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells and significantly with the number of Agrobacteruium tumefaciens cells present during the cocultivation period (r = 0.996; n = 3; P < 0.01). All transformants tested remained mitotically stable, maintaining their hygromycin B resistance. Growing Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells in the presence of acetosyringone (AS) prior to cocultivation shortened the time required for the formation of transformants but decreased to 53% the percentage of transformants containing a single T-DNA insert per genome. This increased to over 80% when Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells grown in the absence of AS were used. There was no correlation between the average copy number of T-DNA per genome and the colony diameter of the transformants, the period of cocultivation or the quantity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells present during cocultivation. To isolate the host sequences flanking the inserted T-DNA, we employed a modified thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) technique. Utilizing just one arbitrary primer resulted in the successful amplification of desired products in 90% of those transformants analyzed. The insertion event appeared to be a random process with truncation of the inserted T-DNA, ranging from 1 to 14 bp in size, occurring on both the right and left border sequences. Considering the size and design of the vectors described here, coupled with the efficiency and flexibility of this ATMT protocol, it is suggested that ATMT should be regarded as a highly efficient alternative to other DNA transfer procedures in characterizing those genes important for the pathogenicity of F. oxysporum and potentially those of other fungal pathogens. PMID:18944391

Mullins, E D; Chen, X; Romaine, P; Raina, R; Geiser, D M; Kang, S

2001-02-01

160

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri Race 1 Induced Redox State Alterations Are Coupled to Downstream Defense Signaling in Root Tissues of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea-Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes. PMID:24058463

Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

2013-09-13

161

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri Race 1 Induced Redox State Alterations Are Coupled to Downstream Defense Signaling in Root Tissues of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea–Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes.

Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

2013-01-01

162

Fot 1 Insertions in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis Genome Provide Diagnostic PCR Targets for Detection of the Date Palm Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar Fot 1 hybridization patterns. In order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several DNA clones containing a copy of the transposable element Fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. Regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences were used to design PCR primers that amplify the DNA regions at several Fot 1 insertion sites. When tested on a large sample of Fusarium isolates, including 286 F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates, 17 other special forms, nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates from palm grove soils, and 8 other Fusarium species, the primer pair TL3-FOA28 allowed amplification of a 400-bp fragment found only in F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. Sequence analysis showed that one of the Fot 1 copies was truncated, lacking 182 bp at its 3? terminus. The primer pair BI03-FOA1 amplified a 204-bp fragment which overlapped the Fot 1 truncated copy and its 3? site of insertion in the F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome and identified 95% of the isolates. The primer pairs BIO3-FOA1 and TL3-FOA28 used in PCR assays thus provide a useful diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates.

Fernandez, Diana; Ouinten, Mohamed; Tantaoui, Abdelaziz; Geiger, Jean-Paul; Daboussi, Marie-Josee; Langin, Thierry

1998-01-01

163

Purification and characterization of an alkaliphilic choline oxidase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A novel choline oxidase found in a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum strain V2, was purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 128 kDa and consists of two identical subunits. The purified enzyme showed adsorption peaks at 340 nm and 450 nm. It showed alkaliphilic pH characteristics: its optimum pH was 9.0-10.0, and it was stable at pH 8.0-10.2. The Michaelis constant (Km) values for choline and betaine aldehyde were 0.28 mM and 0.39 mM respectively. Trimethylamino-alcohols, dimethylamino-alcohols, and diethylaminoethanol were substrates for the enzyme, but the Km values for them increased with decreasing numbers of methyl groups on the ammonium headgroup. A marked decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) and Vmax/Km values was observed when N-replaced choline analogs were used as substrate instead of choline. The enzyme had a remarkably higher affinity for choline and betaine aldehyde than do previously reported enzymes. The enzyme oxidized these two substrates more quickly than a choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, and oxidation by the V2 enzyme was accompanied by an increase in the stoichometric amount of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:23221722

Enokibara, Shogo

2012-12-07

164

Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05).

Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Glaucia

2011-01-01

165

In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

2011-12-01

166

Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal

Siddhesh B. Ghag; Upendra K. Singh Shekhawat; Thumballi R. Ganapathi

2012-01-01

167

Somaclonal variant UCT3: the expression of Fusarium wilt resistance in progeny arrays of celery, Apium graveolens L  

Microsoft Academic Search

First generation (S1) progeny, second generation (S2) progeny, and backcross (BC) progeny of a celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) somaclonal variant, UC-T3, were evaluated for resistance to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. apii, race 2 (FOA2). Chisquare analysis of S1 progeny showed that the expression of resistance did not fit a single-locus model. S2 progeny means were similar

S. Heath-Pagliuso; L. Rappaport

1990-01-01

168

Bioaccumulation and Biovolatilisation of Pentavalent Arsenic by Penicillin   janthinellum , Fusarium   oxysporum and Trichoderma asperellum Under Laboratory Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some fungi are able to control and remediate arsenic (As)-contaminated soil, sediment, or water. Here, we investigate potential\\u000a accumulation and volatilisation of As by three fungi strains. Results indicated that the highest level of As was accumulated\\u000a by Penicillin\\u000a janthinellum with 39.54 ?g after 10 days in the culture system amended with 2,500 ?g As(V), which represents 50 mg\\/l As. Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum showed the

Shiming Su; Xibai Zeng; Lingyu Bai; Xiliang Jiang; Lianfang Li

2010-01-01

169

Linear mitochondrial plasmids of Fusarium oxysporum contain genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding a reverse transcriptase from Neurospora spp.  

PubMed Central

Two linear mitochondrial plasmids called pFOXC1 and pFOXC2 from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum were previously described. DNA sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequences of both plasmids exhibit similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the Mauriceville and Varkud plasmids of Neurospora spp. The derived amino acid sequence of pFOXC2 has 51% similarity and 32% identity to the Neurospora reverse transcriptase; sequence similarity was greatest for seven blocks of amino acids that are conserved in reverse transcriptases from a wide range of biological sources. Northern analysis suggests that full-length RNAs corresponding to the plasmids are found in representative isolates.

Kistler, H C; Benny, U; Powell, W A

1997-01-01

170

Constitutive expression, purification and characterization of a phosphoglucomutase from Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The phosphoglucomutase gene from a wild type Fusarium oxysporum strain (F3), was homologously expressed, under the control of the constitutive promoter of gpdA of Aspergillus nidulans. The transformant produced elevated levels of phosphoglucomutase activity compared to the wild type, a fact that facilitated the subsequent purification procedure. The enzyme (FoPGM) was purified to homogeneity applying three anion exchange and one gel filtration chromatography steps. The native enzyme revealed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 60 kDa, while the isoelectric point was 3.5. FoPGM was active in pH ranged from 6.0 to 8.0, with an optimum using 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid buffer at 7.0, while loss of activity was observed when phosphate buffer was used in the above mentioned pH range. The optimal temperature for activity was 45°C but the enzyme became unstable at temperatures above 40°C. FoPGM requires the presence of a divalent cation for its function with maximum activity being obtained with Co(2+). The apparent K(m) for Co(2+) was found to be 10 ?M. The enzyme was also active with other divalent metal ions such as Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Ni(2+) and Ca(2+) but to a lesser extent. The following kinetic constants were determined: v(max), 0.74 ?mol mg(protein)(-1)min(-1); k(cat), 44.2 min(-1); K(m)(G1P), 0.10mM; K(m)(G1,6 diP), 1.03 ?M; k(cat)/K(m)(G1P), 443 mM(-1)min(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)(G1,6 diP), 42,860 mM(-1)min(-1). The enzyme was considered to follow a Ping Pong substituted enzyme or enzyme isomerization mechanism. PMID:22112903

Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Anasontzis, George E; Mamma, Diomi; Topakas, Evangelos; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G; Christakopoulos, Paul

2010-12-01

171

Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

2013-01-01

172

Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. Treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived 'Novaria' banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (10(8) cfu/ml), significantly (P < 0.05) reduced wilt severity when the plantlets were inoculated with 10(4) spores/ml Foc race 4. The final disease severity index for leaf symptom (LSI) and rhizome discoloration (RDI) was reduced about 47 and 53%, respectively, in strain g10-treated plantlets compared to untreated plantlets. Reduction in disease incidence was not significant (P < 0.05) when plantlets were inoculated with a higher concentration (10(6) spores/ml) of Foc race 4. Rhizosphere population of strain g10 showed significant (P = 0.05) increase of more than 2-fold at the end of the 3rd week compared to the 2nd week after soil amendment with the antagonist. Although the level dropped, the rhizosphere population at the end of the 6th week was still nearly 2-fold higher than the level detected after 2 weeks. In contrast, the root-free population declined significantly (P = 0.05), nearly 4-fold after 6 weeks when compared to the level detected after 2 weeks. Neither growth-inhibiting nor growth-stimulating effects were observed in plantlets grown in strain g10-amended soil. PMID:15650871

Getha, K; Vikineswary, S; Wong, W H; Seki, T; Ward, A; Goodfellow, M

2005-01-14

173

In vitro efficacy of Hyptis suaveolens L. (Poit.) essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder & Hansen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyptis\\u000a suaveolens L. (Poit.) essential oil was tested in vitro on the growth and morphogenesis of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder & Hansen, which causes Fusarium corm rot and yellows in various susceptible cultivars of gladiolus. The fungitoxicity of the oil was measured by percentage radial growth inhibition using the poisoned food technique (PF)\\u000a and volatile activity assay (VA).

Abhishek Tripathi; Neeta Sharma; Vinay Sharma

2009-01-01

174

The ultrasound-assisted extraction and identification of antifungal substances from B. amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 suppressing Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The primary mechanism underlying antagonism among microorganisms is the production of antagonistic substances called antibiotics that inhibit the growth of pathogens. In this study, the antagonistic substances produced by the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 that had antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum were extracted and identified. The active antifungal substance was extracted from dried leavening with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using n -butanol as the extractant. HPLC/ESI-MS was performed to investigate the components of the extracts. The results of the study showed that the antimicrobial substances consisted of three homologues of the iturin A family with molecular weights of 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da and of two homologues of the fengycin family with molecular weights of 1477 and 1491 Da. The effects of ultrasonic treatment time, extraction time and extractant volume, three major methodological parameters, were also studied to determine the optimal conditions for extraction. Compared with traditional extraction techniques, UAE is a simple, cheap and environmentally friendly method that represents a new option for the isolation and identification of lipopeptides and other active compounds. These antifungal substances extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 will help us to understand its biocontrol mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:22581589

Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2012-05-14

175

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar ‘Brazilian’ in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of ‘Yueyoukang 1’ and ‘Brazilian’ and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that ‘Yueyoukang 1’ had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than ‘Brazilian’. Expression patterns of genes involved in ‘Plant-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in ‘Brazilian’ but down-regulated in ‘Yueyoukang 1’, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was found to differ from that in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4.

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

176

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4.  

PubMed

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1' was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar 'Brazilian' in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1'. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of 'Yueyoukang 1' and 'Brazilian' and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', especially at the first three time points, which suggested that 'Yueyoukang 1' had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than 'Brazilian'. Expression patterns of genes involved in 'Plant-pathogen interaction' and 'Plant hormone signal transduction' pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in 'Brazilian' but down-regulated in 'Yueyoukang 1', which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant 'Yueyoukang 1' was found to differ from that in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-09-23

177

A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion  

PubMed Central

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1–3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I–I3) in tomato. The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host. Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family. This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3.

Inami, Keigo; Yoshioka-Akiyama, Chizu; Morita, Yasuaki; Yamasaki, Mutsuko; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

178

NECROSIS- AND ETHYLENE-INDUCING PEPTIDE (NEP1) FROM FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM INDUCES A COMPLEX CASCADE OF TRANSCRIPTS ASSOCIATED WITH SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana with Nep1, a necrosis and ethylene inducing protein from Fusarium oxysporum, inhibited root growth and cotyledon development. Nep1 treatment also triggered cell death generating necrotic spots and caused breakdown of the chloroplast internal membrane structures. The...

179

Defense-related gene expression in susceptible and tolerant bananas ( Musa spp.) following inoculation with non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes and challenge with Radopholus similis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radopholus similis is a major pest of East African highland cooking bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda. Non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes, isolated from bananas in farmers’ fields, have shown potential to reduce R. similis numbers in tissue culture banana. The mechanism through which endophytes confer resistance to nematodes has previously been demonstrated to involve induced resistance. In this study, the expression

Pamela Paparu; Thomas Dubois; Danny Coyne; Altus Viljoen

2007-01-01

180

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR).  

PubMed

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10(-6) dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies. PMID:23961219

Mishra, Rupesh K; Pandey, Brajesh K; Muthukumar, M; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-11-10

181

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR)  

PubMed Central

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10?6 dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies.

Mishra, Rupesh K.; Pandey, Brajesh K.; Muthukumar, M.; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

182

Evaluations of Shorter Exposures of Contact Lens Cleaning Solutions against Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex and Fusarium solani Species Complex To Simulate Inappropriate Usage?  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis in contact lens users resulted in withdrawal of ReNu with MoistureLoc solution, although the exact cause of the outbreak remains enigmatic. We evaluated current and discontinued multipurpose cleaning solutions (MPSs; MoistureLoc, Equate, MultiPlus, and OptiFree Express) against plankton- and biofilm-derived cells of Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and F. solani species complex (FSSC). The methods included a traditional assay based on CFU counts and a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay based on percent cell subpopulation (PCS) stained with two fluorochromes (Sytox Red and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate). The tests were done with the respective manufacturers' recommended cleaning regimens (240 to 360 min) and under shorter exposures (15 to 60 min) to simulate inappropriate usage by the customers. FC assay measured PCS, which was available rapidly, in 5 to 7 h, whereas 24 to 48 h was needed for CFU counts, and there was good correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.97). FC assays allowed identification of injured fungal cells, which are likely to be missed with growth assays. In general, a time- and inoculum-dependent survival pattern was seen for both FOSC and FSSC cells, and biofilm-derived cells were more resistant than plankton-derived cells. MultiPlus and Equate produced 100% sterilization of fungi even under shorter exposures. However, biofilm FOSC and FSSC cells survived for up to 4 h in MoistureLoc solution and up to 6 h in OptiFree Express solution under shorter exposure times. This finding was enigmatic, as OptiFree Express is not associated with any outbreak of Fusarium keratitis. This study provides additional support for possible roles that improper lens cleaning regimens and fungal biofilms could play as predisposing factors for Fusarium keratitis.

Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

2011-01-01

183

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM COMPLEX INFERRED FROM GENE GENALOGIES & AFLP ANALYSES: EVIDENCE FOR THE RECENT DISPERSION OF A GEOGRAPHICALLY WIDESPREAD CLONAL LINEAGE & NOSOCOMIAL ORIG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi responsible for localized and systemic life-threatening opportunistic infections, respectively, in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients. Although members of this complex were isolate...

184

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants.

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-01-01

185

Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.  

PubMed

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

2011-12-07

186

Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1), 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2), and 20–40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X3). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions.

Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

2012-01-01

187

Shifts in banana root exudate profiles after colonization with the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162.  

PubMed

The non-pathogenic fungus Fusorium oxysporum strain Fo162 can efficiently colonize banana roots and reduce infecting by the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. It is assumed that the fungus triggers a systemic reaction in the plant, which is affecting the biochemical composition of the root exudates and is thus causing the reduction in nematode colonization. To characterize these shifts, a continuous flow experiment was set up to collect root metabolites on a matrix (XAD-4). Based on HPLC analysis, the extracts, collected from the XAD-4, showed no differences in the composition of the root exudates between plants colonized by the endophyte and the controls. However, the accumulation of several compounds differed significantly. When these extracts were used in a bioassay with Radopholus similis none of the sample-treatment combinations had a significant attracting or repelling effect on the nematodes. This experiment shows that non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 is able to upregulate the synthesis of at least some, so far unidentified compounds released by banana roots under hydroponic conditions. Further studies and optimization of the experimental setup are required to determine whether or not increase in metabolite concentration can affect nematode responses in vitro and ultimately in vivo. PMID:20222617

Kurtz, Andreas; Schouten, Alexander

2009-01-01

188

The I2C Family from the Wilt Disease Resistance Locus I2 Belongs to the Nucleotide Binding, Leucine-Rich Repeat Superfamily of Plant Resistance Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. fusarium oxysporum f sp 1ycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex 12C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the 12 F.

Naomi Ori; Yuval Eshed; Gernot Presting; Dani Zamir; Robert Fluhra

1997-01-01

189

Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium–mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2012-01-01

190

Researches on the Resistance to Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Dianthi in Carnation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trials have been undertaken in order to discover in carnations with sexual reproduction some resistances to Fusarium equivalent to those known previously in certain sorts of carnations with asexual propagation, such as Heidi. Only the resistance of hortic...

A. Silvy P. Pereau-Leroy

1977-01-01

191

Resistance of Polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai] to Fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.  

PubMed

Watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. Since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the Polish climate. This species is frequently at risk of Fusarium oxysporum infection. Between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of Polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. The test was conducted with the use of four isolates of F. oxysporum: three from Polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth from U.K. (F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum). In the three series of tests the control plants were Pannonia F(1) and Sugar Baby. No inbred line or hybrid was found to be highly resistant to the pathogen. However, it was possible to identify four lines and five hybrids showing a higher level of resistance as compared with the control. The level of hybrid resistance was determined by comparison with the parental genotypes. PMID:12080172

Swiader, Magdalena; Pro?czuk, Maria; Niemirowicz-Szczyt, Katarzyna

2002-01-01

192

A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.  

PubMed

A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-? gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ? 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction. PMID:23464901

Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

2013-08-01

193

Salicylic Acid Induced Insensitivity to Culture Filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi in the Calli of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) was used to induce insensitivity in the callus cultures of Zingiber officinale against culture filtrate (CF) of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi. The treatment of callus cultures with SA (104µM) prior to selection with CF of the pathogen-increased callus survival. Exogenous application of SA resulted in increased activity of peroxidase and ß-1,3-glucanase enzymes in the callus cultures. No

Prachi; Tilak R. Sharma; Brij M. Singh

2002-01-01

194

Soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in Musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in Musa acuminata roots exposed to cell wall-derived elicitor from the pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. cubense, race four, was investigated. The root tissue from the banana cultivar ‘Goldfinger’ was found to respond strongly and rapidly towards the elicitor through the increased synthesis of phenolic compounds. Following elicitation, the conjugated and

Ana R. F. D. C de Ascensao; Ian A Dubery

2003-01-01

195

Native soil bacteria isolates in Mexico exhibit a promising antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

PubMed

Sinaloa state accounts for 23% of Mexico's tomato production. One constraint on this important crop is the Fusarium crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which has been reported to reduce crop yield by up to 50%. In this study, we set out to identify bacterial populations which could be used to control this disease through natural antagonism. Five tomato rhizospheric soil samples were collected, dried for 1-week, and homogenized. Sub-samples were used to prepare an aqueous solution used to isolate microorganisms in pure cultures. Organisms were purified and grown separately, and used to generate a collection of 705 bacterial isolates. Thirty-four percent from this bank (254 strains) was screened against Forl, finding 27 bacteria displaying in vitro Forl growth inhibition levels from 5% to 60%. These isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and their 16Sr DNA sequences showed that they are closely related to seven species and they were putatively designated as: B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, B. megaterium, and B. pumilus. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Two B. subtilis isolates (144 and 151) and one B. cereus isolate (171) showed the best antagonistic potential against FCRRT when evaluated on seedlings. Plate and activity assays indicate that these isolates include a diverse repertoire of functional antagonistic traits that might explain their ability to control FCRRT. Moreover, bacteria showed partial hemolytic activity, and future research will be directed at ensuring that their application will be not harmful for humans and effective against Forl in greenhouse or field conditions. PMID:23417777

Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; López-Rivera, Raquel; Figueroa-Lopez, Alejandro Miguel; Mancera-López, María Elena; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Apodaca-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

2013-02-18

196

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In last few decades nanoparticles have attracted and emerged as a field in biomedical research due to their incredible applications. The current research was focused on extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell free culture supernatant of strain GP-23. It was found that the strain GP-23 belonged to Bacillus species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution, after 24 h it turned to brown color solution with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, EDX and AFM. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 7-21 nm. It was stable in aqueous solution for five months period of storage at room temperature under dark condition. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum at the concentration of 8 ?g ml(-1). The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide. PMID:23376272

Gopinath, V; Velusamy, P

2013-01-10

197

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and (1)H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. PMID:24066024

Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

2013-09-16

198

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and 1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis.

Kumar, Ashutosh; Patil, Deepak; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Ahmad, Absar

2013-01-01

199

Colonization of Tomato Root by Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains Inoculated Together and Separately into the Soil  

PubMed Central

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites.

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-01-01

200

A nuclear localization for Avr2 from Fusarium oxysporum is required to activate the tomato resistance protein I-2  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to promote host colonization. During infection of tomato xylem vessels, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes the Avr2 effector protein. Besides being a virulence factor, Avr2 is recognized intracellularly by the tomato I-2 resistance protein, resulting in the induction of host defenses. Here, we show that AVR2 is highly expressed in root- and xylem-colonizing hyphae three days post inoculation of roots. Co-expression of I-2 with AVR2 deletion constructs using agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves revealed that, except for the N-terminal 17 amino acids, the entire AVR2 protein is required to trigger I-2-mediated cell death. The truncated Avr2 variants are still able to form homo-dimers, showing that the central region of Avr2 is required for dimerization. Simultaneous production of I-2 and Avr2 chimeras carrying various subcellular localization signals in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that a nuclear localization of Avr2 is required to trigger I-2-dependent cell death. Nuclear exclusion of Avr2 prevented its activation of I-2, suggesting that Avr2 is recognized by I-2 in the nucleus.

Ma, Lisong; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.; Takken, Frank L. W.

2013-01-01

201

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last few decades nanoparticles have attracted and emerged as a field in biomedical research due to their incredible applications. The current research was focused on extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell free culture supernatant of strain GP-23. It was found that the strain GP-23 belonged to Bacillus species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution, after 24 h it turned to brown color solution with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HRTEM, EDX and AFM. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 7-21 nm. It was stable in aqueous solution for five months period of storage at room temperature under dark condition. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum at the concentration of 8 ?g ml-1. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antifungal agent/fungicide.

Gopinath, V.; Velusamy, P.

2013-04-01

202

Immunohistochemical analysis of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in the roots of resistant and susceptible wax gourd cultivars in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Benincasae infection and fusaric acid treatment.  

PubMed

Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) play a defensive role in host-pathogen interactions. However, specific roles of individual HRGPs in plant defense against pathogen are poorly understood. Changes in extracellular distribution and abundance of individual cell wall HRGPs were investigated on root sections of two wax gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) cultivars (Fusarium wilt resistant and susceptible, respectively), which were analyzed by immunolabelling with 20 monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) after being inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Benincasae or treated with fusaric acid (FA). These analyses revealed the following: (1) The levels of JIM11 and JIM20 interacting extensins were higher in the resistant cultivar. Either treatment caused a dramatic decrease in signal in both cultivars, but some new signal appeared in the rhizodermis. (2) The AGPs or rhamnogalacturonan containing CCRCM7-epitope were enhanced in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible one by either treatment. (3) Either treatment caused a slight increase in the levels of the AGPs recognized by LM2 and JIM16, but there were no differences between two cultivars. (4) The MAC204 signal nearly disappeared after FA treatment, but this was not the case with pathogen attack. (5) The LM14 signal slightly decreased after both treatments in both cultivars, but a less decrease was observed with the resistant cultivar. These results indicate that the CCRCM7 epitope likely contributed to the resistance of wax gourd to this pathogen, and JIM11 and JIM20 interacting extensins as well as LM2, LM14, MAC204 and JIM16 interacting AGPs were involved in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:21505833

Xie, Dasen; Ma, Li; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

2011-04-20

203

Influence of pH, nutrient solution disinfestation and antagonists application in a closed soilless system on severity of fusarium wilt of gerbera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials were carried out during the years 2002–2005 at the Agricultural Experimental Center of Albenga (northern Italy)\\u000a on gerbera plants grown in a closed soilless system. The efficacy of slow sand filtration and UV treatment in eliminatingFusarium oxysporum f.sp.chrysanthemi (Foc) propagules, naturally present or artificially added to the recirculating nutrient solution, was evaluated. These techniques\\u000a were tested alone and

A. Minuto; L. Gaggero; M. L. Gullino; A. Garibaldi

2008-01-01

204

Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. Treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived ‘Novaria’ banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (108 cfu\\/ml), significantly (P4 spores\\/ml Foc race 4. The final disease severity index for leaf symptom (LSI) and rhizome discoloration

K. Getha; S. Vikineswary; W. H. Wong; T. Seki; A. Ward; M. Goodfellow

2005-01-01

205

Vibrational, 1H-NMR spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.  

PubMed

Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) and IR (FTIR) and (1)H-NMR spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (Spic Span and White Prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. This work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. Spectroscopic analysis showed that White Prosperity root exudate differs from Spic Span root exudate by a higher relative amount of the aromatic-phenolic and sugarlike components and a lower relative amount of carbonylic and aliphatic compounds. DSC analysis confirmed the spectroscopic results and showed that White Prosperity root exudate is characterized by an aromatic component that is present in a higher amount than in the Spic Span root exudate. The results are discussed in relation to the spore germination tests showing that White Prosperity, which is characterized by a remarkable resistance toward F. oxysporum gladioli, exudes substances having a negative influence on microconidial germination of the pathogen; root exudates from Spic Span, one of the most susceptible cultivars to F. oxysporum gladioli, proved to have no effect. White Prosperity's ability to inhibit conidial germination of F. oxysporum gladioli can be mainly related to the presence of a higher relative amount of aromatic-phenolic compounds. PMID:12209451

Taddei, P; Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Dallavalle, E; Zechini D'Aulerio, A

2002-01-01

206

Identification of two GH27 bifunctional proteins with beta-L-arabinopyranosidase/alpha-D-galactopyranosidase activities from Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Two distinct extracellular bifunctional proteins with beta-L-arabinopyranosidase/alpha-D-galactopyranosidase activities were purified from the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum 12S. The molecular masses of the enzymes were estimated to be 55 (Fo/AP1) and 73 kDa (Fo/AP2) by SDS-PAGE. They hydrolyzed both p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside with different specificities. Fo/AP1 also showed low activity towards alpha-D-galactopyranosyl oligosaccharides such as raffinose. Interestingly, both enzymes hydrolyzed larch wood arabinogalactan (releasing arabinose) but not carob galactomannan, which has alpha-D-galactopyranosyl side chains. When larch wood arabinogalactan was incubated with excess Fo/AP1 or Fo/AP2, both enzymes released approximately 10% of the total arabinose in the substrate. cDNAs encoding Fo/AP1 and Fo/AP2 (Foap1 and Foap2) were isolated by in vitro cloning. The coding sequences of Foap1 and Foap2 genes were 1,647 and 1,620 bp in length and encode polypeptides of 549 and 540 amino acids, respectively. The N-terminal halves of both proteins had high similarity to putative conserved domains of the melibiase superfamily (Pfam account number 02065). The deduced amino acid sequences of the two enzymes indicate that they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 27. Moreover, the C-terminal regions of both proteins contain a putative family 35 carbohydrate-binding module. PMID:19937437

Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Tsujitani, Yuya; Fukamachi, Keiko; Taniguchi, Yuya; Ihara, Hideshi

2009-11-25

207

Ability of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Fo47 To Induce Resistance against Pythium ultimum Infection in Cucumber  

PubMed Central

The influence exerted by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by Pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of Pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of cellulose with an exoglucanase-gold complex showed that the cellulose component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. A similar antagonistic process was observed at the root cell surface. Most striking and interesting was the finding that mycoparasitism, as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of Fo47 hyphae within nearly empty cells of the pathogen, occurred not only at the root surface but also within the invaded root tissues. The specific labeling pattern obtained with the exoglucanase-gold complex confirmed that Fo47 successfully penetrated cells of the pathogen, both in the rhizosphere and inside the root tissues. Pythium cells that could evade the first defensive line in the rhizosphere could penetrate the root epidermis, but their growth was restricted to the outermost tissues. Positive correlations between Fo47 treatment and induced resistance to infection by P. ultimum in cucumber were confirmed by (i) the reduction of pathogen viability; (ii) the elaboration of newly formed barriers, a phenomenon which was not seen in Fo47-free plants, where the pathogen proliferated in all root tissues within a few days; and (iii) the occlusion of intercellular spaces with a dense material likely enriched in phenolics. Taken together, our observations provide the first convincing evidence that Fo47 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on P. ultimum through a combination of antibiosis and mycoparasitism, in addition to being a strong inducer of plant defense reactions.

Benhamou, Nicole; Garand, Chantal; Goulet, Alain

2002-01-01

208

Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections. PMID:23853581

Leal, Sixto M; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

2013-07-11

209

Effects of root-dip treatment with certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-dip application of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum resulted in significant decline in the rhizosphere population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. A significant decrease in the severity of wilt occurred with A. awamori (37.1%) and P. digitatum (21.3%) compared to the control. Root-dip treatment with the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms tested resulted in significant

Mujeebur Rahman Khan; Shahana Majid Khan

2002-01-01

210

fost12, the Fusarium oxysporum homolog of the transcription factor Ste12, is upregulated during plant infection and required for virulence.  

PubMed

We have identified a Fusarium oxysporum homolog of the Ste12 transcription factor that regulates mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The corresponding gene, fost12, from a highly virulent strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli, was confirmed to share a high level of similarity and possessed the STE and C2H2 domains characteristic of the fungal Ste12 transcription factor family of proteins. Disruption of fost12 resulted in no visible alterations of colony morphology or in vitro growth characteristics. However, the disruption mutants showed a substantial reduction in virulence when inoculated in common bean seedlings. In planta transcription of fost12 is drastically increased between 12 and 24h after inoculation, as detected by real-time RT-PCR. The results of the transcriptional analyses carried out in several F. oxysporum strains during axenic growth suggest that the fost12 gene product is a virulence factor required to deal with the nutritional stress confronted by the pathogen during host plant colonization. PMID:19941968

Asunción García-Sánchez, M; Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Ramos, Brisa; de Vega-Bartol, José J; Perlin, Michael H; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

2009-11-23

211

p-Coumaric Acid Influenced Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities and the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen  

PubMed Central

Background Autotoxicity of cucumber root exudates or decaying residues may be the cause of the soil sickness of cucumber. However, how autotoxins affect soil microbial communities is not yet fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The aims of this study were to study the effects of an artificially applied autotoxin of cucumber, p-coumaric acid, on cucumber seedling growth, rhizosphere soil microbial communities, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (a soil-borne pathogen of cucumber) growth. Abundance, structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed with real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods. Soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C (MBC) were determined to indicate the activity and size of the soil microflora. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (0.1–1.0 µmol/g soil) decreased cucumber leaf area, and increased soil dehydrogenase activity, MBC and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community abundances. p-Coumaric acid also changed the structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, with increases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and fungal taxa Sordariomycete, Zygomycota, and decreases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and fungal taxon Pezizomycete. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased Fusarium oxysporum population densities in soil. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that p-coumaric acid may play a role in the autotoxicity of cucumber via influencing soil microbial communities.

Zhou, Xingang; Wu, Fengzhi

2012-01-01

212

DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence ``Palm''  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide collection, of 76 F. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (Foe), and of 21 F. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by RFLP. As a probe, we used a random DNA fragment (probe 46) from\\u000a a genomic library of a Foe isolate. This probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed

I. Mouyna; J. L. Renard; Y. Brygoo

1996-01-01

213

Pathogenic Fungi and Soil Conditions Causing Root Rot and Wilt Disease Complex during Acclimatization of Tissue Culture-Derived Banana Plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

hizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from banana plantlets produced via tissue culture technique showing root rot-wilt complex disease. Isolation from culture soil mixture under banana plantlets resulted in fungal isolates identical to those isolated from diseased plantlets. These isolates proved to be pathogenic to banana plants causing complex disease symptoms. In vitro test, Rizolex-T and Topsin-M at 200

M. M. Abdel-Kader; M. K. El-Bahr; Nehal S. El-Mougy

214

Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP,

Lihua Chen; Xingming Yang; Waseem Raza; Jia Luo; Fengge Zhang; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

215

Search for Cell Motility and Angiogenesis Inhibitors with Potential Anticancer Activity: Beauvericin and Other Constituents of Two Endophytic Strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Wound healing assay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc extract of the fungal strain, Fusarium oxysporum EPH2RAA endophytic in Ephedra fasciculata afforded beauvericin (1), (?)-oxysporidinone (2), and two new N-methyl-2-pyridones, (?)-4,6?-anhydrooxysporidinone (3) and (?)-6-deoxyoxysporidinone (4). Beauvericin (1) inhibited migration of the metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells and showed anti-angiogenic activity in HUVEC-2 cells at sublethal concentrations. Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of an EtOAc extract of F. oxysporum strain CECIS occurring in Cylindropuntia echinocarpus afforded rhodolamprometrin (5), bikaverin (6), and the new natural product 6-deoxybikaverin (7). All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of four sentinel cancer cell lines, NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung), MIA Pa Ca-2 (pancreatic carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast), and SF-268 (CNS glioma), and only beauvericin (1) and bikaverin (6) were active with 1 and 6 showing selective toxicity toward NCI-H460 and MIA Pa Ca-2, respectively. Interestingly, 6-deoxybikaverin (7) was completely devoid of activity suggesting the requirement of the C?6 hydroxy group of bikaverin for its cytotoxic activity.

Zhan, Jixun; Burns, Anna M.; Liu, Manping X.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

2012-01-01

216

Screening of Resistance Genes to Fusarium Root Rot and Fusarium wilt Diseases in F3 family Lines of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using RAPD and CAPs Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium diseases constitute most of the loss in tomato production worldwide, because it spread on all geographic fields that it is so hard to find a place without Fusarium infestation. Thus, the best way to produce tomato is developing resistant cultivars against Fusarium species. In cultivar developing, molecular marker assisted techniques replaced traditional breeding techniques which are high cost and

Cengiz Akkale; Bahattin Tanyolaç

217

Other Fusarium - Associated Problems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, other species of Fusarium can infect sugar beet and cause foliar yellowing, root rot, or other symptoms. The importance of many of these problems is not well understood. This chapter discusses some of what is know...

218

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-Enriched Bio-organic Fertilizer Suppressed Fusarium Wilt and Promoted the Growth of Banana Plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-10

219

Biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes are influenced by the structural complexity of the nitrogen source in Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The structural complexity of the nitrogen sources strongly affects biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in filamentous fungi. Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus nidulans were grown in media containing glucose or starch, and supplemented with a nitrogen source varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids), peptides (peptone) and protein (gelatin). In glucose, when the initial pH was adjusted to 5.0, for both microorganisms, higher biomass production occurred upon supplementation with a nitrogen source in the peptide form (peptone and gelatin). With a close to neutrality pH, biomass accumulation was lower only in the presence of the ammonium salt. When grown in starch, biomass accumulation and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (amylolytic and proteolytic) by Fusarium also depended on the nature of the nitrogen supplement and the pH. When the initial pH was adjusted to 5.0, higher growth and higher amylolytic activities were detected in the media supplemented with peptone, gelatin and casamino acids. However, at pH 7.0, higher biomass accumulation and higher amylolytic activities were observed upon supplementation with peptone or gelatin. Ammonium sulfate and casamino acids induced a lower production of biomass, and a different level of amylolytic enzyme secretion: high in ammonium sulfate and low in casamino acids. Secretion of proteolytic activity was always higher in the media supplemented with peptone and gelatin. Aspergillus, when grown in starch, was not as dependent as Fusarium on the nature of nitrogen source or the pH. The results described in this work indicate that the metabolism of fungi is regulated not only by pH, but also by the level of structural complexity of the nitrogen source in correlation to the carbon source. PMID:11688213

da Silva, M C; Bertolini, M C; Ernandes, J R

2001-01-01

220

Antagonistic bacteria of composted agro-industrial residues exhibit antibiosis against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and protection of tomato plants from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizospheric and root-associated\\/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from tomato plants grown in three suppressive compost-based\\u000a plant growth media derived from the olive mill, winery and Agaricus bisporus production agro-industries. Forty-four (35 rhizospheric and 9 RAE) out of 329 bacterial strains showed in vitro antagonistic\\u000a activity against at least one of the soil-borne fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), F.

Nektarios Kavroulakis; Spyridon Ntougias; Maria I. Besi; Pelagia Katsou; Athanasia Damaskinou; Constantinos Ehaliotis; Georgios I. Zervakis; Kalliope K. Papadopoulou

2010-01-01

221

Characterization of disease resistance gene candidates of the nucleotide binding site (NBS) type from banana and correlation of a transcriptional polymorphism with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins with a nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat structure (NBS-LRR).\\u000a In this study, degenerate primers were used to amplify genomic NBS-type sequences from wild banana (Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis) plants resistant to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis (f. sp.) cubense (FOC) race 4. Five different classes of NBS-type sequences were

Santy Peraza-Echeverria; James L. Dale; Rob M. Harding; Mike K. Smith; Chris Collet

2008-01-01

222

Construction of a linkage map and identification of DNA markers linked to Fom-1 , a gene conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis race 2 in melon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis race 2 is conferred by a single dominant gene, Fom-1 in melon. Here, we identified DNA markers tightly linked to Fom-1 that could be used for marker assisted selection in breeding programs. First, we developed 125 F2 plants derived from the cross between melon lines P11 (fom-1fom-1) and MR-1 (Fom-1Fom-1). Using the F2 population,

Takahiro Tezuka; Keisuke Waki; Kazutoshi Yashiro; Maki Kuzuya; Tomoko Ishikawa; Yasumasa Takatsu; Makoto Miyagi

2009-01-01

223

Genetic structure of soil population of fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.: Fr.: Molecular reidentification of the species and genetic differentiation of isolates using polymerase chain reaction technique with universal primers (UP-PCR)  

SciTech Connect

The genetic structure of three soil populations of fungus Fusarium oxysporum was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers (UP-PCR). Distinct UP-PCR variants revealed by means of cross-dot hybridization of amplified DNA and restriction analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA represent subspecies or sibling species of F. oxysporum. The remaining isolates of F. oxysporum showed moderate UP-PCR polymorphism characterized by numerous types, whose relatedness was analyzed by computer treatment of the UP-PCR patterns. The genetic distance trees based on the UP-PCR patterns, which were obtained with different universal primers, demonstrated similar topology. This suggests that evolutionarily important genome rearrangements correlatively occur within the entire genome. Isolates representing different UP-PCR polymorphisms were encountered in all populations, being distributed asymmetrically in two of these. In general, soil populations of F. oxysporum were represented by numerous genetically isolated groups with a similar genome structure. The genetic heterogeneity of the isolates within these groups is likely to be caused by the parasexual process. The usefulness of the UP-PCR technique for population studies of F. oxysporum was demonstrated. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Bulat, S.A. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Mironenko, N.V. [All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin (Russian Federation); Zholkevich, Yu.G. [Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Kiev (Ukraine)

1995-07-01

224

A 2S albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds inhibits the fungal growth and acidification of the medium by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial proteins have been isolated from a wide range of plant species. More recently, it has become increasingly clear that these types of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants. In this study, we investigate the presence of defense-related proteins from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds. Initially, seed flour was extracted for 2h (at 4 degrees C) with phosphate buffer, pH 5.5. The precipitate obtained between 0 and 70% relative ammonium sulfate saturation was re-dissolved in distilled water and heated at 80 degrees C for 15 min. The resulting suspension was clarified by centrifugation and the supernatant (F/0-70) was extensively dialyzed. A Sephadex G-50 size exclusion column was employed for further separation of proteins. The fraction with antifungal activity was pooled and submitted to CM-Sepharose cation exchange. Two proteins, named Pf1 and Pf2, were eluted in 0.1 and 0.2M of salt, respectively, and submitted to reverse-phase chromatography in HPLC. This fraction inhibited the growth, in an in vitro assay, of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and colletotrichum lindemuthianum and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and strongly inhibited glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by F. oxysporum in a dose-dependent manner. The molecular masses of these proteins, referred to now as Pf1-RP and Pf2-RP, were obtained by MALDI-TOF spectrometry and corresponded to 12,088 Da for Pf1-RP and 11,930 Da for Pf2-RP. These proteins were also subjected to automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Sequence comparisons for the heavy subunit of Pf2-RP showed the presence of a protein with a high degree of homology to storage 2S albumins. PMID:12893296

Agizzio, Ana Paula; Carvalho, André O; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima F; Machado, Olga L T; Alves, Elias W; Okorokov, Lev A; Samarăo, Solange S; Bloch, Carlos; Prates, Maura V; Gomes, Valdirene M

2003-08-15

225

The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum. PMID:22923110

Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

2012-08-25

226

Antagonistic effects of several bacteria on Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of root and crown rot of onion under field conditions.  

PubMed

Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most important vegetable crop which is commonly used as a food supplement. This plant is found to be vulnerable to various pathogenic infections during its growth development. Among different onion diseases, root and crown rot,caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepa, s considered an importantfungal disease. In this study, the inhibitory effect of Bacillus cereus (isolates 22 and 52), B. subtilis (isolate 126), Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolates 48 and CHAO), benomyl fungicide and a combination of isolates CHAO and 22 and isolate 52 and benomyl were investigated on disease development under the field condition. This experiment was carried out in a randomize complete blocks with 10 treatments and three repetitions. Grouping of treatments was done at 5% level using Duncan multiple comparison test. It was also demonstrated that isolate 126 was the most effective antagonist with regard to crop yield but other treatments despite showing significant on plant growth factors were less effective in increasing crop yield. PMID:15756854

Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Saberi-Riseh, R; Heidarian, R

2004-01-01

227

Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, Lukasz; Naro?na, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-07-25

228

Identification and characterization of an anti-fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium protease from the Bacillus subtilis strain N7.  

PubMed

A newly discovered alkaline antifungal protease named P6 from Bacillus subtilis N7 was purified and partially characterized. B. subtilis N7 culture filtrates were purified by 30-60% (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single band of 41.38 kDa. Peptide sequence of protease P6 was determined using a 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOF™ Analyzer System. Self-Formed Adaptor PCR (SEFA-PCR) was used to amplify the 1,149 bp open read frame of P6. Dimensional structure prediction using Automatic Modeling Mode software showed that the protease P6 consisted of two ?-barrel domains. Purified P6 strongly inhibited spore and mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerium (FOC) by causing hypha lysis when the concentration was 25 ?g/ml. Characterization of the purified protease indicated that it had substrate specificity for gelatin and was highly active at pH 8.0-10.6 and 70°C. The P6 protease was inhibited by EDTA (2 mmol/L), phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 1 mmol/L), Na(+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+) (5 mmol/L each) and H2O2 (2%, v/v). However, protease activity was activated by Ca(2+), K(+), Mn(2+) (5 mmol/L each), mercaptoethanol (2%, v/v) and Tween 80 (1%, v/v). In addition, activity was also affected by organic solvents such as acetone, normal butanol and ethanol, but not hexane (25%, v/v each). PMID:23812816

Luo, Yi; Sun, Lifei; Zhu, Zhen; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2013-06-28

229

De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. Results We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from banana roots infected with Foc Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR 4) at days 0, 2, 4, and 6. We generated over 26 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library using deep sequencing and assembled 25,158 distinct gene sequences by de novo assembly and gap-filling. The average distinct gene sequence length was 1,439 base pairs. A total of 21,622 (85.94%) unique sequences were annotated and 11,611 were assigned to specific metabolic pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used digital gene expression (DGE) profiling to investigate the transcriptional changes in the banana root upon Foc TR4 infection. The expression of genes in the Phenylalanine metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathways was affected by Foc TR4 infection. Conclusion The combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the banana root transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes during the response of banana genes to Foc TR4 infection. The assembled banana transcriptome provides an important resource for future investigations about the banana crop as well as the diseases that plague this valuable staple food.

2012-01-01

230

Necrosis- and Ethylene-Inducing Peptide from Fusarium oxysporum Induces a Complex Cascade of Transcripts Associated with Signal Transduction and Cell Death in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with a necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide (Nep1) from Fusarium oxysporum inhibited both root and cotyledon growth and triggered cell death, thereby generating necrotic spots. Nep1-like proteins are produced by divergent microbes, many of which are plant pathogens. Nep1 in the plant was localized to the cell wall and cytosol based on immunolocalization results. The ratio of chlorophyll a fluorescence (F685 nm/F730 nm) significantly decreased after 75-min treatment with Nep1 in comparison to the control. This suggested that a short-term compensation of photosynthesis occurred in response to localized damage to cells. The concentrations of most water-soluble metabolites analyzed were reduced in Arabidopsis seedlings after 6 h of Nep1 treatment, indicating that the integrity of cellular membranes had failed. Microarray results showed that short-term treatment with Nep1 altered expression of numerous genes encoding proteins putatively localized to organelles, especially the chloroplast and mitochondria. Short-term treatment with Nep1 induced multiple classes of genes involved in reactive oxygen species production, signal transduction, ethylene biosynthesis, membrane modification, apoptosis, and stress. Quantitative PCR was used to confirm the induction of genes localized in the chloroplast, mitochondria, and plasma membrane, and genes responsive to calcium/calmodulin complexes, ethylene, jasmonate, ethylene biosynthesis, WRKY, and cell death. The majority of Nep1-induced genes has been associated with general stress responses but has not been critically linked to resistance to plant disease. These results are consistent with Nep1 facilitating cell death as a component of diseases caused by necrotrophic plant pathogens.

Bae, Hanhong; Kim, Moon S.; Sicher, Richard C.; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Bailey, Bryan A.

2006-01-01

231

Fusaric Acid-Producing Strains of Fusarium oxysporum Alter 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 In Vitro and in the Rhizosphere of Wheat  

PubMed Central

The phytotoxic pathogenicity factor fusaric acid (FA) represses the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), a key factor in the antimicrobial activity of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. FA production by 12 Fusarium oxysporum strains varied substantially. We measured the effect of FA production on expression of the phlACBDE biosynthetic operon of strain CHA0 in culture media and in the wheat rhizosphere by using a translational phlA?-?lacZ fusion. Only FA-producing F. oxysporum strains could suppress DAPG production in strain CHA0, and the FA concentration was strongly correlated with the degree of phlA repression. The repressing effect of FA on phlA?-?lacZ expression was abolished in a mutant that lacked the DAPG pathway-specific repressor PhlF. One FA-producing strain (798) and one nonproducing strain (242) of F. oxysporum were tested for their influence on phlA expression in CHA0 in the rhizosphere of wheat in a gnotobiotic system containing a sand and clay mineral-based artificial soil. F. oxysporum strain 798 (FA+) repressed phlA expression in CHA0 significantly, whereas strain 242 (FA?) did not. In the phlF mutant CHA638, phlA expression was not altered by the presence of either F. oxysporum strain 242 or 798. phlA expression levels were seven to eight times higher in strain CHA638 than in the wild-type CHA0, indicating that PhlF limits phlA expression in the wheat rhizosphere.

Notz, Regina; Maurhofer, Monika; Dubach, Helen; Haas, Dieter; Defago, Genevieve

2002-01-01

232

The grafting of triploid watermelon is an advantageous alternative to soil fumigation by methyl bromide for control of Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield and fruit characteristics of grafted plants of the ‘Reina de Corazones’ watermelon cultivar (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai), grown in Fusarium-infestated soils, were determined in a series of experiments performed in the 8-year period 1993–2000. The experiments were performed in the coastal area south Valencia, Spain, in soils with a clay content ranging from 16 to 38%. Plant

A. Miguel; J. V. Maroto; A. San Bautista; C. Baixauli; V. Cebolla; B. Pascual; S. López; J. L. Guardiola

2004-01-01

233

A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on populations from Kabuli x Desi crosses: location of genes for resistance to fusarium wilt race 0.  

PubMed

Two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from intraspecific crosses with a common parental line (JG62) were employed to develop a chickpea genetic map. Molecular markers, flower colour, double podding, seed coat thickness and resistance to fusarium wilt race 0 (FOC-0) were included in the study. Joint segregation analysis involved a total of 160 markers and 159 RILs. Ten linkage groups (LGs) were obtained that included morphological markers and 134 molecular markers (3 ISSRs, 13 STMSs and 118 RAPDs). Flower colour (B/b) and seed coat thickness (Tt/tt) appeared to be linked to STMS (GAA47). The single-/double-podding locus was located on LG9 jointly with two RAPD markers and STMS TA80. LG3 included a gene for resistance to FOC-0 (Foc0(1)/foc0(1)) flanked by RAPD marker OPJ20(600) and STMS marker TR59. The association of this LG with FOC-0 resistance was confirmed by QTL analysis in the CA2139 x JG62 RIL population where two genes were involved in the resistance reaction. The STMS markers enabled comparison of LGs with preceding maps. PMID:15806343

Cobos, M J; Fernández, M J; Rubio, J; Kharrat, M; Moreno, M T; Gil, J; Millán, T

2005-04-02

234

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases.

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

235

DIVERSITY IN FUSARIUM FROM SUGAR BEET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows of sugar beet can cause reductions in root yield in addition to reducing sucrose percentage and purity in the root. The primary causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), although F. acuminatum can cause Fusarium yellows symptoms. Fusarium species also can cause root r...

236

Potassium Selectivity in Transported Volcanic Soils (Sorribas) under Banana Cultivation in Relation to Banana-Wilt Expression Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases for the microbiological nature of certain soils to suppress plant diseases caused by soil pathogens are well established. However, the microbial origin of the suppressiveness does not exclude edaphic factors and soil-management strategies, which need to be studied under field conditions. With respect to abiotic factors, we investigated the importance of potassium (K) selectivity on soil conduciveness and

Julia D. Domínguez-Hernández; Miguel A. Negrín-Medina; Carmen M. Rodríguez-Hernández

2010-01-01

237

Isolation and characterisation of fusaricidin-type compound-producing strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 active against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. nevium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy watermelon plants in a heavily wilt-diseased field. This isolate\\u000a was tentatively identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa (SQR-21) based on biochemical tests and partial 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The purified antifungal compounds were members\\u000a of the fusaricidin group of cyclic depsipeptides having molecular masses of 883, 897, 947, and 961 Da with an

Waseem Raza; Xingming Yang; Hongsheng Wu; Yang Wang; Yangchun Xu; Qirong Shen

2009-01-01

238

Wilted plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this muskmelon plant has wilted from a bacterial infection, plants can wilt for other reasons and look just like this one. Plants can be over-watered and under-watered. Plants have a range of tolerance in which they can grow. Plants also have an optimum amount of water they can receive and take up. They grow best in their optimum condition.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-31

239

Genome-wide analysis of the Fusarium oxysporum mimp family of MITEs and mobilization of both native and de novo created mimps.  

PubMed

We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the mimp family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements, taking advantage of the recent release of the F. oxysporum genome sequence. Using different approaches, we detected 103 mimp elements, corresponding to 75 nonredundant copies, half of which are located on a single small chromosome. Phylogenetic analysis identified at least six subfamilies, all remarkably homogeneous in size and sequence. Based on high sequence identity in the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), mimp elements were connected to different impala members. To gain insights into the mechanisms at the origin and amplification of mimps, we studied the potential of impala to cross-mobilize different mimps, native but also created de novo by inserting a short DNA segment between two TIRs. Our results show that TIR sequences are the main requirement for mobilization but that additional parameters in the internal region are likely to influence transposition efficiency. Finally, we show that integration site preference of native versus newly transposed mimps greatly varies in the host genomes used in this study. PMID:18982380

Bergemann, Mara; Lespinet, Olivier; M'Barek, Sarrah Ben; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Dufresne, Marie

2008-12-01

240

Detection of Extracellular enzymes Activities in Various Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Thirty seven species of Fusarium were evaluated for their ability of producing extracellular enzymes using chromogenic medium containing substrates such as starch, cellobiose, CM-cellulose, xylan, and pectin. Among the tested species Fusarium mesoamericanum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. acuminatum showed high ?-glucosidase acitivity. Xylanase activity was strongly detected in F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Strong pectinase activity was also found in F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Amylase activity was apparent in F. oxysporum. No clear activity in cellulase was found from all the Fusarium species tested. PMID:24015090

Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yoon, Ji Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Cheon, Youngah; Ko, Seung Ju

2007-09-30

241

Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato in Florida Using Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate commercial formulations of two beneficial fungi, Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices, for the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Tomato seeds cv. \\

L. E. Datnoff; S. Nemec; K. Pernezny

1995-01-01

242

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

2013-03-28

243

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field.

2013-01-01

244

Biological control of the potato dry rot caused by Fusarium species using PGPR strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a total of 17 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, consisting of eight different species (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus macerans and Flavobacter balastinium), were tested for antifungal activity in in vitro (on Petri plate) and in vivo (on potato tuber) conditions against Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium

Kotan Recep; Sahin Fikrettin; Demirci Erkol; Eken Cafer

2009-01-01

245

THE ROLE OF MAP KINASE IN FUSARIUM ASSOCIATION WITH CONTACT LENSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani is a soil-borne pathogen devastating agricultural crops throughout the world. While most pathogens are host specific, the fusaria are able to infect both plants and animals. In 2004, an outbreak of Fusarium occurred in association with contact lens wear. Several species of Fusarium were involved but F. solani and F. oxysporum were most prominent. In this work, we

BROOK ALICIA DANBOISE

246

DIVERSITY IN FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH SUGAR BEET DISEASE IN THE FIELD.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have identified at least five Fusarium species that can cause Fusarium yellows of sugar beet, although the primary causal agent is F. oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB). In addition, Fusarium species can cause sugar beet root rot or seedling damping-off. Some strains of FOB also infect spinach and so...

247

Fusarium Race 4: Commercial cultivar screening for resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt (FOV) of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the past, damage from Fusarium has been notable only in areas with the combination of: (a) moderate to high populations of one or more sp...

248

Is fusaric acid a wilt toxin in maize?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) was first discovered during the laboratory culture of Fusarium heterosporum, was one of the first fungal metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of wilt symptoms of plants especially under adverse conditions. In addition to a primary role in plant pathogenesi...

249

Fusarium Race 4: Management Recommendations for Growers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past five to seven years, race 4 of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum spp. vasinfectum (race 4 FOV) has been widely studied and has increasingly impacted cotton fields in California’s San Joaquin Valley. Findings from field and greenhouse research and observations can be summarized as:...

250

Effects of water potential on spore germination and viability of Fusarium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of macroconidia and\\/or microconidia of 24 strains of Fusarium solani, F. chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. verticillioides, F. sambucinum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum isolated from fluvial channels and sea beds of the south-eastern coast of Spain, and three control strains (F. oxysporum isolated from affected cultures) was studied in distilled water in response to a range of

D. Palmero Llamas; M. de Cara Gonzalez; C. Iglesias Gonzalez; G. Ruíz Lopez; J. C. Tello Marquina

2008-01-01

251

Fusarium infections of the skin.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are ubiquitous and may be found in the soil, air and on plants. Fusarium species can cause mycotoxicosis in humans following ingestion of food that has been colonized by the fungal organism. In humans, Fusarium species can also cause disease that is localized, focally invasive or disseminated. The pathogen generally affects immunocompromised individuals with infection of immunocompetent persons being rarely reported. Localized infection includes septic arthritis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, cystitis and brain abscess. In these situations relatively good response may be expected following appropriate surgery and oral antifungal therapy. Disseminated infection occurs when two or more noncontiguous sites are involved. Over eighty cases have been reported, many of which had a hematologic malignancy including neutropenia. The species most commonly involved include Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium moniliforme (also termed F. verticillioides). The diagnosis of Fusarium infection may be made on histopathology, gram stain, mycology, blood culture, or serology. Portals of entry of disseminated infection include the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and cutaneous sites.The skin can be an important and an early clue to diagnosis since cutaneous lesions may be observed at an early stage of the disease and in about seventy-five cases of disseminated Fusarium infection. Typical skin lesions may be painful red or violaceous nodules, the center of which often becomes ulcerated and covered by a black eschar. The multiple necrotizing lesions are often observed on the trunk and the extremities. Onychomycosis most commonly due to F. oxysporum or F. solani has been reported. The onychomycosis may be of several types: distal and lateral subungual (DLSO), white superficial (WSO), and proximal subungual (PSO). In proximal subungual onychomycosis there may be associated leukonychia and/or periungual inflammation. Patients with Fusarium onychomycosis have been cured following therapy with itraconazole, terbinafine, ciclopirox olamine lacquer, or topical antifungal agent. In other instances nail avulsion plus antifungal therapy has been successful. In patients with hematologic malignancy or bone marrow transplant, who may experience prolonged or severe neutropenia during the course of therapy, the skin and nails should be carefully examined and consideration given to treating potential infection sites that may serve as portals for systemic dissemination. When disseminated Fusarium infection is present therapy with antifungal agents has generally been disappointing with the chances of a successful resolution being enhanced if the neutropenia can be corrected in a timely manner. PMID:11964778

Gupta, Aditya K.; Baran, Robert; Summerbell, Richard C.

2000-04-01

252

Secondary Metabolites and Toxins of Fusarium - What is Causing Disease Symptoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium species produce a plethora of phytotoxic secondary metabolites. In the case of various races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) that attacks cotton, alfalfa, okra and other crops, many of these metabolites are derived from the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The recent dis...

253

An exoantigen test for the rapid identification of medically significant Fusarium species.  

PubMed

The accurate identification of Fusarium species can take 2-3 weeks. Preliminary exoantigen studies indicate that a mature culture suspected of being a Fusarium species may be immunologically identified 48 h after receipt. Exoantigen extracts of 10-day-old slant cultures of Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium moniliforme (= Fusarium verticilloides), Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium solani and partially purified reference homologous and heterologous shake culture extracts (6-week-old) were reacted against rabbit anti-F. chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. solani sera, in a micro-immunodiffusion procedure. The results indicated that all the strains belonging to a given species produced 1-3 bands of identity only when tested against its homologous antiserum and reference antigen. No cross-reactions were observed with the heterologous antisera. Furthermore, extracts from isolates of Fusarium dimerum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium roseum complex, Acremonium species, Cylindrocarpon, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Trichoderma species did not react with any of the prepared Fusarium species' antisera. Our data suggest that the exoantigen procedure is a rapid and reliable tool for the accurate immuno-identification of the medically important Fusarium species studied. PMID:8544080

Sekhon, A S; Kaufman, L; Moledina, N; Summerbell, R C; Padhye, A A; Ambrosie, E A; Panter, T

254

Update on Fusarium Race 4 Varietal Evaluations in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, differences have been noted in field situations with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vas infectum (FOV), in Acala and Pima cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Typically, earlier-recognized races of FOV only caused significant crop damage and yield impacts ...

255

Fusarium Species from Nepalese Rice and Production of Mycotoxins and Gibberellic Acid by Selected Species  

PubMed Central

Infection of cereal grains with Fusarium species can cause contamination with mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. To determine the potential for mycotoxin contamination, we isolated Fusarium species from samples of rice seeds that were collected in 1997 on farms in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. The predominant Fusarium species in surface-disinfested seeds with husks were species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex, including G. fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides), G. fujikuroi mating population C (anamorph, Fusarium fujikuroi), and G. fujikuroi mating population D (anamorph, Fusarium proliferatum). The widespread occurrence of mating population D suggests that its role in the complex symptoms of bakanae disease of rice may be significant. Other common species were Gibberella zeae (anamorph, Fusarium graminearum) and Fusarium semitectum, with Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium anguioides, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium equiseti, and Fusarium oxysporum occasionally present. Strains of mating population C produced beauvericin, moniliformin, and gibberellic acid, but little or no fumonisin, whereas strains of mating population D produced beauvericin, fumonisin, and, usually, moniliformin, but no gibberellic acid. Some strains of G. zeae produced the 8-ketotrichothecene nivalenol, whereas others produced deoxynivalenol. Despite the occurrence of fumonisin-producing strains of mating population D, and of 8-ketotrichothecene-producing strains of G. zeae, Nepalese rice showed no detectable contamination with these mycotoxins. Effective traditional practices for grain drying and storage may prevent contamination of Nepalese rice with Fusarium mycotoxins.

Desjardins, A. E.; Manandhar, H. K.; Plattner, R. D.; Manandhar, G. G.; Poling, S. M.; Maragos, C. M.

2000-01-01

256

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

257

Construction of a new GFP vector and its use for Fusaruim oxysporum transformation  

PubMed Central

In this study, the gfp fragment as a reporter gene had integrated into the form plasmid vector pBC-hygro which contains an expressive promoter of the fungus to facilitate the transformation of Fusarium oxysporum. The resultant plasmid pBC-hygro-GFP was identified by digestion with enzymes. Binary plasmids pBC-hygro-GFP were transformed into F. oxysporum by using the PEG–CaCl2 mediated transformation technique. Results show that the recombinant plasmid pBC-hygro-GFP was constructed correctly. The gfp gene was stably maintained and did not convey any significant loss of phenotype which would affect the survival and behaviour of the tagged strains. Introduction of the gfp gene into F. oxysporum provides a simple, specific and cost-effective method of strain identification for ecological studies. Transcriptional reporter vectors were constructed for using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter.

Zhang, Shuo; Zhao, Baixia; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui; Huang, Xinyang

2012-01-01

258

Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

259

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis), causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum), produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring microcuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp) toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of

Maria de Lourdes R. Duarte; Simon A. Archer

2003-01-01

260

Fusarium Pathogenomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed compartmentalization of genomes into regions responsible for metabolism and reproduction (core genome) and p...

261

WILT: Necessity, Feasibility, Affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite immense investment of resources, biomedical progress in postponing death from most cancers has fallen far short of\\u000a prior expert prediction. Having intercellular natural selection at its disposal, cancer is arguably the hardest part of aging\\u000a to combat biomedically. WILT (Whole-body Interdiction of Lengthening of Telomeres), first suggested in 2004, is a radical\\u000a proposal that seeks to address this feature

262

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20–35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran.

Chehri, K.; Salleh, B.; Yli-Mattila, T.; Reddy, K.R.N.; Abbasi, S.

2011-01-01

263

Lipoxygenase Metabolites of ?-linolenic Acid in the Development of Resistance in Pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, Seedlings Against Fusarium udum Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was measured in germinating pigeonpea Cajanus cajan seedlings, resistant (ICP-8863) and susceptible (ICP-2376) to wilt fungus, before and after infection with Fusarium udum. LOX activity was significantly higher in the resistant than in the susceptible cultivars of pigeonpea and was enhanced further in response to infection with Fusarium udum. This increase in LOX activity in the resistant

P. Uma Maheswari Devi; P. Srinivas Reddy; N. R. Usha Rani; K. J. Reddy; M. Narsa Reddy; P. Reddanna

2000-01-01

264

Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

265

Molecular relationships of fungi within the Fusarium redolens - F. hostae clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary relationships of fungi in the Fusarium redolens - F. hostae clade were investigated by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies for 37 isolates representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity of this lineage, together with 15 isolates from putative sister groups that include the Gibberella fujikuroi and F. oxysporum species complexes and related species. Included in the analyses

Robert P. Baayen; Kerry O'Donnell; Suzanne Breeuwsma; David M. Geiser; Cees Waalwijk

2001-01-01

266

Fusarium nygamai.A causal agent of root rot of Vicia faba L. in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Wilted and rotted plants of Vicia faba were received from different localities in the Sudan. Among several Fusarium spp., Fusarium nygamai was recovered. Conspicuous symptoms were among others black root rot, associated with rot and death of the lateral root system. Severely infected plants showed black neck canker at soil level. These symptoms were usually accompanied by loss of the leaves' turgor, these then turned brown and died. Death of intact leaves also occurred. Most of the strains proved to be pathogenic to Vicia faba. Disease intensity varied between 28-100%. This is the first report of Fusarium nygamai as a pathogen of Vicia faba. PMID:12701431

Kurmut, A M; Nirenberg, H I; Bochow, H; Büttner, C

2002-01-01

267

Rootstock Potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria Germplasm for Watermelon: Plant Growth, Graft Compatibility, and Resistance to Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rootstock potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria germplasm for watermelon was evaluated. Among 210 accessions, 72 genotypes were selected based on morphological characteristics. Two commercial hybrid rootstocks were also used for comparison. Crimson Tide watermelon cultivar was used as a scion. Emergence rate, hypocotyl morphology, survival rate, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) were investigated. Grafted plants

Halit YET; Nebahat SARI; Fatih M. TOK

268

Laurel wilt: Understanding an unusual and exotic vascular wilt disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family (Laurales, Magnoliid complex). These include significant components of Coastal Plain forest communities in the southeastern USA, most importantly redbay, as well as the commercial crop avocado. The disease has decimated redbay, swamp ...

269

Rainfall Effects on Wilting Forages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the uncertainty of the weather and inherent differences between forage crops, specific recommendations for managing potential rain damage to wilting forages are difficult. However, there are a number of principles that can be applied to best manage the potential for rain damage. These science-...

270

Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University;); Mary L. Powelson (Oregon State University;)

2000-08-01

271

Entomogenous Fusarium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are known for their abundance in nature and their diverse associations with both living and dead plants and animals. Among animals Fusarium is found primarily in relationship with insects. This literature review of the past 50 years includes both non-pathogenic and pathogenic relationships between Fusarium and insects. Special attention is given to the host range, particularly between plant-

Gertrud H. Teetor-Barsch; Donald W. Roberts

1983-01-01

272

[Species composition of Fusarium Link et Fr. fungal genera affecting agricultural plants and weeds in Uzbekistan].  

PubMed

Phytopathogenic fungi of the Fusarium genus are represented on the agricultural plants and weeds by 17 species and 10 subspecies from the sections Roseum, Discolor, Sporotrichiella, Elegans, Martiella, Arachniotes in Uzbekistan. As to their occurrence frequency F. javanicum, F. lateritium, F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. heterosporum, F. moniliforme, F. gibbosum species are dominating ones. F. merismoides, F. redolens, F. nivale species occurred often F. sporotichiella, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. bucharicum, F. graminearum, F. avenaceum species occurred rarely. It was shown that the Fusarium species were more numerous in the central and southern regions of Uzbekistan than in the northern region. PMID:11785262

Sheraliev, A Sh; Bukharov, K; Kholmuradov, Ch

273

Molecular Organization of Mating Type Loci in Heterothallic, Homothallic, and Asexual Gibberella\\/ Fusarium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating type (MAT) genes were cloned from three members of the Gibberella\\/Fusarium complex that differ in reproductive mode: heterothallic G. fujikuroi, homothallic G. zeae, and asexual F. oxysporum. The G. fujikuroi MAT locus organization is typical of other heterothallic pyrenomycetes characterized to date; i.e., there are three genes at MAT1-1 and one at MAT1-2. G. zeae has homologues of all

Sung-Hwan Yun; Tsutomu Arie; Isao Kaneko; O. C. Yoder; B. Gillian Turgeon

2000-01-01

274

Synergysm of voriconazole or itraconazole with other antifungal agents against species of Fusarium.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Fusarium are difficult to treat because these fungi show in vitro and in vivo resistance to practically all the antifungal agents available, which explains the high mortality rates. An attempt to overcome fungal resistance is the combination of antifungal agents, especially those with different mechanisms of action. AIMS: Evaluate the in vitro interactions of combinations of voriconazole or itraconazole with other antifungal agents against 32 isolates of Fusarium spp.: Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium solani. METHODS: Drug interactions were assessed by a checkerboard microdilution method that also included the determination of the MIC of each drug alone according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) document M38-A2, 2008. RESULTS: The best combinations were voriconazole+terbinafine which showed synergism against 84% of Fusarium strains. Other synergistic combinations were voriconazole+itraconazole (50%), voriconazole+fluconazole (50%), voriconazole+miconazole (38%), voriconazole+flucytosine (22%) and voriconazole+ketoconazole (25%). The synergisms observed with itraconazole combinations were itraconazole+terbinafine (25%) and itraconazole+flucytosine (9.37%). The antagonisms observed were: voriconazole+fluconazole (3%) and itraconazole+flucytosine (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The synergism showed by voriconazole+terbinafine was remarkable. To better elucidate the potential usefulness of our findings, new in vivo and in vitro studies deserve be performed. PMID:23402831

Spader, Tatiana B; Venturini, Tarcieli P; Rossato, Luana; Denardi, Laura B; Cavalheiro, Patricia B; Botton, Sonia A; Santurio, Janio M; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2013-02-01

275

Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

2006-06-01

276

Moniliformin production and toxicity of different Fusarium species from Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Four new moniliformin-producing species of Fusarium were found, viz., F. acuminatum, F. concolor, F. equiseti, and F. semitectum. Isolates of F. acuminatum and F. concolor produced large amounts of moniliformin (3.4 and 9.5 g/kg, respectively), whereas isolates of the other three species yielded less than 30 mg/kg. The production of moniliformin by isolates of F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum from southern Africa is described. All 14 toxic isolates of F. oxysporum produced moniliformin. Most isolates of F. fusarioides and all six isolates of Fusarium moniliforme va. subglutinans tested produced moniliformin, as did 28 of 36 toxic isolates of F. moniliforme. A number of F. moniliforme isolates produced greater than 10 g/kg, and one isolate yielded 33.7 g/kg in corn after incubation for 5 weeks at 25 degrees C. Moniliformin production in the field in corn ears was shown by inoculating plants with known moniliformin-producing isolates of three Fusarium species. Yields of up to 645 mg/kg were recorded. Isolates of F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. fusarioides, and F. moniliforme were found that were highly toxic to ducklings but which did not produce moniliformin. PMID:7073272

Rabie, C J; Marasas, W F; Thiel, P G; Lübben, A; Vleggaar, R

1982-03-01

277

Attempts to control Fusarium root rot of bean by seed dressing.  

PubMed

In summer 2006, a root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv Billň and Borlotto. A study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. In the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, Trichoderma harzianum T 22, Bacillus subtilis QST 713, followed by Pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. Their efficacy was also consistent in the different trials. Also the mixture of T. harzianum + T. viride provide a good disease control. Streptomyces griseoviridis and the 3 strains of Fusarim oxysporum, although less effective, provided a partial control of the disease. The fungicide mancozeb provided only a partial disease control. PMID:19226744

Gilardi, G; Baudino, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2008-01-01

278

Resistance gene analogues of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.): isolation, genetic mapping and association with a Fusarium resistance gene cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance gene analogues (RGAs) of Cicer were isolated by different PCR approaches and mapped in an inter-specific cross segregating for fusarium wilt by RFLP and CAPS analysis. Initially, two pairs of degenerate primers targeting sequences encoded at nucleotide-binding sites (NBS), which are conserved in plant disease resistance genes such as RPS2, L6 and N, were selected for amplification. Cloning and

B. Huettel; D. Santra; F. Muehlbauer; G. Kahl

2002-01-01

279

Birth, death and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster during the evolutionary diversification of Fusarium.  

PubMed

Fumonisins are a family of carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) and rare strains of Fusarium oxysporum. In Fusarium, fumonisin biosynthetic genes (FUM) are clustered, and the cluster is uniform in gene organization. Here, sequence analyses indicated that the cluster exists in five different genomic contexts, defining five cluster types. In FUM gene genealogies, evolutionary relationships between fusaria with different cluster types were largely incongruent with species relationships inferred from primary-metabolism (PM) gene genealogies, and FUM cluster types are not trans-specific. In addition, synonymous site divergence analyses indicated that three FUM cluster types predate diversification of FFSC. The data are not consistent with balancing selection or interspecific hybridization, but they are consistent with two competing hypotheses: (i) multiple horizontal transfers of the cluster from unknown donors to FFSC recipients and (ii) cluster duplication and loss (birth and death). Furthermore, low levels of FUM gene divergence in F.?bulbicola, an FFSC species, and F.?oxysporum provide evidence for horizontal transfer of the cluster from the former, or a closely related species, to the latter. Thus, uniform gene organization within the FUM cluster belies a complex evolutionary history that has not always paralleled the evolution of Fusarium. PMID:23937442

Proctor, Robert H; Van Hove, François; Susca, Antonia; Stea, Gaetano; Busman, Mark; van der Lee, Theo; Waalwijk, Cees; Moretti, Antonio; Ward, Todd J

2013-08-28

280

Molecular Relationships of Fungi Within the Fusarium redolens-F. hostae Clade.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The evolutionary relationships of fungi in the Fusarium redolens-F. hostae clade were investigated by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies for 37 isolates representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity of this lineage, together with 15 isolates from putative sister groups that include the Gibberella fujikuroi and F. oxysporum species complexes and related species. Included in the analyses were 29 isolates of F. redolens from Asparagus, Convallaria, Dianthus, Fritillaria, Hebe, Helleborus, Hordeum, Linum, Pisum, Pseudotsuga, and Zea spp., and from soil. Isolates of F. hostae analyzed included two reference isolates from Hosta spp. and six isolates from Hyacinthus spp. that originally were classified as F. oxysporum f. sp. hyacinthi. DNA sequences from a portion of the nuclear translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) gene and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) were analyzed individually and as a combined data set based on results of the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed ranks Templeton combinability test. Maximum parsimony analysis of the combined data set identified the F. redolens-F. hostae clade as a sister group to a phylogenetically diverse clade in which the G. fujikuroi species complex formed the most basal lineage. Also included in this latter clade were two unnamed Fusarium spp. that are morphologically similar to F. oxysporum and putative sister taxa comprising the F. oxysporum complex and a F. nisikadoi-F. miscanthi clade. Phylogenetic diversity in F. redolens was small; all isolates were represented by only three EF-1alpha and two mtSSU rDNA haplotypes. Both the isolates of F. redolens f. sp. asparagi and those of F. redolens f. sp. dianthi were nearly evenly distributed in the combined molecular phylogeny between the two major subclades within F. redolens. PMID:18943438

Baayen, R P; O'Donnell, K; Breeuwsma, S; Geiser, D M; Waalwijk, C

2001-11-01

281

Entomogenous Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are known for their abundance in nature and their diverse associations with both living and dead plants and animals. Among animals Fusarium is found primarily in relationship with insects. This literature review of the past 50 years includes both non-pathogenic and pathogenic relationships between Fusarium and insects. Special attention is given to the host range, particularly between plant- and insect-hosts, and to the possible microbial potential of the fungus to control insect pests. Correct classification of this fungus has been difficult because of its diverse and non-uniform morphological features. However, by now a usable and reliable taxonomic system has been developed. The fungus can be easily cultured and mass produced. Among the non-pathogenic associations mutualism and allotrophy are found between Fusarium and wood-inhabiting and flour beetles, respectively, enhancing development and production of beetle larvae. Some insects contribute to the dispersal of the fungus in the environment by means of spore passage through their guts. Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species gain access to host tissue by plant-feeding insects. A large number of Fusarium spp. are entomopathogenic; some are weak, facultative pathogens, especially of the lepidopteran and coleopteran orders, and they will colonize their dead hosts as saprophytes. In a few cases pathogenicity to both plant and insect by one isolate was found. Strong pathogens were reported primarily from homopterans and dipterans from field observations of natural mortalities as well as from pathogenicity tests. Potential Fusarium isolates which cause high insect mortalities also show high host specificity and no damage to crop plants. The question of host invasion has been addressed by few investigators. Entrance of the fungus via the oral route, oviposition tubes, wounds, or ectoparasitic activity, were stated, but no claim for penetration of the insect cuticle. Mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes (T-2) and other secondary metabolites, contributed to mortalities of termites, mealworms, flour beetles, maize borers and blow flies, while zearalenone (F-2) exhibited a beneficial effect on egg production in flour beetles and a detrimental effect on fecundity in mammals. Studies on adverse effects of the fungus on beneficial organisms (including mammals and plants) revealed that both harmful as well as safe Fusarium isolates exist in nature. Highly host-specific and strongly entomopathogenic Fusarium isolates should be more extensively studied and tested for their possible use in biological control. PMID:6369143

Teetor-Barsch, G H; Roberts, D W

1983-12-01

282

Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.  

PubMed

Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species. PMID:21076480

Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

2010-11-01

283

Cell wilting and blossoming for energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider the adoption of sleep modes for the base stations of a cellular access network, focusing on the design of base station sleep and wake-up transients.. We discuss the main issues arising with this approach, and we focus on the design of base station sleep and wake-up transients, also known as cell wilting and blossoming. The

Alberto Conte; Afef Feki; Luca Chiaraviglio; Delia Ciullo; Michela Meo; MARCO AJMONE MARSAN

2011-01-01

284

Verticillium wilt of potato: Importance and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Verticillium wilt of potato and its control are discussed. Among the factors considered in controlling the\\u000a disease are the role of seed tubers in disseminating the pathogen, the interaction of nematodes and fungus, chemical eradication,\\u000a the use of tolerant or resistant cultivars, and integrated control measures.

J. Krikun; D. Orion

1979-01-01

285

Surface-modified sulfur nanoparticles: an effective antifungal agent against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-modified sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) of two different sizes were prepared via a modified liquid-phase precipitation\\u000a method, using sodium polysulfide and ammonium polysulfide as starting material and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) as the\\u000a surface stabilizing agent. Surface topology, size distribution, surface modification of SNPs with PEG-400, quantitative analysis\\u000a for the presence of sulfur in nanoformulations, and thermal stability of SNPs were determined

Samrat Roy Choudhury; Mahua Ghosh; Amrita Mandal; Dipankar Chakravorty; Moumita Pal; Saheli Pradhan; Arunava Goswami

2011-01-01

286

Effect of Buffers on the Pectolytic Activity of Culture Filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

PECTOLYTIC enzymes have been implicated in the disintegration of plant tissue by a number of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi1. One procedure to assay culture filtrates for pectolytic activity requires a demonstration of a loss of viscosity for a solution of sodium polypectate or pectin in buffer, using a viscosimeter2. This communication presents results of the effect of 4 buffers at

J. A. Meyer; E. D. Garber; Susan G. Shaeffer

1964-01-01

287

[Skin infections caused by Fusarium].  

PubMed

Under favorable conditions even molds can cause skin infections. Fusarium spp. belong to this group of agents. Onychomycoses due to Fusarium spp. are regularly encountered and cannot be clinically distinguished from nail infections triggered by dermatophytes. They can occur in otherwise healthy persons. Skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. may be necrotizing, ulcerating, pustular, vasculitis-like, panniculitis-like or granulomatous. Single lesions can develop after fungal inoculation into damaged tissue; multiple ones are often due to a septic dissemination of Fusarium in severely immunocompromised patients. An immediate verification of the agents can be life-saving in such cases. Pathogenic Fusarium spp. should be identified at the species level and need to be tested for their susceptibility to antimycotics. In case of multiple lesions, systemic therapy is required. Many strains of Fusarium spp. are susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole; itraconazole and terbinafine may be helpful in certain cases. PMID:22948296

Brasch, J

2012-11-01

288

Transposon-tagging identifies novel pathogenicity genes in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

With the increase of sequenced fungal genomes, high-throughput methods for functional analyses of genes are needed. We assessed the potential of a new transposon mutagenesis tool deploying a Fusarium oxysporum miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1, mobilized by the transposase of impala, a Tc1-like transposon, to obtain knock-out mutants in Fusarium graminearum. We localized 91 mimp1 insertions which showed good distribution over the entire genome. The main exception was a major hotspot on chromosome 2 where independent insertions occurred at exactly the same nucleotide position. Furthermore insertions in promoter regions were over-represented. Screening 331 mutants for sexual development, radial growth and pathogenicity on wheat resulted in 19 mutants (5.7%) with altered phenotypes. Complementation with the original gene restored the wild-type phenotype in two selected mutants demonstrating the high tagging efficiency. This is the first report of a MITE transposon tagging system as an efficient mutagenesis tool in F. graminearum. PMID:18926918

Dufresne, Marie; van der Lee, Theo; Ben M'barek, Sarrah; Xu, Xiude; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Taiguo; Waalwijk, Cees; Zhang, Wenwei; Kema, Gert H J; Daboussi, Marie-Josée

2008-09-23

289

Aggressiveness of Fusarium species and impact of root infection on growth and yield of soybeans.  

PubMed

Fusarium spp. are commonly isolated from soybean roots but the pathogenic activity of most species is poorly documented. Aggressiveness and yield impact of nine species of Fusarium were determined on soybean in greenhouse (50 isolates) and field microplot (19 isolates) experiments. Root rot severity and shoot and root dry weights were compared at growth stages V3 or R1. Root systems were scanned and digital image analysis was conducted; yield was measured in microplots. Disease severity and root morphology impacts varied among and within species. Fusarium graminearum was highly aggressive (root rot severity >90%), followed by F. proliferatum and F. virguliforme. Significant variation in damping-off (20 to 75%) and root rot severity (<20 to >60%) was observed among F. oxysporum isolates. In artificially-infested microplots, root rot severity was low (<25%) and mean yield was not significantly reduced. However, there were significant linear relationships between yield and root symptoms for some isolates. Root morphological characteristics were more consistent indicators of yield loss than root rot severity. This study provides the first characterization of aggressiveness and yield impact of Fusarium root rot species on soybean at different plant stages and introduces root image analysis to assess the impact of root pathogens on soybean. PMID:23514263

Arias, María M Díaz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

2013-08-01

290

Fusarium species recovered from the water distribution system of a French university hospital.  

PubMed

Dijon Hospital is a French tertiary care institution undergoing major renovation, and different microbiological controls revealed the presence of Fusarium spp. in the water distribution system. Because some Fusarium spp. can cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, an 8-month survey was conducted in two hospital sites in order to evaluate the prevalence of the fungi in the water system. In 2 units of one hospital site, 100% of the samples of tap-water were positive, with high concentrations of Fusarium spp. (up to 10(5)cfu/L). In the second hospital site, 94% of samples were positive, but generally with lower concentrations. The analysis of translation elongation factor 1? (TEF) sequences of 146 isolates revealed the presence of two different Fusarium species: F. oxysporum was detected in all units explored of both hospital sites, and F. dimerum only in one unit of one hospital site. For both species, we suggest that the fungi discovered could be particularly adapted to an aquatic environment. PMID:22177529

Sautour, Marc; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Steinberg, Christian; Sixt, Nathalie; Laurent, Julie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Hartemann, Philippe; L'ollivier, Coralie; Goyer, Marianne; Bonnin, Alain

2011-12-15

291

Moniliformin, a Fusarium mycotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moniliformin (MON), mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium proliferatum and F. subglutinans, is a natural contaminant of maize and other cereals with levels up to 530 mg\\/kg. MON is a potent cardiotoxic and immunosuppressive compound, but it does not appear to be carcinogenic With the exception of fish, MON causes heart failure and acute death at high doses (110-200 mg MON\\/kg

Carmen Eugenia; Peralta Sanhueza; María Claudia Degrossi

2004-01-01

292

Sambutoxin, a new mycotoxin produced by toxic Fusarium isolates obtained from rotted potato tubers.  

PubMed Central

Ninety-nine isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from rotted potato tubers from various parts of Korea. Of these isolates, 80 were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, or F. sambucinum. The isolates of these species were grown on autoclaved wheat grains and examined for toxicity in a rat-feeding test. A total of 8 of 57 F. oxysporum isolates, 3 of 14 F. solani isolates, and 5 of 9 F. sambucinum isolates caused the death of the rats. Of the 16 toxic isolates, 1 isolate of F. oxysporum produced a substantial amount of moniliformin, which could account for its toxicity. None of the other 15 isolates produced trichothecenes, moniliformin, fusarochromanone, fumonisin B1, or wortmannin. F. sambucinum PZF-4 produced an unknown toxin in wheat culture. This new toxin, given the trivial name sambutoxin, caused toxic effects in rats, including body weight loss, feed refusal, hemorrhage in the stomach and intestines, and, finally, death when rats were fed diets supplemented with 0.05 and 0.1% sambutoxin. The toxin was also toxic to chicken embryos, and the 50% lethal concentration was 29.6 micrograms per egg. Sambutoxin formed as white crystals that turned purple when combined with reagents such as sulfuric acid and p-anisaldehyde. It exhibited a green color immediately after treatment with potassium ferricyanide-ferric chloride. Its UV spectrum had absorption maxima at 213, 233, and 254 nm, and its infrared spectrum showed an amide group at 1,650 and 1,560 cm-1 and a hydroxy group at 3,185 cm-1. Mass spectrometry showed that the molecular weight of the toxin was 453 and the molecular formula was C28H39NO4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Kim, J C; Lee, Y W

1994-01-01

293

Verticillium wilt of potato – the pathogen, disease and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is a major disease of potato caused by either Verticillium dahliae or Verticillium albo-atrum. Both species are soilborne fungi that invade xylem elements, disrupt water transport in plants and cause vascular wilt in a variety of hosts. Despite the broad host range of V. dahliae, a degree of host adaptation occurs with some isolates exhibiting different levels of

Dennis A. Johnson; Jeremiah K. S. Dung

2010-01-01

294

A Conserved Homeobox Transcription Factor Htf1 Is Required for Phialide Development and Conidiogenesis in Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

Conidia are primary means of asexual reproduction and dispersal in a variety of pathogenic fungi, and it is widely recognized that they play a critical role in animal and plant disease epidemics. However, genetic mechanisms associated with conidiogenesis are complex and remain largely undefined in numerous pathogenic fungi. We previously showed that Htf1, a homeobox transcription factor, is required for conidiogenesis in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, our aim was to characterize how Htf1 homolog regulates common and also distinctive conidiogenesis in three key Fusarium pathogens: F. graminearm, F. verticillioides, and F. oxysporum. When compared to wild-type progenitors, the gene-deletion mutants in Fusarium species failed to form conventional phialides. Rather, they formed clusters of aberrant phialides that resembled elongated hyphae segments, and it is conceivable that this led to the obstruction of conidiation in phialides. We also observed that mutants, as well as wild-type Fusaria, can initiate alternative macroconidia production directly from hyphae through budding-like mechanism albeit at low frequencies. Microscopic observations led us to conclude that proper basal cell division and subsequent foot cell development of macroconidia were negatively impacted in the mutants. In F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum, mutants exhibited a 2- to 5- microconidia complex at the apex of monophialides resulting in a floral petal-like shape. Also, prototypical microconidia chains were absent in F. verticillioides mutants. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides mutants were complemented by introducing its native HTF1 gene or homologs from other Fusarium species. These results suggest that Fusarium Htf1 is functionally conserved homeobox transcription factor that regulates phialide development and conidiogenesis via distinct signaling pathways yet to be characterized in fungi.

Zheng, Wenhui; Zhao, Xu; Xie, Qiurong; Huang, Qingping; Zhang, Chengkang; Zhai, Huanchen; Xu, Liping; Lu, Guodong; Shim, Won-Bo; Wang, Zonghua

2012-01-01

295

Genome regions' putative association with Fusarium wilt or root-knot nematode resistance in cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Around 1,300 microsatellite or SSR markers [named MUSB001 – MUSB1316 (600 informative)] were developed at the USDA-ARS, WICSRU Shafter, CA with the support of cooperators and Cotton Incorporated. These MUSB markers were developed from BAC-end DNA sequence information from a previously developed BAC ...

296

An easy and efficient protocol in the production of pflp transgenic banana against Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two subgroups of genotype AAA bananas (Musa acuminata cv. Pei Chiao and Musa acuminata cv. Gros Michel). Instead of using suspension cells, cauliflower-like bud clumps, also known as multiple bud clumps (MBC),\\u000a were induced from sucker buds on MS medium containing N\\u000a 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), and Paclobutrazol (PP333).

Mei-Kuen Yip; Sin-Wan Lee; Kuei-Ching Su; Yi-Hsien Lin; Tai-Yang Chen; Teng-Yung Feng

2011-01-01

297

Naphthoquinone Antibiotics from 'Fusarium solani'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to new naphthoquinone derivatives which exhibit antibiotic activity. Three naphthoquinones isolated from cultures of Fusarium solani were found to be effective antibiotics against gram-positive bacteria. Controlling the dissolved oxy...

R. A. Baker J. H. Tatum

1988-01-01

298

Comparative analysis of Fusarium mitochondrial genomes reveals a highly variable region that encodes an exceptionally large open reading frame.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium solani and Fusarium graminearum were annotated and found to be 53.7, 63.0 and 95.7 kb in length, respectively. The genomes encode all genes typically associated with mtDNAs of filamentous fungi yet are considerably larger than the mt genome of F. oxysporum. Size differences are largely due to the number of group I introns. Surprisingly, the genomes contain a highly variable region of 7-9 kb that encodes an exceptionally large, unidentified open reading frame (uORF). The region has the hallmarks of a horizontally transmitted DNA and was likely acquired prior to the divergence of Fusarium species. Two additional uORFs were detected that are also under positive selection. DNA repeats associated with the uORFs suggest that 3' gene duplication may be an adaptive mechanism to modify coding regions or generate new ORFs. The acquisition of these new genes contrasts to the wide-scale size reduction experienced by fungal mt genomes. PMID:22178648

Al-Reedy, Rasha M; Malireddy, Rahul; Dillman, Casey B; Kennell, John C

2011-12-06

299

Identification and regulation of fusA, the polyketide synthase gene responsible for fusarin production in Fusarium fujikuroi.  

PubMed

Fusarins are a class of mycotoxins of the polyketide family produced by different Fusarium species, including the gibberellin-producing fungus Fusarium fujikuroi. Based on sequence comparisons between polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymes for fusarin production in other Fusarium strains, we have identified the F. fujikuroi orthologue, called fusA. The participation of fusA in fusarin biosynthesis was demonstrated by targeted mutagenesis. Fusarin production is transiently stimulated by nitrogen availability in this fungus, a regulation paralleled by the fusA mRNA levels in the cell. Illumination of the cultures results in a reduction of the fusarin content, an effect partially explained by a high sensitivity of these compounds to light. Mutants of the fusA gene exhibit no external phenotypic alterations, including morphology and conidiation, except for a lack of the characteristic yellow and/or orange pigmentation of fusarins. Moreover, the fusA mutants are less efficient than the wild type at degrading cellophane on agar cultures, a trait associated with pathogenesis functions in Fusarium oxysporum. The fusA mutants, however, are not affected in their capacities to grow on plant tissues. PMID:22865073

Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Avalos, Javier; Limón, M Carmen

2012-08-03

300

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

301

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

302

FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS: CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, AND BIOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This comprehensive book examines the chemistry, genetics and biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. Five chapters review the toxicity, natural occurrence, and genetics of agriculturally significant mycotoxins. Forty-two reports update the taxonomy, occurrence, and mycotoxicology of Fusarium species. Thi...

303

Selection of bacterial wilt-resistant tomato through tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt-resistant plants were obtained using a tomato tissue culture system. A virulent strain ofPseudomonas solanacearum secreted some toxic substances into the culture medium. Leaf explant-derived callus tissues which were resistant to these toxic substances in the culture filtrate were selectedin vitro and regenerated into plants. These plants expressed bacterial wilt resistance at the early infection stage to suppress or

Hideyoshi Toyoda; Kunihiko Shimizu; Kazuyuki Chatani; Nobuhiro Kita; Yoshinori Matsuda; Seiji Ouchi

1989-01-01

304

Characterization of Fusarium Keratitis Outbreak Isolates: Contribution of Biofilms to Antimicrobial Resistance and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Fusarium is a major cause of microbial keratitis, and its ability to form biofilms was suggested as a contributing factor in recent outbreaks. We investigated the ability of outbreak Fusarium isolates (F. solani species complex [FSSC] and F. oxysporum species complex [FOSC]) to form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated their antifungal susceptibilities. Methods. Biofilm formation was assessed using our in vitro contact lens model and in vivo murine model. Biofilm architecture was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Susceptibility against amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VCZ), and natamycin (NAT) was determined using the CLSI-M38-A2 method and XTT metabolic assay. Results. FSSC strains formed more biofilms than FOSC, in a strain- and clade-dependent manner. CLSM analyses revealed that “high biofilm forming” (HBF) strains had denser and thicker biofilms than “low biofilm forming” (LBF) strains of both species (thickness 51 vs. 41 ?m for FSSC and 61 vs. 45 ?m for FOSC strains, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Fusarium biofilms exhibited species-dependent antifungal susceptibilities (e.g., FSSC biofilms AmB minimal inhibitory concentrations [MIC] ?16 ?g/mL, while NAT or VCZ MICs were 2–8 ?g/mL). FSSC-infected mice had severe corneal opacification independent of biofilm thickness, while FOSC infection resulted in moderate corneal opacification. Corneal fungal burden of mice infected with HBF strains was higher than those of the LBF strains. In contrast, the reference ATCC isolate was unable to cause infection. Conclusions. The ability to form biofilms is a key pathogenicity determinant of Fusarium, irrespective of the thickness of these biofilms. Further studies are warranted to explore this association in greater detail.

Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Sun, Yan; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2012-01-01

305

Genome Sequences of Six Wheat-Infecting Fusarium Species Isolates  

PubMed Central

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported.

Moolhuijzen, Paula M.; Manners, John M.; Wilcox, Stephen A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.

2013-01-01

306

Genome sequences of six wheat-infecting fusarium species isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported. PMID:24009115

Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Manners, John M; Wilcox, Stephen A; Bellgard, Matthew I; Gardiner, Donald M

2013-09-05

307

Fusarium polycaprolactone depolymerase is cutinase.  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polyester, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms, including some phytopathogens. Many phytopathogens secrete cutinase, a serine hydrolase that degrades cutin, the structural polymer of the plant cuticle. We compared wild-type strains and a cutinase-negative gene replacement mutant strain of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (D. J. Stahl and W. Schäfer, Plant Cell 4:621-629, 1992) and a wild-type strain of Fusarium moniliforme to show that Fusarium cutinase is a PCL depolymerase. The wild-type strains, but not the mutant strain, (i) degraded PCL and used it as a source of carbon and energy, (ii) showed induction of secreted PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of cutin, and (iii) showed induction of PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of a hydrolysate of PCL, which contains PCL oligomers that are structurally similar to the natural inducers of cutinase. These results together with other details of regulation and conditions for optimal enzyme activity indicate that the Fusarium PCL depolymerase, required for degradation and utilization of PCL, is cutinase.

Murphy, C A; Cameron, J A; Huang, S J; Vinopal, R T

1996-01-01

308

Actual situation in Fusarium taxonomy.  

PubMed

The importance of choosing the proper systematic system in Fusarium taxonomy is stated and a comparative listing of synonyms of the sections Sporotrichiella, Roseum, Liseola, Discolor, Gibbosum, Martiella, as used by various authors in three monographs, is given (2, 4, 9). PMID:23605006

Nirenberg, H I

1987-03-01

309

REMI MUTAGENESIS IN FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins harmful to humans and animals. To better understand the molecular mechanism of plant infection and virulence of F. graminearum, we used the REM...

310

Isolation of disease-tolerant cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2) plants by screening somatic embryos with fungal culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an in vitro selection method that has led to isolation of Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot disease-tolerant plantlets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2). Embryogenic callus was isolated from hypocotyl explants of cotton cultured on 5–50% Fusarium oxysporum culture filtrate-fortified callus induction medium. Somatic embryos tolerant to fungal culture filtrate (FCF) were isolated from this embryogenic

M. Ganesan; N. Jayabalan

2006-01-01

311

[Spargelstangenuntersuchungen zur Haupterntezeit auf Infektionen mitFusarium spp. und Kontaminationen mit Fumonisin B1 Investigation on asparagus spears during the main harvest byFusarium spp.- infections and contamination by Fumonisin B1.  

PubMed

Asparagus spears collected from a total of six commercial plantings in Austria during the main harvest periods in May and June of 2003 and 2004 were examined for endophytic colonization byFusarium spp., particularlyF. proliferatum. Potentially toxigenic fungi such asF. proliferatum were isolated and identified by morphological characteristics using light microscopy. Fumonisin B1 inF. proliferatum-infected asparagus spears was detected with IAS-HPLC-FLD or HPLC-MS/MS. The identity of endophytic fungi colonizing of a total of 816 individual spears was determined. The incidence of infection byF. proliferatum and otherFusarium spp. was highly dependent on location and sampling date. The dominantFusarium species among the endophytic microflora wasF. oxysporum. Other frequently isolated species includedF. proliferatum, F. sambucinum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum andF. equiseti. The incidence ofF. proliferatum-infected asparagus spears was less than 10% at four of the six sampling locations. At the two remaining locations, 20-47% of the spears examined were infected withF. proliferatum. Further exploration of FB1 generation in asparagus is required because the low levels of FB1 (10-50 (?g/kg) detected in harvested spears in 2003 and 2004 cannot be explained by the results of this study. PMID:23604685

Goßmann, M; Beran, F; Bedlan, G; Plenk, A; Hamedinger, S; Ohlinger, R; Humpf, H -U; Büttner, C

2008-06-01

312

Functional analysis of the carS gene of Fusarium fujikuroi.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a model system in the investigation of the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites, such as gibberellins, bikaverin, and carotenoids. Carotenoid-overproducing mutants, generically called carS, are easily obtained in this fungus by standard mutagenesis procedures. Here we report the functional characterization of gene carS, responsible for this mutant phenotype. The identity of the gene was demonstrated through the finding of mutations in six independent carS mutants and by the complementation of one of them. The F. fujikuroi carS gene was able to restore the control of carotenogenesis in a similar deregulated mutant of Fusarium oxysporum, but only partially at the transcription level, indicating an unexpected complexity in the regulation of the pathway. Due to the pleiotropic characteristics of this mutation, which also modifies the production of other secondary metabolites, we did a screening for carS-regulated genes by subtracted cDNA hybridization. The results show that the carS mutation affects the regulation of numerous genes in addition to those of carotenogenesis. The expression of the identified genes was usually enhanced by light, a regulatory effect also exhibited by the carS gene. However, in most cases, their mRNA levels in carS mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting a regulation that affects mRNA availability rather than mRNA synthesis. PMID:23543145

Rodríguez-Ortiz, Roberto; Limón, M Carmen; Avalos, Javier

2013-03-30

313

Ice Nucleation Activity in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum†  

PubMed Central

Twenty fungal genera, including 14 Fusarium species, were examined for ice nucleation activity at ?5.0°C, and this activity was found only in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum. This characteristic is unique to these two species. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was compared with ice nucleation activity of a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Cumulative nucleus spectra are similar for both microorganisms, while the maximum temperatures of ice nucleation were ?2.5°C for F. avenaceum and ?1.0°C for the bacteria. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was stable at pH levels from 1 to 13 and tolerated temperature treatments up to 60°C, suggesting that these ice nuclei are more similar to lichen ice nuclei than to bacterial ones. Ice nuclei of F. avenaceum, unlike bacterial ice nuclei, pass through a 0.22-?m-pore-size filter. Fusarial nuclei share some characteristics with the so-called leaf-derived nuclei with which they might be identified: they are cell free and stable up to 60°C, and they are found in the same kinds of environment. Highly stable ice nuclei produced by fast-growing microorganisms have potential applications in biotechnology. This is the first report of ice nucleation activity in free-living fungi.

Pouleur, Stephan; Richard, Claude; Martin, Jean-Guy; Antoun, Hani

1992-01-01

314

Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie, 1971). Under experimental conditions however, it is common practice to maintain the virus by mechanical inoculation onto susceptible host plants.Repeated passages of

Oliveira Resende de R

1993-01-01

315

Peanut genotype and seeding rate effect on tomato spotted wilt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted at Tifton, Georgia in 2008-2009 in which seven peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes were combined in factorial arrangement with two seeding rates, 9.8 and 19.7 seed/m of row, to determine the effect of seeding rate and genotype on incidence of tomato spotted wilt, ...

316

Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

317

Verticillium Wilt in Potato: Host-Pathogen Interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Verticillium wilt (VW) is a widespread disease that causes consistent yield losses in many potato growing regions worldwide. In the U.S., it is mainly caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Microsclerotia can survive in the soil for many years. When they germinate and infec...

318

Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado. The disease has invaded much of the southeastern USA, and threatens avocado commerce and homeowner production in Florida, valuable germplasm in Miami (USDA-ARS), and major production and germplasm in California and MesoAmer...

319

Relaxed Primer Specificity Associated with Reverse Transcriptases Encoded by the pFOXC Retroplasmids of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The pFOXC mitochondrial retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating linear DNAs that have a telomere-like repeat of a 5-bp sequence at their termini. The plasmids are possible evolutionary precursors of the ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase, as they encode an active reverse transcriptase (RT) that is involved in plasmid replication. Using an in vitro system to study reverse transcription, we show that the pFOXC RT is capable of copying in vitro-synthesized RNAs by use of cDNA primers or extension of snapped-back RNA templates. The ability of the pFOXC RT to use base-paired primers distinguishes it from the closely related RTs encoded by the Mauriceville and Varkud mitochondrial retroplasmids of Neurospora spp. Reaction products are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with conventional RTs, and differences reflect the ability of the pFOXC RT to initiate cDNA synthesis with loosely associated primers. The pFOXC RT can also copy DNA templates and extend 3? mismatched DNA oligonucleotide primers. Analysis of pFOXC in vivo replication intermediates suggests that telomeric repeats are added during reverse transcription, and the ability to extend loosely associated primers could play a role in repeat formation by mechanisms similar to those associated with telomerase and certain non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons.

Simpson, E. Barry; Ross, Shannon L.; Marchetti, Sarah E.; Kennell, John C.

2004-01-01

320

Relaxed primer specificity associated with reverse transcriptases encoded by the pFOXC retroplasmids of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The pFOXC mitochondrial retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating linear DNAs that have a telomere-like repeat of a 5-bp sequence at their termini. The plasmids are possible evolutionary precursors of the ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase, as they encode an active reverse transcriptase (RT) that is involved in plasmid replication. Using an in vitro system to study reverse transcription, we show that the pFOXC RT is capable of copying in vitro-synthesized RNAs by use of cDNA primers or extension of snapped-back RNA templates. The ability of the pFOXC RT to use base-paired primers distinguishes it from the closely related RTs encoded by the Mauriceville and Varkud mitochondrial retroplasmids of Neurospora spp. Reaction products are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with conventional RTs, and differences reflect the ability of the pFOXC RT to initiate cDNA synthesis with loosely associated primers. The pFOXC RT can also copy DNA templates and extend 3' mismatched DNA oligonucleotide primers. Analysis of pFOXC in vivo replication intermediates suggests that telomeric repeats are added during reverse transcription, and the ability to extend loosely associated primers could play a role in repeat formation by mechanisms similar to those associated with telomerase and certain non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. PMID:15590832

Simpson, E Barry; Ross, Shannon L; Marchetti, Sarah E; Kennell, John C

2004-12-01

321

The Inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum var. cubense by Musarin, an Antibiotic produced by Meredith& apos;s Actinomycete  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY : Under selected conditions Meredith's actinomycete produced culture fluids toxic to many fungi. From these fluids the active principle, called musarin, has been isolated by two methods. Preparations active in concentrations of 1\\/80,000-1\\/100,000 seemed substantially pure. Musarin is an optically active acid of high molecular weight having by micro- titrationan equivalent weight of at least 4000. Analyses of the

H. R. V. Arnstein; A. H. Cook; MARGARET S. LACEY

1948-01-01

322

Transgenic tomato plants expressing a wheat endochitinase gene demonstrate enhanced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various chitinases have been shown to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens in in vitro as well as in planta conditions.\\u000a chi194, a wheat chitinases gene encoding a 33-kDa chitinase protein, was overexpressed in tomato plants (cv. Pusa Ruby) under the\\u000a control of maize ubiquitin 1 promoter. The integration of transgene in tomato plants was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction

P. V. Girhepuje; G. B. Shinde

2011-01-01

323

Port-a-cath-related Fusarium oxysporum infection in an HIV-infected patient: treatment with liposomal amphotericin B.  

PubMed

The first case of Port-a-cath-related disseminated fusariosis in an HIV-infected patient is presented. Antifungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in a dose of 2 mg kg-1 day-1 for 14 days was successful. PMID:8767004

Eljaschewitsch, J; Sandfort, J; Tintelnot, K; Horbach, I; Ruf, B

324

Degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical, DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate], by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) was investigated. The DEHP-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e. almost 70% of the initial DEHP (500 mg\\/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded DEHP disappeared within the initial 15 min. With the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more

Y.-H. Kim; J. Lee; S.-H. Moon

2003-01-01

325

Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks

I. Rutkowska-Krause; G. Mankowska; M. Lukaszewicz; J. Szopa

2003-01-01

326

ACTIVITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN A SOLUTION OF IONS AND PH AGAINST THIELARIOPSIS BASICOLA AND FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) can be used to control pathogen propagules in irrigation water. To determine to what degree soluble inorganic ions and pH of water can interact to effect ClO2 activity, concentrations of ClO2 were mixed with equal concentrations (0 and 100 mg l-1) of nitrogen from ammonium, n...

327

Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are among the most studied plant-pathogenic fungi, with several species causing diseases on maize, wheat, barley, and other food and feed grains. Decreased yield, as well as diminished quality and value of the grain, results in significant worldwide economic losses. Additionally, Fusarium species produce a chemically diverse array of mycotoxins such as diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone,

A. E. Glenn

2007-01-01

328

Diversity of polyketide synthases in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium can produce a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities, including pigmentation, plant growth regulation, and toxicity to humans and other animals. Contamination of grain-based food and feed with toxic SMs produced by Fusarium is associa...

329

The Wor1-like Protein Fgp1 Regulates Pathogenicity, Toxin Synthesis and Reproduction in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein.

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Corby Kistler, H.

2012-01-01

330

The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein. PMID:22693448

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H Corby

2012-05-31

331

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism.

Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

332

Brachypodium distachyon : a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene\\u000a mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic

Antoine Peraldi; Giovanni Beccari; Andrew Steed; Paul Nicholson

2011-01-01

333

Field Evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus Resistance in Transgenic Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang, H., Ozias-Akins, P., Culbreath, A. K., Gorbet, D. W., Weeks, J. R., Mandal, B., and Pappu, H. R. 2004. Field evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance in transgenic peanut (Ara- chis hypogaea). Plant Dis. 88:259-264. Spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a devastating disease of many crops including peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Because the virus

H. Yang; P. Ozias-Akins; A. K. Culbreath; D. W. Gorbet; B. Mandal; H. R. Pappu

2004-01-01

334

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats - Occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r=0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r=0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r=0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r=0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous detection of many Fusarium mycotoxins in each sample. In combination with real-time PCR analysis of seven toxigenic Fusarium spp., the results gave an overall picture of the presence of Fusarium and their toxins in Swedish oats and revealed significant annual and regional differences. This is the first study of the so-called emerging mycotoxins (e.g., ENNs, MON and BEA) in oats grown in Sweden. PMID:23962918

Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

2013-07-02

335

Brachypodium distachyon: a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic studies in grass species. This study aims to assess the interaction between the most prevalent FHB-causing Fusarium species and Bd in order to develop and exploit Bd as a genetic model for FHB and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. Results The ability of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum to infect a range of Bd tissues was examined in various bioassays which showed that both species can infect all Bd tissues examined, including intact foliar tissues. DON accumulated in infected spike tissues at levels similar to those of infected wheat spikes. Histological studies revealed details of infection, colonisation and host response and indicate that hair cells are important sites of infection. Susceptibility to Fusarium and DON was assessed in two Bd ecotypes and revealed variation in resistance between ecotypes. Conclusions Bd exhibits characteristics of susceptibility highly similar to those of wheat, including susceptibility to spread of disease in the spikelets. Bd is the first reported plant species to allow successful infection on intact foliar tissues by FHB-causing Fusarium species. DON appears to function as a virulence factor in Bd as it does in wheat. Bd is proposed as a valuable model for undertaking studies of Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat.

2011-01-01

336

Effect of Trichothecenes Produced by Fusarium graminearum during Fusarium Head Blight Development in Six Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a complex cereal disease associated with trichothecene production; these mycotoxins are factors of aggressiveness in wheat. Six species (bread and durum wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oats) were submitted to point inoculations with two isogenic strains of Fusarium graminearum; a wild strain (Tri5 +) produced trichothecenes and the mutated strain (Tri5 -) did not. The

François Langevin; François Eudes; André Comeau

2004-01-01

337

The effect of wilting on proline metabolism in excised bean leaves in the dark.  

PubMed

The effects of wilting on the fate of proline and on the rates of nonprotein proline formation and utilization have been determined in excised bean leaves. Wilting did not alter the fate of exogenously added (14)C-l-proline (2 mm) in either non-starved leaves (from plants previously in the light) or starved leaves (from plants previously in the dark). The fate of proline in nonstarved leaves was protein synthesis and in starved leaves was protein synthesis and oxidation to other compounds.Wilting caused an increase in non-protein proline formation, possibly including release by proteolysis and synthesis from precursors in both starved and nonstarved leaves. Wilting caused a decrease in proline utilization in nonstarved leaves by decreasing protein synthesis. In starved leaves, wilting caused an increase in the rate of proline utilization but this is due to the higher content of proline in wilted leaves compared to the turgid leaves which causes more proline utilization by oxidation. Thus, the primary effects of wilting which lead to the accumulation of proline were to decrease protein synthesis and to increase proline formation. The source of the proline is not known but the increased formation due to wilting is not affected by the carbohydrate content of the leaf. The role of carbohydrates is to prevent the loss of accumulating proline by oxidation. PMID:16658361

Stewart, C R

1973-03-01

338

Plant Pathology & Nematology Reduction of Verticillium Wilt Symptoms in Cotton Following Seed Treatment with Trichoderma virens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a widespread disease that occurs in most cotton-producing areas. V. dahliae is a soil-borne pathogen that infects plants through the roots. Symptoms of infected cotton plants include stunting and wilting by some strains of V. dahliae and defoliation by other strains. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential of cotton

Linda E. Hanson

2000-01-01

339

The role of savings and wealth in reducing ‘wilt’ between expectations and college attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt’ occurs when a young person in high school expects to attend college but does not do so shortly after graduating. In this study we find that youth with no savings account in their own name are more likely to experience wilt than any other group examined. In multivariate analysis, young people who expect to graduate from a four-year college

William Elliott III; Sondra G. Beverly

2011-01-01

340

Should Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Be Considered as a Possible Member of the Family Bunyaviridae?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary From a comparison of published data on the properties of tomato spotted wilt virus and viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, it is concluded that tomato spotted wilt virus should be considered as a possible member of the family.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel

Robert G. Milne; Richard I. B. Francki

1984-01-01

341

COMPARISON OF CROP ROTATION FOR VERTICILLIUM WILT MANAGEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a major disease in non-fumigated and organic strawberry production systems in California. A comparative study of the effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on strawberry growth, Verticillium wilt, and yield were evaluated in conventional and organic producti...

342

Physiological traits contributing to differential canopy wilting in soybean under drought  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed wilting is observed in a few unusual soybean genotypes, but the underlying physiological control mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that soybean genotypes with delayed wilting conserve soil moisture by restricting transpiration and that this would be reflected in decreased ra...

343

Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment should ideally be based on the Fusarium isolate, susceptibility testing, and host-specific factors. Prognosis of fusariosis in the immunocompromised is directly related to a patient’s immune status. Prevention of Fusarium infection is recommended with aerosolized amphotericin B deoxycholate, which also has activity against other important fungi.

Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2013-01-01

344

Influence of Climatic Factors on Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of small-grain cereals, ear rot of maize, seedling blight and foot rot of cereals are important diseases throughout the world. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale (formerly known as F. nivale) predominantly cause Fusarium diseases of small-grain cereals. Maize is predominantly attacked by F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans.

F. M. Doohan; J. Brennan; B. M. Cooke

2003-01-01

345

TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

346

Fusarium strain development and selection for enhancement of ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that selected Fusarium strains isolated from natural habitats are potential decomposers and parameters of biomass. The amount of ethanol produced is comparable to that yielded by other potential microorganisms and, moreover, Fusarium strains can ferment zylose (pentoses) while other microbes cannot. Preliminary mutagenesis studies on Fusarium isolates indicates that potential mutants can

A. A. Antonopoulos; E. G. Wene

1987-01-01

347

Peroxidase-induced wilting in transgenic tobacco plants  

SciTech Connect

Peroxidases are a family of isoenzymes found in all higher plants. However, little is known concerning their role in growth, development or response to stress. Plant peroxidases are heme-containing monomeric glycoproteins that utilize either H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or O{sub 2} to oxidize a wide variety of molecules. To obtain more information on possible in planta functions of peroxidases, the authors have used a cDNA clone for the primary isoenzyme form of peroxidase to synthesize high levels of this enzyme in transgenic plants. They were able to obtain Nicotiana tabacum and N. sylvestris transformed plants with peroxidase activity that is 10-fold higher than in wild-type plants by introducing a chimeric gene composed of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the tobacco anionic peroxidase cDNA. The elevated peroxidase activity was a result of increased levels of two anionic peroxidases in N. tabacum, which apparently differ in post-translational modification. Transformed plants of both species have the unique phenotype of chronic severe wilting through loss of turgor in leaves, which was initiated a the time of flowering. The peroxidase-induced wilting was shown not to be an effect of diminished water uptake through the roots, decreased conductance of water through the xylem, or increased water loss through the leaf surface of stomata. Possible explanations for the loss of turgor, and the significance of these types of experiments in studying isoenzyme families, are discussed.

Lagrimini, L.M.; Bradford, S. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Rothstein, S. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01

348

[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].  

PubMed

The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

Wang, Fei

2012-06-01

349

Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt.

Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

2009-01-01

350

Fusarium skin infection: a case report.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man presented with an irregular ulcer with a black eschar on his forehead associated with severe headache. A subcutaneous nodule with a necrotic center was present on the left knee. The diagnosis of Fusarium infection was made and confirmed by biopsy and culture. The patient had a history of bronchial asthma for which he was on inhalational steroids for 5 years. It is unclear if this treatment was related to the disseminated Fusarium infection. The patient received oral itraconazole for 3 months with good improvement but met with an unexpected sudden death. PMID:22559021

Singhal, Kritika Vishwanath; Saoji, Vikrant; Saoji, Sandhya V

2012-04-15

351

Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.  

PubMed

Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. PMID:24055868

Mati?, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

2013-08-07

352

Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous container-based studies in greenhouses or growth rooms have consistently demonstrated a suppressive effect of composts on soil-borne diseases such as damping-off and root rots (Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora spp.), and wilts (Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae). Composts have also been shown to suppress several diseases in the field, although the effects have been generally smaller and more variable

R. Noble; E. Coventry

2005-01-01

353

Arabidopsis is susceptible to the cereal ear blight fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum cause ear blight disease on cereal crops worldwide. The disease lowers both grain quality and grain safety. Disease prevalence is increasing due to changes in cropping practices and the difficulties encountered by plant breeders when trying to introgress the polygene-based resistance. The molecular basis of resistance to Fusarium ear blight in cereal species is poorly understood. This is primarily due to the large size of cereal genomes and the expensive resources required to undertake gene function studies in cereals. We therefore explored the possibility of developing various model floral infection systems that would be more amenable to experimental manipulation and high-throughput gene function studies. The floral tissues of tobacco, tomato, soybean and Arabidopsis were inoculated with Fusarium conidia and this resulted in disease symptoms on anthers, anther filaments and petals in each plant species. However, only in Arabidopsis did this initial infection then spread into the developing siliques and seeds. A survey of 236 Arabidopsis ecotypes failed to identify a single genotype that was extremely resistant or susceptible to Fusarium floral infections. Three Arabidopsis floral mutants that failed to develop anthers and/or functional pollen (i.e. agamous-1, apetala1-3 and dad1) were significantly less susceptible to Fusarium floral infection than wild type. Deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin production was also detected in Fusarium-infected flowers at >1 ppm. This novel floral pathosystem for Arabidopsis appears to be highly representative of a serious cereal crop disease. PMID:12492838

Urban, Martin; Daniels, Steve; Mott, Ellie; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

2002-12-01

354

Introduction a potato cultivar "sprit" as relatively resistant to main fungal pathogens causal agents of early blight and wilting on potato in Iran.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tubersum L.) is one of the most human food production cultured in Iran especially Zanjan province as a temperate region. Some fungal pathogens caused severely infected on potato tubers or foliage in the majority grown areas and resulted yield losses in potato production. Recent years from 2002 to 2004 infected samples were collected from different potato grown regions in Zanjan province then cultured on PDA after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Isolated fungal pathogens were identified and study showed the main pathogens with high incidence and frequency were Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium sp. in studied areas. The regions which used convention varieties showed more diseases than other locations which used relatively resistant races. The rate of resistance for 10 international potato varieties was studied by inoculation of them by 10(5) spores suspension of three common fungal pathogens in the field. Study showed Sprit cultivar was more resistant than others to all three common pathogens and Lady-Claire was most susceptible. Yield production of Sprit per unit of land area was also exceeded that of other cultivars by factors of 1.10 to 2.25 respectively. The results of the study helped potato growers to culture Sprit cultivar and have good yield production in Zanjan and Hamedan provinces in this year. PMID:18396814

Saremi, H; Davoodvandy, M H; Amarlou, A

2007-01-01

355

HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

356

FUSARIUM BULB ROT OF ONION AND GARLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium proliferatum is a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen with a wide host range, including onion and garlic. In garlic, invasion by the fungus results in water-soaked lesions, then a progressive tan-brown rot of the cloves. In onion, the fungus may be confined to the outer layers of the bulb, wher...

357

SPORE KILLER POLYMORPHISM IN FUSARIUM MONILIFORME  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Spore killer trait, which exhibits genetic and cytological properties analo- gous to those previously found in Neurospora, exists in natural populations of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme. The genogeography of the polymorphism in F. moniliforme differs from the situation in Neurospora intermedia. It is more akin to the situation in N. sitophila, although more extreme with respect to

SOPHIA KATHARIOU; PHILIP T. SPIETH

1982-01-01

358

FUMONISIN MYCOTOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonsins are mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. These toxins are of concern because of their association with cancer in experimental rodents and the epidemiological correlation between consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize and human esophageal cancer. We hav...

359

Fertility and management practices to control verticillium wilt of the russet burbank potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices for the suppression of Verticillium wilt of Russet Burbank potato include sanitation, use of optimum\\u000a sprinkler-irrigation practices, soil solarization, and an adequate soil fertility program. Among all cultural factors considered,\\u000a nitrogen (N) deficiency in potato tissue was most commonly associated with the severity of Verticiilium wilt in Russet Burbank\\u000a potato. Field studies have shown that increased N availability

J. R. Davis; L. H. Sorensen; J. C. Stark; D. T. Westermann

1990-01-01

360

Ecological Relationships of Verticillium Wilt Suppression of Potato by Green Manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that once a suppressive effect has been established, a green manure treatment for a single season is sufficient\\u000a to either maintain or to re-establish the control of Verticillium wilt of potato. Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., was controlled on the first years of Russet Burbank potato cropping following 2–3 successive years of green manure\\u000a treatments. Following

James R. Davis; Oen C. Huisman; Dale O. Everson; Philip Nolte; Leland H. Sorensen; Ann T. Schneider

2010-01-01

361

Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field  

PubMed Central

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed.

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-01-01

362

Antibody-mediated prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins in the field.  

PubMed

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. PMID:19325726

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-10-09

363

Fusarium keratitis and endophthalmitis associated with lens contact wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a Fusarium keratitis is a severe corneal infection that is usually seen in tropical and subtropical countries after a corneal trauma.\\u000a In 2005–2006, an epidemic of Fusarium keratitis, occurring predominantly among contact lens wearers, was observed in several countries. Case report We describe the clinical course of a Fusarium keratitis which failed to respond to systemic and local voriconazole treatment,

Julia Proença-Pina; Isabelle Ssi Yan Kai; Tristan Bourcier; Monique Fabre; Hervé Offret; Marc Labetoulle

2010-01-01

364

Survey of fumonisin production by Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), two structurally related mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity, were recently isolated from corn cultures of Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826. These toxins have been reported to be produced also by isolates of F. proliferatum. Contamination of foods and feeds by F. moniliforme has been associated with human esophageal cancer risk, and FB1 has been shown to be the causative agent of the neurotoxic disease leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Because of the toxicological importance of the fumonisins, the potential to produce FB1 and FB2 was determined in a study of 40 toxic Fusarium isolates representing 27 taxa in 9 of the 12 sections of Fusarium, as well as two recently described species not yet classified into sections. With the exception of one isolate of F. nygamai, fumonisin production was restricted to isolates of F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum, in the section Liseola. The F. nygamai isolate produced 605 micrograms of FB1 g-1 and 530 micrograms of FB2 g-1, and the identity of the toxins was confirmed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the production of the fumonisins by F. nygamai.

Thiel, P G; Marasas, W F; Sydenham, E W; Shephard, G S; Gelderblom, W C; Nieuwenhuis, J J

1991-01-01

365

Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600?µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-? were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide. PMID:22916825

Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

2012-08-23

366

Changes in the bacterial community and composition of fermentation products during ensiling of wilted Italian ryegrass and wilted guinea grass silages.  

PubMed

To gain further insights into temperate and tropical grass ensiling, fermentation products and bacterial communities were examined at both the initial and late stages of ensiling of wilted Italian ryegrass and wilted guinea grass silages. 2,3-Butanediol and ethanol fermentation were observed in wilted Italian ryegrass silage. Enterobacteria such as Rahnella sp. and Enterobacter sp. may have been involved in fermentation; however, alcohol production was intensified after the silage enterobacterial community overwhelmed the pre-ensiled enterobacterial community. Pediococcus spp. appeared in silage stored for 4 months, when a significant increase in lactic acid content was seen compared with that at 2 months. Prolonged storage enhanced acetic acid fermentation in wilted guinea grass silage. The disappearance of Enterococcus sulfureus and appearance of Lactobacillus plantarum may have been associated with the increased acetic acid content. Although many species of enterobacteria were found in common between the pre-ensiled crop and silages of Italian ryegrass and guinea grass, marked differences were seen in the type of fermentation from the initial stages. These results indicate that the bacterial community of pre-ensiled crops may be immediately replaced by one that is adapted to ensiling environments, although metabolic changes may continue over the course of ensiling. PMID:23607694

Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

2013-03-24

367

Induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Capsicum annuum by a Fusarium crude elicitor fraction, free of proteins.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) induces resistance in pepper against the airborne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae. However, its practical use is limited due to its pathogenicity to other crops. In this study we tested several fractions of a heat-sterilised crude FOL-elicitor preparation to protect pepper against B. cinerea and V. dahliae. Only the protein-free insoluble fraction of the preparation reduced B. cinerea infection. However, none of the fractions reduce V. dahliae symptoms. The insoluble protein-free fraction induced expression of defence genes in the plant, namely a chitinase (CACHI2), a peroxidase (CAPO1), a sesquiterpene cyclase (CASC1) and a basic PR1 (CABPR1). Even though the CASC1 gene was not induced directly after treatment with the insoluble fraction in the leaves, it was induced after B. cinerea inoculation, showing a priming effect. The insoluble protein-free FOL-elicitor protected pepper against the airborne pathogen through a mechanism that involves induced responses in the plant, but different to the living FOL. PMID:24112636

Veloso, J; Díaz, J

2013-09-20

368

GENOMICS OF THE MYCOTOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS, FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM (GIBBERELLA ZEAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum (sexual state: Gibberella zeae) causes head blight (also known as scab) of wheat, barley, and oats, as well as foot and crown rot of corn. A genomics approach to the study of F. graminearum is critical because for head blight, like many Fusarium diseases, effective fungicides an...

369

Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

370

Fusarium Mycotoxins: Biosynthetic Pathways and Role in Virulence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley is a devastating disease that has reached global proportions. Not only does this disease result in lower yields, but the mycotoxins produced by the fungus affect the quality of the grain. Fusarium sp. can produce a number of mycotoxins, including tric...

371

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

372

Quantitative Trait Loci in Sweet Corn Associated with Partial Resistance to Stewart's Wilt, Northern Corn Leaf Blight, and Common Rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown, A. F., Juvik, J. A., and Pataky, J. K. 2001. Quan titative trait loci in sweet corn associated with partial resistance to Stewart's wilt, northern corn leaf blight, and common rust. Phytopathology 91:293-300. Partial resistance to Stewart's wilt ( Erwina stewartii, syn. Pantoea stewartii), northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) ( Exserohilum turcicum), and common rust (Puccinia sorghi) was observed

A. F. Brown; J. A. Juvik; J. K. Pataky

2001-01-01

373

El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Impact on tomato spotted wilt intensity in peanut and the implication on yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Nińo – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on weather patterns could have cascading effects on several diseases of important crops in the southeastern United States. One such disease is spotted wilt of peanut caused by the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Significant economic losses have been recorded by peanut growers in the southeastern United States since the disease

R. O. Olatinwo; J. O. Paz; R. C. Kemerait Jr.; A. K. Culbreath; G. Hoogenboom

2010-01-01

374

Disseminated Fusarium originating from toenail paronychia in a neutropenic patient  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a saprophytic organism that is found widely distributed in soil, subterranean and aerial plants, plant debris and other organic substrates. The organism can cause local tissue infections in immunocompetent patients such as onychomycosis, bone and joint infections, or sinusitis. Since the first case of disseminated Fusarium was described, the incidence of disseminated disease has increased significantly, particularly affecting those immunocompromised with hematological malignancies. We report here a 38 year-old hospitalized male with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed disseminated Fusarium infection, originating from a toenail paronychia, in the setting of neutropenia. Pathological diagnosis of Fusarium is difficult because the septate hyphae of Fusarium are difficult to distinguish from Aspergillus, which has a more favorable outcome. Cultures of potential sources of infection, as well as tissue cultures, are essential in identifying the organism and initiating early aggressive therapy.

Bourgeois, Greg P.; Cafardi, Jennifer A.; Sellheyer, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A.

2010-01-01

375

Cytotoxicity of Fusarium mycotoxins to mammalian cell cultures as determined by the MTT bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium mycotoxins occur worldwide in cereal grains and animal feeds and cause outbreaks of Fusarium mycotoxicoses in humans and animals. In this study mammalian cell cultures were used to screen the cytotoxicity of the most common Fusarium mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and moniliformin (MON). The most sensitive cell line for each Fusarium mycotoxin was determined for

Y. Cetin; L. B. Bullerman

2005-01-01

376

The role of saprophytic microflora in the development of Fusarium ear blight of winter wheat caused by Fusarium culmorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saprophytic microflora may interact with ear blight pathogens of wheat and contribute to the poor performance of fungicides against this disease in vivo. A glasshouse experiment and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between saprophytic microflora and Fusarium culmorum and to determine fungicide effects on Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium culmorum. Inoculation of winter

J. Liggitt; P. Jenkinson; D. W. Parry

1997-01-01

377

Spore Killer Polymorphism in FUSARIUM MONILIFORME.  

PubMed

A Spore killer trait, which exhibits genetic and cytological properties analogous to those previously found in Neurospora, exists in natural populations of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme. The genogeography of the polymorphism in F. moniliforme differs from the situation in Neurospora intermedia. It is more akin to the situation in N. sitophila, although more extreme with respect to the prevalence of killer alleles: more than 80% of tested isolates of F. moniliforme carry the killer allele. Nevertheless, sensitive alleles are widely distributed and have been found in California, Italy, Greece and Central America. PMID:17246093

Kathariou, S; Spieth, P T

1982-09-01

378

Evaluation of genetic diversity of Fusarium head blight resistance in European winter wheat.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity in relation to Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was investigated among 295 European winter wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines using 47 wheat SSR markers. Twelve additional wheat lines with known FHB resistance were included as reference material. At least one SSR marker per chromosome arm, including SSR markers reported in the literature with putative associations with QTLs for FHB resistance, were assayed to give an even distribution of SSR markers across the wheat genome. A total of 404 SSR alleles were detected. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 21, with an average of 8.6 alleles. The polymorphism information content of the SSR markers ranged from 0.13 (Xwmc483) to 0.87 (Xwmc607), with an average of 0.54. Cluster analysis was performed by both genetic distance-based and model-based methods. In general, the dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages showed similar groupings to the model-based analysis. Seven clusters were identified by the model-based method, which did not strictly correspond to geographical origin. The FHB resistance level of the wheat lines was evaluated in field trials conducted over multiple years or locations by assessing the following traits: % FHB severity, % FHB incidence, % diseased kernels, in spray inoculation trials, and % FHB spread and % wilted tips, in point inoculation trials. Association analysis between SSR markers and the FHB disease traits detected markers significantly associated with FHB resistance, including some that have not been previously reported. The percentage of variance explained by each individual marker was, however, rather low. Haplotype analysis revealed that the FHB-resistant European wheat lines do not contain the 3BS locus derived from Sumai 3. The information generated in this study will assist in the selection of parental lines in order to increase the efficiency of breeding efforts for FHB resistance. PMID:18587558

Zwart, Rebecca S; Muylle, Hilde; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

2008-06-28

379

Fusarium strain development and selection for enhancement of ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Research data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that selected Fusarium strains isolated from natural habitats are potential decomposers and parameters of biomass. The amount of ethanol produced is comparable to that yielded by other potential microorganisms and, moreover, Fusarium strains can ferment zylose (pentoses) while other microbes cannot. Preliminary mutagenesis studies on Fusarium isolates indicates that potential mutants can be developed which are capable of hydrolyzing more cellulosics in a shorter time as well as fermenting monosugars to ethanol at higher rates than their parental wild strains. Therefore, new studies were initiated to further enhance the ethanol production via Fusarium genetic manipulation. In particular, the aim of this task is to develop superior Fusarium strains capable of fermenting monosaccharides (specifically xylose) to ethanol, and able to tolerate higher ethanol concentrations than selected wild strains. Experimental work on hyphal fusions of selected Fusarium strains with the purpose of exploiting heterokaryosis and parasexuality for the development of new superior strains has been initiated. Bibliographic information related to Fusarium genetics and ethanol fermentation has been studied and a summary is presented. 63 refs.

Antonopoulos, A.A.; Wene, E.G.

1987-01-01

380

Post-operative endophthalmitis due to Fusarium dimerum.  

PubMed

Fungal endophthalmitis is a destructive intraocular infection resulting in poor visual prognosis. Endophthalmitis due to Fusarium spp has the worst visual prognosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female patient who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in the right eye and presented two months after the surgery with fungal endophthalmitis. The aqueous humor culture grew Fusarium dimerum. The patient was treated with intravitreal and oral voriconazole and topical prednisolone. The patient experienced one episode of recurrence following by remarkable improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fusarium dimerum endophthalmitis. PMID:23413713

Khan, Sadia; Pillai, Gopal S; Vivek, V; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, P M Shamsul

2012-11-01

381

Calcium uptake and resistance to bacterial wilt of mutually grafted tomato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum Smith is a serious disease in Japan. We previously reported that calcium (Ca) nutrition in tomato significantly affected the resistance to the disease, and that highly resistant cultivars were characterized by a high Ca uptake. We examined the relationship between the Ca uptake and resistance using mutually grafted seedlings

Hiromichi Yamazaki; Sunao Kikuchi; Tsuguo Hoshina; Takeshi Kimura

2000-01-01

382

Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus brevis Strain X23, a Biocontrol Agent against Bacterial Wilt  

PubMed Central

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum.

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming

2012-01-01

383

Draft genome sequence of Brevibacillus brevis strain X23, a biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum. PMID:23144389

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming; Zhou, Qingming

2012-12-01

384

10. Development of component technologies for control of bacterial wilt in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research strategies to control potato bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) were conducted in Pangalengan subdistrict in West Java from January to December 2001. Activities were done to determine the following: 1) status of Ralstonia solanacearum in farmers' and experimental fields, 2) effects of control components including seed selection during storage, crop rotation, field sanitation, mulching, and manuring with beneficial organisms added,

Oni Setiani Gunawan; Z. Abidin; R. S. Basuki; A. Dimyati; A. Asgar; Elske van de Fliert

385

Regeneration of Different Plant Functional Types in a Masson Pine Forest Following Pine Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

2012-01-01

386

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

387

OPTIMIZATION AND USE OF THE CARPOPHILUS SAYI (COLEOPTERA: NITIDULIDAE) PHEROMONE IN OAK WILT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ceratocystis fagacearum, (Bretz) Hunt, the causal agent of oak wilt, is transmitted overland from diseased to healthy oaks by sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Carpophilus sayi (Parsons) has been implicated as one of the principal sap beetle vectors in Minnesota. Field studies were conducted ...

388

Comparing Farmer Field Schools, Community Workshops, and Radio: Teaching Bolivian Farmers about Bacterial Wilt of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious disease of potato. It can be managed with cultural practices, but only if farmers understand the technologies, and the reasons behind them. Face-to-face extension methods, like farmer field school (FFS), can teach these messages to smallholders, but other methods may also be useful. This paper compares FFS with two less- costly methods: \\

Jeffery W. Bentley; Oscar Barea; Sylvie Priou; Graham Thiele

389

EVALUATION OF FRANKLINIELLA BISPINOSA (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) AS A VECTOR OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS IN PEPPER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella occidentalis is the key vector responsible for the emergence of Tomato spotted wilt virus as a global threat to agriculture. Frankliniella bispinosa is a common thrips in Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda, but the role of F. bispinosa in the epidemiology of the virus is not known. The ...

390

Measuring Hydraulic Conductivity to Wilting Point Using Polymer Tensiometers in an Evaporation Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer tensiometer is a novel instrument to measure soil water pressure heads from saturation to permanent wilting conditions. We used tensiometers of this type in an experiment to determine the hydraulic properties of evaporating soil samples in the laboratory. Relative errors in the hydraulic conductivity function in the wet part were high due to the relatively low accuracy of

A. Durigon; H. P. A. Gooren; Lier van Q. D; K. Metselaar

2011-01-01

391

The S RNA segment of tomato spotted wilt virus has an ambisense character  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the S RNA of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was determined. The RNA is 2916 nucleotides long and has an ambisense coding strategy. The sequence contains two open reading frames (ORFs), one in the viral sense which encodes a protein with a predicted Mr of 52\\

Peter de Haan; C. A. M. Wagemakers; Dick Peters; Rob Goldbach

1990-01-01

392

Multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in primary cell cultures derived from two thrips species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cell cultures prepared from embryos of the thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci were tested for their potential to support replication of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Using polyclonal antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) and indirect immunofluorescent staining, discrete spots with strong signals were observed in the cytoplasm at 48 h post-inoculation in the cell cultures

Tatsuya Nagata; Marc M. H Storms; Rob Goldbach; Dick Peters

1997-01-01

393

Polygenic Inheritance of Canopy Wilting in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As water demand for agriculture exceeds water availability, cropping systems need to become more efficient in water usage, such as deployment of cultivars that sustain yield under drought conditions. Soybean cultivars differ in how quickly they wilt during water-deficit stress, and this trait may l...

394

Inheritance of a resistance specific to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus in Capsicum chinense ‘PI 159236’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance studies were conducted to determine the genetic basis of resistance in pepper against one Tospovirus isolate classified as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). F1, backcrosses and F2 populations were developed using the resistant parent Capsicum chinense ‘PI 159236’ (CNPH 679) and the susceptible parent C. annuum ‘Magda’ (CNPH 192). Segregation ratios strongly indicated that the resistant response (a localization,

L. S. Boiteux; A. C. Ávila

1994-01-01

395

Allelic relationships between genes for resistance to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus in Capsicum chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) has been reported to be an important reservoir of resistance genes to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The genes for TSWV resistance present in three C. chinense lines (‘PI 152225’, ‘PI 159236’ and ‘Panca’) were investigated for allelism. All resistant lines were crossed with each other. Parents, F1, backcrosses and F2 populations (including reciprocals) developed from

L. S. Boiteux

1995-01-01

396

Sources of resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in cultivated and wild species of Capsicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germplasm collection of 70 cultivars and wild species of Capsicum was evaluated for resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) under field (natural inoculum) conditions. Different levels of resistance to the disease caused by this virus were observed among the tested lines. High degree of field resistance was detected in two Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, two C. chinense, and

L. S. Boiteux; T. Nagata; W. P. Dutra; M. E. N. Fonseca

1993-01-01

397

Evaluation of thrips resistance in pepper to control Tomato spotted wilt virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of thrips ( F. occidentalis ) resistance in pepper ( Capsicum ) on the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Results demonstrate that the rate of primary TSWV-infection is effectively limited in a thrips-resistant (TR) pepper crop compared to a thrips-susceptible (TS) crop, and that this is based on

P. C. Maris

2004-01-01

398

MIDGUT INFECTION BY TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS AND VECTOR INCOMPETENCE OF FRANKLINIELLA TRITICI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mechanism leading to vector competence of several thirps species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been intensively investigated, but it is not yet well characterized. This study reports on the interaction of TSWV and the non-vector species Frankliniella tritici. By using immunofl...

399

Verticillium Wilt in Potato: Host-Pathogen Interactions and Breeding for Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Verticillium wilt (VW) is a widespread disease that causes consistent yield losses in many potato growing regions worldwide. In the U.S., it is mainly caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Microsclerotia can survive in the soil for many years. When they germinate and infe...

400

Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...

401

Identification of dead tree of Japanese oak wilt (JOW) using high spatial resolution satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Japanese oak wilt (JOW) has been increasing in Japan since late 1980s. The JOW is caused by the ambrosia fungus Raffaelea quercivorus vectored by an ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. Detection of trees killed by JOW is important to prevent new incidence of JOW but difficult because most of JOW mortality occurs in mountainous area. Remote sensing with

Ryotaro KOMURA; Naoto KAMATA; Mamoru KUBO; Ken-ichiro MURAMOTO

2005-01-01

402

Research Note: Estimation of Field Capacity and Wilting Point from Basic Soil Physical and Chemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, using pedotransfer functions to estimate hard-to-measure soil properties has become an attractive alternative to direct measurements due to savings in time and experimental costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pedotransfer functions in estimating field capacity and wilting point from soil texture, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Soil samples collected

F. NOURBAKHSH; M. AFYUNI; K. C. ABBASPOUR; R. SCHULIN

2004-01-01

403

New outbreaks of verticillium wilt on Hop in Oregon caused by nonlethal verticillium albo-atrum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006 and 2007, new outbreaks of Verticillium wilt on hop were detected on two farms in Oregon. Verticillium pathogens vary in their virulence to hop; some strains cause minor damage but others can kill susceptible cultivars. Studies were conducted to determine the identity of the Verticillium sp...

404

Two CAPS markers predict Verticillium wilt resistance in wild Solanum species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Verticillium wilt of potato is a persistent problem across several production areas of the United States. The disease, which is caused primarily by the fungus Verticillium dahliae is difficult to manage, causes yield losses and contaminates the soils for subsequent plantings. Control strategies base...

405

Production of T-2 toxin by a Fusarium resembling Fusarium poae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fusarium species with a micro morphology similar to F. poae and a metabolite profile resembling that of F. sporotrichioides has been identified. Like typical F. poae, the microconidia have a globose to pyriform shape, but the powdery appearance, especially on Czapek-Dox Iprodione Dichloran\\u000a agar (CZID), less aerial mycelium and the lack of fruity odour on Potato Sucrose Agar (PSA)

Mona Torp; Wenche Langseth

1999-01-01

406

Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides genes necessary for benzoxazolinone biotransformation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize produces the benzoxazinones DIMBOA and DIBOA, which naturally transform into the more stable benzoxazolinones MBOA and BOA, respectively. These weed-suppressive allelopathic compounds are also implicated in resistance to microbial diseases and insect feeding. Fusarium verticillioides, the mo...

407

Isolation and characterization of zearalenone sulfate produced by Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

A water-soluble compound related to zearalenone was isolated from a culture of Fusarium graminearum 30 grown in rice. The structure of the novel metabolite was determined to be zearalenone-4-sulfate on the basis of fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, UV spectroscopy, and by chemical and enzymatic reactions. Strains representing Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium sambucinum, and Fusarium roseum produced the sulfate conjugate as well. In the rat uterus enlargement bioassay, the metabolite or its hydrolysis product was found to retain the estrogenic activity characteristic of zearalenone. Natural occurrence of this novel metabolite might be significant because analytical methods devised for zearalenone in grain cannot detect the conjugate but the conjugate retains the biological properties of the mycotoxin when ingested by animals. PMID:1827972

Plasencia, J; Mirocha, C J

1991-01-01

408

Isolation and characterization of zearalenone sulfate produced by Fusarium spp.  

PubMed Central

A water-soluble compound related to zearalenone was isolated from a culture of Fusarium graminearum 30 grown in rice. The structure of the novel metabolite was determined to be zearalenone-4-sulfate on the basis of fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, UV spectroscopy, and by chemical and enzymatic reactions. Strains representing Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium sambucinum, and Fusarium roseum produced the sulfate conjugate as well. In the rat uterus enlargement bioassay, the metabolite or its hydrolysis product was found to retain the estrogenic activity characteristic of zearalenone. Natural occurrence of this novel metabolite might be significant because analytical methods devised for zearalenone in grain cannot detect the conjugate but the conjugate retains the biological properties of the mycotoxin when ingested by animals.

Plasencia, J; Mirocha, C J

1991-01-01

409

Fusarium Strain Development and Selection for Enhancement of Ethanol Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that selected Fusarium strains isolated from natural habitats are potential decomposers and parameters of biomass. The amount of ethanol produced is comparable to that yielded by other potent...

A. A. Antonopoulos E. G. Wene

1987-01-01

410

Fusarium Species: Their Potential for Transforming Biomass to Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to review existing literature and present some considerations pertaining to the use of Fusarium in degrading and fermenting certain biomass constituents to ethanol. Energy stored in the carbon bonds of biomass can be extracte...

A. A. Antonopoulos

1979-01-01

411

Biological control of alligatorweed ( Alternanthera philoxeroides ) with a Fusarium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroidesG.) has become a serious weed in different crops in China. A fungal pathogen was found in Chongqing and Sichuan Provinces and was identified as a species in the Fusarium genus. The fungus produced macroconidia and chlamydospores abundantly on potato sucrose agar (PSA) plates. The bestconidial production and germination and colonygrowth of Fusarium sp. were at 23–31°C and

W. Z. Tan; Q. J. Li; L. Qing

2002-01-01

412

CHARACTERIZATION OF CLADOSPORIUM OXYSPORUM AND C. SPHAEROSPERMUM USING POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) AS THEIR SOLE CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL COASTAL SEAWATER.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two species of Cladosporium (C. oxysporum and C. sphaerospermum) were isolated from surface coastal water based on their ability to use the polyaromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene and phenanthrene as a sole carbon and energy source. Although both Cladosporium spp. are cosmopolitan, both species are ne...

413

Production of Alanine by Fusarium moniliforme  

PubMed Central

Fusarium moniliforme grown in a chemically defined medium in submerged culture accumulated amino acids extracellularly. Alanine and glutamic acid were present in greatest amounts, with traces of glycine, lysine, threonine, and valine detectable. Increasing the glucose and urea concentrations of the medium increased yields of alanine. Further increases in alanine production occurred with elevated levels of mineral salts in the medium, whereas the addition of a vitamin mixture proved to be inhibitory. Chemical changes resulting from the growth of F. moniliforme in the final fermentation medium disclosed maximal alanine production, mycelial weight, and glucose consumption after 72 hr of incubation at 28.5 C. Total soluble nitrogen, by contrast, was minimal at the same time period. The pH remained in the alkaline range throughout the fermentation.

Carito, Sebastian L.; Pisano, Michael A.

1966-01-01

414

Transcriptional Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana during Wilt Disease Caused by the Soil-Borne Phytopathogenic Bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is a common disease that causes severe yield and quality losses in many plants. In the present study, we used the model Ralstonia solanacearum-Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem to study transcriptional changes associated with wilt disease development. Susceptible Col-5 plants and RRS1-R-containing resistant Nd-1 plants were root-inoculated with R. solanacearum strains harbouring or lacking the matching PopP2 avirulence gene. Gene

Jian Hu; Xavier Barlet; Laurent Deslandes; Judith Hirsch; Dong Xin Feng; Imre Somssich; Yves Marco

2008-01-01

415

Management of Wilting (Phytophthora capsici Leo.), Root Galling (Nacobbus aberrans Thorne and Allen), and Virosis in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yáńez-Juárez, G.M., Zavaleta-Mejía, E., Flores-Revilla, C., Chávez-Alfaro, J.J., and Valdivia-Alcalá, R. 2001. Management of Wilting (Phytophthora capsici Leo.) Root Galling (Nacobbus aberrans Thorne and Allen), and Virosis in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 19:40-48. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the integration of different control strategies for the management of wilting (Phytophthora capsici), root galling

Gilberto Moisés Yáńez-Juárez; Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Carlos Flores-Revilla; J. Jesús Chávez-Alfaro

2001-01-01

416

SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A Fusarium verticillioides (SACC.) NIRENBERG EN LA POBLACIÓN DE MAÍZ MPB-FCA 8561  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg in the MPB-FCA 856 corn population. The genetic variability of corn ear traits and the sensitivity to corn ear (Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg) putrefaction were characterized in the \\

Daniel Antonio Peiretti-Uzal; María Cristina Nazar-Lovera; Carlos Alberto Biasutti-Valenzano; Laura María Giorda-Lerda

2007-01-01

417

Linear mitochondrial plasmids of F. oxysporum are novel, telomere-like retroelements.  

PubMed

Diverse types of linear RNA and DNA autonomously replicating genetic elements exist in prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts, yet linear elements that replicate by reverse transcription have not been identified. Here, we report the sequence and organization of two linear mitochondrial plasmids of the fungal plant pathogen F. oxysporum and the characterization of a plasmid-associated reverse transcriptase activity. Plasmids pFOXC2 and pFOXC3 are 1.9 kb in length and have a "clothespin" genomic structure, which includes a terminal hairpin and a telomere-like iteration of a 5 bp sequence at the other terminus. The retroplasmid replication cycle involves novel strategies for copying terminal sequences, which may provide clues concerning the origin of telomerase as well as the evolution of linear DNAs. PMID:10488338

Walther, T C; Kennell, J C

1999-08-01

418

Production of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi cutinase in Fusarium venenatum A3/5.  

PubMed

Fusarium venenatum A3/5 was transformed using the Aspergillus niger expression plasmid, pIGF, in which the coding sequence for the F. solani f. sp. pisi cutinase gene had been inserted in frame, with a KEX2 cleavage site, with the truncated A. niger glucoamylase gene under control of the A. niger glucoamylase promoter. The transformant produced up to 21 U cutinase l(-1) in minimal medium containing glucose or starch as the primary carbon source. Glucoamylase (165 U l(-1) or 8 mg l(-1)) was also produced. Both the transformant and the parent strain produced cutinase in medium containing cutin. PMID:17505784

Sřrensen, Jacob Dam; Petersen, Evamaria I; Wiebe, Marilyn G

2007-05-16

419

Mycotoxin Production and Molecular Variability of European and American Isolates of Fusarium Culmorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main causative agents of Fusarium head blight are Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. We examined the mycotoxin-producing abilities and molecular variability of 37 Fusarium culmorum isolates collected from the Pan-Northern Hemisphere, together with isolates representing related species. Mycotoxin-producing abilities of the isolates were tested by thin layer chromatography and by PCR using primer pairs specific for the Tri7 and

Beáta Tóth; Ákos Mesterházy; Paul Nicholson; József Téren; János Varga

2004-01-01

420

Sudden wilt of capsicum in tropical and subtropical Australia: a severe form of Pythium root rot exacerbated by high soil temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden wilt is the major disease problem confronting the capsicum industry in tropical and subtropical Australia. Plants are\\u000a healthy until fruit set, when they suddenly wilt and defoliate, producing small, shriveled and unmarketable fruit. Observations\\u000a of apparently healthy and sudden wilt-affected plants in the field showed that root rotting was consistently associated with\\u000a the disease. Isolations from rotted roots yielded

G. R. Stirling; L. M. Eden; M. G. Ashley

2004-01-01

421

Toxin production by Fusarium species from sugar beets and natural occurrence of zearalenone in beets and beet fibers.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-five Fusarium isolates belonging to nine species were collected from fungus-invaded tissue of stored sugar beets and identified as F. acuminatum (11 isolates), F. avenaceum (1 isolate), F. culmorum (1 isolate), F. equiseti (23 isolates), F. graminearum (4 isolates), F. oxysporum (1 isolate), F. solani (4 isolates), F. sporotrichioides (7 isolates), and F. subglutinans (2 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved rice grains and assayed for toxicity by feeding weanling female rats the ground-rice cultures of the isolates in a 50% mixture with a regular diet for 5 days. Fifty-eight percent of the isolates were acutely toxic to rats, 26% caused hematuria, 18% caused hemorrhages, and 29% caused uterine enlargement. In most cases, toxicity could not be accounted for by the known toxins found. The following mycotoxins were found in extracts of the rice cultures: zearalenone (22 to 6,282 micrograms/g), chlamydosporol (HM-8) (68 to 4,708 micrograms/g), moniliformin (45 to 400 micrograms/g), deoxynivalenol (10 to 34 micrograms/g), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 micrograms/g), diacetoxyscirpenol (22 to 63 micrograms/g), monoacetoxyscirpenol (21 to 26 micrograms/g), scirpenetriol (24 micrograms/g), T-2 toxin (4 to 425 micrograms/g), HT-2 toxin (2 to 284 micrograms/g), neosolaniol (2 to 250 micrograms/g), and T-2 tetraol (4 to 12 micrograms/g). F. equiseti was the predominant species found on visibly molded beets in the field. Six of 25 moldy sugar beet root samples collected in the field contained zearalenone in concentrations ranging between 12 and 391 ng/g, whereas 10 samples from commercial stockpiles were negative for zearalenone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bosch, U; Mirocha, C J

1992-01-01

422

The Suppression of Verticillium Wilt of Potato Using Corn as a Green Manure Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies involving the effects of growing sweet corn (Zea mays var. Jubilee sweet corn and var. Jubilee super-sweet corn) as a green manure for 2 or 3 seasons demonstrated both suppression\\u000a of verticillium wilt by 60–70% (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) and increased potato yields. Although these treatments showed no direct effect on V. dahliae soil populations, the colonization of V.

James R. Davis; O. C. Huisman; Dale O. Everson; Philip Nolte; L. H. Sorenson; A. T. Schneider

2010-01-01

423

Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica infection promotes verticillium wilt development in potato in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The interaction betweenErwinia carotovora subsp.atroseptica (Eca) andVerticillium dahliae and its effect on symptom development in potato cultivars showing different degrees of resistance to them was examined over\\u000a two seasons in irrigated fields in a hot, dry climate. Four cultivars were used: Cara, highly resistant to blackleg and tolerant\\u000a to Verticillium wilt; Pentland Crown also resistant to blackleg but susceptible to

Leah Lahkim Tsror; A. Nachmias; L. Livescu; M. C. M. Perombelon; Z. Barak

1990-01-01

424

Integrated use of biocontrol agents with fungicides to control wilt incidence in pigeon-pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger, as biocontrol agents, were included with two fungicides, Foltaf 80W (Captafol 80%) and Blue Copper-50, for the treatment of pigeon-pea wilt, the disease was more effectively controlled than when the fungicides were used alone. Accordingly, decreased amounts of the fungicides could be used to control the disease without adversely affecting the growth of pigeon-pea.

H. Bhatnagar

1995-01-01

425

Effects of soil fumigation on verticillium wilt, nematodes and other diseases of potato roots and tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fumigation of soil was shown to affect subsequent potato crops by several different mechanisms.Rhizoctonia on roots and as black scurf on tubers,Verticillium wilt, pink eye of tubers, vascular browning in tubers, weeds and nematodes are involved. During the relatively dry years\\u000a herein reported, fumigation gave a maximum yield increase of about 20%. Of the fumigants tested, Vorlex was the most

P. M. Miller; L. V. Edgington; Arthur Hawkins

1967-01-01

426

VdNEP, an Elicitor from Verticillium dahliae, Induces Cotton Plant Wilting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is a vascular disease of cotton. The causal fungus, Verticillium dahliae, secretes elicitors in culture. We have generated 1,000 5-terminal expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cultured mycelium of V. dahliae. A number of ESTs were found to encode proteins harboring putative signal peptides for secretion, and their cDNAs were isolated. Heterologous expression led to the identification of

Jian-Ying Wang; Yu Cai; Jin-Ying Gou; Ying-Bo Mao; Yan-Hua Xu; Wei-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ya Chen

2004-01-01

427

Enhanced resistance against bacterial wilt in transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) lines expressing the Xa21 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance bacterial wilt resistance in tomato plants and simplify the protocol of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer, parameters affecting transformation efficiency in tomato have been optimized. A. tumefaciens strain EHA101, harboring a recombinant binary expression vector pTCL5 containing the Xa21 gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter was used for transformation. Five cultivars of tomato (Rio Grande,

Amber Afroz; Zubeda Chaudhry; Umer Rashid; Ghulam Muhammad Ali; Farhat Nazir; Javaid Iqbal; Muhammad Rashid Khan

2011-01-01

428

Expression of the movement protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its insect vector Frankliniella occidentalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is able to infect both its botanical hosts and its insect vector (thrips). In plant tissue the NSM protein of TSWV functions as viral movement protein (MP), aggregating into plasmodesma-penetrating tubules to establish cell-to-cell\\u000a movement. As upon heterologous expression NSM was able to form similar tubules on the surface of insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells, we

M. M. H. Storms; T. Nagata; R. Kormelink; R. W. Goldbach; J. W. M. van Lent

2002-01-01

429

'Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum', a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato purple top wilt (PPT) is a devastating disease that occurs in various regions of North America and Mexico. At least three distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to three different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII and 16SrVI) have been associated with this disease. A new disease with symptoms similar to PPT was recently observed in Texas and Nebraska, USA. Two distinct phytoplasma

Ing-Ming Lee; Kristi D. Bottner; Gary Secor; Viviana Rivera-Varas

2006-01-01

430

Molecular Tools to Study Epidemiology and Toxicology of Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is a disease complex. Fusarium graminearum is the major pathogen worldwide, while F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae are also associated with this disease. In addition to the true Fusarium species, Microdochium nivale may also cause head blight and is particularly prevalent where cooler, wetter conditions prevail. Other species such as F. sporotrichioides,

Paul Nicholson; E. Chandler; R. C. Draeger; N. E. Gosman; D. R. Simpson; M. Thomsett; A. H. Wilson

2003-01-01

431

Epidemiology of Fusarium Infection and Deoxynivalenol Content in Winter Wheat in the Rhineland, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of our long-term research programme concerning the epidemiology of Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin production are summarized. Evaluation of the occurrence of Fusarium spp., mainly on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), was carried out by investigating Fusarium infection and mycotoxin contamination. Two to 15% of grains were infested during 1995–1998 at three climatologically differing localities of the Rhineland, Germany. Disease progress

B. Birzele; A. Meier; H. Hindorf; J. Krämer; H.-W. Dehne

2002-01-01

432

Infection and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides in Developing Maize Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bush, B. J., Carson, M. L., Cubeta, M. A., Hagler, W. M., and Payne, G. A. 2004. Infection and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides in developing maize kernels. Phytopathology 94:88-93. Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination are serious problems for maize growers, particularly in the southeastern United States. The lack of maize genotypes highly resistant to infection by Fusarium ver-

B. J. Bush; M. L. Carson; M. A. Cubeta; W. M. Hagler; G. A. Payne

2004-01-01

433

Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian Prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium pathogens cause important diseases, such as root\\/crown rot and Fusarium head blight (FHB), in cereal crops. These diseases can be caused by similar Fusarium spp. Common root rot (CRR) is widespread in the western Canadian Prairies, whereas FHB has potential of becoming an important disease in this region. There are no commercially available cereal cultivars with good resistance to

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; P. Basnyat; D. Gehl; F. Selles; D. Huber

2009-01-01

434

Effect of inoculation time and point of entry on disease severity in Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, or Fusarium subglutinans inoculated maize ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if differences exist in the ability of three Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, and F. subglutinans) to infect maize ears as the silks and kernels mature, one moderately resistant and two susceptible hybrids were inoculated at two points of entry (silk channel and kernels) in 1994 and 1995. Inoculations were conducted nine times for each part of

L. M. Reid; T. Woldemariam; X. Zhu; D. W. Stewart; A. W. Schaafsma

2002-01-01

435

Mating Type Sequences in Asexually Reproducing Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative ? and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum were compared to similar sequences that were described previously for other members of the genus. The DNA sequences of the regions flanking the amplified MAT regions were obtained by inverse PCR. These data were used to develop diagnostic primers suitable for the clear amplification of conserved mating type sequences from any member of the genus Fusarium. By using these diagnostic primers, we identified mating types of 122 strains belonging to 22 species of Fusarium. The ? box and the HMG box from the mating type genes are transcribed in F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae, and F. semitectum. The novelty of the PCR-based mating type identification system that we developed is that this method can be used on a wide range of Fusarium species, which have proven or expected teleomorphs in different ascomycetous genera, including Calonectria, Gibberella, and Nectria.

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Moretti, Antonio; Waalwijk, Cees; Olah, Brigitta; Hornok, Laszlo

2004-01-01

436

Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

There are several taxonomic systems available for identifying Fusarium species. The philosophy used in each taxonomic system is discussed as well as problems encountered in working with Fusarium species in culture. Fusarium species are toxigenic, and the mycotoxins produced by these organisms are often associated with animal and human diseases. The implications for the association of the carcinogens, fumonisins, produced by Fusarium moniliforme and other Fusarium species with human diseases are discussed. Foreign-body-associated fusarial infection such as keratitis in contact lens wearers, onychomycosis, skin infections, and disseminated multiorgan infections are discussed. Disseminated fusarial hyalohyphomycosis has emerged as a significant, usually fatal infection in the immunocompromised host. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression, the extent of the infection, and the presence of a removable focus such as an indwelling central venous catheter. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy, probably with one of the newer antifungal agents. Perhaps the use of such agents or the use of colony-stimulating factors may improve the outcome of this devastating infection. However, until new approaches for treatment develop, effective preventive measures are urgently needed. Images

Nelson, P E; Dignani, M C; Anaissie, E J

1994-01-01

437

A new PCR approach for the identification of Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work was to develop a PCR protocol for the identification of Fusarium graminearum, based on a pair of primers targeted to a segment of the 3´coding region of the gaoA gene that codes for the enzyme galactose oxidase (GO). This region has low homology with the same region of GO genes from other fungi. Genomic DNA from 17 strains of Fusarium spp. isolated from diseased cereals, from several other Fusarium species, and from other fungi genera was analyzed in a PCR assay using this primer set. The 17 strains of Fusarium spp. were also analyzed for the GO enzyme production in submerse fermentation in a new formulated liquid medium. All strains that were morphologically and molecularly identified as F. graminearum were able to secrete the enzyme and had a positive result in the used PCR protocol. No DNA fragment was amplified using genomic DNA from other Fusarium species and species of other fungi genera. The results suggest that the proposed PCR protocol is specific and can be considered as a new molecular tool for the identification of F. graminearum. In addition, the new formulated medium is a cheap alternative for screening for GO screening production by F. graminearum.

de Biazio, Gleison Ricardo; Leite, Gabriela Guimaraes Sousa; Tessmann, Dauri Jose; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

2008-01-01

438

Making headway in understanding pine wilt disease: what do we perceive in the postgenomic era?  

PubMed

The advent of next generation sequencing has revolutionized research approaches to biology by making entire genome sequences available and marking a new age in biology that has the potential to open innovative research avenues in various fields. Genome sequencing is now being applied in the fields of forest ecology and forest pathology, which previously had limited access to molecular techniques. One of the most advanced areas of progress is the study of "pine wilt disease", which is caused by the parasitic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The entire genome sequence of B. xylophilus was determined in 2011, and since then, proteomic studies have been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the parasitism and pathogenicity of B. xylophilus. These postgenomic studies have provided numerous molecular insights and greatly changed our understanding of the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease. Here, we review the recent advances in genomic and proteomic approaches that address some of the longstanding questions behind the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease and have identified future questions and directions in this regard. PMID:23474098

Shinya, Ryoji; Morisaka, Hironobu; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2013-03-07

439

Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.  

PubMed

Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

2001-05-01

440

Sexual compatibility in Fusarium pseudograminearum (Gibberella coronicola).  

PubMed

Numerous pathogenic Fusarium species have well-characterized sexual cycles, whereas others, including the crown rot fungus F. pseudograminearum, do not. We conducted studies to elucidate the potential frequency and nature of sexual reproduction in field populations of F. pseudograminearum and developed tester strains for controlled crossings under laboratory conditions. Studies on the role of sexual recombination in the life cycle of F. pseudograminearum revealed apparently low levels of female fertility under controlled laboratory conditions, despite the observation of naturally occurring perithecia of the teleomorph Gibberella coronicola at two field sites. Female fertility levels were experimentally increased to produce female fertile tester strains using four generations of single and multi-stage crossings between sibling progeny derived from fertile laboratory crosses between field isolates collected in northeastern Australia. The production of reliable female fertile tester strains has potential applications for the construction of biological species boundaries, elucidation of the physical characters of reproductive structures, and the generation of genetic diversity via sexual recombination in F. pseudograminearum. As such, the current study is a significant advancement in the understanding of G. coronicola, allowing for future characterisation of various biological, epidemiological, and genetic parameters. PMID:18694636

Bentley, Alison R; Summerell, Brett A; Burgess, Lester W

2008-05-11

441

Salmonella enterica strains belonging to O serogroup 1,3,19 induce chlorosis and wilting of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.  

PubMed

The number of outbreaks and illness linked to the consumption of contaminated salad leaves have increased dramatically in the last decade. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are the most common food-borne pathogens linked to consumption of fresh produce. Different serovars of S. enterica subspecies enterica have been shown to bind the surface of salad leaves, to exhibit tropism towards the stomata and to invade leaves and reach the underlying mesophyll. However the consequences of leaf invasion are not known. Here we show that following infiltration, serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg and Agona, as well as strains of S. enterica subspecies arizonae and diarizonae, survive in the mesophyll of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves but induce neither leaf chlorosis nor wilting. In contrast, S. Senftenberg induced strong leaf wilting 4 days post infiltration in A. thaliana accession Col-0 but not in accession Ws-0. Dead S. Senftenberg and bacterial lysates also induced leaf wilting. We found that mutations in the Arabidopsis pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition receptors (PRRs) FLS2, which recognizes flagellin, and EFR, which recognizes the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu, had no effect on the wilting response of A. thaliana to S. Senftenberg. Infiltration of A. thaliana leaves with serovars Cannstatt, Krefeld and Liverpool, which like Senftenberg belong to Salmonella serogroup E(4) (O:1,3,19), also resulted in rapid leaf wilting, while all tested rough S. Senftenberg strains (lacking the O antigen) failed to elicit leaf wilting. These results suggest that the Salmonella O antigen 1,3,19 specifically triggers leaf chlorosis and wilting in A. thaliana. PMID:21349136

Berger, Cedric N; Brown, Derek J; Shaw, Robert K; Minuzzi, Florencia; Feys, Bart; Frankel, Gad

2011-02-23

442

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases.

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

443

Trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium species: chemistry, genetics, and significance.  

PubMed Central

Several species of the genus Fusarium and related fungi produce trichothecenes which are sesquiterpenoid epoxides that act as potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Interest in the trichothecenes is due primarily to their widespread contamination of agricultural commodities and their adverse effects on human and animal health. In this review, we describe the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway in Fusarium species and discuss genetic evidence that several trichothecene biosynthetic genes are organized in a gene cluster. Trichothecenes are highly toxic to a wide range of eukaryotes, but their specific function, if any, in the survival of the fungi that produce them is not obvious. Trichothecene gene disruption experiments indicate that production of trichothecenes can enhance the severity of disease caused by Fusarium species on some plant hosts. Understanding the regulation and function of trichothecene biosynthesis may aid in development of new strategies for controlling their production in food and feed products. Images

Desjardins, A E; Hohn, T M; McCormick, S P

1993-01-01

444

Less-Frequent Fusarium Species of Clinical Interest: Correlation between Morphological and Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility?  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight Fusarium isolates morphologically identified as belonging to seven species of clinical interest (i.e., Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium dimerum, Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium napiforme, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium sacchari) were characterized molecularly by the analysis of the sequences of the TUB region of the ?-tubulin gene. F. chlamydosporum and F. dimerum were the most genetically heterogeneous species. A high degree of correlation between the morphological and molecular identification was shown among the isolates studied. A table with the key morphological features for the identification of these Fusarium species is provided. The antifungal susceptibilities of the Fusarium isolates to 11 antifungal drugs were tested; terbinafine was the most active drug against all the species tested with the exception of F. incarnatum, for which amphotericin B was the most active.

Azor, Monica; Gene, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Venkatapathy, Narendran; Guarro, Josep

2009-01-01

445

Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans against Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium graminearum in a liquid culture setting.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, isolated from a traditional sourdough bread culture and previously shown to have antifungal activity against Fusarium species, was tested for inhibition of growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5991 and M 5689 and F. graminearum R 4053 in a liquid medium setting. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of F. proliferatum M 5689 and M 5991 and F. graminearum R 4053, whereas such growth was not inhibited in the control in a supernatant agar plate assay. When this isolate was tested using 2M medium (MRS-modified Myro media) known for supporting Fusarium growth and trichothecene production, it was found to inhibit fungal growth but promote mycotoxin production at the same time. The antifungal activity was determined to be the result of organic acids and low pH. The mechanism of the mycotoxin production promotion requires further investigation. PMID:19044263

Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

2008-11-01

446

Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.  

PubMed

Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite. PMID:23334041

Sever, Zdravka; Ivi?, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Mili?evi?, Tihomir

2012-12-01

447

Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

2010-12-01

448

Isoelectric focusing isozyme profiles and taxonomic distances among Fusarium species of the sections Arthrosporiella and Sporotrichiella.  

PubMed

Isozymes from 18 isolates representing seven species of the Fusarium sections Arthrosporiella and Sporotrichiella were compared by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. Of the six enzyme systems tested esterase and malate dehydrogenase showed the largest variation. A numerical analysis of the pI values determined for acid phosphatase, esterase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphoglucomutase resulted in a dendrogam demonstrating the taxonomical relationships of the seven species. Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium pallidoroseum were the two most closely related species. The high degree of isoenzyme dissimilarity among Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium poae, Fusarium tricinctum, the fungi that produce pyriform or citriform microconidia, suggests that they are distinct species and their reduction to a variety level is not reasonable. The taxonomical distinctness of Fusarium camptoceras, a lesser known and rarely occurring fungus was also proven. PMID:8304009

Pomázi, A; Hornok, L; Szécsi, A

1993-01-01

449

VARIACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DE ALGUNOS AISLAMIENTOS MEXICANOS DEL VIRUS DE LA MARCHITEZ MANCHADA DEL TOMATE (TSWV) PHENOTYPIC VARIATION OF SOME MEXICAN ISOLATES OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS (TSWV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV.Tospovirus) was detected in tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa) plants, with symptoms of leaf spots, wilting, and generalized necrosis, grown in the states of México, Puebla and Morelos. Symptoms' expression in susceptible hosts indicated the possible presence of strains of this virus. The isolates of TSWV were identified as belonging to the group of localized lesion pathogens (TSWV-PL),

Rodolfo De La Torre-Almaráz; Hobbs A. Houston; Rodrigo Valverde

450

Spatial and temporal dynamics of the colonization of Pinus radiata by Fusarium circinatum, of conidiophora development in the pith and of traumatic resin duct formation.  

PubMed

· Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease in a wide range of pine trees, including Pinus radiata, with devastating economic consequences. · To assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of growth of this pathogen in radiata pine, we examined the process of infection using both real-time PCR to quantify fungal biomass inside the plant host, and confocal microscopy using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of F. circinatum. · Pathogen growth exhibited three distinct phases: an initial exponential increase in fungal biomass, concomitant with pathogen colonization of the cortex and phloem; a slowdown in fungal growth coincident with sporulating hyphae deep within the host; and stabilization of the fungal biomass when the first wilting symptoms appeared. The number of resin ducts in the xylem was found to increase in response to infection and the fungus grew inside both constitutive and traumatic resin ducts. · These results indicate that conidiation may contribute to the spatial or temporal dissemination of the pathogen. Moreover, the present findings raise the intriguing possibility that the generation of traumatic resin ducts may be of more benefit to the fungus than to the plant. PMID:23496340

Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Espinel, Santiago; Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Ortíz, Amaia; González-Murua, Carmen; Duńabeitia, Miren K

2013-03-18