Science.gov

Sample records for wind shear

  1. Wind shear detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullogh, Carl P.

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has established an integrated program to provide wind shear detection and warning at selected airports throughout the United States. The program consists of both ground and aircraft-based sensors, as well as the development of procedures and training aids for pilots and controllers. Selection of airport for ground-based systems was based on the current and projected operations tempo and on the frequency of thunderstorms, the principal cause of hazardous wind shear events. The FAA's procurement of ground-based systems is managed within a wind shear product line in the agency's integrated product team for surveillance and weather. Included in the product line are the terminal doppler weather radar, the low level wind shear alert system, and the airport surveillance radar-weather system processor. These three systems, coupled with new procedures and improved training, bring a truly integrated approach to solving a serious safety problem.

  2. Wind shear radar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

  3. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  4. Wind shear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techniques for forecasting and detecting a type of wind shear called microbursts are being tested this month in an operational program at Denver's Stapleton International Airport as part of an effort to reduce hazards to airplanes and passengers.Wind shear, which can be spawned by convective storms, can occur as a microburst. These downbursts of cool air are usually recognizable as a visible rain shaft beneath a thundercloud. Sometimes, however, the rain shaft evaporates before reaching the ground, leaving the downdraft invisible. Although thunderstorms are traditionally avoided by airplane pilots, these invisible downdrafts also harbor hazards in what usually appear to be safe skies. When the downdraft reaches the earth's surface, the downdraft spreads out horizontally, much like a stream of water gushing from a garden hose on a concrete surface, explained John McCarthy, director of the operational program. Airplanes can encounter trouble when the downdraft from the microburst causes sudden shifts in wind direction, which may reduce lift on the wing, an especially dangerous situation during takeoff.

  5. Structure of wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of wind shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of turbulence scales in wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.

  6. Structure of wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of wind-shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of how turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.

  7. Design of wind shear filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joerck, H.

    1984-01-01

    A number of aircraft accidents are caused by the effects of wind shear. In connection with efforts to eliminate or reduce hazards leading to such accidents, the possibility was considered to improve aircraft control systems. However, the effective implementation of the considered approaches will only be possible if suitable filters can be designed for a separation of gusts, which involve higher frequencies from low-frequency wind shear components. Filters of appropriate design should be suited for an employment in connection with all flight conditions. Feasible approaches for obtaining such filters are discussed. A survey is provided regarding the order of magnitude of the improvements which can be achieved, taking into account the performance characteristics of the A300 controller.

  8. Continuous wave laser for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Loren

    1991-01-01

    Details of the design and development of a continuous-wave heterodyne carbon dioxide laser which has wind shear detection capabilities are given in viewgraph form. The goal of the development was to investigate the lower cost CW (rather than pulsed) lidar option for look-ahead wind shear detection from aircraft. The device has potential utility for ground based wind shear detection at secondary airports where the high cost of a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system is not justifiable.

  9. Wind shear modeling for aircraft hazard definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Camp, D. W.; Wang, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical models of wind profiles were developed for use in fast time and manned flight simulation studies aimed at defining and eliminating these wind shear hazards. A set of wind profiles and associated wind shear characteristics for stable and neutral boundary layers, thunderstorms, and frontal winds potentially encounterable by aircraft in the terminal area are given. Engineering models of wind shear for direct hazard analysis are presented in mathematical formulae, graphs, tables, and computer lookup routines. The wind profile data utilized to establish the models are described as to location, how obtained, time of observation and number of data points up to 500 m. Recommendations, engineering interpretations and guidelines for use of the data are given and the range of applicability of the wind shear models is described.

  10. Shearing wind helicity and thermal wind helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Wu, R. S.; Fang, J.

    2006-07-01

    Helicity is defined as H = V . omega, where V and omega are the velocity and vorticity vectors, respectively. Many works have pointed out that the larger the helicity is, the longer the life cycle of the weather system is. However, the direct relationship of the helicity to the evolution of the weather system is not quite clear. In this paper, the concept of helicity is generalized as shearing wind helicity (SWH). Dynamically, it is found that the average SWH is directly related to the increase of the average cyclonic rotation of the weather system. Physically, it is also pointed out that the SWH, as a matter of fact, is the sum of the torsion terms and the divergence term in the vorticity equation. Thermal wind helicity (TWH), as a derivative of SWH, is also discussed here because it links the temperature field and the vertical wind field. These two quantities may be effective for diagnosing a weather system. This paper applies these two quantities in cylindrical coordinates to study the development of Hurricane Andrew to validate their practical use. Through analyzing the hurricane, it is found that TWH can well describe the characteristics of the hurricane such as the strong convection and release of latent heat. SWH is not only a good quantity for diagnosing the weather system, but also an effective one for diagnosing the development of the hurricane.

  11. Wind-shearing in gaseous protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Murray-Clay, Ruth

    2011-11-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of different sizes/shapes experience different drag forces from the gas at these stage. Such differential forces produce a wind-shearing effect between close by, different size planetesimals. For any two planetesimals, a wind-shearing radius can be considered, at which the differential acceleration due to the wind becomes greater than the mutual gravitational pull between the planetesimals. We find that the wind-shearing radius could be much smaller than the gravitational shearing radius by the Sun (the Hill radius), i.e. during the gas-phase of the disk wind-shearing could play a more important role than tidal perturbations by the Sun. Here we study the wind-shearing radii for planetesimal pairs of different sizes and compare it with gravitational shearing (drag force vs. gravitational tidal forces). We then discuss the role of wind-shearing for the stability and survival of binary planetesimals, and provide stability criteria for binary planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk.

  12. Flight in low-level wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of studies of wind shear hazard to aircraft operation are summarized. Existing wind shear profiles currently used in computer and flight simulator studies are reviewed. The governing equations of motion for an aircraft are derived incorporating the variable wind effects. Quantitative discussions of the effects of wind shear on aircraft performance are presented. These are followed by a review of mathematical solutions to both the linear and nonlinear forms of the governing equations. Solutions with and without control laws are presented. The application of detailed analysis to develop warning and detection systems based on Doppler radar measuring wind speed along the flight path is given. A number of flight path deterioration parameters are defined and evaluated. Comparison of computer-predicted flight paths with those measured in a manned flight simulator is made. Some proposed airborne and ground-based wind shear hazard warning and detection systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of systems are discussed.

  13. Summary Proceedings of a Wind Shear Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Melvin, W. W.; Frost, W.; Camp, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A number of recent program results and current issues were addressed: the data collection phase of the highly successful Joint Airport Weather Study (JAWS) Project and the NASA-B5f7B Gust Gradient Program, the use of these data for flight crew training through educational programs (e.g., films) and with manned flight training simulators, methods for post-accident determination of wind conditions from flight data recorders, the microburst wind shear phenomenon which was positively measured and described the ring vortex as a possible generating mechanism, the optimum flight procedure for use during an unexpected wind shear encounter, evaluation of the low-level wind shear alert system (LLWSAS), and assessment of the demonstrated and viable application of Doppler radar as an operational wind shear warning and detection system.

  14. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  15. Wind shear and turbulence simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1987-01-01

    The aviation community is increasing its reliance on flight simulators. This is true both in pilot training and in research and development. In moving research concepts through the development pipeline, there is a sequence of events which take place: analysis, ground based simulation, inflight simulation, and flight testing. Increasing fidelity as progress toward the flight testing arena is accompanied by increasing cost. The question that seems to be posed in relation to the meteorological aspects of flight simulation is, How much fidelity is enough and can it be quantified. As a part of the Langley Simulation Technology Program, there are three principal areas of focus, one being improved simulation of weather hazards. A close liaison with the JAWS project was established because of the Langley Simulation Technology interests regarding reliable simulation of severe convective weather phenomena and their impact on aviation systems. Simulation offers the only feasible approach for examining the utility of new technology and new procedures for coping with severe convective weather phenomena such as wind shear. These simulation concepts are discussed in detail.

  16. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  17. Probabilistic reasoning for intelligent wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stratton, D. Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized intelligent cockpit aid can increase flight-crew awareness of wind shear, improving avoidance decisions. The FAA Windshear Training Aid (WTA) provides guidelines for assessing the risk of wind shear encounter from meteorological evidence. Use of these guidelines in the cockpit is complicated by uncertainty surrounding meteorological knowledge of wind shear. Bayesian network representation is discussed as a means of modeling this uncertain knowledge in a computer. A probabilistic model of the WTA guidelines using Bayesian network representation is presented. This model combines evidence from sources of varying reliability and incorporates results from meteorological studies of wind shear. The probabilistic model can provide flight crews with meaningful estimates of risk to aid their decisions, using evidence from a variety of sources and a base of meteorological knowledge.

  18. Pulsed laser Doppler measurements of wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C.; Harris, C.; Bilbro, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.; Burnham, D. C.; Hallock, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    There is a need for a sensor at the airport that can remotely detect, identify, and track wind shears near the airport in order to assure aircraft safety. To determine the viability of a laser wind-shear system, the NASA pulsed coherent Doppler CO2 lidar (Jelalian et al., 1972) was installed in a semitrailer van with a rooftop-mounted hemispherical scanner and was used to monitor thunderstorm gust fronts. Wind shears associated with the gust fronts at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) between 5 July and 4 August 1978 were measured and tracked. The most significant data collected at KSC are discussed. The wind shears were clearly visible in both real-time velocity vs. azimuth plots and in postprocessing displays of velocities vs. position. The results indicate that a lidar system cannot be used effectively when moderate precipitation exists between the sensor and the region of interest.

  19. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A study of intelligent guidance and control concepts for protecting against the adverse effects of wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings is being conducted, with current emphasis on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. Principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information , for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the manually controlled flight. The program has begun with the development of the WindShear Safety Advisor, an expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the FAA Windshear Training Aid; a two-volume manual that presents an overview , pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The WindShear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 200 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language.

  20. Airborne Doppler radar for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staton, Leo

    1987-01-01

    There has been extensive discussion concerning the use of ground based Doppler radars for the detection and measurement of microburst features and the mapping of associated wind shears. Recent and planned research at Langley into technology and techniques useful for the future development of airborne Doppler weather radar systems for both turbulence and wind shear detection are addressed. Such systems, if successfully developed, would represent a marked increase in performance over airborne weather radars currently available. A principal difficulty in extending to airborne radars the capabilities of current ground based Doppler radars is emphasized.

  1. Unresolved issues in wind shear encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Much remains to be learned about the hazards of low altitude wind shear to aviation. New research should be conducted on the nature of the atmospheric environment, on aircraft performance, and on guidance and control aids. In conducting this research, it is important to distinguish between near-term and far-term objectives, between basic and applied research, and between uses of results for aircraft design or for real-time implementation. Advances in on-board electronics can be applied to assuring that aircraft of all classes have near optimal protection against wind shear hazards.

  2. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  3. Protecting Airplanes From Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in flightpath displays help pilots avoid crashes in downbursts. Report presents computer-simulated response of large transport aircraft to downbursts of wind during takeoffs and landings. Simulation clearly demonstrates benefits of increased available energy in form of initial speed, initial altitude, or higher thrust-to-weight ratio.

  4. Infrared low-level wind shear work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Pat

    1988-01-01

    Results of field experiments for the detection of clear air disturbance and low level wind shear utilizing an infrared airborne system are given in vugraph form. The hits, misses and nuisance alarms scores are given. Information is given on the infrared spatial resolution technique. The popular index of aircraft hazard (F= WX over g - VN over AS) is developed for a remote temperature sensor.

  5. Wind shear training applications for 91/135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbon, ED

    1991-01-01

    The requirement for wind shear training of all pilots has been demonstrated too often by the accident statistics of past years. Documents were developed to train airline crews on specific aircraft and to teach recognition of the meteorological conditions that are conducive to wind shear and microburst formation. A Wind Shear Training Aid program is discussed.

  6. Wind shear predictive detector technology study status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolfi, C.

    1990-01-01

    Among the different elements to be investigated when considering the Wind Shear hazard, the Aeronautical Navigation Technical Service (STNA/3E), whose task is to participate in the development of new technologies and equipments, focused its effort on airborne and ground sensors for the detection of low-level wind shear. The first task, initiated in 1986, consists in the evaluation of three candidate techniques for forward-looking sensors: lidar, sodar, and radar. No development is presently foreseen for an infrared based air turbulence advance warning system although some flight experiments took place in the 70's. A Thomson infrared radiometer was then installed on an Air France Boeing 707 to evaluate its capability of detecting clear air turbulence. The conclusion showed that this technique was apparently able to detect cloud layers but that additional experiments were needed; on the other hand, the rarity of the phenomenon and the difficulty in operating on a commercial aircraft were also mentioned.

  7. Automatic flare transition penetrating wind shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a digital three-dimensional automatic control law designated to achieve an optimal transition of a large commercial aircraft between the glideslope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition is presented. The linearized equations representing the perturbed motion of the aircraft from the nominal glideslope trajectory are presented. A method of incorporating the spatial, low-level wind shears into these perturbed equations of motion is indicated. It is shown that the system equations then assume the familiar form of the linear regulator problem, acted upon by a constant disturbance. A design procedure is presented to compute a digital, time-invariant, optimal control law for the discrete regulator problem acted upon by a constant disturbance. The response trajectories presented demonstrate the capability of this controller to perform optimal flare maneuvers in the presence of various wind shear conditions.

  8. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  9. Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.A.; Goldstein, M.L.; Ghosh, S.; Matthaeus, W.H.

    1992-11-01

    The authors use a two-dimensional, incompressible MHD spectral code to establish that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ({open_quotes}Alfvenicity{close_quotes}) at small scales. They find that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. While the fluctuations thus produced are not Alfvenic, they are nearly equipartitioned between magnetic and kinetic energy. The authors report simulations with Alfvenic fluctuations at high wave numbers, both with and without shear layers and find that it is the low cross helicity at low wave numbers that is critical to the cross helicity evolution, rather than the geometry of the flow or the dominance of kinetic energy at large scales. The fluctuations produced by shear effects are shown to evolve similarly but more slowly in the presence of a larger mean field and to be anisotropic with a preferred direction of spectral transfer perpendicular to the mean field. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of HMD turbulence, and thus seems in many respects to be an instance of a more generic turbulent evolution rather than due to specific conditions in the solar wind. 75 refs., 18 figs.

  10. Optimal recovery from microburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1993-01-01

    Severe low-altitude wind variability represents an infrequent but significant hazard to aircraft taking off or landing. During the period from 1964 to 1985, microburst wind shear was a contributing factor in at least 26 civil aviation accidents involving nearly 500 fatalities and over 200 injuries. A microburst is a strong localized downdraft that strikes the ground, creating winds that diverge radially from the impact point. The physics of microbursts have only been recently understood in detail, and it has been found that effective recovery from inadvertent encounters may require piloting techniques that are counter-intuitive to flight crews. The goal of this work was to optimize the flight path of a twin-jet transport aircraft encountering a microburst during approach to landing. The objective was to execute an escape maneuver that maintained safe ground clearance and an adequate stall margin during the climb-out portion of the trajectory.

  11. Microbursts as an aviation wind shear hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The downburst-related accidents or near-misses of jet aircraft have been occurring at the rate of once or twice a year since 1975. A microburst with its field comparable to the length of runways can induce a wind shear which endangers landing or liftoff aircraft; the latest near miss landing of a 727 aircraft at Atlanta, Ga. in 1979 indicated that some microbursts are too small to trigger the warning device of the anemometer network at major U.S. airports. The nature of microbursts and their possible detection by Doppler radar are discussed, along with proposed studies of small-scale microbursts.

  12. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  13. Airborne infrared low level wind shear predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The operating principles and test performance of an airborne IR (13-16 micron) temperature-sensing detection and warning system for low-level wind shear (LLWS) are presented. The physics of LLWS phenomena and of the IR radiometer are introduced. The cold density-current outflow or gust front related to LLWS is observed in the IR spectrum of CO2 by a radiometer with + or - 0.5-C accuracy at 0.5-Hz sampling rate; LLWS alerts are given on the basis of specific criteria. Test results from the JAWS experiments conducted at Denver in July 1982, are presented graphically and discussed. The feasibility of the passive IR system is demonstrated, with an average warning time of 51 sec, corresponding to a distance from touchdown of about 2 miles.

  14. Wind-Shearing Between Planetesimals in Gaseous Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Perets, H.

    2011-05-01

    Planetesimals, the building blocks of planetary embryos, must grow before gas is dispersed from their natal protoplanetary disks. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of varying sizes and shapes experience different drag forces from the gas during this time. Such differential forces produce a wind-shearing effect, which generates an effective acceleration between nearby planetesimals of different sizes. For any two planetesimals, a wind-shearing radius can be considered, at which the differential acceleration due to the wind becomes greater than the mutual gravitational pull between the planetesimals. We demonstrate that this wind-shearing radius can be much smaller than the gravitational shearing radius by the star (the Hill radius). We then discuss the role of wind-shearing for the stability and survival of binary planetesimals, and provide stability criteria for binary planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk.

  15. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  16. Influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1988-01-01

    The aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters is investigated and characterized. The wind shear effect is computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitudes if the aerodynamic effects are demonstrated by computation of the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and horizontal stability configuration on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results indicate that as much as 20 percent of the control authority of the airplane may be required to counteract the wind-shear-induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

  17. An experimental cockpit display for TDWR wind shear alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Daly, Peter M.; Demillo, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The first successful ground-to-air data link and cockpit display of terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) wind shear warnings in real-time are reported. During the summer of 1990, wind shear warnings generated by the TDWR testbed radar at Orlando, Florida, were transmitted in real-time to a research aircraft performing microburst penetrations. Automatic delivery of TDWR wind shear warnings potentially result in decreased controller workload and improved pilot information. Pilot responses indicate that the information provided by the cockpit displays was useful in visualizing the location of wind shear hazards. The graphical display of microburst hazards provided better information than that currently provided by ATC verbal messages and pilot reports. This information was useful in assessing the microburst hazard, deciding whether to continue the approach, and planning escape maneuvers.

  18. Study of the Low Level Wind Shear using AMDAR reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlea, Ana-Denisa; Pietrisi, Mirela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effects of the wind shear on aircraft flights, in particularly when it appears on path of take-off or landing phase which is the most troublesome phase. This phenomenon has a lot of generating sources as: convection, frontal surfaces, strong surface wind coupled with local topography, breezes (either sea or mountain originated), mountain waves or low level temperature inversions. Low Level Jet is also a most frequent cause of Low Level Wind Shear. It has a lot of generating causes, but in Romania the most encountered is the presence of a Mediterranean low in southeastern part of Europe mainly in winter, sometimes in the first days of spring or the last days of autumn. It generates Low Level Wind Shear between surface and up to 600m, affecting approaching, landing or take-off phases of an aircraft flight. Diagnosis of meteorological general and local conditions and presence of Low Level Jet- generating Low Level Wind Shear is made using Meteo-France ARPEGE products model and ALARO high resolution model dedicated to Romanian area. The study is focused on use of real-time and in situ data as AMDAR (Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay) registrations with verification of a mobile Doppler SODAR registrations-("SOnic Detection And Ranging" system -PCS.2000- Metek manufactured by Meteorologische Messtechnik GMBH) in the processes of estimation of the quantitative and qualitative manifestation of Low Level Wind Shear. The results will be used to improve the timing and the accuracy of the Low Level Wind Shear forecasting for the aerodrome area.

  19. The influence of wind shear on aerodynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Hutto, E.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of wind shear on the lift, drag, roll and yaw moments of a wing in a horizontal wind gradient at various elevations and roll angles. The models of wind shear considered are those proposed by Leurs (1973) for atmospheric flow over horizontally homogeneous and uniform terrain. A general series solution for the distribution of lift along the wing span following the method of Houghton and Brock (1970) is employed to compute the loads and moments on the airfoil. Results of the computations indicate that wind shear can have a significant effect on the rolling and yawing moments of the wing of an aircraft flying with one wing low in the atmospheric boundary layer. These moments are directly influenced by the magnitude of the wind gradient in the neutral atmosphere reflected by the magnitude of the friction velocity. The effect of wind shear on lift and drag is negligible. Stability of the atmosphere tends to increase the magnitude of the rolling moment while decreasing its variation with elevation.

  20. Intelligent guidance and control for wind shear encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter, for deciding what flight path to pursue, and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's cockpit displays and autopilot for both manually controlled and automatic flight. The program has begun with the development of a real-time expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program. A two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The Expert System to Avoid Wind Shear (ESAWS) currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP machine.

  1. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  2. Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream - Wind shear and pilot reports of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream are reported on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages over western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. The mean wind speed profile with error bars for the 79 hr that the Crown radar was determined to be 'under' the jet stream is shown. A mean speed of 83 m/s for the period was found. A plot of wind shear for the hours of interest is given. Typically, the shear was at a maximum from 3 to 4 km below the level of maximum wind. Thus, an aircraft would have to fly through potentially rough air to reach the fuel savings and relative smoothness of flight at the jet stream level. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found.

  3. EFFECTS OF WIND SHEAR ON POLLUTION DISPERSION. (R827929)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using an accurate numerical method for simulating the advection and diffusion of pollution puffs, it is demonstrated that point releases of pollution grow into a shape reflecting the vertical wind shear profile experienced by the puff within a time scale less than 4h. Fo...

  4. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntman, Daryal

    1991-01-01

    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  5. Investigations of high latitude wind shears in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Timothy Richard

    The Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) rocket campaign of March 1992 represented an effort to measure the effect of the prolonged heating due to a diffuse aurora on the neutral atmosphere. A previous model had predicted strong zonal winds in the lower thermosphere as the result of the strong coupling between the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. An instrumented payload was launched into the diffuse aurora to measure neutral and plasma compositions, and two chemical releases provided the neutral wind measurements. In addition to this data, ground-based magnetometers and satellite measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), electric fields, particle precipitation, and ram drift were incorporated into the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. The AMIE procedure provided patterns of the electrostatic potential, electric fields, conductivities, and Joule heating on a global scale. The results of this analysis show the activity the chemical release of March 3 occurred in the region of greatest Joule heating. The neutral wind profile show strong wind shear existing at 115 km altitude, approximately the same altitude of the maximum electron density measured by the instrumented payload. This feature had a magnitude of approximately 150 m/s and was in the direction of the auroral electric field (southwestward). These wind shears coexisting with maximum's in electron densities have been studied for many years from chemical releases done at midlatitudes. The explanation for the midlatitude wind shears however fails to explain the high latitude wind shears seen in the ARIA release due to the vertical nature of the magnetic field. At auroral latitudes the electron density does not build up like at lower latitudes. In order to investigate high latitude wind shears, 15 additional high latitude chemical release experiments, performed by Heppner during the 1970's, have been reanalyzed. A steady state solution called modified geostrophic adjustment is used in attempting to model these features. This model is simply a balance of the pressure gradient, Corolis and Lorentz forces. By incorporating the Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) of Utah State, along with a model neutral atmosphere provided by MSIS90E, wind simulations were compared with sixteen chemical release experiments. Simulation results show the presence of wind shears around 120 km altitude whenever the electron density profile shows a maximum at approximately that height. The existence of this wind shear is shown to be dependent on the Hall conductivity, which can dominate the Pedersen conductivity at lower thermospheric heights. The magnitude of the wind shear produced in the steady-state solution is also observed to be dependent on the strength of the imposed electric field. Comparisons of these modeled velocities with the neutral wind profiles obtained from the Heppner chemical releases show varied results depending on the stability of the prevailing conditions, but results from the ARIA release compare quite well due to the prolonged heating due to the diffuse aurora.

  6. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  7. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  8. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  9. Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M. (compiler); Delnore, V. E. (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide first a review of the current FAA and NASA wind shear programs, then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking sensors. This document is intended to informally record the essence of the technology updates (represented here through unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining unresolved.

  10. Rivulet Dynamics with Variable Gravity and Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; McAlister, G.; Marshall, J. S.; Ettema, R.

    2002-11-01

    A combined computational and experimental study is conducted of the development of rivulets from a liquid sheet driven by wind shear in different gravitational states. The study concentrates on the effect of the normal component of gravity on rivulet formation and evolution. Understanding of rivulet development in the presence of wind shear is important for a number of coating processes, for modeling development of ice rivulets on aircraft wings and of water motion on vehicle windshields, and for modeling the breakup of annular flow in a tube into a rivulet flow regime. The current study is at the midway point of a four-year project. The experimental part of the project has focused on the dynamics of gravity- and wind-driven rivulets. The experimental setup comprises a small "rivulet windtunnel", which consists of a flat plate into which a liquid is injected at an upstream location, and through which air flow passes. The entire setup is mounted on a mobile cart that can be tilted to angles varying from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. Preliminary experiments revealed significant differences in rivulet dynamics for gravity-driven and shear-driven cases. Gravity-driven rivulets initially formed as a lobe extending from the liquid source, which flowed for a short distance straight down the base surface and then eventually adopted a meandering form. Shear-driven rivulets start out in a similar manner to gravity-driven rivulets, but instead of extending as a long liquid finger the shear-driven rivulets exhibit an interesting phenomenon that we refer to as "blobbing". Blobbing is a cyclical process whereby the rivulet progresses by formation of blobs, which enlarge and oscillate in the air flow. After some time a lobe in the blob's downstream side develops and the liquid extends downstream, thus draining the blob. The process then repeats at a downstream location.

  11. Wind Shear/Turbulence Inputs to Flight Simulation and Systems Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for industry, universities, and government to assess current status and likely future requirements for application of flight simulators to aviation safety concerns and system certification issues associated with wind shear and atmospheric turbulence. Research findings presented included characterization of wind shear and turbulence hazards based on modeling efforts and quantitative results obtained from field measurement programs. Future research thrusts needed to maximally exploit flight simulators for aviation safety application involving wind shear and turbulence were identified. The conference contained sessions on: Existing wind shear data and simulator implementation initiatives; Invited papers regarding wind shear and turbulence simulation requirements; and Committee working session reports.

  12. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

  13. A problem formulation for glideslope tracking in wind shear using advanced robust control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A formulation of the longitudinal glideslope tracking of a transport-class aircraft in severe wind shear and turbulence for application to robust control system design is presented. Mathematical wind shear models are incorporated into the vehicle mathematical model, and wind turbulence is modeled as an input disturbance signal. For this problem formulation, the horizontal and vertical wind shear gradients are treated as real uncertain parameters that vary over an entire wind shear profile. The primary objective is to examine the formulation of this problem into an appropriate design format for use in m-synthesis control system design.

  14. Roles of wind shear at different vertical levels: Cloud system organization and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is important for accurate weather forecasts and climate predictions. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of convective systems using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics. Based on a control run for a MCS with weak wind shear (Ctrl), we find that increasing wind shear at the lower troposphere (L-shear) leads to a more organized quasi-line convective system. Strong wind shear in the middle troposphere (M-shear) tends to produce large vorticity and form a mesocyclone circulation and an isolated strong storm that leans toward supercellular structure. By increasing wind shear at the upper vertical levels only (U-shear), the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the convective intensity is weakened. Increasing wind shear in the middle troposphere for the selected case results in a significant drying, and the drying is more significant when conserving moisture advection at the lateral boundaries, contributing to the suppressed convective strength and precipitation relative to Ctrl. Precipitation in the L-shear and U-shear does not change much from Ctrl. Evident changes of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties in the strong wind shear cases are mainly due to large changes in convective organization and water vapor. The insights obtained from this study help us better understand the major factors contributing to convective organization and precipitation.

  15. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  16. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine would encounter under hurricane strength winds. These flow fields can be used to estimate wind turbine loads and responses with AeroDyn (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/aerodyn/) and FAST (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/) codes also developed by NREL.

  17. Algorithms for airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillberg, Jeff; Pockrandt, Mitch; Symosek, Peter; Benser, Earl T.

    1992-01-01

    Honeywell has developed algorithms for the detection of wind shear/microburst using airborne Doppler radar. The Honeywell algorithms use three dimensional pattern recognition techniques and the selection of an associated scanning pattern forward of the aircraft. This 'volumetric scan' approach acquires reflectivity, velocity, and spectral width from a three dimensional volume as opposed to the conventional use of a two dimensional azimuthal slice of data at a fixed elevation. The algorithm approach is based on detection and classification of velocity patterns which are indicative of microburst phenomenon while minimizing the false alarms due to ground clutter return. Simulation studies of microburst phenomenon and x-band radar interaction with the microburst have been performed and results of that study are presented. Algorithm performance indetection of both 'wet' and 'dry' microbursts is presented.

  18. Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.

  19. Analysis of strong nocturnal shears for wind machine design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrt, L.; Heald, R.C.

    1980-11-01

    Wind shear data at wind turbine heights from several sites is reviewed and new data is documented in terms of total and component shear. A variety of atmospheric scenarios may combine to give large persistent shear. Among these, strong boundary layer stability is foremost. It occurs with strong nocturnal surface cooling, in low level frontal and subsidence inversions, and in thunderstorm outflows. Strong shears resulting from surface radiation inversions are particularly evident over the High Plains where dry air and high altitude combine to result in strong radiational cooling. Terrain is also an important influence on shear but it is not well understood and is very site specific.

  20. Estimation of wind shear components over complex terrain, and their removal to enhance wind profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S.; Valls, B.

    2010-09-01

    Wind profiles over complex terrain are currently impossible to obtain at requisite accuracy via remote sensing or flow models. We propose a new approach in which, in each sampled height plane, the 3 wind components (u, v, w) and their horizontal shear components (du/dx, du/dy, dv/dx, dv/dy, dw/dx, dw/dy) are estimated from a 9-beam ground-based remote-sensing system. Based on simulations and error-propagation, we show that this characterization of the spatially complex wind field to first order will allow improved estimation of (u, v, w). The effects of temporal fluctuations due to spatial coherence are also discussed. Planned field investigations and coupled CFD data interpretations are described.

  1. Coherent Doppler lidar signal covariance including wind shear and wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Frehlich, R

    1994-09-20

    The performance of a coherent Doppler lidar is determined by the statistics of the coherent Doppler signal. The derivation and calculation of the covariance of the Doppler lidar signal for random atmospheric wind fields and wind shear are presented. The signal parameters are defined for a general coherent Doppler lidar system in terms of the atmospheric parameters. There are two distinct physical regimes: one in which the transmitted pulse determines the signal statistics and the other in which the wind field and the atmospheric parameters dominate the signal statistics. When the wind fields dominate the signal statistics, Doppler lidar data are nonstationary and the signal correlation time is proportional to the operating wavelength of the lidar. The signal covariance is derived for signal-shot and multiple-shot conditions. For a single shot, the parameters of the signal covariance depend on the random, instantaneous atmospheric parameters. For multiple shots, various levels of ensemble averaging over the t emporal scales of the atmospheric processes are required. The wind turbulence is described by a Kolmogorov spectrum with an outer scale of turbulence. The effects of the wind turbulence are demonstrated with calculations for a horizontal propagation path in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:20941185

  2. Incorporation of wind shear terms into the governing equations of aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Bowles, R. U.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional analyses of aircraft motion in the atmosphere have neglected wind speed variability on the scales associated with many atmospheric phenomena such as thunderstorms, low-level jets, etc. These phemonena produce wind shears that have been determined as the probable cause in many recent commercial airline accidents. This paper derives the six degrees equations of motion or an aircraft incorporating the variable wind terms. The equations are presented in several coordinate systems (i.e., body coordinates, inertial coordinates, etc.). The wind shear terms, including the temporal and spatial gradients of the wind, appear differently in the various coordinate system. These terms are discussed. Also, the influence of wind shear on inputs to computing the aerodynamic coefficients such as the effects of wind velocity vector rotation on relative angular rates of rotation and on the time rate of change of angles of attack and side slip are addressed.

  3. Wind stress and near-surface shear in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenegrat, Jacob O.; McPhaden, Michael J.; Lien, Ren-Chieh

    2014-02-01

    The upper ocean response to wind stress is examined using 8 months of unique near-surface moored velocity, temperature, and salinity data at 0N, 23W in the equatorial Atlantic. The effects of wind stress and shear on the time-varying eddy viscosity are inferred using the surface shear-stress boundary condition. Parameterizations of eddy viscosity as a function of wind stress and shear versus wind stress alone are then examined. In principle, eddy viscosity should be proportional to the inverse shear, but how it is represented implicitly or explicitly can affect estimates of the near-surface flow field. This result may explain some discrepancies that have arisen from using parameterizations based only on wind stress to characterize the effects of turbulent momentum mixing.

  4. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Hagos, S.; Chen, Q.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Berg, L. K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is important for accurate weather forecasts and climate model parameterization development. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with spectral-bin microphysics. Based on a control run for an MCS with weak wind shear, we find that increasing wind shear at the both lower (0-5 km) and middle vertical levels (5-10 km) reduces accumulated precipitation and occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels (> 10 km) leads to small changes in precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation. Strong wind shear in the middle vertical levels produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of domain mean precipitation. Increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, does not significantly change the organization of the convection, but it increases cloudiness at the upper-levels which in turn leads to stronger surface cooling, which then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (from 2 to 9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed, leading to fewer high and deep clouds, and the precipitation is reduced by up to 90% in comparison to the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical properties further explain the reduction of surface rain by strong wind shear especially at the lower- and middle-levels. The insights obtained from this study help us better understand the cloud system organization and provide a foundation for improved parameterization of the effect of organized MCS on large-scale circulation.

  5. Comparison of low-altitude wind-shear statistics derived from measured and proposed standard wind profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Wind shear statistics were calculated for a simulated set of wind profiles based on a proposed standard wind field data base. Wind shears were grouped in altitude in altitude bands of 100 ft between 100 and 1400 ft and in wind shear increments of 0.025 knot/ft. Frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations for each altitude band were derived for the total sample were derived for both sets. It was found that frequency distributions in each altitude band for the simulated data set were more dispersed below 800 ft and less dispersed above 900 ft than those for the measured data set. Total sample frequency of occurrence for the two data sets was about equal for wind shear values between +0.075 knot/ft, but the simulated data set had significantly larger values for all wind shears outside these boundaries. It is shown that normal distribution in both data sets neither data set was normally distributed; similar results are observed from the cumulative frequency distributions.

  6. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5?MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. PMID:25583871

  7. Hourly observations of the jet stream - Wind shear, Richardson number and pilot reports of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of the jet stream made on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages above western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. Wind profilers are found to be far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability forecasts of turbulence based on wind profiler-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports and turbulence and wind shear is found.

  8. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear - Duration: 13 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  9. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-16

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical properties further explain the reduction of surface rain by strong wind shear especially at the lower- and middle-levels. The insights obtained from this study help us better understand the cloud system organization and provide foundation for better parameterizing organized MCS.

  10. NASA experimental airborne doppler radar and real time processor for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip H.; Richards, Mark A.; Jones, William R.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: experimental radar system capabilities; an experimental radar system block diagram; wind shear radar signal and data processor (WRSDP); WRSDP hardware architecture; WRSDP system design goals; DSP software development tools; OS-9 software development tools; WRSDP digital signal processing; WRSDP display operational modes; WRSDP division of functions; structure of WRSDP signal and data processing algorithms; and the wind shear radar flight experiment.

  11. Parametrization of convection with wind shear effect in global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhiyu; Herzog, Michael; Graf, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Convection is a fundamental process in the climate system and remains one of the major uncertainties in our understanding and numerical modeling of the atmosphere. It manifests itself as cumulus clouds that are parameterized in global climate models due to their subgrid scale nature. Wind shear affects entrainment and plays a key role in the formation and growth of cumulus clouds. Strong wind shear inhibits the growth of cumulus clouds by disrupting or weakening the conditional instability. The Convective Cloud Field Model (CCFM) is a spectral mass flux parameterization, consisting of a one-dimensional entraining parcel model for individual convective clouds and a calculation of the cloud spectrum for the number of convective clouds. The wind shear effect can be parameterized by the entrainment rate. The entrainment rate in a windy environment is calculated in three dimensions in which the motion of parcel, ambient air and the plume angle are considered. The horizontal dynamics of cumulus clouds is introduced in the entraining parcel model based on the conservation of horizontal momentum. CCFM with wind shear effects has been successfully implemented and tested within the ECHAM6 climate model. We will presents the parameterization of wind shear effects and discuss their impact within ECHAM6, with a particular focus on tropical precipitation distributions. Keywords: convection, entrainment, wind shear effect

  12. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  13. Estimating atmospheric stability from observations and correcting wind shear models accordingly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtslag, M. C.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric stability strongly influences wind shear and thus has to be considered when performing load calculations for wind turbine design. Numerous methods exist however for obtaining stability in terms of the Obukhov length L as well as for correcting the logarithmic wind profile. It is therefore questioned to what extend the choice of adopted methods influences results when performing load analyses. Four methods found in literature for obtaining L, and five methods to correct the logarithmic wind profile for stability are included in the analyses (two for unstable, three for stable conditions). The four methods used to estimate stability from observations result in different PDF's of L, which in turn results in differences in estimated lifetime fatigue loads up to 81%. For unstable conditions hardly any differences are found when using either of the proposed stability correction functions, neither in wind shear nor in fatigue loads. For stable conditions however the proposed stability correction functions differ significantly, and the standard correction for stable conditions might strongly overestimate fatigue loads caused by wind shear (up to 15% differences). Due to the large differences found, it is recommended to carefully choose how to obtain stability and correct wind shear models accordingly.

  14. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  15. Total energy-rate feedback for automatic glide-slope tracking during wind-shear penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during the take-off and landing phases of flight. A total energy-rate sensor was developed for measuring the specific total energy rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. Control-system designs, both with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through a severe-wind-shear and gust environment are presented in order to evaluate this application of the sensor. A system model incorporates wind-shear-dynamics equations with the airplane equations of motion to permit analysis of the control systems under various wind-shear conditions. The control systems are designed using optimal-output feedback and are analyzed using frequency-domain control-theory techniques. Control-system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane combined with a severe-wind-shear and gust data package. This evaluation is concerned with control system stability and regulation capability only.

  16. Nocturnal wind direction shear and its potential impact on pollutant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Baars, J.A.; Stone, G.L.

    1998-12-31

    The estimation of transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants during the nighttime is challenging, especially over complex terrain where gravity driven drainage flows may be overlain with wind from a different direction. This study investigates the character of wind direction shear in the lowest 100 m using tower measurements from a complex, semi-arid site where local thermally-driven flows are common. The effects of wind direction shear on plume transport are studied by simulating a hypothetical elevated term release. This is accomplished by first simulating transport and dispersion using wind measurements from only the 12-m level from a network of towers. This case represents the approach commonly taken at many facilities where a network of short towers is available. Then the release is modeled using wind measurements made at four levels in the lowest 100 m. The differences between the two simulations are significant and would lead to very different responses in an emergency situation.

  17. Climatological characteristics of high altitude wind shear and lapse rate layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Guttman, N. B.

    1981-01-01

    Indications of the climatological distribution of wind shear and temperature lapse and inversion rates as observed by rawinsonde measurements over the western United States are recorded. Frequencies of the strongest shear, lapse rates, and inversion layer strengths were observed for a 1 year period of record and were tabulated for the lower troposphere, the upper troposphere, and five altitude intervals in the lower stratosphere. Selected bivariate frequencies were also tabulated. Strong wind shears, lapse rates, and inversion are observed less frequently as altitude increases from 175 millibars to 20 millibars. On a seasonal basis the frequencies were higher in winter than in summer except for minor influences due to increased tropopause altitude in summer and the stratospheric wind reversal in the spring and fall.

  18. A Monte Carlo simulation technique for low-altitude, wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Laituri, Tony R.; Trevino, George

    1990-01-01

    A case is made for including anisotropy in a Monte Carlo flight simulation scheme of low-altitude wind-shear turbulence by means of power spectral density. This study attempts to eliminate all flight simulation-induced deficiencies in the basic turbulence model. A full-scale low-altitude wind-shear turbulence simulation scheme is proposed with particular emphasis on low cost and practicality for near-ground flight. The power spectral density statistic is used to highlight the need for realistic estimates of energy transfer associated with low-altitude wind-shear turbulence. The simulation of a particular anisotropic turbulence model is shown to be a relatively simple extension from that of traditional isotropic (Dryden) turbulence.

  19. A candidate concept for display of forward-looking wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is proposed which integrates forward-look wind shear information with airplane performance capabilities to predict future airplane energy state as a function of range. The information could be displayed to a crew either in terms of energy height or airspeed deviations. The anticipated benefits of the proposed display information concept are: (1) a wind shear hazard product that scales directly to the performance impact on the airplane and that has intuitive meaning to flight crews; (2) a reduction in flight crew workload by automatic processing of relevant hazard parameters; and (3) a continuous display of predicted airplane energy state if the approach is continued. Such a display may be used to improve pilot situational awareness or improve pilot confidence in wind shear alerts generated by other systems. The display is described and the algorithms necessary for implementation in a simulation system are provided.

  20. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Barth, E.

    2015-10-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Model results indicate that Titan storms should respond to changes in the Richardson Number. Very long-lived storms (>24hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  1. Generation of auroral Omega bands by shear instability of the neutral winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thermospheric neutral wind acceleration via ion drag in the conducting E-region of the ionosphere is greatly increased by electron precipitation associated with auroras. This increased acceleration can lead to the development of significant horizontal wind shears, which were found to be unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. Numerical simulation of the neutral response to an intense, postmidnight, diffuse aurora shows tne formation of an E-region 'jet stream' within the aurora, with peak winds speeds greather than 700 m/s after one hour. It is proposed that this jet stream produces unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, which can drive waves of discrete aurora along the poleward boundary of the preexisting diffuse aurora. It is suggested that such auroral waves, driven by the neutral winds, form eastward propagating waves (omega bands) occasionally observed along the poleward boundary of postmidnight diffuse auroras. It was found that neutral wind shears that develop in response to discrete auroral arcs are unstable; however, the resulting wind waves are not expected to drive significant auroral waves along discrete arcs.

  2. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Drag partitioning schemes are used to account for roughness by scaling the soil entrainment threshold by the ratio of shear stress on roughness elements to that on the veg...

  3. Computed Responses of Several Aircraft to Atmospheric Turbulence and Discrete Wind Shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, W. F.; Stapleford, R. L.; Heffley, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    The computed RMS and peak responses due to atmospheric turbulence and discrete wind shears, respectively, are presented for several aircraft in different flight conditions. The responses are presented with and without the effects of a typical second order washout filter. A complete set of dimensional stability derivatives for each aircraft/flight condition combination evaluated is also presented.

  4. Simulator investigation of wind shear recovery techniques. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was the development of practical flight procedures and guidance for near-optimal trajectories during inadvertent wind shear encounters following takeoff. The approach was to conduct preliminary development of candidate strategies using batch simulation of the point mass B737-100 performance model and to evaluate candidate guidance strategies in piloted, real time, six degrees of freedom simulation.

  5. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  6. Inversion and shear layer detection using AMDAR and wind profiler soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drüe, C.; Hauf, T.; Hoff, A.

    2009-09-01

    The terminal area of Frankfurt airport (EDDF) offers as unique opportunity to campare vertical soundings of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by two independent sources. One of these sources is a wind and temperature radar profiler (WTR/RASS) located at the western end of the main pair of runways. This wind temperature radar (WTR) is a Scintec "AP1000" radar wind profiler with RASS (radioacoustic sounding system) extension "WT RASS". The WTR/RASS at Frankfurt is the first wind profiler for operational purposes, which uses RASS also for wind measurements. The second source are AMDAR (aircraft meteorological data relay) data collected by commercial passenger aircraft. They contain at least time, position, temperature, wind speed and direction. German weather service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) collects hourly profiles at the Central European airports. Since Frankfurt is not completely closed at night, this setup leads to a roughly continuous coverage with hourly vertical profiles. Together, both offer a rare opportunity to compare the ability of both systems to identify inversion and wind-shear layers in the terminal area. To asses the degree of consent between layers detected by both systems, we use probability of detection (POD). The mutual inversion POD is in the range 40 to 60%, except at night below 250 m. With the weak shear criteria used to gain sufficient statistics, consenting shear detection is limited to low-level jets and similar structures. Only the lower edges of detected layers agree well. The vertical extent and top heights of layers detected are frequently underestimated by WTR/RASS in general. AMDAR data seem to be more suitable for the detection of elevated inversions (and probably shear layers). In Contrast, WTR/RASS data are more suitable for detecting low and shallow as well as short-lived structures. In turn, data fusion of both systems seems to be advantageous for monitoring of hazardous atmospheric structures in the terminal area.

  7. Effects of background winds and temperature on bores, strong wind shears and concentric gravity waves in the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia

    2009-12-01

    Using data from the CSU sodium lidar and Kyoto University OH airglow imager at Fort Collins, CO, this thesis provides a comprehensive, though qualitative, understanding for three different yet related observed fluid-dynamical phenomena in the mesopause region. The first project involves the convection-excited gravity waves observed in the OH airglow layer at 87 km. Case study on May 11, 2004 is discussed in detail along with statistical studies and a ray-tracing modeling. A single convection source matches the center of the concentric gravity waves. The horizontal wavelengths and periods of these gravity waves were measured as functions of both radius and time. The weak mean background wind between the lower and middle atmosphere determines the penetration of the gravity waves into higher altitude. The second project involves mesospheric bores observed by the same OH imager. The observation on October 9, 2007 suggests that when a large-amplitude gravity wave is trapped in a thermal duct, its wave front could steepen and forms bore-like structure in the mesopause. In turn, the large gravity wave and its bore may significantly impact the background. Statistical study reveals the possible link between the jet/front system in the lower atmosphere and the large-scale gravity waves and associated bores in the mesopause region. The third project involves the relationship between large wind shear generation and sustainment and convective/dynamic stabilities measured by the sodium lidar at the altitude of 80--105 km during 2002--2005. The correlation between wind shear, S, and Brunt-Vaisala frequency, N suggests that the maximum sustainable wind shear is determined by the necessary condition for dynamic instability of Richardson number, leading to the result that the maximal wind shear occurs at altitudes of lower thermosphere where the atmosphere is convectively very stable. The dominate source for sustainable large windshears appears to be the semidiurnal tidal-period perturbations with shorter vertical wavelengths and greater amplitude.

  8. Sheared wing-tip aerodynamics - Wind-tunnel and computational investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, P. M. H. W.; Van Dam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    Computational and experimental performance benefits are presented for a high-aspect-ratio unswept wing configuration with sheared tips. The sheared tip is a highly swept and highly tapered surface located in the same plane as the inboard wing panel to which it is attached. The compuational results were obtained with an inviscid surface panel method that models the nonlinear influence of the trailing wake. Both wind-tunnel and calculated results were obtained for a 12-ft span wing model with various wing-tip configurations. The computational and experimental data are in fair agreement and demonstrate that sheared wing tips can reduce induced drag at cruise and climb lift coefficients. The drag reduction is the result of wake deformation effects and changes in spanwise load distribution. Wind-tunnel measured longitudinal and lateral directional stability characteristics are also presented for the various wing-tip layouts.

  9. Application of infrared radiometers for airborne detection of clear air turbulence and low level wind shear, airborne infrared low level wind shear detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of infrared optical techniques for the advance detection and avoidance of low level wind shear (LLWS) or low altitude wind shear hazardous to aircraft operations was investigated. A primary feasibility research effort was conducted with infrared detectors and instrumentation aboard the NASA Ames Research Center Learjet. The main field effort was flown on the NASA-Ames Dryden B57B aircraft. The original approach visualized a forward-looking, infrared transmitting (KRS-5) window through which signals would reach the detector. The present concept of a one inch diameter light pipe with a 45 deg angled mirror enables a much simpler installation virtually anywhere on the aircraft coupled with the possibility of horizontal scanning via rotation of the forward directed mirror. Present infrared detectors and filters would certainly permit ranging and horizontal scanning in a variety of methods. CRT display technology could provide a contoured picture with possible shear intensity levels from the infrared detection system on the weather radar or a small adjunct display. This procedure shoud be further developed and pilot evaluated in a light aircraft such as a Cessna 207 or equivalent.

  10. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind at Current Sheets Associated with Extremely Small Field Shear Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Using Wind 3-s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified three reconnection exhausts within a large magnetic flux rope embedded within an interplanetary coronal mass ejection in the solar wind on 19 October 1998. These exhausts were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles ranging from 4.1 to 9.3 degrees, the smallest field shear angles (strongest guide fields) yet associated with identified reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (<0.01) proton beta and very high (281 - 383 km/s) Alfvn speed. The very low external plasma beta in these events minimized the effect of diamagnetic drift of the X-line and thus allowed reconnection to occur in a sustained fashion. And, the very high external Alfvn speed translated into sufficiently fast (> 10 km/s) exhaust jets that could be adequately resolved by the Wind 3DP plasma experiment. Thin, very small field shear-angle current sheets are common in the solar wind, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma beta or particularly high Alfvn speeds. On the other hand, small field shear angle current sheets must also be dominant in topologically complex environments such as the solar corona where the plasma beta is often less than 0.01 and the Alfvn speed is high. Our observations thus suggest that reconnection at thin, low field shear angle current sheets should commonly occur in the corona, and lend some credence to models that suggest that reconnection at low field shear angle current sheets contributes substantially to coronal heating.

  11. Organization of vertical shear of wind and daily variability of monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, K. C.; Goswami, P.

    2016-02-01

    Very little is known about the mechanisms that govern the day to day variability of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall; in the current dominant view, the daily rainfall is essentially a result of chaotic dynamics. Most studies in the past have thus considered monsoon in terms of its seasonal (June-September) or monthly rainfall. We show here that the daily rainfall in June is associated with vertical shear of horizontal winds at specific scales. While vertical shear had been used in the past to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall, rarely any effort has been made to examine daily rainfall. Our work shows that, at least during June, the daily rainfall variability of ISM rainfall is associated with a large scale dynamical coherence in the sense that the vertical shear averaged over large spatial extents are significantly correlated with area-averaged daily rainfall. An important finding from our work is the existence of a clearly delineated monsoon shear domain (MSD) with strong coherence between area-averaged shear and area-averaged daily rainfall in June; this association of daily rainfall is not significant with shear over only MSD. Another important feature is that the association between daily rainfall and vertical shear is present only during the month of June. Thus while ISM (June-September) is a single seasonal system, it is important to consider the dynamics and variation of June independently of the seasonal ISM rainfall. The association between large-scale organization of circulation and daily rainfall is suggested as a basis for attempting prediction of daily rainfall by ensuring accurate simulation of wind shear.

  12. Effect of Vertical Wind Shear on Concentration Fluctuation Statistics in a Point Source Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilderman, Trevor; Wilson, David J.

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of concentration fluctuation intensity, intermittency factor, and integral time scale were made in a water channel for a plume dispersing in a well-developed, rough surface, neutrally stable, boundary layer, and in grid-generated turbulence with no mean velocity shear. The water-channel simulations apply to full-scale atmospheric plumes with very short averaging times, on the order of 1 4 min, because plume meandering was suppressed by the water-channel side walls. High spatial and temporal resolution vertical and crosswind profiles of fluctuations in the plume were obtained using a linescan camera laser-induced dye tracer fluorescence technique. A semi-empirical algebraic mean velocity shear history model was developed to predict these concentration statistics. This shear history concentration fluctuation model requires only a minimal set of parameters to be known: atmospheric stability, surface roughness, vertical velocity profile, and vertical and crosswind plume spreads. The universal shear history parameter used was the mean velocity shear normalized by surface friction velocity, plume travel time, and local mean wind speed. The reference height at which this non-dimensional shear history was calculated was important, because both the source and the receptor positions influence the history of particles passing through the receptor position.

  13. Feasibility study of a procedure to detect and warn of low level wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Kessel, P. A.; Frost, W.

    1981-01-01

    A Doppler radar system which provides an aircraft with advanced warning of longitudinal wind shear is described. This system uses a Doppler radar beamed along the glide slope linked with an on line microprocessor containing a two dimensional, three degree of freedom model of the motion of an aircraft including pilot/autopilot control. The Doppler measured longitudinal glide slope winds are entered into the aircraft motion model, and a simulated controlled aircraft trajectory is calculated. Several flight path deterioration parameters are calculated from the computed aircraft trajectory information. The aircraft trajectory program, pilot control models, and the flight path deterioration parameters are discussed. The performance of the computer model and a test pilot in a flight simulator through longitudinal and vertical wind fields characteristic of a thunderstorm wind field are compared.

  14. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  15. Operational wind shear detection and warning - The 'CLAWS' experience at Denver and future objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, John; Wilson, James W.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    An operational wind shear detection and warning experiment was conducted at Denver's Stapleton International Airport in summer 1984. Based on meteorological interpretation of scope displays from a Doppler weather radar, warnings were transmitted to the air traffic control tower via voice radio. Analyses of results indicated real skill in daily microburst forecasts and very short-term (less than 5-min) warnings. Wind shift advisories with 15-30 min forecasts, permitted more efficient runway reconfigurations. Potential fuel savings were estimated at $875,000/yr at Stapleton. The philosophy of future development toward an automated, operational system is discussed.

  16. Contributions on the Subject of Longitudinal Movements of Aircraft in Wind Shears. Ph.D. Thesis - Technischen Univ., 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of downburst-type wind shears on the longitudinal dynamic behavior of an unguided aircraft is simulated numerically on the basis of published meteorological data and the flight characteristics of an A300-B passenger jet. The nonlinear differential equations of the aircraft motion are linearized by conventional methods, and the wind effects are introduced via the linear derivatives of the wind components referred to the wind gradients to obtain simplified technical models of the longitudinal response to all possible types of constant-gradient wind shears during the first 20-60 sec. Graphs, maps, and diagrams are provided, and a number of accidents presumed to have involved wind shears are analyzed in detail.

  17. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  18. Wind-shearing in Gaseous Protoplanetary Disks and the Evolution of Binary Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of different sizes and shapes experience different drag forces from the gas during this time. Such differential forces produce a wind-shearing (WISH) effect between close by, different-sized planetesimals. For any two planetesimals, a WISH radius can be considered at which the differential acceleration due to the wind becomes greater than the mutual gravitational pull between the planetesimals. We find that the WISH radius could be much smaller than the gravitational shearing radius by the star (the Hill radius). In other words, during the gas-phase of the disk, WISH could play a more important role than tidal perturbations by the star. Here, we study the WISH radii for planetesimal pairs of different sizes and compare the effects of wind and gravitational shearing (drag force versus gravitational tidal force). We then discuss the role of WISH for the stability and survival of binary planetesimals. Binaries are sheared apart by the wind if they are wider than their WISH radius. WISH-stable binaries can also inspiral, and possibly coalesce, due to gas drag. Here, we calculate the WISH radius and the gas-drag-induced merger timescale, providing stability and survival criteria for gas-embedded binary planetesimals. Our results suggest that even WISH-stable binaries may merge in times shorter than the lifetime of the gaseous disk. This may constrain currently observed binary planetesimals to have formed far from the star or at a late stage after the dispersal of most of the disk gas. We note that the WISH radius may also be important for other processes such as planetesimal erosion and planetesimal encounters and collisions in a gaseous environment.

  19. WIND-SHEARING IN GASEOUS PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AND THE EVOLUTION OF BINARY PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2011-05-20

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of different sizes and shapes experience different drag forces from the gas during this time. Such differential forces produce a wind-shearing (WISH) effect between close by, different-sized planetesimals. For any two planetesimals, a WISH radius can be considered at which the differential acceleration due to the wind becomes greater than the mutual gravitational pull between the planetesimals. We find that the WISH radius could be much smaller than the gravitational shearing radius by the star (the Hill radius). In other words, during the gas-phase of the disk, WISH could play a more important role than tidal perturbations by the star. Here, we study the WISH radii for planetesimal pairs of different sizes and compare the effects of wind and gravitational shearing (drag force versus gravitational tidal force). We then discuss the role of WISH for the stability and survival of binary planetesimals. Binaries are sheared apart by the wind if they are wider than their WISH radius. WISH-stable binaries can also inspiral, and possibly coalesce, due to gas drag. Here, we calculate the WISH radius and the gas-drag-induced merger timescale, providing stability and survival criteria for gas-embedded binary planetesimals. Our results suggest that even WISH-stable binaries may merge in times shorter than the lifetime of the gaseous disk. This may constrain currently observed binary planetesimals to have formed far from the star or at a late stage after the dispersal of most of the disk gas. We note that the WISH radius may also be important for other processes such as planetesimal erosion and planetesimal encounters and collisions in a gaseous environment.

  20. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Barth, Erika

    2015-11-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Numerical modeling indicates that both large-scale shear and CAPE environment control the dynamics of the clouds. This response to the large-scale environment is analogous to the behavior of deep convective clouds on Earth. The balance between shear and CAPE, as expressed through the bulk Richardson Number (NR), is a good indicator of the response of a storm to its environment. Large NR results in short-lived single cell storms (Figure 1). As shear increases for a given CAPE, and NR decreases, the storms transition to a multicellular regime. Multicellular storms are longer-lived and are characterized by a downdraft generated cold pool that interacts with the background shear vorticity to initiate cells along the leading edge of the storm gust front (Figure 2). Very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. The most intense multicellular systems simulated in this study behave similar to terrestrial squall lines, and very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Cloud outbursts and linear cloud features observed from ground and Cassini may be the result of these organized storm systems. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features, including dunes, and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  1. Wind waves on a mudflat: The influence of fetch and depth on bed shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5m), wind speed (0-20m/s), and fetch (1-5km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (2km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (20km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.

  2. Wind waves on a mudflat: The influence of fetch and depth on bed shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5 m), wind speed (0-20 m/s), and fetch (1-5 km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (2 km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (20 km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.

  3. An instrumentation-grade differential capacitive MEMS shear stress sensor system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloy, Jessica Caitlin

    This dissertation describes the development of a differential capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) shear stress sensor, the associated packaging, and the interface electronics required for operation as an instrumentation-grade sensing system. The sensor is a floating element possessing a differential comb drive designed to meet the spatial and temporal requirements for use as a measurement tool for turbulent boundary layers. The capacitive sensing interface circuitry is an analog synchronous modulation/demodulation system that enables the system to make time-resolved measurements of both mean and dynamic wall shear stress events. The packaging of the sensor creates a hydraulically smooth surface for moderate Reynolds numbers with a small footprint to enable array design and non-intrusive installation. The calibration of the sensor is extended to include a new method in estimating the frequency response function of shear stress sensors and a new test bed to quantify the impact of varying humidity and temperature in the ambient environment. The sensor system is demonstrated in three wind tunnel facilities against a variety of comparative measurement techniques and in many flow conditions. The final system exhibits a sensitivity of 6.5 mV/Pa, a bandwidth of 4.7 kHz, and is the first MEMS-based shear stress system to successfully demonstrate both mean and dynamic measurements in multiple wind tunnel facilities.

  4. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR-9) wind shear processor: 1991 test at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.

    1992-06-01

    An operational test of a Wind Shear Processor (WSP) add-on to the Federal Aviation Administration's airport surveillance radar (ASR-9) took place at Orlando International Airport during July and August 1991. The test allowed for both quantitative assessment of the WSP's signal processing and wind shear detection algorithms and for feedback from air traffic controllers and their supervisors on the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Thunderstorm activity during the test period was intense; low-altitude wind shear impacted the runways or approach/departure corridors on 40 of the 53 test days. As in previous evaluations of the WSP in the southeastern United States, microburst detection performance was very reliable. Over 95 percent of the strong microbursts that affected the Orlando airport during the test period were detected by the system. Gust front detection during the test, while operationally useful, was not as reliable as it should have been, given the quality of gust front signatures in the base reflectivity and radial velocity data from the WSP. Subsequent development of a Machine Intelligent Gust Front Algorithm has resulted in significantly improved detection capability. Results from the operational test are being utilized in ongoing refinement of the WSP.

  5. Flight evaluation of a simple total energy-rate system with potential wind-shear application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.; Hellbaum, R. F.; Creedon, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Wind shears can create havoc during aircraft terminal area operations and have been cited as the primary cause of several major aircraft accidents. A simple sensor, potentially having application to the wind-shear problem, was developed to rapidly measure aircraft total energy relative to the air mass. Combining this sensor with either a variometer or a rate-of-climb indicator provides a total energy-rate system which was successfully applied in soaring flight. The measured rate of change of aircraft energy can potentially be used on display/control systems of powered aircraft to reduce glide-slope deviations caused by wind shear. The experimental flight configuration and evaluations of the energy-rate system are described. Two mathematical models are developed: the first describes operation of the energy probe in a linear design region and the second model is for the nonlinear region. The calculated total rate is compared with measured signals for many different flight tests. Time history plots show the tow curves to be almost the same for the linear operating region and very close for the nonlinear region.

  6. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  7. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  8. Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves driven by sheared zonal winds in the E-layer ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.

  9. Watershed Scale Shear Stress From Tethersonde Wind Profile Measurements Under Near Neutral and Unstable Atmospheric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    1995-04-01

    Mean wind speed profiles were measured in the atmospheric surface layer, using a tethersonde system, above the Ojai Valley Watershed in southern California. The valley is mainly planted with mature avocado and orange trees. The surface shear stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured above the trees which are up to 9 m in height. Near-neutral wind speed profile measurements allowed the determination of the watershed surface roughness (z0 = 1.4 m) and the momentum displacement height (d0 = 7.0 m). The wind speed measurements obtained under unstable atmospheric stability were analyzed using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. New stability correction functions proposed based on theory and experiments of Kader-Yaglom as well as the now classic Businger-Dyer type functions were tested. The watershed shear stress values calculated using the surface layer wind speed profiles with the new Monin-Obukhov stability functions were found to be improved in comparison with the values obtained with the Businger-Dyer functions under strongly unstable stability conditions. The Monin-Obukhov model with the Businger-Dyer stability correction function underpredicted the momentum flux by 25% under strongly unstable stability conditions, while the new Kader-Yaglom formulation compared well on average (R2 = 0.77) with the surface eddy correlation measurements for all atmospheric stability conditions. The unstable 100-m drag coefficient was found to be u*2/V1002 = 0.0182.

  10. A spatial model of wind shear and turbulence for flight simulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Colorado State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    A three dimensional model which combines measurements of wind shear in the real atmosphere with three dimensional Monte Carlo simulated turbulence was developed. The wind field over the body of an aircraft can be simulated and all aerodynamic loads and moments calculated.

  11. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  12. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  13. Convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves - The role of mean wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, J. R.; Durran, D.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical simulation of mid-latitude squall lines is used to study the properties of storm-induced stratospheric gravity waves. Owing to the tendency for convective cells to form at the forward edge of a squall line, and then propagate toward the rear, the simulated storms preferentially generate gravity waves that propagate toward the rear of the storm. This anisotropy in gravity wave generation leads to a net vertical transfer of momentum into the stratosphere. Cases with and without stratospheric mean wind shear are compared. In the latter case Doppler shifting of the waves to lower frequencies leads to wave breaking and enhanced wave - mean-flow interaction.

  14. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  15. Power spectrum of a gravity wave propagating in a shearing background wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Manuel; Caranti, Giorgio

    2000-01-01

    We re-analyze the effect on the spectral tail of a gravity wave propagating in a shearing background. The contribution to the spectrum of horizontal wind perturbations for low vertical wavenumbers comes from the Doppler shifting with a -1 slope and for high wavenumbers from the leakage effect with slopes ranging between -4 to -2. If leakage is not present, it becomes necessary to consider the termination of the wave in order to account for the spectral tail. We show that the decreasing of the wave amplitude when the overturning starts, leads to a spectral slope of -3, and an amplitude proportional to N (the square of the Brnt Visl frequency).

  16. Analysis of aircraft control strategies for microburst encounter. [low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Psiaki, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses have indicated that improved control strategies could reduce the threat posed by the presence of microburst-type wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings. The attenuation of flight path response to microburst inputs by feedback control to elevators and throttle was studied for the cases of a jet transport and a general aviation aircraft, using longitudinal equations of motion, root locus analysis, Bode plots of altitude response to wind inputs, and nonlinear numerical simulation. Energy management relative to the airmass, a pitch-up response to the decreasing airspeed, increased phugoid mode damping, and decreased phugoid natural frequency, are found to improve microburst penetration aircraft behavior. Aircraft stall, and throttle saturation, are limiting factors in an aircraft's ability to maintain a given flight path during a microburst encounter.

  17. Turbulent transport model of wind shear in thunderstorm gust fronts and warm fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Teske, M. E.; Segur, H. C. O.

    1978-01-01

    A model of turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer was used to simulate the low-level wind and turbulence profiles associated with both local thunderstorm gust fronts and synoptic-scale warm fronts. Dimensional analyses of both type fronts provided the physical scaling necessary to permit normalized simulations to represent fronts for any temperature jump. The sensitivity of the thunderstorm gust front to five different dimensionless parameters as well as a change from axisymmetric to planar geometry was examined. The sensitivity of the warm front to variations in the Rossby number was examined. Results of the simulations are discussed in terms of the conditions which lead to wind shears which are likely to be most hazardous for aircraft operations.

  18. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind at Current Sheets Associated with Extremely Small Field Shear Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2013-02-01

    Using Wind 3 s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified nine reconnection exhausts within a solar wind disturbance on 1998 October 18-20 driven by a moderately fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). Three of the exhausts within the ICME were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles, ?, ranging from 4 to 9, the smallest reported values of ? yet associated with reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (0.02-0.04) plasma ?, and very high (281-383 km s-1) Alfvn speed, V A. Low ? allows reconnection to occur at small ? and high V A leads to exhaust jets that are fast enough relative to the surrounding solar wind to be readily identified. Very small-? current sheets are common in the solar wind at 1 AU, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma ? or high V A. On the other hand, small-? current sheets should be common in the lower solar corona, a plasma regime of extremely low ? and extremely high V A. Our observations lend credence to models that predict that reconnection at small-? current sheets is primarily responsible for coronal heating.

  19. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar vēja sezonālām ātruma svārstībām tika iegūti līdz 160 metru augstumam. Pētījuma rezultāti par vēja ātruma sadalījumu līdz 200 metriem, ļauj novērtēt vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijā, un tiem ir jāpalīdz noteikt perspektīvākās vietas vēja turbīnu izvietošanai.

  20. The Structural Changes of Tropical Cyclones Upon Interaction with Vertical Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) provided a unique opportunity to observe the distributions and document the roles of important atmospheric factors that impact the development of the core asymmetries and core structural changes of tropical cyclones embedded in vertical wind shear. The state-of-the-art instruments flown on the NASA DC-8 and ER-2, in addition to those on the NOAA aircraft, provided a unique set of observations that documented the core structure throughout the depth of the tropical cyclone. These data have been used to conduct a combined observational and modeling study using a state-of-the-art, high- resolution mesoscale model to examine the role of the environmental vertical wind shear in producing tropical cyclone core asymmetries, and the effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones.The scientific objectives of this study were to obtain in situ measurements that would allow documentation of the physical mechanisms that influence the development of the asymmetric convection and its effect on the core structure of the tropical cyclone.

  1. The Orlando TDWR testbed and airborne wind shear date comparison results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven; Berke, Anthony; Matthews, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this talk is on comparing terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne wind shear data in computing a microburst hazard index called the F factor. The TDWR is a ground-based system for detecting wind shear hazards to aviation in the terminal area. The Federal Aviation Administration will begin deploying TDWR units near 45 airports in late 1992. As part of this development effort, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory operates under F.A.A. support a TDWR testbed radar in Orlando, FL. During the past two years, a series of flight tests has been conducted with instrumented aircraft penetrating microburst events while under testbed radar surveillance. These tests were carried out with a Cessna Citation 2 aircraft operated by the University of North Dakota (UND) Center for Aerospace Sciences in 1990, and a Boeing 737 operated by NASA Langley Research Center in 1991. A large data base of approximately 60 instrumented microburst penetrations has been obtained from these flights.

  2. On the vertical wind shear of Saturn's Equatorial Jet at cloud level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez-Lavega, A.; Prez-Hoyos, S.

    2005-08-01

    With the aim of retrieving the altitude of cloud features used as zonal wind tracers in Saturn's atmosphere, we have reanalyzed three different sets of photometric and calibrated data corresponding to the Voyager epoch 1979-1981 (ground-based in 1979, Voyager 2 PPS and ISS observations in 1981), and we have analyze a new set of Hubble Space Telescope images for 2004. This analysis is put in the perspective of our previous HST study for 1994-2003 (Prez-Hoyos et al., Icarus, 176, 155. 2005). A common result is found that the individual cloud tracers are embedded within a variable tropospheric haze. According to our models, the Voyager 2 ISS images locate the cloud tracers moving with zonal velocities of 455 to 465 ( 2) m/s at a pressure level of 360 140 mbar. For HST observations, the cloud tracers moving with zonal wind speeds of 280 10 m/s, locate at a pressure level of about 50 10 mbar. All these values are calculated in the latitude 3 deg North. The speed difference, if interpreted as a vertical wind shear (Porco et al., Science, 307, 1226. 2005), requires a change of 90 m/s per scale height, two times greater than that estimated from Cassini CIRS data (Flasar et al., Science, 307, 1247, 2005). We also perform an initial guess on Cassini ISS vertical sounding levels, retrieving values compatible with the HST ones but not with Voyager wind measurements. We conclude that the wind speed velocity differences measured between 1979-81 and 2004 in the upper troposphere cannot be solely explained as a wind shear effect and demand dynamical processes. We discuss the possible action of Rossby waves or an intrinsic circulation change in the ammonia cloud layer and above, following a large period of equatorial storm activity. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by MCYT AYA2003-03216, FEDER, and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. S.P.-H. acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MEC and R. H. a post-doc contract from Gobierno Vasco.

  3. A shear sensitive monomer-polymer liquid crystal system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of a liquid crystal system, comprised of a shear-sensitive cholesteric-monomer liquid crystal thin-film coated on a liquid-crystal polymer substrate, are described. The system provides stable Grandjean texture, a desirable feature for shear-stress measurements using selective reflection from the monomer liquid-crystal helix structure. Impingement of gas or air flow on the monomer liquid-crystal free surface changes the wavelength of the selective reflection for an incident white light from red toward blue with increase in the rate of gas flow. The contrast of the selectively reflected light improves considerably by providing a thin black coating of about 5 microns at the monomer-polymer interface. The coating thickness is such that the steric interactions are still sufficiently strong to maintain Grandjean texture. For a small angle of incidence of a monochromatic light, the measurement of the reflected light intensity normal to the monomer-polymer liquid-crystal interface enables the determination of the wavelength for selective reflection as a function of the gas-flow differential pressure applied in the plane of the interface. The variation of the wavelength with the pressure is linear with a slope of about 2 nm/mmHg. Furthermore, the shear-stress effects are reversible unlike for monomer liquid crystal-metal systems used for flow visualization on wind-tunnel model surfaces. The present system offers a suitable method for direct on-line measurement of shear stress field from measurements of the wavelength for selective reflection for an incident white light.

  4. Microburst wind structure and evaluation of Doppler radar for airport wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Roberts, R. D.; Kessinger, C.; Mccarthy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical structure of airflow within microbursts has been determined using Doppler weather radar data from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project. It is shown that the downdraft typically associated with microbursts is about 1 km wide and begins to spread horizontally at a height below 1 km. The median time from initial divergence at the surface to maximum differential wind velocity across the microburst is five minutes. The height of maximum differential velocity is about 75 m, and the median velocity differential is 22 m/s over an average distance of 3.1 km. The outflow of the air is asymmetric, averaging twice as strong along the maximum axis compared to the mininum axis. Some technical requirements for a radar system to detect microbursts and to provide aircraft with early warnings of the onset of windshear are identified.

  5. Test and evaluation of the Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)-8 wind shear detection system (phase 2), revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offi, D. L.; Lewis, W.; Lee, T.; Delamarche, A.

    1980-08-01

    A wind shear detection system developed by the Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) to operate with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)-8 was installed and is being tested at the FAA technical Center. Initial efforts, previously reported in Report NA-78-59-LR, were directed toward hardware and software shakedown and feasibility determination. Second phase tests compared radar with aircraft and tower winds, evaluated the wind shear measurement capability under various weather conditions, and investigated the effectiveness of a simple two-azimuth pointing strategy and system capabilities and limitations. Results showed the system to be compatible with and to operate satisfactorily with the ASR-8. The processing and spectral display of clear air and precipitation returns is feasible. The accuracy of agreement between radar-measured winds and components of the aircraft-measured winds in both radially oriented flights and runway offset flights, using a two-azimuth pointing technique, was examined. Radar versus tower wind agreement was also examined. Potentially dangerous wind shears associated with weather during these tests were detectable. Certain system limitations also have been defined and considered. It is recommended that tests continue to complete definition of and demonstrate capabilities in all weather situations, to optimize performance, and to provide information to specify system design for possible development of a prototype model.

  6. Surface Shear Stress Estimates from Geostrophic Winds for Use in Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, Richard D.

    The surface shear stress (or friction velocity, u_{*}) is found in many formulations for evapotranspiration (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) from land surfaces, but is difficult to estimate without actually measuring wind speeds. Here, ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer) similarity theory is used to estimate u _{*} from the geostrophic wind (i.e. from the atmospheric pressure field). Atmospheric pressure is routinely measured at most weather stations across many continents on an hourly basis. Data from the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) were analyzed. The values of the similarity variables B and B_{ rm W} were determined, and several formulations for the variables were compared. The optimal formulation (i.e., the one which produced the best match with the reference u_{*} values obtained from surface layer similarity) used the magnitude (G) of the geostrophic wind and a stability-dependent B _{rm W} function. The effects of random errors, baroclinicity, and inertial effects on the results were analyzed. Random measurement errors and the omission of inertial effects in the optimal formulation may cause considerable scatter. No dependence of the similarity variables on baroclinicity or scale-height ratio was discernable amidst the scatter, but they may still at times be important. Contrary to the findings of Hasse and Wagner (1971), no tendency was found in the low wind speed range for near surface wind speeds to be greater than geostrophic wind speeds. The geostrophic drag coefficient (i.e. u_{* }/G) did not vary with stability or baroclinicity; a constant value of 0.1006 (for z_0 = 1.05 m) gave unbiased estimates of u_ {*}, and a higher correlation with the reference values than the optimal ABL similarity formulation. Estimates of H and LE using ABL similarity for temperature, the surface energy budget for LE, and the optimal B_ {rm W} formulation for u _{*} gave correlations with values measured at the surface using the Bowen-ratio with energy -budget method of 0.73 and 0.92, respectively. ABL similarity with measured winds provided better estimates, but is less applicable for widespread use in hydrology. Reduction of measurement error and incorporation of accurate acceleration estimates could improve results.

  7. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  8. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  9. 1983 lightning, turbulence, wind shear, and Doppler radar studies at the National Severe Storms Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    As part of continuing research on aviation related weather hazards, numerous experiments were incorporated into the 1983 Spring Observation Program. This year's program was an abbreviated one because of commitments made to the development of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) project. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) P-3 Orion and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) RB-57B and U-2 were the main aircraft involved in the studies of lightning, wind shear, turbulence, and storm structure. A total of 14 flights were made by these aircraft during the period of May 16 through June 5, 1983. Aircraft instrumentation experiments are described, and resultant data sets available for research are detailed. Aircraft instrumentation and Doppler radar characteristics are detailed.

  10. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Persistent Contrails in Wind Shear and Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, Alexander; Ham, Frank; Lele, Sanjiva; Wilkerson, Jordan; Jacobson, Mark

    2009-11-01

    A study of contrail evolution was conducted using a three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy forces on an unstructured periodic grid. The numerical scheme uses a second-order finite volume spatial discretization and an implicit fractional-step method for time advancement. Lagrangian contrail particles grow according to a microphysical model of ice deposition and sublimation. The simulation is initialized with the wake of a commercial jet superimposed on a decaying turbulence field. The ambient atmosphere is stable and has a supersaturated relative humidity with respect to ice. Grid resolution is adjusted during the simulation, allowing higher resolution of flow structures than previous studies. We present results of a parametric study in which ambient turbulence levels, vertical wind shear, and aircraft type were varied. We find that higher levels of turbulence and shear promote mixing of aircraft exhaust with supersaturated ambient air, resulting in faster growth of ice and wider dispersion of the exhaust plume. These results provide sensitivity data that improves understanding of the development of persistent contrails into contrail cirrus, a poorly characterized aspect of the climate impact of aviation.

  12. Piloted-simulation evaluation of escape guidance for microburst wind shear encounters. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous air carrier accidents and incidents result from encounters with the atmospheric wind shear associated with microburst phenomena, in some cases resulting in heavy loss of life. An important issue in current wind shear research is how to best manage aircraft performance during an inadvertent wind shear encounter. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop techniques and guidance for maximizing an aircraft's ability to recover from microburst encounters following takeoff, (2) develop an understanding of how theoretical predictions of wind shear recovery performance might be achieved in actual use, and (3) gain insight into the piloting factors associated with recovery from microburst encounters. Three recovery strategies were implemented and tested in piloted simulation. Results show that a recovery strategy based on flying a flight path angle schedule produces improved performance over constant pitch attitude or acceleration-based recovery techniques. The best recovery technique was initially counterintuitive to the pilots who participated in the study. Evidence was found to indicate that the techniques required for flight through the turbulent vortex of a microburst may differ from the techniques being developed using classical, nonturbulent microburst models.

  13. Seasonal variation of mesopause region wind shears, convective and dynamic instabilities above Fort Collins, CO: A statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, James P.; She, Chiao-Yao

    2006-06-01

    One thousand three hundred and eleven 15-min profiles of nocturnal mesopause region (80 105 km) temperature and horizontal wind, observed by Colorado State University sodium lidar over Fort Collins, CO (41°N, 105°W), between May 2002 and April 2003, were analyzed. From these profiles, taken over 390 h and each possessing vertical resolution of 2 km, a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in wind shears, convective and dynamical instabilities was performed. Large wind shears were most often observed near 100 km and during winter months. Thirty-five percent of the winter profiles contained wind shears exceeding 40 m/s per km at some altitude. In spite of large winds and shears, the mesopause region (at a resolution of 2 km and 15 min) is a very stable region. At a given altitude, the probability for convective instability is less than 1.4% for all seasons and the probability for dynamic instability (in the sense of Richardson number) ranges from 2.7% to 6.0%. Wind shear measurements are compared with four decades of chemical release measurements, compiled in a study by Larson [2002. Winds and shears in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere: results from four decades of chemical release wind measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(A8), 1215]. Instability results are compared with those deduced from an annual lidar study conducted with higher spatial and temporal resolution at the Starfire Optical Range (SOR) in Albuquerque, NM, by Zhao et al. [2003. Measurements of atmospheric stability in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, NM. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 65, 219 232], and from a study by Li et al. [2005b. Characteristics of instabilities in the mesopause region over Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, D09S12] with 19 days of data acquired from Maui Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (Maui MALT) Campaign . The Fort Collins lidar profiles were also analyzed using 1-h temporal resolution to compare instances of instabilities observed on different time scales.

  14. Effects of turbulent eddies and Langmuir circulations on scalar transfer in a sheared wind-driven liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, Naohisa; Kurose, Ryoichi; Tsujimoto, Yuta; Komori, Satoru; Takahashi, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The effects of turbulent eddies and Langmuir circulations in liquid flow on scalar transfer across a sheared wind-driven gas-liquid interface are investigated by means of a direct numerical simulation of a gas-liquid two-phase turbulent flow with a wind-driven nonbreaking wavy interface. The wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface is captured using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method with boundary-fitted coordinates on moving grids. The results show that Langmuir circulations are generated on the liquid side below the sheared wind-driven gas-liquid interface. The marker particles on the gas-liquid interface, the turbulent eddies in the form of streamwise vortices on the liquid side (i.e., the typical horseshoe vortices associated with bursting motions), and the low scalar flux lines on the gas-liquid interface induced by the turbulent eddies on the liquid side tend to locally concentrate in the regions along the downward flows caused by the Langmuir circulations. It is suggested that the turbulent eddies on the liquid side mainly control the scalar transfer across the sheared wind-driven gas-liquid interface, and the effect of the Langmuir circulations is relatively small.

  15. Dynamic impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind on the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ninghao; Xu, Xin; Song, Lili; Bai, Lina; Ming, Jie; Wang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fiveforce balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria's model, under different VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial inflow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifies. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial inflow is significantly suppressed, even with divergent outflow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensification of TC.

  16. Surface and Bulk Oscillations of Sessile Drops: Clearing Up Confusion and Understanding Wind Sheared Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Defez Garcia, Beatriz; Cabrerizo Vilchez, Miguel; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2011-11-01

    Sessile drop oscillations are studied in the presence of a shearing airflow, and varying body force. The various possibilities for analysis, (center of mass or drop surface oscillations) are elucidated through presenting a unifying analysis framework based on wavenumber, frequency, and fluid properties. This work examines a range of fluid properties in a single study for the first time. A dispersion relation is found relating the frequency of centroid oscillation and capillary-gravity wave number, depending on the ratio (surface tension/liquid density)1/2, drop size- 3 / 2 and contact angle. The effects of contact angle are more complex than previously suggested simplifications, or analytic solutions for axisymetric drops and must at present be treated empirically. The growth of sessile drop oscillations is linear at low air velocities and exponential at higher air velocities. This is explained by drawing analogies to drops experiencing a varying body force, and to wind driven capillary-gravity waves on lakes, respectively. Liquid viscosity retards the growth of the waves, and has other important effects.

  17. The ATC evaluation of the prototype Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP) at Orlando International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Radame

    1993-03-01

    The Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP), also known as Airport Surveillance Radar-9 (ASR-9) modification for low altitude wind shear detection, is a production ASR-9 with an expanded weather channel for added processing capabilities. The primary mission of the ASR-WSP is to enhance the safety of air travel through the timely detection and reporting of hazardous wind shear in and near the terminal approach and departure zones of the airport. It will also improve the management of air traffic (AT) in the terminal area through the forecast of precipitation, and ultimately the detection of other hazardous weather phenomena. The ASR-WSP may be used as a stand-alone system at airports without a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) or Enhanced-Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (E-LLWAS), or in an integrated mode with either or both the TDWR and E-LLWAS. An operational evaluation of a prototype ASR-WSP, developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratories (MIT/LL), was conducted at the Orlando International Airport (MCO) in Orlando, Florida, during the period 29 Jun. to 31 Aug. 1992. The objective of the evaluation was to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic controller reaction to the prototype ASR-WSP weather data and display equipment. The following are highlights of the evaluation: (1) the ASW-WSP is very useful when making runway configuration changes; (2) the ASR-WSP is not perceived to be as accurate as the prototype TDWR; (3) the gust front prediction feature is not reliable; and (4) the information provided on both the RDT and the GSD is very useful.

  18. Radar-based severe storm climatology for Austrian complex orography related to vertical wind shear and atmospheric instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Steinheimer, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The paper examines the temporal and spatial distribution of intense convective cores as a function of CAPE and vertical wind shear. C band weather radar data are exploited over the complex orography of Austria. Further ERA-Interim data are used for the classification of synoptic flow and instability. A 5-year period of convective seasons shows the presence of severe thunderstorms over Austria. The spatial distribution of high radar reflectivity differs from the radar derived precipitation field due to the contribution of stratiform rain, weak convective events, and radar related measurement errors. Westerly and southerly flow classes are associated with more widespread thunderstorm development. One of the key results is that the strong deep-layer shear environment leads to organized, line oriented pattern over wide areas of Austria, except the observed minima over the Alpine crest. These preferred areas for severe storm occurrence can be well used for nowcasting. Especially during low CAPE conditions the magnitude of deep-layer shear is very important for the spatial arrangement, maximum size of the convective system, and time of occurrence. For the eastern part of Austria and the Alps, high deep-layer shear tends to produce larger cell cores in terms of high radar reflectivity. For the Alps during low CAPE conditions and for the eastern part of Austria for all CAPE classifications, the strong deep-layer shear increases the frequency of severe storms and shifts the peak of occurrence from afternoon toward the evening.

  19. Automatic detection of low altitude wind shear due to gust fronts in the terminal Doppler weather radar operational demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingle-Wilson, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A gust front is the leading edge of the cold air outflow from a thunderstorm. Wind shears and turbulence along the gust front may produce potentially hazardous conditions for an aircraft on takeoff or landing such that runway operations are significantly impacted. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has therefore determined that the detection of gust fronts in the terminal environment be an integral part of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system. Detection of these shears by the Gust Front Algorithm permits the generation of warnings that can be issued to pilots on approach and departure. In addition to the detection capability, the algorithm provides an estimate of the wind speed and direction following the gust front (termed wind shift) and the forecasted location of the gust front up to 20 minutes before it impacts terminal operations. This has shown utility as a runway management tool, alerting runway supervisors to approaching wind shifts and the possible need to change runway configurations. The formation and characteristics of gust fronts and their signatures in Doppler radar data are discussed. A brief description of the algorithm and its products for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC), along with an assessment of the algorithm's performance during the 1988 Operational Test and Evaluation, is presented.

  20. CloudSat & A-Train Observations of Tropical Cyclones: Examining Effects of Wind Shear on Storm Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, N. D.; Knaff, J. A.; Demaria, M.; Stephens, G. L.; Vane, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat (CS) heralded a new era of profiling the planet's cloud systems and storms with its launch in 2006. This satellite flies the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar and the data collected has provided a unique perspective on Earth's cloudiness and processes that affect clouds. While passes of the nadir-pointing CPR antenna occur infrequently over tropical cyclones (TCs), they happen enough to provide a detailed compilation of the inner structure of clouds and precipitation of these complex storm systems. Over 8,000 vertical profiles of TCs have been collected during the period June 2006 through June 2014 and observations continue as CS flies in daylight only mode. Each unique overpass profiled by CS has been compiled with corresponding A-Train sensors, model data and storm specific best track information.With the volume of data collected, it is possible to composite TC structure information with respect to various environmental parameters that are known to have a controlling influence on storms. To illustrate this characteristic of the data, we show composites of the vertical structure of TCs as a function of environmental wind shear. Observations of wind shear at varying levels (for example 200-850 mb) and TC composites relative to the direction of the larger scale shear will be examined and discussed in detail.

  1. Selective excitation of tropical atmospheric waves in wave-CISK: The effect of vertical wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Minghua; Geller, Marvin A.

    1994-01-01

    The growth of waves and the generation of potential energy in wave-CISK require unstable waves to tilt with height oppositely to their direction of propagation. This makes the structures and instability properties of these waves very sensitive to the presence of vertical shear in the basic flow. Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby-gravity waves have opposite phase tilt with height to what they have in the stratosphere, and their growth is selectively favored by basic flows with westward vertical shear and eastward vertical shear, respectively. Similar calculations are also made for gravity waves and Rossby waves. It is shown that eastward vertical shear of the basic flow promotes CISK for westward propagating Rossby-gravity, Rossby, and gravity waves and suppresses CISK for eastward propagating Kelvin and gravity waves, while westward shear of the basic flow has the reverse effects.

  2. Selective excitation of tropical atmospheric waves in wave-CISK: The effect of vertical wind shear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Geller, M.A. )

    1994-02-01

    The growth of waves and the generation of potential energy in wave-CISK require unstable waves to tilt with height oppositely to their direction of propagation. This makes the structures and instability properties of these waves very sensitive to the presence of vertical shear in the basic flow. Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby-gravity waves have opposite phase tilt with height to what they have in the stratosphere, and their growth is selectively favored by basic flows with westward vertical shear and eastward vertical shear, respectively. Similar calculations are also made for gravity waves and Rossby waves. It is shown that eastward vertical shear of the basic flow promotes CISK for westward propagating Rossby-gravity, Rossby, and gravity waves and suppresses CISK for eastward propagating Kelvin and gravity waves, while westward shear of the basic flow has the reverse effects. 31 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Experimental evaluation of a wind shear alert and energy management display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K.-F.; Baty, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for onboard measurement and display of specific windshear and energy management data derived from an air data computer. An open-loop simulation study is described which was carried out to verify the feasibility of this display concept, and whose results were used as a basis to develop the respective cockpit instrumentation. The task was to fly a three-degree landing approach under various shear conditions with and without specific information on the shear. Improved performance due to augmented cockpit information was observed. Critical shears with increasing tailwinds could be handled more consistently and with less deviation from the glide path.

  4. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of strong, linear mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and may provide a conceptual model for the persistence of strong MCSs above a surface nocturnal inversion in situations that are not forced by a low-level jet.

  5. Competing mechanisms of plasma transport in inhomogeneous configurations with velocity shear: the solar-wind interaction with earth's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Faganello, M; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma. PMID:18232777

  6. Competing Mechanisms of Plasma Transport in Inhomogeneous Configurations with Velocity Shear: The Solar-Wind Interaction with Earth's Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Faganello, M.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma.

  7. Effects of vertical wind shear on the predictability of tropical cyclones: Practical versus intrinsic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dandan; Zhang, Fuqing

    2015-12-01

    The effects of environmental shear on the dynamics and predictability of tropical cyclones (TCs) are further explored through a series of cloud-permitting ensemble sensitivity experiments with small, random initial condition perturbations on the low-level moisture fields. As an expansion of earlier studies, it is found that larger the shear magnitude, less predictable the TCs, especially the onset time of the rapid intensification (RI), until the shear is too large for the TC formation. Systematic differences amongst the ensemble members begin to arise right after the initial burst of moist convection associated with the incipient vortex. This randomness inherent in moist convection first changes the TC vortex structure subtly, but the location and strength of subsequent moist convection are greatly influential to the precession and alignment of the TC vortex as well as the RI onset time. Additional ensemble sensitivity experiments with different magnitude random perturbations to the mean environmental shear (6 m s-1) show that when the standard deviation of the random shear perturbations among different ensemble members is as small as 0.5 m s-1, the difference in shear magnitude overwhelms the randomness of moist convection in influencing the TC development and rapid intensification (indicative of limited practical predictability). However, for the ensemble with standard deviation of 0.1 m s-1 in random shear perturbations, the uncertainty in TC onset timing is comparable to the ensemble that is perturbed only by small random moisture conditions in the initial moisture field (indicative of the limit in intrinsic predictability).

  8. A model of wind shear and turbulence in the surface boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    A model of wind and turbulence has been described for the surface boundary layer. The wind structure in the surface layer is considered to be a function of the surface parameters, stability, and height. The surface parameters considered are: (1) the surface roughness length; (2) the surface friction velocity; and (3) the zero plane displacement height. The stability parameter, Z/L, where L is the Monin-Obukov stability length, describes the thermal effect on the wind profile. The logarithmic wind profile is used to describe the mean wind field in the neutral boundary layer, and a logarithmic profile with a stability defect is used to describe the stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. For the very stable conditions, the logarithmic wind law does not hold. Under this condition, the layers of the atmosphere become disconnected and large scale frontal motions are the predominate factor in defining the wind profile. Figures are presented which represent some typical wind profiles in the very stable condition.

  9. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E; Denton, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  10. Development of a MEMS shear stress sensor for use in wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Casey; Meloy, Jessica; Sheplak, Mark; Interdisciplinary Microsystems Group Team

    2013-11-01

    The measurement of mean and fluctuating wall shear-stress in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers and channel flows has applications both in industry and the scientific community. Currently there is no method for time resolved, direct measurement of wall shear stress at the spatial and temporal scales of turbulent flow structures inside model testing facilities. To address this need, a silicon micromachined differential capacitance shear stress sensor system has been developed. Mean measurements are enabled by custom synchronous modulation/demodulation circuitry, which allows for measurement of both magnitude and phase of incident wall shear stress. Sizes of the largest device features are on the order of relevant viscous length scales, to minimize flow disturbance and provide a hydraulically smooth sensing surface. Static calibration is performed in a flow cell setup, and an acoustic plane wave tube is used for dynamic response data. Normalized sensitivity of 1.34 mV/V/Pa has been observed over a bandwidth of 4.8 kHz, with a minimum detectable signal of 6.5 mPa. Initial results show qualitative agreement with contemporary measurement techniques. The design, fabrication, support electronics, characterization, and preliminary experimental performance of this sensor will be presented. The support of NASA SFW-NRA NNX11AI30A, AFOSR grant #FA 9550-12-1-0469, and Sandia Campus Executive Fellowship are gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Simulations of neutral wind shear effect on the equatorial ionosphere irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Chagelishvili, G.; Horton, W.

    2005-12-01

    We present numerical calculations of the large-scale electron density driven by the gradient drift instability in the daytime equatorial electrojet. Under two-fluid theory the linear analysis for kilometer scale waves lead to the result that all the perturbations are transformed to small scales through linear convection by shear and then damped by diffusion. The inclusion of the nonlinearity enables inverse energy cascade to provide energy to long scale. The feedback between velocity shear and nonlinearity keeps waves growing and leads to the turbulence. In strongly turbulent regime, the nonlinear states are saturated [1]. Since the convective nonlinearities are isotropic while the interactions of velocity shear with waves are anisotropic, the feedback do not necessarily enable waves to grow. The growth of waves are highly variable on k-space configuration [2]. Our simulations show that the directional relationship between vorticity of irregularities and shear are one of key factors. Thus during the transient period, the irregularities show the anisotropy of the vorticity power spectrum. We report the evolution of the power spectrum of the vorticity and density of irregularties and its anistropic nature as observed. The work was supported in part by the Department of NSF Grant ATM-0229863 and ISTC Grant G-553. C. Ronchi, R.N. Sudan, and D.T. Farley. Numerical simulations of large-scale plasma turbulece in teh day time equatorial electrojet. J. Geophys. Res., 96:21263--21279, 1991. G.D. Chagelishvili, R.G. Chanishvili, T.S. Hristov, and J.G. Lominadze. A turbulence model in unbounded smooth shear flows : The weak turbulence approach. JETP, 94(2):434--445, 2002.

  12. Longitudinal and transverse structure functions in sheared and unsheared wind-tunnel turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Warhaft, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The scaling exponents of the longitudinal structure function, and two different transverse structure functions: the longitudinal velocity, u, measured in the transverse, y direction (the direction of the mean shear), , and the transverse velocity v, measured in the flow direction, x, , up to n=8, are studied in an approximately uniform shear flow [Shen and Warhaft, Phys. Fluids 12, 2976 (2000)], as well as in decaying (shearless) grid turbulence. Results, for low Reynolds numbers (R?100-200) and high Reynolds numbers (R?800-1000) are compared. It is shown that at high R?, the scaling exponents of , ?u(y)(n), are the same as those of the longitudinal structure function exponents, ?u(x)(n), for both even and odd values of n. The observation that ?u(y)(n)?u(x)(n) (n odd) is in violation of the postulate of local isotropy (PLI) and implies that the anomalous scaling (departures from the Kolmogorov 1941 scaling) is fully captured by the anisotropy since these odd moments are zero in isotropic turbulence. In the low R? shear flow ?u(y)(n)shear, ?u(y)(n)?u(x)(n) at high R? (similar to the shear case but with the odd moments of equal to zero). Similarly, at low R?, ?u(y)(n)), ?v(x)(n), was lower than that of ?u(x)(n), even at high R?. The results are related to numerical, and other laboratory studies.

  13. Lightning activity and its relationship with typhoon intensity and vertical wind shear for Super Typhoon Haiyan (1330)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Dongxia; Shi, Haifeng; Srivastava, Abhay

    2016-02-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan (1330), which occurred in 2013, is the most powerful typhoon during landfall in the meteorological record. In this study, the temporal and spatial distributions of lightning activity of Haiyan were analyzed by using the lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network, typhoon intensity and position data from the China Meteorological Administration, and horizontal wind data from the ECMWF. Three distinct regions were identified in the spatial distribution of daily average lightning density, with the maxima in the inner core and the minima in the inner rainband. The lightning density in the intensifying stage of Haiyan was greater than that in its weakening stage. During the time when the typhoon intensity measured with maximum sustained wind speed was between 32.7 and 41.4 ms-1, the storm had the largest lightning density in the inner core, compared with other intensity stages. In contrast to earlier typhoon studies, the eyewall lightning burst out three times. The first two eyewall lightning outbreaks occurred during the period of rapid intensification and before the maximum intensity of the storm, suggesting that the eyewall lightning activity could be used to identify the change in tropical cyclone intensity. The flashes frequently occurred in the inner core, and in the outer rainbands with the black body temperature below 220 K. Combined with the ECMWF wind data, the influences of vertical wind shear (VWS) on the azimuthal distribution of flashes were also analyzed, showing that strong VWS produced downshear left asymmetry of lightning activity in the inner core and downshear right asymmetry in the rainbands.

  14. Design and preliminary tests of an IR-airborne LLWS remote sensing system. [Low Level Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caracena, F.; Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent history underscores the need for in-cockpit alerts of LLWS for takeoffs and landings. The 13-15 micron portion of the CO2 molecular spectrum can be used to remote sense LLWS in and around thunderstorms. A radiometer with a designed look-distance of about 10 km remote senses an average air temperature along a forward, horizontal path. Wind shear alerts are based on the difference between this forward air temperature and the air temperature near the aircraft. Although spectral ranging, a major design improvement of an IR LLWS alert system, is not at present feasible with noncooled detectors, it is an important technique to keep in mind, given the rapid advance in IR technology.

  15. Wind shear and wet and dry thermodynamic indices as predictors of thunderstorm motion and severity and application to the AVE 4 experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. R.; Ey, L.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of parameters are computed and mapped for use in assessing their individual merits as predictors of occurrence and severity of thunderstorms. The first group is comprised of equivalent potential temperature, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and wind speed. Equivalent potential temperature maxima and strong gradients of equivalent potential temperature at the surface correlate well with regions of thunderstorm activity. The second type, comprised of the energy index, shear index, and energy shear index, incorporates some model dynamics of thunderstorms, including nonthermodynamic forcing. The energy shear index is found to improve prediction of tornadic and high-wind situations slightly better than other indices. It is concluded that further development and refinement of nonthermodynamic aspects of predictive indices are definitely warranted.

  16. Fixed-base simulation study of decoupled longitudinal controls during approach and landing of a medium jet transport in the presence of wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The use of decoupled longitudinal controls during the approach and landing of a typical twin-engine jet transport in the presence of wind shear was studied. The simulation included use of a localizer and flight director to capture and maintain a 3 deg glide slope. The pilot then completed the landing by using visual cues provided below an altitude of 200 m by closed-circuit television and a terrain model. The decoupled controls used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady state decoupling of flight path angle, pitch angle, and forward velocity. The use of the decoupled control system improved pilot performance during the approach and at touchdown in the presence of wind shears. The pilots preferred the decoupled controls and rated the task 1 to 3 increments better on a pilot rating scale, depending on wind conditions, than was the case when conventional controls were used.

  17. Simulation comparison of a decoupled longitudinal control system and a velocity vector control wheel steering system during landings in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simulator comparison of the velocity vector control wheel steering (VCWS) system and a decoupled longitudinal control system is presented. The piloting task was to use the electronic attitude direction indicator (EADI) to capture and maintain a 3 degree glide slope in the presence of wind shear and to complete the landing using the perspective runway included on the EADI. The decoupled control system used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady state decoupling of flight path angle, pitch angle, and forward velocity. The decoupled control system improved the pilots' ability to control airspeed and flight path angle during the final stages of an approach made in severe wind shear. The system also improved their ability to complete safe landings. The pilots preferred the decoupled control system in severe winds and, on a pilot rating scale, rated the approach and landing task with the decoupled control system as much as 3 to 4 increments better than use of the VCWS system.

  18. Wind shear, sensible heat flux and atmospheric stability within a forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piringer, M.; Polreich, E.

    2009-09-01

    The scientific project "ROSALIA, carried out in co-operation between ZAMG and the Austrian Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards, and Landscape, investigated the meteorological impacts on pollen emission and spread in a typical Central European forest of mixed deciduous and coniferous trees. The study area is the "Lehrforst Rosalia of BOKU University approx. 60 km south of the city of Vienna in undulating terrain (300 - 750 m altitude). In this area, two meteorological towers of similar construction, one at crest height, the other in the small valley of the river "Ofenbach near a meteorological ground station, have been equipped with 3D ultrasonic anemometers: one has been placed on top of the upper tower to representatively measure the gradient flow; the tower in the valley has been equipped with 3 instruments, one at the lowermost platform near ground, the second in the middle of the forest canopy, the third on top of the tower situated within the transition zone between the canopy and the "free boundary layer where the gradient winds dominate. The sonic anemometers measure the three-dimensional wind vector; in addition, the sound velocity is derived, from which the so-called "sonic temperature is calculated to derive the sensible heat flux. Other quantities are the means, standard deviations, and covariances of the wind components and the momentum flux, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter, and the friction velocity. In the sloping dense forest canopy surrounding the tower, complex meteorological conditions and frequent decoupling of above-canopy and within-canopy flow has to be expected. The presence of a thick leaf canopy results in a stronger decoupling between the flow above and inside the canopy. As the investigation period covers April and May 2009, this gives the opportunity to discern between leaf-off (at the beginning) and leaf-on periods, with a proposed increase in decoupling with time. The aim of the study is to derive characteristic patterns of wind and atmospheric stability within the forest canopy for leaf-off and leaf-on periods as well as for days of intense versus negligible pollen production.

  19. VELOCITY-SHEAR-INDUCED MODE COUPLING IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE AND SOLAR WIND: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLASMA HEATING AND MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh. E-mail: ekaghash@aer.com

    2013-06-01

    We analytically consider how velocity shear in the corona and solar wind can cause an initial Alfven wave to drive up other propagating signals. The process is similar to the familiar coupling into other modes induced by non-WKB refraction in an inhomogeneous plasma, except here the refraction is a consequence of velocity shear. We limit our discussion to a low-beta plasma, and ignore couplings into signals resembling the slow mode. If the initial Alfven wave is propagating nearly parallel to the background magnetic field, then the induced signals are mainly a forward-going (i.e., propagating in the same sense as the original Alfven wave) fast mode, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; both signals are compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. For an initial Alfven wave propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field, the induced signals are mainly forward- and backward-going fast modes, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; these signals are all compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. A backward-going Alfven wave, thought to be important in the development of MHD turbulence, is also produced, but it is very weak. However, we suggest that for oblique propagation of the initial Alfven wave the induced fast-polarized signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave may interact coherently with the initial Alfven wave and distort it at a strong-turbulence-like rate.

  20. Motion and interaction of decaying trailing vortices in spanwise shear wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Lu, T.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation is presented of the drift of trailing vortices in a cross-wind near the ground by an unsteady, two-dimensional, rotational flow field with a concentration of large vorticity in vortical spots (having a finite but small effective size and finite total strength). The problem is analyzed by a combination of the method of matched asymptotic analyses for the decay of the vortical spots and the Euler solution for the unsteady rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, a special numerical method is developed in which the grid size and time step depend only on the length and velocity scales of the background flow and are independent of the effective core size of a vortical spot. The core size can be much smaller than the grid size, whereas the peak velocity in the core is inversely propertional to the spot size. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the strong interaction between the trajectories of the vortical spots and the change of the vorticity distribution in the background flow field.

  1. Organization of tropical deep convection in low vertical wind shears: The role of boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezahegn Semie, Addisu; Tompkins, Adrian Mark

    2015-04-01

    Previous Experiments with convection-permitting models have documented the various roles of water vapor, cold pools, and radiative feedbacks in the self-organization of tropical deep convection. Most of these simulations were conducted using idealized conditions with fixed and spatially homogeneous sea surface temperatures (SST), and over large enough domains the feedback mechanisms lead to strongly organized convection. In its equilibrium state the convection occurs in a single organised cluster or band, depending on the system mean wind state, surrounded by regions that are extremely dry and free of deep convection. . We hypothesize that radiative feedbacks involving the surface may provide a strong negative feedback to counter the organisation of convection. For example, the enhanced downwelling short-wave radiation in suppressed area should lead to enhanced SST (sometime termed SST hotspots). Which will ultimately lead to convection if the atmosphere moistens sufficiently to permit it. Similar feedback may occur over land. We therefore extend the numerical idealized experiment framework by including the effect of an interactive lower boundary sea and land conditions such as ocean and land with a range of soil moisture contents. To ascertain how this affects the self-organization of convection we construct a simple set of diagnostics to classify which mechanisms are operating, their relative importance and spacial scales.

  2. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  3. Numerical investigation for the effects of the vertical wind shear on the cloud droplet spectra broadening at the lateral boundary of the cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Jiming

    2014-05-01

    The vortex-structure circulation at the top of cumulus clouds can result in air entrainment at the lateral sides of them. The entrained air at the early developing stage of cumulus clouds can lead to new cloud droplet activation at their lateral sides due to its upward expansion cooling induced by the gradient force of the dynamic perturbation pressure. The vertical wind shear may strengthen such a mechanism for cloud droplet nucleation at the lateral sides of cumulus clouds. In order to investigate the impacts of the vertical wind shear on the cloud droplet spectra broadening at the lateral sides, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with an aerosol-cloud interaction bin model with a high spectrum resolution (90 bins for aerosols, 160 bins for water drops) and a high spatial resolution (25m in vertical, 50m in horizontal). We run the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) case in the Tianhe supercomputer with more than 1000 CPUs. In our simulations, a new aerosol parameterization scheme have been proposed in order to investigate the secondary activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The activated CCN will not be cleaned as the current approach. CCN coming from the evaporated cloud droplets can be explicitly determined. Our results show that the vertical wind shear can enhance the cloud droplet nucleation at the leeward lateral side.

  4. Simulator evaluation of the effects of reduced spoiler and thrust authority on a decoupled longitudinal control system during landings in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of reduced control authority, both in symmetric spoiler travel and thrust level, on the effectiveness of a decoupled longitudinal control system was examined during the approach and landing of the NASA terminal configured vehicle (TCV) aft flight deck simulator in the presence of wind shear. The evaluation was conducted in a fixed-base simulator that represented the TCV aft cockpit. There were no statistically significant effects of reduced spoiler and thrust authority on pilot performance during approach and landing. Increased wind severity degraded approach and landing performance by an amount that was often significant. However, every attempted landing was completed safely regardless of the wind severity. There were statistically significant differences in performance between subjects, but the differences were generally restricted to the control wheel and control-column activity during the approach.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF INCIDENT WIND SHEAR AND TURBULENCE LEVEL ON THE FLOW AROUND A BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of incident shear and turbulence on flow around a cubical building are being investigated by a turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (k-e) model (TEMPEST). he numerical simulations demonstrate significant effects due to the differences in the incident flow. he addition...

  6. Use of Dual-Polarization Radar Variables to Assess Low-Level Wind Shear in Severe Thunderstorm Near-storm Environments in the Tennessee Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Christina C.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Kumjian, Matthew; Carey, Lawerence D.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the National Weather Service (NWS) network of S ]band dual-polarization radars is currently underway, and the incorporation of polarimetric information into the real ]time forecasting process will enhance the forecaster fs ability to assess thunderstorms and their near ]storm environments. Recent research has suggested that the combination of polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) can be useful in the assessment of low level wind shear within a thunderstorm. In an environment with strong low ]level veering of the wind, ZDR values will be largest along the right inflow edge of the thunderstorm near a large gradient in horizontal reflectivity (indicative of large raindrops falling with a relative lack of smaller drops), and take the shape of an arc. Meanwhile, KDP values, which are proportional to liquid water content and indicative of a large number of smaller drops, are maximized deeper into the forward flank precipitation shield than the ZDR arc as the smaller drops are being advected further from the updraft core by the low level winds than the larger raindrops. Using findings from previous work, three severe weather events that occurred in North Alabama were examined in order to assess the utility of these signatures in determining the potential for tornadic activity. The first case is from October 26, 2010, where a large number of storms indicated tornadic potential from a standard reflectivity and velocity analysis but very few storms actually produced tornadoes. The second event is from February 28, 2011, where tornadic storms were present early on in the event, but as the day progressed, the tornado threat transitioned to a high wind threat. The third case is from April 27, 2011, where multiple rounds of tornadic storms ransacked the Tennessee Valley. This event provides a dataset including multiple modes of tornadic development, including QLCS and supercell structures. The overarching goal of examining these three events is to compare dual ]polarization features from this larger dataset to previous work and to determine if these signatures can be a useful indication of the potential for tornadic activity associated with the amount of low ]level wind shear in the near ]storm environment.

  7. TRMM-retrieved cloud structure and evolution of MCSs over the northern South China Sea and impacts of CAPE and vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangshu; Guo, Xueliang; Fu, Danhong

    2013-01-01

    Cloud structure and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) were investigated and compared with some pioneer studies based on soundings and models over the northern South China Sea (SCS). The impacts of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and environmental vertical wind shear on MCSs were also explored. The main features of MCSs over the SCS were captured well by both TRMM PR and TMI. However, the PR-retrieved surface rainfall in May was less than that in June, and the reverse for TMI. TRMM-retrieved rainfall amounts were generally consistent with those estimated from sounding and models. However, rainfall amounts from sounding-based and PR-based estimates were relatively higher than those retrieved from TRMM-TMI data. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling simulation underestimated the maximum rain rate by 22% compared to that derived from TRMM-PR, and underestimated mean rainfall by 10.4% compared to the TRMM-TMI estimate, and by 12.5% compared to the sounding-based estimate. The warm microphysical processes modeled from both the WRF and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models were quite close to those based on TMI, but the ice water contents in the models were relatively less compared to that derived from TMI. The CAPE and wind shear induced by the monsoon circulation were found to play critical roles in maintaining and developing the intense convective clouds over SCS. The latent heating rate increased more than twofold during the monsoon period and provided favorable conditions for the upward transportation of energy from the ocean, giving rise to the possibility of inducing large-scale interactions.

  8. Shear-Sensitive Monomer/Polymer Liquid Crystal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Parmar, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes preliminary investigation of new monomer/polymer liquid crystal system, thin film of shear-sensitive cholesteric monomer liquid crystal (TI 511) on Xydar (STR800) (or equivalent) liquid crystal polymer substrate. Monomer/polymer liquid crystal films applied to surfaces provide quantitative indications of shear stresses caused by winds blowing along surfaces. Effects of shear stresses reversible in new coating system. System provides quantitative data on flows in wind tunnels.

  9. Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.

  10. Improved techniques for measuring physical and chemical transformations in the atmosphere: observations of pollution transport, wind shear, and profile evolution using controlled meteorological balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Stohl, A.; Holcombe, D.; Hartley, T.

    2005-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons are small altitude-controlled platforms that can be commanded via satellite to perform soundings, track constant-level, adiabatic, or terrain-following trajectories, or target specific layers in the atmosphere. During the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformations (ICARTT) campaign in 2004 and Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) in 2005, CMET balloons were used to study the long-range transport and transformation of urban pollution plumes. Balloon and aircraft observations (e.g., companion presentation by Zaveri et al.) in the quasi-Lagrangian reference frame shed light on photochemical processes (nighttime ozone loss) and show direct thermal effects of aerosols of sufficient magnitude to impact cloud formation, precipitation, and regional climate. Repeated balloons soundings in the core of the plumes provide measurements of transport, shear, and dispersion necessary interpret and quasi-Lagrangian observations. Implications for upcoming campaigns focused on the transport and transformation of urban air pollution (e.g., Mirage-Mex) will be discussed.

  11. Measurement of surface shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji-Song; Scholz, Peter; Gu, Liang-Xian

    2012-10-01

    The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements. Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found. Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique, including wall-jet flow, vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder, although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated. The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.

  12. Mass loading in velocity shears

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Durand-Manterola, H.

    1996-02-01

    An analysis is presented on the motion of contaminant ions picked up by the solar wind within velocity shears. An expression is obtained for the ion density in terms of the flow speed across the velocity shear. It is argued that enhanced densities occur in the region where the flow speed is small and that local values may become significantly larger than the ion density outside the velocity shear. A comparison is made with measurements obtained across the plasma wake of comet Giacobini{endash}Zinner with the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft. Within the velocity shear of that comet{close_quote}s ionosheath the cometary ion density becomes large and reaches values that are different from those expected when the ion population depends only on the ionization of a uniform outflow of neutral particles from the cometary nucleus. The enhanced plasma density expected within the velocity shear is compatible with the shape of the density profile of contaminant ions detected in that region. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Direct Measurement of Wall-Shear Stress of Plane Shear Layer with Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Takehiro; Ogawara, Kakuji; Mochizuki, Shinsuke

    One of the useful ways to measure the effect of the flow control devise is to use the wall-shear stress sensor to measure the wall-shear stress directly. The sensor used in this paper measures the wall-shear stress, which is reduced by the flow control devise. In this paper, the wall-shear stress of the plane shear layer with the plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is investigated. PSJA is a flow control device composed of electrodes with A.C. signal. The actuator uses electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effect and induces flow around the electrodes. PSJA has great advantage such as miniaturization, maintenance free, and easy to control compared to other actuators. In this paper, the wall-shear stress of plane shear layer in a low-speed turbulent wind tunnel is observed to measure the effect of the PSJA. The results show that the PSJA changes the flow condition of shear layer by accelerating the flow in shear layer. The wall-shear stress reduces and increases according to the displacement of the wall-shear stress sensor and the actuator.

  14. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteady behavior on the power generation capability of a Savonius wind turbine rotor are assessed in view of measurements conducted, both in two statistically steady shear flows and in the wind, of rotor tip speed and torque at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the rotor bucket overlap ratio. It is found that, even in the absence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine rotor is most strongly dependent on tip speed ratio.

  15. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  16. Role of velocity shears in turbulent dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, T. N.; Ghosh, S.

    2013-12-01

    The discussion about what processes are important in solar wind plasma heating usually concentrates on wave particle interactions or on energization by low frequency structures like current sheets and reconnection sites. Less attention has been paid to the role of local velocity shears in plasma heating. We study this problem using Hall-FLR MHD and hybrid codes. We see that the velocity shear sites are related to hot spots and most of the dissipated energy comes from velocity shears. The ultimate energy deposition mechanism is electromagnetic interactions but these interactions are enhanced at the velocity shear sites making them an attractive candidate for sites of dissipation along with magnetic shear sites like the current sheets and reconnection sites.

  17. Speed and Direction Shear in the Stable Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.; Weiss, C. C.; Swift, A. H. P.; Chapman, J.; Kelley, N. D.

    2009-02-01

    Numerous previous works have shown that vertical shear in wind speed and wind direction exist in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this work, meteorological forcing mechanisms, such as the Ekman spiral, thermal wind, and inertial oscillation, are discussed as likely drivers of such shears in the statically stable environment. Since the inertial oscillation, the Ekman spiral, and statically stable conditions are independent of geography, potentially significant magnitudes of speed and direction shear are hypothesized to occur to some extent at any inland site in the world. The frequency of occurrence of non-trivial magnitudes of speed and direction shear are analyzed from observation platforms in Lubbock, Texas and Goodland, Indiana. On average, the correlation between speed and direction shear magnitudes and static atmospheric stability are found to be very high. Moreover, large magnitude speed and direction shears are observed in conditions with relatively high hub-height wind speeds. The effects of speed and direction shear on wind turbine power performance are tested by incorporating a simple steady direction shear profile into the fatigue analysis structures and turbulence simulation code from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In general, the effect on turbine power production varies with the magnitude of speed and direction shear across the turbine rotor, with the majority of simulated conditions exhibiting power loss relative to a zero shear baseline. When coupled with observational data, the observed power gain is calculated to be as great as 0.5% and depletion as great as 3% relative to a no shear baseline. The average annual power change at Lubbock is estimated to be -0.5%

  18. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  19. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  20. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  1. Turbulent diffusion with memories and intrinsic shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The first part of the present theory is devoted to the derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation. The eddies smaller than the hydrodynamic scale of the diffusion cloud form a diffusivity, while the inhomogeneous, bigger eddies give rise to a nonuniform migratory drift. This introduces an eddy-induced shear which reflects on the large-scale diffusion. The eddy-induced shear does not require the presence of a permanent wind shear and is intrinsic to the diffusion. Secondly, a transport theory of diffusivity is developed by the method of repeated-cascade and is based upon a relaxation of a chain of memories with decreasing information. The full range of diffusion consists of inertia, composite, and shear subranges, for which variance and eddy diffusivities are predicted. The coefficients are evaluated. Comparison with experiments in the upper atmosphere and oceans is made.

  2. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  3. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  4. NASA/LMSC coherent LIDAR airborne shear sensor: System capabilities and flight test plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA/LMSC Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) system flight tests is to evaluate the capability of an airborne coherent lidar system to detect, measure, and predict hazardous wind shear ahead of the aircraft with a view to warning flight crew of any impending dangers. On NASA's Boeing 737 Transport Systems Research Vehicle, the CLASS system will be used to measure wind velocity fields and, by incorporating such measurements with real-time aircraft state parameters, identify regions of wind shear that may be detrimental to the aircraft's performance. Assessment is to be made through actual wind shear encounters in flight. Wind shear measurements made by the class system will be compared to those made by the aircraft's in situ wind shear detection system as well as by ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne Doppler radar. By examining the aircraft performance loss (or gain) due to wind shear that the lidar predicts with that actually experienced by the aircraft, the performance of the CLASS system as a predictive wind shear detector will be assessed.

  5. A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.

    PubMed

    Schwmmle, V; Herrmann, H J

    2005-01-01

    Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes. PMID:15688141

  6. Microburst vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1994-01-01

    The vertical wind or downdraft component of a microburst-generated wind shear can significantly degrade airplane performance. Doppler radar and lidar are two sensor technologies being tested to provide flight crews with early warning of the presence of hazardous wind shear. An inherent limitation of Doppler-based sensors is the inability to measure velocities perpendicular to the line of sight, which results in an underestimate of the total wind shear hazard. One solution to the line-of-sight limitation is to use a vertical wind model to estimate the vertical component from the horizontal wind measurement. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of simple vertical wind models to improve the hazard prediction capability of an airborne Doppler sensor in a realistic microburst environment. Both simulation and flight test measurements were used to test the vertical wind models. The results indicate that in the altitude region of interest (at or below 300 m), the simple vertical wind models improved the hazard estimate. The radar simulation study showed that the magnitude of the performance improvement was altitude dependent. The altitude of maximum performance improvement occurred at about 300 m.

  7. Shearing stability of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  8. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  9. Shear Thinning in Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  10. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  11. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  12. Interpretation of combined wind profiler and aircraft-measured tropospheric winds and clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Syrett, William J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    In the first experiment, it was found that wind profilers are far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found. In the second experiment, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radar operating beneath a jet stream. Richardson number and wind shear statistics were examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  13. Angular shear plate

    DOEpatents

    Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  14. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and shear wall straps. 3285.403 Section 3285.403 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Anchorage Against Wind 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, or shear wall straps are installed on the home, they must be connected to...

  15. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, enhance the entrainment mixing, and decrease the cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the shear intensity. The wind shear enhances the turbulence buoyant consumption within the inversion, and simultaneously weakens the buoyant production in the cloud layer. These effects may result in different heating rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a process that tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer. The decoupling process occurs even without solar radiation in the case of an intense wind shear similar to the observations.

  16. Bacterial trapping in shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitously exposed to flow, both in natural environments and artificial devices (e.g., catheters), where confining surfaces create non-uniform shear. While the effects of shear on passive particles are well understood, little is known about the consequences of shear on motile bacteria. We exposed bacteria having different motility strategies (e.g., run-and-tumble, run-and-reverse) to microfluidic Poiseuille flows and quantified the swimming kinematics and cell distribution in the channel using video-microscopy. We discovered that the coupling of motility and a spatially varying shear results in a dramatic trapping of motile cells in high-shear regions, and conversely a strong depletion in the low-shear portion of the channel. We demonstrate experimentally that this trapping process is robust across species such as Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and can have far-reaching consequences on bacterial transport, by (i) counteracting bacterial chemotactic responses; and (ii) enhancing surface attachment and thus biofilm formation by trapping cells near walls. More generally, this work shows that-despite the low Reynolds number-the coupling of flow and self-propulsion can be nonlinear and not simply a superposition of the two effects.

  17. Sea surface wind stress in stratified atmospheric flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the wind shear stress on the sea surface as well as the velocity profile in stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer flow over wind waves by using similarity theory. For a given geostrophic velocity, Coriolis parameter, spectral peak period and stratification parameter the sea surface shear stress is determined. Further, the direction of the sea surface shear stress and the velocity profile are given. Parameterizations of the results are also presented. Finally, the engineering relevance of the results is discussed.

  18. Converging shear rheometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyung M.; Mix, Adam W.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    For highly viscous fluids that slip in parallel sliding plate rheometers, we want to use a slightly converging flow to suppress this wall slip. In this work, we first attack the steady shear flow of a highly viscous Newtonian fluid between two gently converging plates with no slip boundaries using the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, which yields no analytical solution. Then we treat the same problem using the lubrication approximation in Cartesian coordinates to yield exact, explicit solutions for dimensionless velocity, pressure and shear stress. This work deepens our understanding of a drag flow through a gently converging slit of arbitrary convergence angle. We also employ the corotational Maxwell model to explore the role of viscoelasticity in this converging shear flow. We then compare these analytical solutions to finite element calculations for both Newtonian and corotational Maxwell cases. A worked example for determining the Newtonian viscosity using a converging shear rheometer is also included. With this work, we provide the framework for exploring other constitutive equations or other boundary conditions in future work. Our results can also be used to design the linear bearings used for the parallel sliding plate rheometer (SPR). This work can also be used to evaluate the error in the shear stress that is caused by bearing misalignment and specify the parallelism tolerance for the linear bearings incorporated into a SPR.

  19. Aeroelastic large eddy simulations using vortex methods: unfrozen turbulent and sheared inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branlard, E.; Papadakis, G.; Gaunaa, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Larsen, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    Vortex particles methods are applied to the aeroelastic simulation of a wind turbine in sheared and turbulent inflow. The possibility to perform large-eddy simulations of turbulence with the effect of the shear vorticity is demonstrated for the first time in vortex methods simulations. Most vortex methods formulation of shear, including segment formulations, assume a frozen shear. It is here shown that these formulations omit two source terms in the vorticity equation. The current paper also present unfrozen simulation of shear. The infinite support of the shear vorticity is accounted for using a novel approach relying on a Neumann to Dirichlet map. The interaction of the sheared vorticity with the wind turbine is shown to have an important impact on the wake shape. The obtained wake shape are closer to the one obtained using traditional computational fluid dynamics: Results with unfrozen shear do not have the severe upward motion of the wake observed in vortex methods simulation with frozen shear. The interaction of the shear and turbulence vorticity is shown to reduce the turbulence decay otherwise observed. The vortex code implemented is coupled to an aeroelastic code and examples of aeroelastic simulations under sheared and turbulent inflow are presented.

  20. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior. PMID:26472384

  1. Shear breakage of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Dancis, B M

    1978-01-01

    Determinations were made of the mean length of fragments produced after shearing long (greater than 100 kb) native Hela DNA in a VirTis homogenizer. (VirTis Co., Inc., Gardiner, N.Y.). The mean length (L) is a function of the speed of rotation of the homogenizer blades (omega), time of shearing (t), water concentration ([H2O]), solvent viscosity (eta), temperature (T), and energy of activation (E*), but not a function of the initial length so long as the starting molecules sustain an average of three or more breaks. The relationship of the parameters is expressed by the equation L = (b/omegat1/2eta1/2[H2O])eE*/2kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann constant and b is a constant of proportionality. The breakage rate constant k was determined to have the relationship k = (omega2L2eta[H2O]2/2b2)e-E*/kBT. These equations are valid throughout large ranges of the parameters, and a simple method is described which chooses a final mean length between at least 0.15 and 36 kb by choosing the appropriate shearing conditions and initial fragment length. The heterogeneity of shearing conditions within the shearing vessel permits use of the equations at all breakage rates tested. Based on the work of others using more homogeneous shearing conditions and initial fragment lengths, more complicated forms of the equations are necessary at low breakage rates but not at high ones. A proposed model of the breakage mechanism suggests that molecules with stress-induced localized denaturations break at a rate different from that for native DNA. PMID:728525

  2. Internal gravity wave-atmospheric wind interaction - A cause of clear air turbulence.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K.; Liu, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction between an internal gravity wave (IGW) and a vertical wind shear is discussed as a possible cause in the production of clear air turbulence in the free atmosphere. It is shown that under certain typical condition the interaction of an IGW with a background wind shear near a critical level provides a mechanism for depositing sufficient momentum in certain regions of the atmosphere to significantly increase the local mean wind shear and to lead to the production of turbulence.

  3. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  4. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  5. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  6. WAVE ACTION AND BOTTOM SHEAR STRESSES IN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Lake Erie, the amplitudes and periods of wind-driven, surface gravity waves were calculated by means of the SMB hindcasting method. Bottom orbital velocities and bottom shear stresses were then calculated using linear wave theory and Kajiura's (1968) turbulent oscillating bou...

  7. Final Report for The Creation of a Physics-based Ground-effect Model, Phase 2 - Inclusion of the Effects of Wind, Stratification, and Shear into the New Ground Effect Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarpkaya, Turgut

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of the separation of the leading and following aircrafts is desirable to enhance the airport capacity provided that there is a physics-based operational model applicable to all regions of the flight domain (out of ground effect, OGE; near ground effect, NGE; and in ground effect, IGE) and that the quality of the quantitative input from the measurements of the prevailing atmospheric conditions and the quality of the total airport operations regarding the safety and the sound interpretation of the prevailing conditions match the quality of the analysis and numerical simulations. In the absence of an analytical solution, the physics of the flow is best expressed by a mathematical model based on numerical simulations, field and laboratory experiments, and heuristic reasoning. This report deals with the creation of a sound physics-based real-time IGE model of the aircraft wake vortices subjected to crosswind, stratification and shear.

  8. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  9. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (?2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  10. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a Simulink environment to study the flicker contribution of the wind turbine in the wind-diesel system. By using a new wind power plant representation method, a large wind farm (consisting of 96 fixed speed wind turbines) is modelled to study the power quality of wind power system. The flicker contribution of wind farm is also studied with different wind turbine numbers, using the flickermeter model. Keywords. Simulink, FAST, TurbSim, AreoDyn, wind energy, doubly-fed induction generator, variable speed wind turbine, voltage sag, tower vibration, power quality, flicker, fixed speed wind turbine, wind shear, tower shadow, and yaw error.

  11. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation of delicate micro-electromechanical devices impede the use of most direct shear sensors. Similarly, the cavity required for sensing element displacement is sensitive to particulate obstruction. This work was focused on developing a shear stress sensor for use in subsonic wind tunnel test facilities applicable to an array of test configurations. The non-displacement shear sensors described here have minimal packaging requirements resulting in minimal or no disturbance of boundary layer flow. Compared to previous concepts, device installation could be simple with reduced cost and down-time. The novelty lies in the creation of low profile (nanoscale to 100 µm) micropost arrays that stay within the viscous sub-layer of the airflow. Aerodynamic forces, which are related to the surface shear stress, cause post deflection and optical property changes. Ultimately, a reliable, accurate shear stress sensor that does not disrupt the airflow has the potential to provide high value data for flow physics researchers, aerodynamicists, and aircraft manufacturers leading to greater flight efficiency arising from more in-depth knowledge on how aircraft design impacts near surface properties.

  12. Measurements of wind friction speeds over lava surfaces and assessment of sediment transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Iversen, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Wind velocity profiles were obtained over alluvial plains, lava flows, and a cinder cone in the Mojave Desert to determine the wind shear and the potential for particle transport. It was found that aerodynamic roughness for winds increases nearly a factor of 5 as flow crosses from the alluvium to the lava surface, resulting in wind shear that is 21 percent greater. Thus, wind erosion and sand flux may be substantially enhanced over the lava field. Moreover, wind flow turbulence is enhanced in the wake of the cinder cone, which also increases erosion and sediment transportation by the wind.

  13. Parallel shear and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tiffany; Gilmore, Mark; Watts, Christopher; Xie, Shuangwei; Yan, Lincan

    2009-11-01

    Instabilities may be caused in plasma due to (shear) flow. These flows can be transverse or parallel to the magnetic field. Past work has generally focussed on controlling and understanding the processes that occur from (shear) flow transverse to the magnetic field. At UNM experimental work is being performed in the the HelCat device (Helicon Cathode) to control the parallel flow in order to study and understand the processes that arise from this situation. It is also our aim to be able to control the transverse flow simulatneously, but independently of the parallel flow. By inserting a system of biased rings and grids into the plasma we are able to modify the flows, and hence the turbulence. Flows are measured using a seven-tip Mach probe. Results of our ability to control the flows independently are presented.

  14. Shear-thinning Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Whipped cream and the filling for pumpkin pie are two familiar materials that exhibit the shear-thinning effect seen in a range of industrial applications. It is thick enough to stand on its own atop a piece of pie, yet flows readily when pushed through a tube. This demonstrates the shear-thinning effect that was studied with the Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. CVX observed the behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The principal investigator was Dr. Robert Berg of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD.

  15. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  16. Shear thickening fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, E. N.; Dawson, Ch. R.; Morrison, M. E.

    1985-03-05

    The instant invention is directed to shear thickening fluids to prevent unwanted flow in wells penetrating subterranean formations. The shear thickening fluids comprise (1) a water swellable granular clay present in sufficient quantity so that, upon interaction with an aqueous phase, a stiff paste rapidly forms having a strength of at least 2000 lbs/100 ft/sup 2/, (2) a nonaqueous phase comprising a hydrocarbon material and a surfactant, and (3) an aqueous phase comprising water and a watersoluble polymer. The granular clay and water-polymer solution are kept separated by the intervening hydrocarbon-surfactant composition, which is the continuous phase. The intervening oil phase prevents the interaction between the water-polymer phase and the granular clay and results in a stable, nonreacting, pumpable composite until such time as the granular clay is fragmented by application of a sufficiently high shear force. Upon such fragmenting, the clay and aqueous phase interact resulting in a semi-rigid high strength paste which plugs any unwanted flow.

  17. Wind Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  18. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar including combined RF-acoustic antenna installed coaxially with the gondola of the wind power turbine. The work of the technique is synchronized with rotation of blades to eliminate their shielding action. Dangerous in terms of dynamic strength is the wind load pulse, the rise time which is comparable with the period of the natural frequency of the wind turbine elements (blade, tower, rotor, etc.). The amplitude decay of resonant vibrations at critical values of the speed of rotation can be realized through the use of mechanical elastic supports with nonlinear artificial dampers. They have a high coefficient of resistance, but may cause self-excited oscillations. We propose the way to deal with raised vibration of wind turbine elements at the expense of short-term increase of damping in the range of critical rotary axis speeds or during impulsive effects of wind loadings (wind gusts). This is possible through the use of non-linear electromagnetic dampers or active magnetic bearings. Their feature is the possibility of varying the mechanical stiffness and damping properties by changing the electrical parameters of electromagnets. The controlling of these parameters is carried out by the control system (CS) with the information feedback on the spatial-temporal structure of the wind field obtained from IRASS. In the composition of the CS can also be included the rotational speed sensor of the WPT rotor. This approach to the adaptation of wind turbines will allow to reduce vibration and to perform early compensation of the load on their components, which arise under the wind gusts. In addition, corrections about the wind field obtained with IRASS, would increase the mean power of WPT.

  19. Transition to Turbulence in Shear above the Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, James A.; Klaassen, Gary P.; Bradshaw, Neil G.; Hacker, Jorg

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements were conducted above the UK during May and June 2000 in order to investigate turbulence and mixing in the tropopause region. Measurements of temperature frequently exhibited a periodic series of ramps that resembled a sawtooth pattern. These repeating structures were only observed in or near patches of intense shear-generated turbulence associated with the jet-stream. In each observed case the temperature ramps had the same orientation with respect to the wind shear. The temperature increased gradually in the direction of the shear, dropped suddenly, and the pattern repeated with wavelengths of about 1 to 1.2 km. Numerical simulation was applied to demonstrate that the observed temperature ramps are a signature of growing Kelvin-Helmholtz waves that are just beginning to overturn in transition to turbulence. The fluctuations in wind became increasingly three-dimensional along the direction of the shear with coherent oscillations that are consistent with the shear-aligned vortices found in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations.

  20. Determination of surface shear stress with the naphthalene sublimation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Aeolian entrainment and transport are functions of surface shear stress and particle characteristics. Measuring surface shear stress is difficult, however, where logarithmic wind profiles are not found, such as regions around large roughness elements. An outline of a method whereby shear stress can be mapped on the surface around an object is presented. The technique involves the sublimation of naphthalene (C10H8) which is a function of surface shear stress and surface temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the transfer of momentum, heat and mass are analogous (Reynolds analogy). If the Reynolds analogy can be shown to be correct for a given situation, then knowledge of the diffusion of one property allows the determination of the others. The analytical framework and data acquisition for the method are described. The technique was tested in the Planetary Geology Wind Tunnel. Results show that the naphthalene sublimation technique is a reasonably accurate method for determining shear stress, particularly around objects where numerous point values are needed.

  1. Imaging Faults and Shear Zones Using Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Mahan, Kevin H.

    2014-11-01

    The geometry of faults at seismogenic depths and their continuation into the ductile zone is of interest for a number of applications ranging from earthquake hazard to modes of lithospheric deformation. Teleseismic passive source imaging of faults and shear zones can be useful particularly where faults are not outlined by local seismicity. Passive seismic signatures of faults may arise from abrupt changes in lithology or foliation orientation in the upper crust, and from mylonitic shear zones at greater depths. Faults and shear zones with less than near-vertical dip lend themselves to detection with teleseismic mode-converted waves (receiver functions) provided that they have either a contrast in isotropic shear velocity ( V s), or a contrast in orientation or strength of anisotropic compressional velocity ( V p). We introduce a detection method for faults and shear zones based on receiver functions. We use synthetic seismograms to demonstrate common features of dipping isotropic interfaces and contrasts in dipping foliation that allows determination of their strike and depth without making further assumptions about the model. We proceed with two applications. We first image a Laramide thrust fault in the western U.S. (the Wind River thrust fault) as a steeply dipping isotropic velocity contrast in the middle crust near the surface trace of the fault; further downdip and across the range, where basin geometry suggests the fault may sole into a subhorizontal shear zone, we identify a candidate shear zone signal from midcrustal depths. The second application is the use of microstructural data from exhumed ductile shear zones in Scotland and in the western Canadian Shield to predict the character of seismic signatures of present-day deep crustal shear zones. Realistic anisotropy in observed shear fabrics generates a signal in receiver functions that is comparable in amplitude to first-order features like the Moho. Observables that can be robustly constrained without significant tradeoffs are foliation strike and the depth of the foliation contrast. We find that an anisotropy of only a few percent in the shear zone is sufficient to generate a strong signal, but that the shear zone width is required to be >2 km for typical frequencies used in receiver function analysis to avoid destructive interference due to the signals from the boundaries of the shear zone.

  2. Wind-induced nearshore sediment resuspension in a lake during a winter storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, K. E.; Moreno, P. A.; Schladow, S. G.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment resuspension is the process by which sediment is entrained into the water column at the sediment-water interface. It occurs when the bottom shear stress exceeds the critical shear stress and has the potential to negatively impact water quality. Wind-induced sediment resuspension could be a factor contributing to the declining clarity of the nearshore at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada and is therefore the subject of this study. An observational experiment included vertical profiles of water temperature using a thermistor chain; vertical profiles of water currents as well as surface wave periods and significant wave heights using a Nortek AWAC; high-frequency, near-bed measurements of water velocity using a Nortek Vector and a Sontek ADVOcean Probe; and suspended sediment concentrations using a LISST-100X. During a winter storm event we observed simultaneous peaks in wind speed, significant wave height and wave period, and suspended sediment concentration. Coincident peaks in suspended sediment concentration and wind speed strongly suggested wind-driven resuspension. During this same stormy period currents shifted to align with the wind. Total bottom shear stress was computed from the high-frequency, near-bed velocity data. During this winter storm, measured estimates of total bottom shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress for incipient motion corresponding to an average grain size of 400 ?m. Bottom shear stress was also partitioned according to its provenance (wind-waves; mean currents; and random motions). We implemented the wind-wave model STWAVE to simulate nearshore wind-wave growth and propagation, from which we derived the bottom orbital velocity to estimate bottom shear stress due to wind-waves. When wind directions favored a larger fetch, promoting full development of the wave field, the simulated bottom shear stress from STWAVE was in good agreement with the measured bottom shear stress attributed to wind-waves. We estimated bottom shear stress due to currents as a percentage of the total wind-induced shear stress at the surface of the lake, which was in turn derived from the wind record and the quadratic drag law. Simulated and measured bottom shear stress attributed to mean currents were in good agreement and remained small, which was to be expected. The wind-waves contributed far more to the development of the bottom shear stress during critical periods. For those times when the total bottom shear stress was in excess of the critical shear stress, the sediment entrainment rates were well represented by the 1991 Garcia and Parker formula.

  3. Modeling aeolian sediment transport thresholds on physically rough Martian surfaces: A shear stress partitioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, John A.; Nickling, William G.; King, James; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the effect that large roughness elements (0.30 m 0.26 m 0.36 m) may have on entrainment of sediment by Martian winds using a shear stress partitioning approach based on a model developed by Raupach et al. (Raupach, M.R., Gillette, D.A., Leys, J.F., 1993. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion threshold. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D2), 3023-3029). This model predicts the shear stress partitioning ratio defined as the percent reduction in shear stress on the intervening surface between the roughness elements as compared to the surface in the absence of those elements. This ratio is based on knowledge of the geometric properties of the roughness elements, the characteristic drag coefficients of the elements and the surface, and the assumed effect these elements have on the spatial distribution of the mean and maximum shear stresses. On Mars, unlike on Earth, the shear stress partitioning caused by roughness can be non-linear in that the drag coefficients for the surface as well as for the roughness itself show Reynolds number dependencies for the reported range of Martian wind speeds. The shear stress partitioning model of Raupach et al. is used to evaluate how conditions of the Martian atmosphere will affect the threshold shear stress ratio for Martian surfaces over a range of values of roughness density. Using, as an example, a 125 m diameter particle with an estimated threshold shear stress on Mars of ? 0.06 N m - 2 (shear velocity, u* ? 2 m s - 1 on a smooth surface), we evaluate the effect of roughness density on the threshold shear stress ratio for this diameter particle. In general, on Mars higher regional shear stresses are required to initiate particle entrainment for surfaces that have the same physical roughness as defined by the roughness density term ( ?) compared with terrestrial surfaces mainly because of the low Martian atmospheric density.

  4. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  5. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  6. Thermal and humidity winds in outer planet atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zi-Ping; Schubert, G.; Stoker, C.R. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-05-01

    Among the dynamical consequences of molecular weight variations due to condensation in hydrogen atmospheres is the creation of geostrophic wind variations by horizontal variations in molecular weight. In the present illustrative model, it is shown that such horizontal gradients are generated by methane condensation in the cases of the Uranus and Neptune atmospheres. As a result, the zonal wind shear is different in both magnitude and direction from the value determined while neglecting molecular weight variations. The horizontal molecular weight gradients due to condensation of minor constituents also vertically shear the zonal wind, giving rise to what may be termed the 'humidity wind'. 15 refs.

  7. Surface waves in an incompressible fluid - Resonant instability due to velocity shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Yang, G.; Cadez, V. M.; Gakovic, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of velocity shear on the resonance absorption of incompressible MHD surface waves are studied. It is found that there are generally values of the velocity shear for which the surface wave decay rate becomes zero. In some cases, the resonance absorption goes to zero even for very small velocity shears. It is also found that the resonance absorption can be strongly enhanced at other values of the velocity shear, so the presence of flows may be generally important for determining the effects of resonance absorption, such as might occur in the interaction of p-modes with sunspots. Resonances leading to instability of the global surface mode can exist, and instability can occur for velocity shears significantly below the Kelvin-Helmholtz threshold. These instabilities may play a role in the development or turbulence in regions of strong velocity shear in the solar wind or the earth's magnetosphere.

  8. Surface waves in an incompressible fluid - Resonant instability due to velocity shear

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, J.V.; Yang, G.; Cadez, V.M.; Gakovic, B. Institut za Fiziku, Belgrade Sarajevo Univerzitet )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of velocity shear on the resonance absorption of incompressible MHD surface waves are studied. It is found that there are generally values of the velocity shear for which the surface wave decay rate becomes zero. In some cases, the resonance absorption goes to zero even for very small velocity shears. It is also found that the resonance absorption can be strongly enhanced at other values of the velocity shear, so the presence of flows may be generally important for determining the effects of resonance absorption, such as might occur in the interaction of p-modes with sunspots. Resonances leading to instability of the global surface mode can exist, and instability can occur for velocity shears significantly below the Kelvin-Helmholtz threshold. These instabilities may play a role in the development or turbulence in regions of strong velocity shear in the solar wind or the earth's magnetosphere. 27 refs.

  9. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  10. True Shear Parallel Plate Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2010-01-01

    This viscometer (which can also be used as a rheometer) is designed for use with liquids over a large temperature range. The device consists of horizontally disposed, similarly sized, parallel plates with a precisely known gap. The lower plate is driven laterally with a motor to apply shear to the liquid in the gap. The upper plate is freely suspended from a double-arm pendulum with a sufficiently long radius to reduce height variations during the swing to negligible levels. A sensitive load cell measures the shear force applied by the liquid to the upper plate. Viscosity is measured by taking the ratio of shear stress to shear rate.

  11. CLASS: Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor. Windshear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell

    1991-01-01

    The coherent lidar airborne shear sensor (CLASS) is an airborne CO2 lidar system being designed and developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) under contract to NASA Langley Research Center. The goal of this program is to develop a system with a 2- to 4-kilometer range that will provide a warning time of 20 to 40 seconds, so that the pilot can avoid the hazards of low-altitude wind shear under all weather conditions. It is a predictive system which will warn the pilot about a hazard that the aircraft will experience at some later time. The ability of the system to provide predictive warnings of clear air turbulence will also be evaluated. A one-year flight evaluation program will measure the line-of-sight wind velocity from a wide variety of wind fields obtained by an airborne radar, an accelerometer-based reactive wind-sensing system, and a ground-based Doppler radar. The success of the airborne lidar system will be determined by its correlation with the windfield as indicated by the onboard reactive system, which indicates the winds actually experienced by the NASA Boeing 737 aircraft.

  12. Sensitivity of Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes: Role of relative wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, D. R.; Zhai, X.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of different wind stress bulk formulae on the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes is investigated using an idealised channel model. Surface/mixed layer properties are found to be sensitive to the use of the relative wind stress formulation, where the wind stress depends on the difference between the ocean and atmosphere velocities. Previous work has highlighted the surface eddy damping effect of this formulation, which we find leads to increased circumpolar transport. Nevertheless the transport due to thermal wind shear does lose sensitivity to wind stress changes at sufficiently high wind stress. In contrast, the sensitivity of the meridional overturning circulation is broadly the same regardless of the bulk formula used due to the adiabatic nature of the relative wind stress damping. This is a consequence of the steepening of isopycnals offsetting the reduction in eddy diffusivity in their contribution to the eddy bolus overturning, as predicted using a residual mean framework.

  13. Dual-hologram shearing interferometry with regulated sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Toker, G R; Levin, D

    1998-08-01

    A novel optical diagnostic technique, namely, dual-hologram shearing interferometry with regulated sensitivity, is proposed for visualization and measuring of the density gradients of compressible flows in wind tunnels. It is superior to conventional shearing interferometry in both accuracy and sensitivity. The method is especially useful for strong turbulent or unsteady regions of the flows, including shock flows. The interferometer has proved to be insensitive to mechanical vibrations and has allowed us to record holograms during the noisy wind-tunnel run. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to a supersonic flow over spherically blunted and sharp nose-cone-cylinder models. We believe that the technique will become an effective tool for receiving optical data in many flow facilities. PMID:18285991

  14. The role of shear in the transition from continuous shear thickening to discontinuous shear thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weifeng; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-04-01

    Dense non-Brownian suspension has rich rheology and is hard to understand, especially for distinguishing continuous shear thickening (CST) from discontinuous shear thickening (DST). By studying the shear stress dependent rheology of a well-known DST suspension of cornstarch in water, we find that the transition from CST to DST could occur not only by increasing the volume fraction ? but also by increasing the shear stress ?. For the recovery process of jammed suspension, we observe that the shear activates the time-dependent nature of particle rearrangement. DST can then be interpreted as the consequence of shear-induced jamming. Based on the test data, we plot the schematic phase diagram in the ?-? plane and find out that ? and ? perform almost the same effect on flow-state transition.

  15. Winter meso-scale shear front in the Yellow Sea and its sedimentary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qiao, Lulu; Li, Guangxue

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the authors explored the presence of shear fronts between the Yellow Sea Coastal Current (YSCC) and the monsoon-strengthened Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) in winter and their sedimentary effects within the shear zone based on a fully validated numerical model. This work added the wind force to a tidal model during simulating the winter baroclinic circulation in the Yellow Sea. The results indicate that the YSWC is significantly strengthened by wind-driven compensation due to a northeast monsoon during winter time. When this warm current encounters the North Shandong-South Yellow Sea coastal current, there is a strong reverse shear action between the two current systems, forming a reverse-S-shaped shear front that begins near 34°N in the south and extends to approximately 38°N, with an overall length of over 600 km. The main driving force for the formation of this shear front derives from the circulation system with the reverse flow. In the shear zone, temperature and salinity gradients increase, flow velocities are relatively small and the flow direction on one side of the shear zone is opposite to that on the other side. The vertical circulation structure is complicated, consisting of a series of meso- and small-scale anti-clockwise eddies. Particularly, this shear effect significantly hinders the horizontal exchange of coastal sediments carried by warm currents, resulting in fine sediments deposition due to the weak hydrodynamic regime.

  16. Wind Turbine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The species of bats that are most susceptible to wind turbines all roost in trees throughout the year, leading some scientists to speculate that they may be visually mistaking wind turbines for trees in which to roost....

  17. Wind turbine wake detection with a single Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Using scanning lidar wind turbine wakes can be probed in three dimensions to produce a wealth of temporally and spatially irregular data that can be used to characterize the wakes. Unlike data from a meteorological mast or upward pointing lidar, the spatial coordinates of the measurements are not fixed and the location of the wake also varies in three dimensions. Therefore the challenge is to provide automated detection algorithms to identify wakes and quantify wake characteristics from this type of dataset. Here an algorithm is developed and evaluated on data from a large wind farm in the Midwest. A scanning coherent Doppler wind lidar was configured to measure wind speed in the wake of a continuously yawing wind turbine for two days during the experiment and wake profiles were retrieved with input of wind direction information from the nearby meteorological mast. Additional challenges to the analysis include incomplete coverage of the entire wake due to the limited scanning domain, and large wind shear that can contaminate the wake estimate because of the height variation along the line-of-sight. However, the algorithm developed in this paper is able to automatically capture wakes in lidar data from Plan Position Indicator (PPI) scans and the resultant wake statistics are consistent with previous experiment's results.

  18. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  19. Smectic Edge Dislocations under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peilong; Lu, Chun-Yi David

    2011-09-01

    Layer structures around an edge dislocation in a smectic phase under shear are studied with both phase field and order parameter models. It is shown that, contrast to a crystal solid, the conventional picture of the Peach--Koehler force experienced by dislocations when the sample is under a shear stress cannot be readily applied to the smectic phases. Under a uniform shear flow, we obtain the phase field and order parameter solutions around an edge dislocation. The solutions elucidate properties such as the layer distortion range around the dislocation and scaling of inter-dislocation interaction on dislocation separation. Calculations on energy dissipation indicate the extreme shear-thinning behavior that an edge dislocation induces a shear stress independent of the shear rate. Finally in a bulk sample with dislocation forming loops and networks, we argue that the uniform flow component around the dislocation is important to the energy dissipation and we show that its scaling exponent with the shear rate is very close to results from many previous rheology measurements.

  20. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  1. A wake detector for wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Cacciola, S.; Schreiber, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes an observer capable of detecting the impingement on a wind turbine rotor of the wake of an upstream machine. The observer estimates the local wind speed and turbulence intensity on the left and right parts of the rotor disk. The estimation is performed based on blade loads measured by strain gages or optical fibers, sensors which are becoming standard equipment on many modern machines. A lower wind speed and higher turbulence intensity on one part of the rotor, possibly in conjunction with other information, can then be used to infer the presence of a wake impinging on the disk. The wake state information is useful for wind plant control strategies, as for example wake deflection by active yawing. In addition, the local wind speed estimates may be used for a rough evaluation of the vertical wind shear.

  2. Macroscopic Discontinuous Shear Thickening versus Local Shear Jamming in Cornstarch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, A.; Bertrand, F.; Hautemayou, D.; Mezire, C.; Moucheront, P.; Lematre, A.; Ovarlez, G.

    2015-03-01

    We study the emergence of discontinuous shear thickening (DST) in cornstarch by combining macroscopic rheometry with local magnetic resonance imaging measurements. We bring evidence that macroscopic DST is observed only when the flow separates into a low-density flowing and a high-density jammed region. In the shear-thickened steady state, the local rheology in the flowing region is not DST but, strikingly, is often shear thinning. Our data thus show that the stress jump measured during DST, in cornstarch, does not capture a secondary, high-viscosity branch of the local steady rheology but results from the existence of a shear jamming limit at volume fractions quite significantly below random close packing.

  3. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear forcing tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, characterized by the bulk (or gradient) Richardson number. This decrease enhances the entrainment mixing, leading to reduced cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the Richardson number. The weakened inversion tends to enhance the turbulence buoyant consumption and simultaneously lead to a reduced buoyant production in the cloud layer due to less radiative cooling. These effects may result in a decoupling process that creates the different heating/moistening rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a two-layered structure in the strongly sheared stratocumulus-topped MBL.

  4. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-05-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  5. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  6. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  7. Proteins in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, P.; Cieplak, Marek

    2007-10-01

    The conformational dynamics of a single protein molecule in a shear flow is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. A structure-based coarse grained model of a protein is used. We consider two proteins, ubiquitin and integrin, and find that at moderate shear rates they unfold through a sequence of metastable statesa pattern which is distinct from a smooth unraveling found in homopolymers. Full unfolding occurs only at very large shear rates. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic interactions between the amino acids are shown to hinder the shear flow unfolding. The characteristics of the unfolding process depend on whether a protein is anchored or not, and if it is, on the choice of an anchoring point.

  8. Investigation of aircraft landing in variable wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Reddy, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    A digital simulation study is reported of the effects of gusts and wind shear on the approach and landing of aircraft. The gusts and wind shear are primarily those associated with wind fields created by surface wind passing around bluff geometries characteristic of buildings. Also, flight through a simple model of a thunderstorm is investigated. A two-dimensional model of aircraft motion was represented by a set of nonlinear equations which accounted for both spatial and temporal variations of winds. The landings of aircraft with the characteristics of a DC-8 and a DHC-6 were digitally simulated under different wind conditions with fixed and automatic controls. The resulting deviations in touchdown points and the controls that are required to maintain the desired flight path are presented. The presence of large bluff objects, such as buildings in the flight path is shown to have considerable effect on aircraft landings.

  9. C/STOL flight in wind disturbed by the presence of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Reddy, R.; Crosby, B.; Camp, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of winds about block geometries characteristic of building shapes and of the flight performance of aircraft with characteristics of a DC-8 and a DHC-6 as they fly through the wind fields. The two-dimensional equations of motion for the aircraft are written to include variable winds and wind shear components. The paper also presents a discussion of the influence of those terms in the equations of motion which explicitly contain effects due to wind shear. Also included is a study of the aircrafts' flight paths over the obstacles with both a fixed stick and an automatic landing system.

  10. Near-inertial kinetic energy budget of the mixed layer and shear evolution in the transition layer in the Arabian Sea during the monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Sudip; Tandon, Amit; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Thomas Farrar, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present the horizontal kinetic energy (KE) balance of near-inertial currents in the mixed layer and explain shear evolution in the transition layer using observations from a mooring at 15.26° N in the Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. The highly sheared and stratified transition layer at the mixed-layer base varies between 5 m and 35 m and correlates negatively with the wind stress. Results from the mixed layer near-inertial KE (NIKE) balance suggest that wind energy at times can energize the transition layer and at other times is fully utilized within the mixed layer. A simple two layer model is utilized to study the shear evolution in the transition layer and shown to match well with observations. The shear production in this model arises from alignment of wind stress and shear. Although the winds are unidirectional during the monsoon, the shear in the transition layer is predominantly near-inertial. The near-inertial shear bursts in the observations show the same phasing and magnitude at near-inertial frequencies as the wind-shear alignment term.

  11. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  12. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  13. Shear shocks in fragile networks

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Stephan; Upadhyaya, Nitin; van Opheusden, Bas; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    A minimal model for studying the mechanical properties of amorphous solids is a disordered network of point masses connected by unbreakable springs. At a critical value of its mean connectivity, such a network becomes fragile: it undergoes a rigidity transition signaled by a vanishing shear modulus and transverse sound speed. We investigate analytically and numerically the linear and nonlinear visco-elastic response of these fragile solids by probing how shear fronts propagate through them. Our approach, which we tentatively label shear front rheology, provides an alternative route to standard oscillatory rheology. In the linear regime, we observe at late times a diffusive broadening of the fronts controlled by an effective shear viscosity that diverges at the critical point. No matter how small the microscopic coefficient of dissipation, strongly disordered networks behave as if they were overdamped because energy is irreversibly leaked into diverging nonaffine fluctuations. Close to the transition, the regime of linear response becomes vanishingly small: the tiniest shear strains generate strongly nonlinear shear shock waves qualitatively different from their compressional counterparts in granular media. The inherent nonlinearities trigger an energy cascade from low to high frequency components that keep the network away from attaining the quasi-static limit. This mechanism, reminiscent of acoustic turbulence, causes a superdiffusive broadening of the shock width. PMID:24309379

  14. Field Wind Tunnel Testing of Two Silt Loam Soils on the North American Central High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a natural process of sediment redistribution resulting from the shear force of the wind interacting with unprotected soil surfaces. Globally, wind erosion accounts for nearly half of all soil loss. Breaking of the prairie sod and mechanical tillage of agricultural soils on the semi...

  15. Generation of Large-Scale Winds in Horizontally Anisotropic Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hardenberg, J.; Goluskin, D.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-Bénard convection, confined between free-slip horizontal plates and rotating about a distant horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  16. Generation of Large-Scale Winds in Horizontally Anisotropic Convection.

    PubMed

    von Hardenberg, J; Goluskin, D; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-09-25

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-Bénard convection, confined between free-slip horizontal plates and rotating about a distant horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind. PMID:26451558

  17. Wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Laue, E. G. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sensing the temperature, velocity, and direction of the wind, including four temperature-dependent crystal oscillators spaced about an axis, a heater centered on the axis, and a screen through which the wind blows to pass over the crystals. In one method of operation, the frequency of the oscillators is taken when the heater is not energized, to obtain the temperature of the wind, and the frequencies of the oscillators are taken after the heater is energized to determine the direction and velocity of the wind. When the heater is energized, the wind causes the downwind crystals to achieve a higher temperature than the upwind crystals, and with the magnitude of the difference indicating the velocity of the wind.

  18. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.

    1982-01-19

    The improvement in a wind turbine comprises providing a tower with a freely liftable mount and adapting a nacelle which is fitted with a propeller windwheel consisting of a plurality of rotor blades and provided therein with means for conversion of wind energy to be shifted onto said mount attached to the tower. In case of a violent wind storm, the nacelle can be lowered down to the ground to protect the rotor blades from breakage due to the force of the wind. Required maintenance and inspection of the nacelle and replacement of rotor blades can be safely carried out on the ground.

  19. Shear elasticity of fluids at low-frequent shear influence.

    PubMed

    Badmaev, Badma B; Budaev, Ochir R; Dembelova, Tuyana S; Damdinov, Bair B

    2006-12-22

    The visco-elastic properties of liquids have been investigated using acoustical resonance method. Piezoquatrz performed tangential oscillations on the main resonance frequency of 74 kHz contacts by the one end of horizontal surface with the studied liquid layer covered by quartz cover-plate. So the stagnant shear waves are installed in layer. The solution of interaction of piezoquartz-liquid layer-cover-plate gives three methods of determination of the real shear modulus (G) and the tangent of mechanical loss angle (tan theta) of liquid. The first method is realized at smaller thickness of liquid layer then the length of shear wave. Liquids of different classes have been studied using this method: polymer liquids, oils, glycols and alcohols. The second method is connected with the propagation of shear wave in liquid layer, parameters of which are determined the G and tan theta. And the third method is based on the determination of limit shift of resonance frequencies at completes damping of shear wave in thick layer of liquid. All these three methods give satisfactory agreement of results. PMID:16814342

  20. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Kilcher, L.; Lundquist, J. K.; Fleming, P.

    2013-06-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site.

  1. Structure of Highly Sheared Tropical Storm Chantal during CAMEX-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Ritchie, E.; Simpson, Joanne; Molinari, J.; Tian, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tropical Storm Chantal during August 2001 was a storm that failed to intensify over the few days prior to making landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula. An observational study of Tropical Storm Chantal is presented using a diverse dataset including remote and in situ measurements from the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 and the NOAA WP-3D N42RF aircraft and satellite. The authors discuss the storm structure from the larger-scale environment down to the convective scale. Large vertical shear (850-200-hPa shear magnitude range 8-15 m/s) plays a very important role in preventing Chantal from intensifying. The storm had a poorly defined vortex that only extended up to 5-6-km altitude, and an adjacent intense convective region that comprised a mesoscale convective system (MCS). The entire low-level circulation center was in the rain-free western side of the storm, about 80 km to the west-southwest of the MCS. The MCS appears to have been primarily the result of intense convergence between large-scale, low-level easterly flow with embedded downdrafts, and the cyclonic vortex flow. The individual cells in the MCS such as cell 2 during the period of the observations were extremely intense, with reflectivity core diameters of 10 km and peak updrafts exceeding 20 m/s. Associated with this MCS were two broad subsidence (warm) regions, both of which had portions over the vortex. The first layer near 700 hPa was directly above the vortex and covered most of it. The second layer near 500 hPa was along the forward and right flanks of cell 2 and undercut the anvil divergence region above. There was not much resemblance of these subsidence layers to typical upper-level warm cores in hurricanes that are necessary to support strong surface winds and a low central pressure. The observations are compared to previous studies of weakly sheared storms and modeling studies of shear effects and intensification. The configuration of the convective updrafts, low-level circulation, and lack of vertical coherence between the upper- and lower-level warming regions likely inhibited intensification of Chantal. This configuration is consistent with modeled vortices in sheared environments, which suggest the strongest convection and rain in the downshear left quadrant of the storm, and subsidence in the upshear right quadrant. The vertical shear profile is, however, different from what was assumed in previous modeling in that the winds are strongest in the lowest levels and the deep tropospheric vertical shear is on the order of 10-12 m/s.

  2. Yield shear stress and disaggregating shear stress of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinmu; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-05-01

    This review presents two distinct rheological parameters of blood that have the potential to indicate blood circulation adequacy: yield shear stress (YSS) and disaggregating shear stress (DSS). YSS and DSS reflect the strength of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in suspension under static and dynamic conditions, respectively. YSS, defined as the critical stress to disperse RBC aggregates under static conditions, was found to be dependent upon hematocrit, fibrinogen, and red cell deformability, but not temperature. DSS, defined as the minimum shear stress to disperse RBC aggregates under dynamic conditions, is dependent upon fibrinogen, red cell deformability, and temperature but not hematocrit. Owing to recent advances in measurement technology, these two parameters can be easily measured, and thus, their clinical significance in blood circulation can be verified.

  3. Isogeometric analysis of shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger-Vergiat, Luc; McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim

    2014-08-01

    Numerical modeling of shear bands present several challenges, primarily due to strain softening, strong nonlinear multiphysics coupling, and steep solution gradients with fine solution features. In general it is not known a priori where a shear band will form or propagate, thus adaptive refinement is sometimes necessary to increase the resolution near the band. In this work we explore the use of isogeometric analysis for shear band problems by constructing and testing several combinations of NURBS elements for a mixed finite element shear band formulation. Owing to the higher order continuity of the NURBS basis, fine solution features such as shear bands can be resolved accurately and efficiently without adaptive refinement. The results are compared to a mixed element formulation with linear functions for displacement and temperature and Pian-Sumihara shape functions for stress. We find that an element based on high order NURBS functions for displacement, temperature and stress, combined with gauss point sampling of the plastic strain leads to attractive results in terms of rate of convergence, accuracy and cpu time. This element is implemented with a -bar strain projection method and is shown to be nearly locking free.

  4. Cosmic Shear at Cosmological Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan

    2001-07-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become an important probe of the geometry and large-scale structure of the universe. Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a well established result, and the focus has now shifted to the measurement of `cosmic shear', i.e. the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. A number of ground based programs have announced the presence of this shear and using the HST Medium Deep Survey database we have tentatively detected such a shear at smaller angular scales, corresponding to larger cosmological distances. Confirmation and reduction of errors in the detection of this elusive effect has however, been complicated by various systematics in the observational data which can masquerade the true signal. The MDS database was optimized for galaxy morphology ignoring several second order effects which could not be addressed a few years ago. Recent reconstruction by ST-ECF of the jitter files for all HST WFPC2 observations, and the detailed models for the HST focus position has set the stage for a more rigorous reanalysis as required for a more confident measurement of cosmic shear. Well characterized WFPC2 observations from the rigorously monitored HST provide the best hope for the robust measurement of cosmic shear in the near future and will set the stage for more precise measurements with the Advanced Camera.

  5. Wind Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Jack Cermak, Director of Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory, developed the first wind tunnel to simulate the changing temperatures, directions and velocities of natural winds. In this work, Cermak benefited from NASA technology related to what is known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).

  6. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  7. Towards a Wind Energy Climatology at Advanced Turbine Hub-Heights: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2005-05-01

    Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights up to and above 100 m are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) evaluate changes in wind characteristics and wind shear over the area swept by the blades. Developing wind climatology at advanced turbine hub heights for the United States benefits wind energy development. Tall tower data from Kansas, Indiana, and Minnesota (which have the greatest number of tall towers with measurement data) will be the focus of this paper. Analyses of data from the tall towers will start the process of developing a comprehensive climatology.

  8. Assessment of Atmospheric Winds Aloft during NASA Space Shuttle Program Day-of-Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center in support of the Space Shuttle Program day of launch operations. High resolution wind profiles are derived from radar tracked Jimsphere balloons, which are launched at predetermined times preceding the launch, for evaluation. The spatial (shear) and temporal (persistence) wind characteristics are assessed against a design wind database to ensure wind change does not violate wind change criteria. Evaluations of wind profies are reported to personnel at Johnson Space Center.

  9. Air shear driven flow of thin perfluoropolyether polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpulla, Michael A.; Mate, C. Mathew; Carter, Malika D.

    2003-02-01

    We have studied the wind driven movement of thin perfluoropolyether (PFPE) polymer films on silicon wafers and CNx overcoats using the blow-off technique. The ease with which a liquid polymer film moves across a surface when sheared is described by a shear mobility ?S, which can be interpreted both in terms of continuum flow and in terms of wind driven diffusion. Generally, we find that the movement of PFPE films can be described as a flow process with an effective viscosity, even when the film thickness is smaller than the polymer's diameter of gyration. Only in the special case of sparse coverage of a polymer with neutral end groups is the motion better described by a wind driven diffusion process. The addition of alcohol end groups to the PFPE polymer chain results in strong interactions with the substrate, creating a restricted layer having an effective viscosity an order of magnitude larger than the mobile layer that sits on top of the restricted layer.

  10. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-04-07

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant.

  11. Formation of sporadic-E (Es) layers under the influence of AGWs evolving in a horizontal shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, G. G.; Dalakishvili, G.; Lomidze, L.; Matiashvili, G.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of mid-latitude sporadic-E (Es) layer under the influence of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), evolving in the background horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear (horizontal shear flow), is studied. The AGWs, which are in-situ excited in the horizontal shear flow, interact with metallic ions through ion-neutral collisions and Lorentz forcing, influence the horizontal and vertical motion of ions, and lead to their convergence into thin horizontal layers. In order to investigate the formation of sporadic-E, 2-D numerical simulations are performed and temporal evolution of multilayered sporadic-E is demonstrated. It is found that ion/electron density of Es layer depends on the value of the horizontal shear of a magnetic north-directed background wind. The increase of the shear parameter in the cyclonic type background wind leads to the increase of horizontal convergence of charged particles. It is shown that the plasma density of Es layers also depends on the horizontal and vertical amplitudes of AGWs' velocity perturbations, which increase in the horizontal shear flow and cause a formation of multilayered sporadic-E. The Es layers mainly move downwards, but at certain spatial location, where temporal changes in wave phase caused by background shear flow and AGW are small, these layers are almost horizontal. The vertical spatial location of the horizontal Es layers is determined by the vertical wavelength of atmospheric gravity waves.

  12. Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus. PMID:23410439

  13. Shear relaxations of confined liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, G.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrathin (<40 [angstrom]) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s[sup [minus]1] were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celcius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes ([approximately]80 nm[sup 3]) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long-time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7 nm[sup 3]) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10[sup 4] Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

  14. Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, George Amos, Jr.

    Ultrathin (<40 A) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

  15. Multiscale Interactions Between Surface Shear Stress and Velocity in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, V.; Carper, M.; Porte-Agel, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the multiscale nonlinear interactions between surface shear stress and velocity is essential to improving boundary condition parameterizations used in numerical models of turbulent boundary layers. In this study, high-frequency measurements obtained in a wind tunnel are used to identify dominant scales of interaction between wind velocity and shear stress via wavelet cross-correlation analysis. Three ranges of scales of interaction are identified: (i) in the inertial sub-range, the correlation is negligible; (ii) in the energy production range, the correlation follows a log-law which is invariant with kz (z = distance to the surface; k = wavenumber); and (iii) for scales larger than the boundary-layer height, δ, the correlation reaches a plateau (a function of z/δ). Our results allow us to estimate the linear correlation between shear stress and wind velocity at multiple scales and assess the reliability of typical boundary condition formulations in numerical models (for instance, LES) that compute shear stress (or its fluctuations) as a linear function of wind velocity at the first vertical grid point.

  16. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0.27. It was also found that the model parameter m, which relates τS'' with τS' and which is needed to determine the peak surface shear stress τS'', is rather impractically defined in the original model formulation, because m is identified to be a function of the wind velocity, the roughness element shape and the roughness density. We propose an alternative, more universal definition of an a-parameter as a substitute for the m-parameter simply linearly relating τS'' with τS'. This strong linear relation is supported by the measurements and can be made plausible with simple fluid dynamical arguments. The advantage of a over m is that a is solely a function of the roughness element shape. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a-parameter for different kinds of roughness elements with relatively simple experimental methods.

  17. Shear rates measurements in natural shear zones using quartz piezometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Herv Leloup, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Whether deformation within the deep continental crust is fundamentally concentrated in narrow shear zones or distributed in wide zones stays a major controversy of the earth sciences. This is in part because direct measurements of ductile strain or strain rate are difficult, especially when deformation is intense as it is the case in ductile shear zones. Paleo-shear stress can be evaluated by using paleo-piezometers that link shear stress to the size of recrystallized minerals. Such piezometers are calibrated by microphysical models or experimental studies. Indirect measurements of strain rate in natural rocks can be achieved using shear stress, an estimation of the temperature of deformation, and assuming a flow law. However, such estimates have rarely been validated by independent constraints. By comparing shear rates calculated from paleopiezometry, and measured in situ in the same outcrop we determined the more appropriate paleopiezometer and power flow law in order to generalize the method to other outcrops. Within the Ailao - Red River shear zone (ASSR, SE Asia) paleo strain rates during the Miocene left-lateral shear are estimated between 1*10-13 s-1 and 2*10-13 s-1 from tectonic considerations. At site C1, by combining dating of syntectonic dykes and measurements of their deformation, the strain rate is calculated between 3 and 4*10-14 s-1 between 29 to 22 Ma, (Sassier et al., JGR, 2009). Quartz ribbons of sample YY33 from the same outcrop show continuous dynamic recrystallisation (DRX) mechanisms, characterized by subgrain rotation nucleation, and growth by grain boundary migration (Shimitzu et al. JSG, 2008). This dislocation creep regime is compatible with the microphysical models of Twiss (Pure Ammp. Geoph., 1977) and Shimitzu (JSG, 2008) and the experimental piezometer of Stipp and Tullis (GRL, 2003). The measured quartz grain size range between 10 and 960 ?m, while the mean recrystallized grain size is 112.2 1.5?m. The associated paleostress is 29.14 4.71 MPa with Shimitzu et al. (JSG, 2008) piezometer, which is the most appropriate given the grain size. Quartz lattice preferred orientation (LPO) suggests deformation temperatures around 400 C. The calculated strain rate is 2.3*10-14 s-1 with Hirth (J. Earth Sciences, 2001) flow law or 3.9*10-16 s-1 with that of Gleason and Tullis (Tectonophysics, 1995). Strain rates in natural quartz ribbons under conditions of regime of continuous DRX appear better approximated by the paleopiezometer method if using Hirth (J. Earth Sciences, 2001) power flow law. We have applied that method to several samples of the ASRR and Karakorum shear zone. Using the Shimitzu piezometer and the Hirth flow law, we measured paleo-stress ranging between 19.7 and 41.3 MPa for the ASRR and between 15.1 and 35.1 MPa for the Karakorum fault zone. Corresponding deformation temperatures are respectively at 400 - 600C and 450 - 500C. The associated strain rates range from 5.7*10-15 s-1 to 2.2*10-12 s-1 in the ASRR and from 1.7*10-15 s-1 to 2.5*10-13 s-1 for the Karakorum. The dispersion of the values can be interpreted in terms of localization of the deformation within the ductile shear zones and local geothermal gradient.

  18. Reynolds number effects on surface shear stress patterns around isolated hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Obstacles projecting into the wind stream alter the shear stress on the surface around them, thus altering the erosion, transportation, and deposition of aeolian sediment. The effect of Reynolds number on the pattern of shear stress on the surface around an isolated hemisphere was investigated. An understanding of Reynolds number effects is necessary if wind tunnel results are to be scaled up to natural situations for meaningful applications. The experiment shows that the surface shear stress pattern is strongly affected by Reynolds number, at least within the range of Re used (1360 to 2977). This is presumably due to a decrease in flow around the sides of the hemisphere and an increase in flow over the object as the Reynolds number increases.

  19. Detection of nocturnal coherent turbulence in the US Great Plains and effects on wind turbine fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Wiersema, D. J.; Zhou, B.; Chow, F. K.

    2012-12-01

    Strong low-level jet winds that develop in the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL) create some of the most energetic wind energy resources in Great Plains of North America. These stratified flows, however, can cause strong wind shear and veer across wind turbine rotors. Additionally, turbulent bursting events triggered by strong vertical wind shear can lead to fatigue and damage of wind turbine blades and components, increasing maintenance costs and reducing wind turbine power production. Coherent structures which are the signature of turbulent bursting events can be observed in heavily instrumented wind farms and in high-resolution simulations. Large-scale adoption of wind energy will benefit from the ability to predict these turbulence events with limited in-situ data. By identifying signatures of these bursting events, new turbine control technologies could be used to reduce wind turbine damage and increase overall wind farm energy yield (for example using algorithms with the ability to proactively and independently pitch blades). This research analyzes SBL turbulence in the Great Plains to develop methods to identify these structures at wind farms. Nested large-eddy simulations down to about 20m horizontal resolution are performed and compared to high-resolution Doppler wind LIDAR data (1 Hz) to determine if the model is able to create similar wind and turbulence conditions. Wavelet analysis of the LIDAR and model wind fields is used to detect coherent turbulent structures at frequencies that could be potentially damaging for wind turbines and provide guidance for design of turbine control technologies.

  20. Shear mixing in classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, A.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Times, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.; Lamb, D. M.; Mignone, A.; Fryxel, B.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.

    2003-03-01

    The mixing of white dwarf material with the accretion envelope in classical novae scenarios is essential for the later evolution and the outburst. One of the plausible mechanisms for the enrichment involves the coupling of large scale flows like convection or accretion with the breaking interfacial waves at the white dwarf surface. We examine how the interaction of accretion wind with a white dwarf surface can lead to a substantial C/O enrichment that can power a novae. We use the FLASH code to perform two and three dimensional simulations of wind driven gravity waves and investigate their growth and non-linear development for a variety of wind profiles. Our results show that even weak winds generate gravity waves through a resonant mechanism with the wind that grow nonlinear and break leading to spray formation and mixing. The total amount of white dwarf material mixed at late times, is shown to be proportional to the square of the maximum wind velocity, inversely proportional to gravity and independent of the functional form of the wind profile. This work has been supported by the DOE ASCI/Alliances program at the University of Chicago under grant No. B341495.

  1. Infrasonic wind noise under a deciduous tree canopy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jeremy; Raspet, Richard

    2015-05-01

    In a recent paper, the infrasonic wind noise measured at the floor of a pine forest was predicted from the measured wind velocity spectrum and profile within and above the trees [Raspet and Webster, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 651-659 (2015)]. This research studies the measured and predicted wind noise under a deciduous forest with and without leaves. A calculation of the turbulence-shear interaction pressures above the canopy predicts the low frequency peak in the wind noise spectrum. The calculated turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure due to the turbulence field near the ground predicts the measured wind noise spectrum in the higher frequency region. The low frequency peak displays little dependence on whether the trees have leaves or not. The high frequency contribution with leaves is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than the contribution without leaves. Wind noise levels with leaves are very similar to the wind noise levels in the pine forest. The calculated turbulence-shear contribution from the wind within the canopy is shown to be negligible in comparison to the turbulence-turbulence contribution in both cases. In addition, the effect of taller forests and smaller roughness lengths than those of the test forest on the turbulence-shear interaction is simulated based on measured meteorological parameters. PMID:25994698

  2. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kodric, A. A.

    1985-01-29

    The invention provides a wind turbine rotatable about a vertical axis comprising a plurality of planar vanes each situated along the height of a vertical shaft at a separate level. Adjacent vanes are staggered at the same dihedral angle to one another. Each vane has a plurality of doors which pivot between an open and closed position. Auxiliary panels are provided above and below each set of doors to channel the flow of air along the vane thus increasing the power derivable from the wind. Automatic release means for the doors may be provided to prevent structural damage under high wind conditions.

  3. Sheep shearing and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, Shabnum; Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    A 29-year-old sheep shearer collapsed after walking across a shearing shed floor, holding his hand over an incised wound to his neck. Attempted resuscitation was unsuccessful. At the death scene fine arterial blood spatter was noted and at autopsy a single incised wound to the neck was observed, the patterned edges of which corresponded to the teeth of the shears. Dissection revealed injury to the underlying jugular vein and the mid portion of the common carotid artery. Death was attributed to blood loss from an incised wound of the left side of the neck. This case demonstrates the rare event of an accidental death related to the actions of a sheep. Although a relatively small animal, review of the circumstances and interviews with those present revealed that sudden and unexpected movement of the sheep during shearing had caused the shearer to lose control of his electrical shears resulting in a lethal incised wound to the neck. The blood spatter pattern at the scene was supportive of both witness descriptions and the findings at autopsy. PMID:24237795

  4. Shear jamming in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ?J below which no jammed states exist. Recent experiments have shown that applying shear to a stress-free initial state can generate states which are either fragile or shear jammed depending on the way the force-network is percolated (Bi et al. Nature 2011). The nature of the jamming transition however is obscured because the existence of friction between the system and the third dimension. A new apparatus at SJTU has been designed to completely eliminate this friction by letting the particles float on the surface of a shallow water layer, which allows a study of the more detailed nature of the shear-jammed states and the transition from an unjammed state to a shear-jammed state. In this study, we also use high-precision force sensors to monitor the dynamical changes near the jamming transition. We further combine numerical simulations with the experiments to diagnose the nature of this jamming transition and its possible dependence on certain particle properties. The work at SJTU is in collaboration with Ling Zhang and Jie Zheng. The numerical simulations are in collaboration with Maobin Hu at Univ. of Sci. & Tech. of China.

  5. Low-altitude wind measurements from wide-body jet transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    For a 2-week period in the spring of 1977, data were collected onboard wide-body jet transports for the determination of winds and wind shear during landings and take-offs. The data represent about 640 take-offs or landings at 14 airports in Europe and the United States. Analysis of the wind-shear data indicates that shears of a given value are equally likely to occur at any altitude in the lower 1400-ft section of the atmosphere. Analysis of the data indicates that low shears (plus or minus .033 knot/per ft) have a 67-percent chance of occurrence during a landing or take-off, while higher values (plus or minus 0.15 knot/per ft) have a 0.5-percent chance of occurrence. A determination of the duration of a given shear was not made.

  6. Filament winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, A. M.

    The major aspects of filament winding are discussed, emphasizing basic reinforcement and matrix materials, winding procedures, process controls, and cured composite properties. Fiberglass (E-glass and S-glass strengths are 500,000 and 665,000 psi respectively) and polyester resins are the principal reinforcement constituent materials. Graphite and aramid reinforcements are being used more frequently, primarily for the more critical pressure vessels. Matrix systems are most commonly based on epoxy as it has superior mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, and heat resistance as compard with polyesters. A fiberglass overwrap of PVC pipe is an anticipated development in on-site winding and combination winding, and the compression molding of filament wound lay-ups will be investigated. The fabrication of weight-sensitive structural components may be achieved by using such moldings.

  7. Shear history effect of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lei; Chen, Kaikai; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu

    2015-10-01

    The rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluids are usually determined by particle structures and polarized particle interactions. However, the particle structures may undergo various evolutions at different shear states and history; this evolution leads to shear stress hysteresis. Therefore, the shear history effect of MR fluids was experimentally investigated in this study. In a shear rate ramp test, the shear stress at low shear rate was higher in the shear rate ramp-down process than in the shear rate ramp-up process. If the next shear test started after a rest time, the start shear stress decayed slowly and approached the original value of the first test when the interval was long enough. The MR fluids also displayed obvious hysteresis loops during the current ramp test. A high shear rate and magnetic field could reduce the shear history effect by accelerating particle structure evolutions, and then hysteresis decreased. This effect was ascribed to the evolution of particle structures during different test modes and durations, and the evolution is governed by interparticle interactions, viscous forces, and the Brownian motions of particles. These results indicated that the accuracy of the force control of MR fluids could be enhanced under high magnetic fields and high shear rates. Thus, these factors should be considered in MR actuator designs.

  8. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  9. The effect of shearing strain-rate on the ultimate shearing resistance of clay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for investigating the shearing resistance of cohesive soils subjected to a high rate of shearing strain is described. A fast step-loading torque apparatus was used to induce a state of pure shear in a hollow cylindrical soil specimen. The relationship between shearing resistance and rate of shear deformation was established for various soil densities expressed in terms of initial void ratio or water content. For rate of shearing deformation studies, the shearing resistance increases initially with shearing velocity, but subsequently reaches a terminal value as the shearing velocity increases. The terminal shearing resistance is also found to increase as the density of the soil increases. The results of this investigation are useful in the rheological study of clay. It is particularly important for mobility problems of soil runways, since the soil resistance is found to be sensitive to the rate of shearing.

  10. The effect of shearing strain-rate on the ultimate shearing resistance of clay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1976-01-01

    The shearing resistance of cohesive soils subjected to a high rate of shearing strain was investigated. A fast step-loading torque apparatus was used to induce a state of pure shear in a hollow cylindrical soil specimen. The relationship between shearing resistance and rate of shear deformation was established for various soil densities expressed in terms of initial void ratio or water content. For rate of shearing deformation studies to date, the shearing resistance increases initially with shearing velocity but subsequently reaches a terminal value as the shearing velocity increases. The terminal shearing resistance is also found to increase as the density of the soil increases. The results are useful in the rheological study of clay. It is particularly important for mobility problems of soil runways, since the soil resistance is found to be sensitive to the rate of shearing.

  11. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on the properties of sheared granular materials near the jamming transition. The project currently involves two aspects. The first of these is an experiment that is a prototype for a planned ISS (International Space Station) flight. The second is discrete element simulations (DES) that can give insight into the behavior one might expect in a reduced-g environment. The experimental arrangement consists of an annular channel that contains the granular material. One surface, say the upper surface, rotates so as to shear the material contained in the annulus. The lower surface controls the mean density/mean stress on the sample through an actuator or other control system. A novel feature under development is the ability to 'thermalize' the layer, i.e. create a larger amount of random motion in the material, by using the actuating system to provide vibrations as well control the mean volume of the annulus. The stress states of the system are determined by transducers on the non-rotating wall. These measure both shear and normal components of the stress on different size scales. Here, the idea is to characterize the system as the density varies through values spanning dense almost solid to relatively mobile granular states. This transition regime encompasses the regime usually thought of as the glass transition, and/or the jamming transition. Motivation for this experiment springs from ideas of a granular glass transition, a related jamming transition, and from recent experiments. In particular, we note recent experiments carried out by our group to characterize this type of transition and also to demonstrate/ characterize fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. These experiments give key insights into what one might expect in near-zero g. In particular, they show that the compressibility of granular systems diverges at a transition or critical point. It is this divergence, coupled to gravity, that makes it extremely difficult if not impossible to characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  12. The mechanism for shear thickening in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2009-11-01

    Densely packed suspensions can shear thicken, in which the viscosity increases with shear rate. Video microscopy along with rheology measurements show the shear thickening regime is a transition from negligible particle motion at low stresses to fully developed shear flow at higher stresses. The onset of shear thickening occurs when the shear stress is sufficient to pull particles apart; for example against gravity for large particles, and can be tuned by inducing electric or magnetic dipoles. Dilation can be observed as particles penetrate the fluid surface in the high stress regime. The maximum stress of the shear thickening regime is shown to match, for a wide range of suspensions, the ratio of surface tension divided by a radius of curvature comparable to the particle size. This suggests the large stress associated with shear thickening comes from capillary forces as a consequence of dilation.

  13. Shear dynamics in higher dimensional FLRW cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Isha; Nandan, Hemwati; Goswami, Umananda Dev

    2015-12-01

    We study the shear dynamics of higher dimensional Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering a non-perfect fluid which exerts different pressure in the normal and extra dimensions. We generalise the definition of shear tensor for higher dimensional spacetime and prove it to be consistent with the evolution equation for shear tensor obtained from the Ricci identities. The shear tensor however vanishes for the case of usual FLRW metric in four dimensions. The evolution of shear tensor for higher dimensional FLRW cosmology is investigated numerically. The role of extra dimensions and other parameters involved in shear dynamics is discussed in detail. We find that with increase in anisotropy parameter, time of decay of shear increases while with increase in number of extra dimensions, shear tends to decay early.

  14. Wind profile estimation from point to point laser distortion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The author's results on the problem of using laser distortion data to estimate the wind profile along the path of the beam are presented. A new model for the dynamics of the index of refraction in a non-constant wind is developed. The model agrees qualitatively with theoretical predictions for the index of refraction statistics in linear wind shear, and is approximated by the predictions of Taylor's hypothesis in constant wind. A framework for a potential in-flight experiment is presented, and the estimation problem is discussed in a maximum likelihood context.

  15. Wind Monitoring Report for Fort Wainwright's Donnelly Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2011-01-18

    Using the wind data collected at a location in Fort Wainwrights Donnelly Training Area (DTA) near the Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC) test track, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the gross and net energy productions that proposed turbine models would have produced exposed to the wind resource measured at the meteorological tower (met tower) location during the year of measurement. Calculations are based on the proposed turbine models standard atmospheric conditions power curves, the annual average wind speeds, wind shear estimates, and standard industry assumptions.

  16. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  17. Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

  18. Electrohydrodynamic Instability under an Oscillatory Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Katsura, Shinichiro; Uesaka, Hideo; Harada, Yoshifumi

    2001-03-01

    We have experimentally studied the electrohydrodynamic instability in a nematic liquid crystal under an oscillatory shear flow. In the vicinity of an instability threshold, we observed the very slow dynamics of convection under the oscillatory shear flow with fixed control parameters. We found the resonant behavior between a mode of the underlying convection rolls and the shear flow. Dynamical scaling law is successfully applied.

  19. Controlled shear/tension fixture

    DOEpatents

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Liu, Chain-tsuan; George, Easo P.

    2012-07-24

    A test fixture for simultaneously testing two material test samples is provided. The fixture provides substantially equal shear and tensile stresses in each test specimens. By gradually applying a load force to the fixture only one of the two specimens fractures. Upon fracture of the one specimen, the fixture and the load train lose contact and the second specimen is preserved in a state of upset just prior to fracture. Particular advantages of the fixture are (1) to control the tensile to shear load on the specimen for understanding the effect of these stresses on the deformation behavior of advanced materials, (2) to control the location of fracture for accessing localized material properties including the variation of the mechanical properties and residual stresses across the thickness of advanced materials, (3) to yield a fractured specimen for strength measurement and an unfractured specimen for examining the microstructure just prior to fracture.

  20. Dynamics of Sheared Polydisperse Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xin; Desmond, Kenneth; Chen, Dandan; Edmond, Kazem; Weeks, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Polydispersity is an important parameter in the jamming transition of soft materials which has not been well understood yet. In our work, we study the elastic response of a high volume fraction polydisperse emulsion to a periodic shear stress. The droplets' dynamics is imaged by confocal microscopy. Our results reveal that most of the droplets in the emulsion exhibit an elastic and periodic motion under the shear stress. However, the smaller droplets often move with anomalously large or small amplitudes compared to the mean motion. Some droplets also move nearly perpendicular to the mean flow field. The broad distribution of the amplitudes and phases of the smaller droplets' motions can be attributed to the motion the larger droplets and the distribution of the droplet sizes.

  1. Scaling of entropic shear rigidity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiangjun; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Goldbart, Paul M

    2004-11-26

    The scaling of shear modulus near the gelation-vulcanization transition is explored heuristically and analytically. It is found that in a dense melt the effective chains of the infinite cluster have sizes that scale sublinearly with their contour length. Consequently, each chain contributes k(B)T to the rigidity, which leads to a shear-modulus exponent dnu. In contrast, in phantom elastic networks the scaling is linear in the contour length, yielding an exponent identical to that of the random resistor network conductivity, as predicted by de Gennes. For nondense systems, the exponent should cross over to dnu when the percolation correlation length is much larger than the density-fluctuation length. PMID:15601099

  2. Modeling of turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.

    1992-01-01

    The current progress is documented in the research and development of modeling techniques for turbulent shear flows. These include a two-scale model for compressible turbulent flows and a new energy transfer model. The former represents the status of the efforts to identify compressibility effects in turbulence. The energy transfer model refines a weakly nonlinear wave model developed earlier, which models directly the turbulent large structures. The objective of these activities is to develop second-order closures for compressible turbulent flows.

  3. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R.; Stooksbury, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear.

    PubMed

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  5. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    PubMed Central

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  6. Shear Strength of Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Dattatraya P.; Vaughan, Brian A. M.; Proud, William G.

    2007-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a transparent, polycrystalline cubic spinel. The results of investigations^1-4 on shock response of AlON permit determination of the equation of state, and shear strength retained under shock compression. Whereas the values of the HEL of AlON holds no surprises, the inelastic response of AlON reported in Ref. 1-4 differ significantly and is stress dependent. The results of Ref. 1-2 show that AlON retains a shear strength of 3 to 4 GPa when shocked up to around 20 GPa, but the results of Ref, 3-4 seem to suggest a possible loss of shear strength when shocked to 16 GPa and beyond. Our analysis examines the observed differences in the inelastic response of AlON reported in these four studies . 1. J. U. Cazamias, et. al., in Fundamental Issues and Applications of Shock-Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena, Eds. Staudhammer, Murr, and Meyers, Elsevier, NY, 173 (2001). 2. B. A. M. Vaughn, et.al., Shock Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, Report SP/1092 (2001) 3. T. Sekine, et.al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4803 (2003). 4. T. F. Thornhill, et.al., Shock Compression of Matter-2005, Eds. Furnish, Elert, Russell, White, AIP, NY, 143 (2006).

  7. Shear properties of the temporomandibular joint disc in relation to compressive and shear strain.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, E; Kawai, N; Hanaoka, K; Van Eijden, T; Sasaki, A; Aoyama, J; Tanaka, M; Tanne, K

    2004-06-01

    Shear stress can result in fatigue, damage, and irreversible deformation of the temporomandibular joint disc. Insight into the dynamic shear properties of the disc may give insight into the mechanism inducing tissue failure due to shear. We tested the hypothesis that the dynamic shear properties of the disc depend on the amount of shear and compressive strain. Twenty-four porcine discs were used for dynamic shear tests. The specimens were clamped between the plates of a loading apparatus under compressive strains of 5%, 10%, and 15%. Dynamic shear was applied to the specimen by a sinusoidal strain of, respectively, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%. Both the dynamic elasticity and viscosity were proportional to compressive strain and inversely proportional to shear strain. These shear characteristics suggest a significant role of compressive and shear strain on the internal friction of the disc. PMID:15153455

  8. Wind fence

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrenburg, H.H.

    1981-05-05

    This invention relates to a wind fence, preferably of immense area, adapted to extract energy from the wind and convert it into commercial electricity. The fence of this invention comprises a module of unique design and construction. These modules are used in multiples to form fences up to five hundred (500') feet high up to five (5) miles long. The rotors within each module are vertically disposed and are interconnected, preferably by gears, to a fluid containing gear pump. The pump produces pressured fluid, and is conducted to a turbine operated by said fluid and which is connected to a conventional electrical generator. The depressurized fluid from the turbine is returned to said gear pump. In this invention the individual rotors always rotate in only one direction, regardless of the direction of the wind.

  9. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  10. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  11. A microcomputer program for estimating low altitude wind and turbulence fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, F. L.; Lester, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Past efforts to develop methods for objective wind analysis and to provide turbulence estimates to pilots are reviewed. The present approach involves a wind module and a turbulence module. The wind module extends the critical dividing streamline concept and past developments in mass-conserving wind interpolation schemes. The turbulence module is based on recent efforts to develop practical atmospheric turbulence parameterization schemes based on lapse rate, wind shear, surface heating, and surface roughness. The lapse rate and wind shear are readily obtained from the wind module. Surface roughness and heating come from land use information and net radiation estimates derived from cloud cover, terrain slope, local time, and latitude. This system is argued to have considerable potential for providing useful online information for many kinds of aircraft operations.

  12. Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.

  13. Diffusion in linearly sheared granular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert

    2013-11-01

    We study shear-induced diffusion in a linearly sheared, dense disordered packing of frictional photoelastic disks. We can track both displacements and rotational motion, and measure interparticle forces obtained from the photoelastic response of the disks. In these experiments, volume fraction and shear amplitude are the control parameters. We probe the non-affine displacements, both in the transient of a single shear deformation, and during cyclic shear. We observe fine structure in the nonffine displacement fields and find that the diffusion anisotropy shows nontrivial dynamics. Additionally, we find that both rotational and translational diffusion increases with density for all but the highest densities. Currently at Merck & Co.

  14. Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S. (Knoxville, TN); Metz, III, Curtis F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing.

  15. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  16. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  17. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  18. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

    2003-04-01

    The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine design the wind shear of the marine surface layer is an important design parameter, especially since the growing rotor diameter makes turbines more vulnerable for spatial wind speed variations. Compared to land surfaces the roughness of water is very low. It is commonly described either as a constant (as in the wind resource estimation program WAsP) or by means of the Charnock approach, relating sea surface roughness and friction velocity. While this relation works well for the open oceans it has been found inappropriate for coastal areas where waves are not fully developed. Information about the wave field is needed to model the sea surface roughness more accurately (see e.g. Johnson et al. (1998)). The atmospheric stability differs greatly between land and water areas. It is more important offshore compared to land sites due to the low surface roughness of water. The main influence of the atmospheric stability is on the vertical momentum transport, which is reflected in the vertical wind speed profile. It is usually described with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, other effects not described by this approach might also play an important role: For offshore flow the flow regime at coastal sites is affected by the land-sea discontinuity (Højstrup, 1999). An internal boundary layer develops at the coastline and an inhomogeneous flow field might develop in the coastal zone, especially in stable stratification (see e.g. (Smedman et al. (1997)) Recent data from the measurement at Rødsand, 10 km off the Danish coast in the Baltic Sea, include simultaneous wind and wave data from a 50 m meteorological mast and an acoustic sea bed mounted wave gauge. Wind speed and turbulence intensity profiles are modelled for the Rødsand site using different approaches for stability and roughness. Results are compared with the measured data. For the sea surface roughness the use of the Charnock equation leads to good results. Improvements from using a wave field dependent roughness description are found to be small. For stability induced influences on the profiles M-O-theory works well in the case of unstable stratification. For stable stratification large deviations are found. They can be explained qualitatively as flow regimes with a mixed layer close to the surface and a capping inversion. In such a flow the atmospheric stability is strongly dependent on height and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory fails. For the Rødsand measurement this flow regime has been found to have an important influence on the wind climatology of the site. A wind speed at hub height predicted from a lower measurement with conventional theory will be underestimated. Højstrup, J.: Vertical Extrapolation of Offshore Wind Profiles. Wind energy for the next millennium. Proceedings. 1999 European wind energy conference (EWEC '99), Nice (FR), 1-5 Mar 1999. Petersen, E.L.; Hjuler Jensen, P.; Rave, K.; Helm, P.; Ehmann, H. (eds.), (1999) p. 1220-1223 Smedman, A.-S., H. Bergström and B. Grisogono: Evolution of stable internal boundary layers over a cold sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(C1), (1997); pp.1091-1099. Johnson, H.K., J. Højstrup, H.J. Vested, &S.E. Larsen: On the Dependence of Sea Surface Roughness on Wind Waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography. Vol.28 (1998) p. 1702-1716

  19. Shear-wave velocity of slope sediments near Hudson Canyon from analysis of ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. C.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Flores, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present new ambient noise data that help constrain the shear strength of marine sediments on the continental slope north of Hudson Canyon on the U.S. Atlantic margin. Sediment shear strength is a key parameter in models of potentially tsunamigenic, submarine slope failures, but shear strength is difficult to measure in situ and is expected to evolve in time with changes in pore pressure. The ambient noise data were recorded by 11 short-period, ocean-bottom seismometers and hydrophones deployed in a ~1 by 1.5 km array for ~6 months on the continental slope. These high frequency (~0.1 - 50 Hz), narrow-aperture data are expected to record noise propagating as interface waves and/or resonating in the upper ~500 m of sediment. Propagation of interface waves is controlled by the shear-wave velocity of the sediment, which we measure by calculating lag-times in cross-correlations of waveforms recorded by pairs of receivers. These measurements of shear-wave velocity will be used to constrain shear strength. The data also appear to record wind-generated noise resonating in layered sediment. We expect this resonance to also be sensitive to shear-wave velocity, and spectral analysis and modeling of harmonics may provide a second constraint on sediment shear strength. Both the correlogram- and spectral-based measurements can be made using hour- to day-long segments of data, enabling us to constrain temporal evolution of shear-wave velocity and potential forcing mechanisms (e.g., tidal and storm loading and submarine groundwater discharge) through the ~6 month deployment.

  20. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  1. Measurements in support of wind farm simulations and power forecasts: The Crop/Wind-energy Experiments (CWEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Gallus, W. A., Jr.; Sharma, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Midwest US currently is experiencing a large build-out of wind turbines in areas where the nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) is a prominent and frequently occurring feature. We describe shear characteristics of the NLLJ and their influence on wind power production. Reports of individual turbine power production and concurrent measurements of near-surface thermal stratification are used to turbine wake interactions and turbine interaction with the overlying atmosphere. Progress in forecasting conditions such as wind ramps and shear are discussed. Finally, the pressure perturbation introduced by a line of turbines produces surface flow convergence that may create a vertical velocity and hence a mesoscale influence on cloud formation by a wind farm.

  2. Extreme wind climate in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, L.; Hanslian, D.; Jiri, H.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme wind events belong to the most damaging weather-related hazards in Czech Republic. Therefore a complex survey is performed to exploit the wind data available over the period of industrial measurements in Czech Republic for extreme wind analysis. The object of the survey is to find the limitations of wind data available, to analyze the conditions for extreme wind events and to try to enhance the knowledge about the statistical behavior of extreme wind. The data quality showed itself as a major issue. The homogeneity of extreme wind data is broken in many cases as the extreme wind values are highly dependent on the measuring instrumentation and changes in neighborhood. It also may be difficult to distinguish between correct high wind data and erroneous values. The individual analysis and quality assessment of wind data used in extremal analysis is therefore essential. There are generally two basic groups of extreme wind events typical in the Czech Republic and generally over the mid-latitudes: The "convective" events (can be also called as "squalls") are primarily initiated by deep convection, whereas the primary cause for "non-convective" (synoptic) events is large-scale pressure gradient. The subject is, however, a bit more complex, as the pressure gradient inducing high wind in higher atmospheric levels or wind shear can be a significant factor in convective events; on the other hand, convection may increase wind speeds in otherwise "non-convective" synoptic-scale windstorms. In addition, there are some special phenomena that should be treated individually: the physical principle and climatological behavior (frequency, magnitude and area affected) of tornadoes make them very different from common convective straight winds; this is in lesser scale also the case of "foehn" or "bora" effects belonging to non-convective events. These effects, however, do not play major role over the Czech Republic. In Czech Republic, the overall impact of convective and non-convective extreme wind events is roughly at the same order. The convective events usually occur from April to August, whereas the non-convective events are typical for cold months from October to March. In mountainous regions, the non-convective events are most important, however, the impact of convective storms is high in lowlands, partially because of the seasonal foliage. The convective events are usually connected with squall lines or frontal waves. The non-convective events are mostly caused by strong southwest to northwest flow; a smaller specific group of these events, typical for some regions, is connected with south to southeast flow.

  3. Ring shear characteristics of waste rock materials in response to drainage and shear velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonoh; Jeong, Sueng Won; Cho, Yong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    The ring shear characteristics of Imgi waste materials collected from an abandoned mine deposit, Busan Metropolitan city, were investigated to examine the slope stability and mobility of failed masses. A series of ring shear tests were carried out to investigate the shear stress characteristics of waste materials under different drainage, consolidation and shearing speed conditions. The tests are performed at the same normal stress (16 kPa), but different drainage (drained and undrained conditions) and shearing speed (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 mm/sec) conditions. From the test results, we found that a ring shear stress is dependent on the drainage and the shearing speed conditions at the same normal stress. The materials tested typically exhibited a strain softening behavior. However, at the same shearing speed (especially for V < 10 mm/sec), the shear stress under drained condition is slightly smaller than the shear stress under undrained condition. In particular, it increases with increasing shearing speed. Grain crushing is also dependent on the drainage condition. Under drained conditions, the grain crushing has been observed in the shearing zone from the shearing surface to the bottom (i.e., ? 3.5 cm), but under undrained condition it has been observed only at the shearing surface (i.e., ? 1 cm).

  4. Magnetorheological Shear Flow Near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vgberg, Daniel; Tighe, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Flow in magnetorheological (MR) fluids and systems near jamming both display hallmarks of complex fluid rheology, including yield stresses and shear thinning viscosities. They are also tunable, which means that both phenomena can be used as a switching mechanism in ``smart'' fluids, i.e. fluids where properties can be tuned rapidly and reversibly by changing external parameters. We use numerical simulations to investigate the rheological properties of MR fluids close to the jamming transition as a function of the applied field and volume fraction. We are especially interested in the crossover region where both phenomena are needed to describe the observed dynamics. Funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  5. Conductor shears as iceberg encroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    Operators in the Arctic regions must protect wellheads from encroaching icebergs and icepack sheets. Diverting ice masses and excavating large holes below scour depth is expensive. Now an alternate approach allows the conductor to shear, shuts in the well, and provides a method of re-entering the well. The new system has been successfully used by Mobil on two exploratory wells in the Hibernia field off eastern Canada. The wells used 18 3/4-in. wellheads rated at 10,000 psi with 36-in. conductor pipe. The performance of the system is discussed.

  6. Temporal oscillations of the shear stress and scattered light in a shear-banding--shear-thickening micellar solution.

    PubMed

    Azzouzi, H; Decruppe, J P; Lerouge, S; Greffier, O

    2005-08-01

    The results of optical and rheological experiments performed on a viscoelastic solution (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + sodium salicylate in water) are reported. The flow curve has a horizontal plateau extending between two critical shear rates characteristic of heterogeneous flows formed by two layers of fluid with different viscosities. These two bands which also have different optical anisotropy are clearly seen by direct observation in polarized light. At the end of the plateau, apparent shear thickening is observed in a narrow range of shear rates; in phase oscillations of the shear stress and of the first normal stress difference are recorded in a shearing device operating under controlled strain. The direct observation of the annular gap of a Couette cell in a direction perpendicular to a plane containing the vorticity shows that the turbidity of the whole sample also undergoes time dependent variations with the same period as the shear stress. However no banding is observed during the oscillations and the flow remains homogeneous. PMID:16132153

  7. Analysis of Wind Characteristics at United States Tall Tower Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.

    2008-12-01

    A major initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure that 20% of the country's electricity is produced by wind energy by the year 2030. An understanding of the boundary layer characteristics, especially at elevated heights greater than 80 meters (m) above the surface is a key factor for wind turbine design, wind plant layout, and identifying potential markets for advanced wind technology. The wind resource group at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory is analyzing wind data collected at tall (80+ m) towers across the United States. The towers established by both public and private initiative, measure wind characteristics at multiple levels above the surface, with the highest measurement levels generally between 80 and 110 m. A few locations have measurements above 200 m. Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) directly assess and analyze specific wind resource characteristics such as wind speed shear over the turbine blade swept area. The majority of the available public tall tower measurement sites are located between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The towers are not evenly distributed among the states. The states with the largest number of towers include Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. These states have five or six towers collecting data. Other states with multiple tower locations include Texas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Ohio. The primary consideration when analyzing the data from the tall towers is identifying tower flow effects that not only can produce slightly misleading average wind speeds, but also significantly misleading wind speed shear values. In addition, the periods-of-record of most tall tower data are only one to two years in length. The short data collection time frame does not significantly affect the diurnal wind speed pattern though it does complicate analysis of seasonal wind patterns. The tall tower data analysis revealed some distinct regional features of wind shear climatology. For example, the wind shear exponent (alpha) at the towers in the Central Plains is generally between 0.15 and 0.25, greater than the commonly used 1/7 power law exponent value of 0.143. Another characteristic of Central Plains wind climatology was that winds from the south had alpha values of 0.2 to 0.3, while northerly winds had lower alpha values from 0.1 to 0.2. The wind resource at a particular tower is affected not only by the regional climatology but also by local conditions such as terrain, surface roughness, and structure of the lower boundary layer.

  8. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation, vortex shedding, and local turbulence intensity and wind shear values. To achieve accurate results, attention must of course be paid to issues such as ensuring Reynolds number independence, avoiding blockage issues, and properly matching the velocity power spectrum, but once this is done, the laws of fluid mechanics take care of the rest. There will not be an overproduction of turbulent kinetic energy at the top of escarpments, or unacceptable dissipation of inlet turbulence levels. Modern atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels are also often used to provide validation data for evaluating the performance of CFD model in complex flow environments. Present day computers have further increased the quality and quantity of data that can be economically obtained in a timely manner, for example through wind speed measurement using a computer controlled 3-D measurement positioning system Given this accuracy and widespread acceptance, it is perhaps surprising that ours was the only wind tunnel model in the Bolund blind experiment, an indication of how seldom physical modelling is used when estimating terrain effect for wind farms. In demonstrating how the Bolund test was modeled, this presentation will provide background on wind tunnel testing, including the governing scaling parameters. And we’ll see how our results compared to the full scale tests.

  9. Shear Mechanics of the TMJ Disc

    PubMed Central

    Juran, C.M.; Dolwick, M.F.; McFetridge, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex hinge and gliding joint that induces significant shear loads onto the fibrocartilage TMJ disc during jaw motion. The purpose of this study was to assess regional variation in the discs shear loading characteristics under physiologically relevant loads and to associate those mechanical findings with common clinical observations of disc fatigue and damage. Porcine TMJ discs were compressed between an axially translating bottom platen and a 2.5-cm-diameter indenter within a hydrated testing chamber. Discs were cyclically sheared at 0.5, 1, or 5 Hz to 1, 3, or 5% shear strain. Within the anterior and intermediate regions of the disc when sheared in the anteroposterior direction, both shear and compressive moduli experienced a significant decrease from instantaneous to steady state, while the posterior regions compressive modulus decreased approximately 5%, and no significant loss of shear modulus was noted. All regions retained their shear modulus within 0.5% of instantaneous values when shear was applied in the mediolateral direction. The results of the discs regional shear mechanics suggest an observable and predictable link with the common clinical observation that the posterior region of the disc is most often the zone in which fatigue occurs, which may lead to disc damage and perforation. PMID:23166043

  10. Does Shear Thickening Occur in Semisolid Metals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Helen V.; Favier, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    In the various forms of semisolid processing such as thixoforming and thixoforging, the entry into the die occurs in a fraction of a second so it is the transient rheological behavior which governs the initial stages of flow. In experiments in the literature, this rheological behavior is probed through applying rapid transitions in shear rate under isothermal conditions. There is contradictory evidence as to whether the behavior during these transitions is shear thinning or shear thickening, although it is clear that once in the die the material is thinning. Here the data in the literature are reanalyzed to obtain a rationalization of the contradictions which has not previously been available. It is argued that if a suspension is initially in a disagglomerated state ( i.e., one which is initially sheared), the instantaneous behavior with a jump-up in shear rate is shear thickening (even if the long-term steady-state behavior is shear thinning) provided the fraction solid is greater than about 0.36 and the final shear rate at the end of the jump is greater than about 100 s-1. If the jump-up in shear rate is made from rest then yield masks the shear thickening.

  11. Does Shear Thickening Occur in Semisolid Metals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Helen V.; Favier, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    In the various forms of semisolid processing such as thixoforming and thixoforging, the entry into the die occurs in a fraction of a second so it is the transient rheological behavior which governs the initial stages of flow. In experiments in the literature, this rheological behavior is probed through applying rapid transitions in shear rate under isothermal conditions. There is contradictory evidence as to whether the behavior during these transitions is shear thinning or shear thickening, although it is clear that once in the die the material is thinning. Here the data in the literature are reanalyzed to obtain a rationalization of the contradictions which has not previously been available. It is argued that if a suspension is initially in a disagglomerated state (i.e., one which is initially sheared), the instantaneous behavior with a jump-up in shear rate is shear thickening (even if the long-term steady-state behavior is shear thinning) provided the fraction solid is greater than about 0.36 and the final shear rate at the end of the jump is greater than about 100 s-1. If the jump-up in shear rate is made from rest then yield masks the shear thickening.

  12. Shear reinforcement in deep slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, Stanley C.

    1994-11-01

    A considerable amount of data is available in the literature regarding the behavior of normally proportioned slabs, those with span-to-effective-depth (L/d) ratios greater than approximately 8. However, guidance for shear design and response limits of deep slabs (L/d less than 6) used in protective construction is lacking. Thirteen one-way reinforced concrete deep slabs were statically loaded with uniform water pressure to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of deep slabs with reinforcing details typical of protective construction. The post-ultimate behavior of the slabs indicated that a substantial amount of reserve capacity is available in deep slabs with large quantities of principal reinforcement. Based on this series, the recommended response limit for deep slabs having a principal steel ratio near 0.01 and adequate shear reinforcement is approximately 12 deg. For deep slabs with relatively small quantities of principal steel, the response should probably be limited to approximately 8 deg for design purposes.

  13. Shear-Induced Reactive Gelation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav

    2015-11-24

    In this work, we describe a method for the production of porous polymer materials in the form of particles characterized by narrow pore size distribution using the principle of shear-induced reactive gelation. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) primary particles with diameter ranging from 80 to 200 nm are used as building blocks, which are assembled into fractal-like clusters when exposed to high shear rates generated in a microchannel. It was found that independent of the primary particle size, it is possible to modulate the internal structure of formed fractal-like aggregates having fractal dimension ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 by varying the residence time in the microchannel. Thermally induced postpolymerization was used to increase the mechanical resilience of such formed clusters. Primary particle interpenetration was observed by SEM and confirmed by light scattering resulting in an increase of fractal dimension. Nitrogen sorption measurements and mercury porosimetry confirmed formation of a porous material with surface area ranging from 20 to 40 m(2)/g characterized by porosity of 70% and narrow pore size distribution with an average diameter around 700 nm without the presence of any micropores. The strong perfusive character of the synthesized material was confirmed by the existence of a plateau of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate measured at high reduced velocities using a chromatographic column packed with the synthesized microclusters. PMID:26488233

  14. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  15. Optical Beam-Shear Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan; Szwaykowski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    A technique for measuring optical beam shear is based on collecting light from the four quadrants of the beam and comparing the optical power collected from each quadrant with that from the other three quadrants. As used here, "shear" signifies lateral displacement of a beam of light from a nominal optical axis. A sensor for implementing this technique consists of a modified focusing lens and a quad-cell photodetector, both centered on the nominal optical axis. The modification of the lens consists in cutting the lens into four sectors (corresponding to the four quadrants) by sawing along two orthogonal diameters, then reassembling the lens following either of two approaches described next. In one approach, the lens is reassembled by gluing the sectors back together. In the simplest variant of this approach, the kerf of the saw matches the spacing of the photodetector cells, so that the focus of each sector crosses the axis of symmetry to fall on the opposite photodetector cell (see figure). In another variant of this approach, the lens sectors are spaced apart to make their individual foci to fall on separate photodetector cells, without crossing the optical axis. In the case of a sufficiently wide beam, the modified lens could be replaced with four independent lenses placed in a square array, each focusing onto an independent photodetector

  16. Shear Banding in Mesoscopic Dusty Plasma Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Woon, Wei-Yen; I, Lin

    2004-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate shear banding and construct a microscopic dynamic picture of a sheared 2D mesoscopic dust Coulomb liquid at the kinetic level. Under the topological constraints from the discreteness and finite boundary, the nonlinear threshold-type response of motion to the local stress induced by thermal and external drives leads to shear thinning and the enhanced avalanche-type local topological transitions with stress relaxation in the form of clusters. It causes the formation of the outer shear bands in which the mean shear rate, the velocity fluctuations, and the structural rearrangement rate are all enhanced, and leaves a weakly perturbed center band. The typical size of the cooperative hopping vortex (about three interparticle distance) sets up a common length scale for the widths of the confinement induced layering and the shear band.

  17. The limited growth of vegetated shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisalberti, M.; Nepf, H. M.

    2004-07-01

    In contrast to free shear layers, which grow continuously downstream, shear layers generated by submerged vegetation grow only to a finite thickness. Because these shear layers are characterized by coherent vortex structures and rapid vertical mixing, their thickness controls exchange between the vegetation and the overlying water. Experiments conducted in a laboratory flume show that the growth of these obstructed shear layers is arrested once the production of shear-layer-scale turbulent kinetic energy (SKE) is balanced by dissipation of SKE within the canopy. This equilibrium condition, along with a mixing length closure scheme, was used in a one-dimensional numerical model to predict the mean velocity profiles of the experimental shear layers. The agreement between model and experiment is very good, but field application of the model is limited by a lack of description of the drag coefficient in a submerged canopy.

  18. Shear jamming for highly strained granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bares, Jonathan; Berhinger, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Bi et al. (Nature 2011) have shown that, if sheared, a granular material can jam even if its packing fraction (?) is lower than the critical isotropic jamming point ?J. They have introduced a new critical packing fraction value ?S such that for ?S < ? sheared. Nevertheless, the value of ?S as a function of the shear profile or the strain necessary to observe jamming remain poorly understood because of the experimental complexity to access high strain without shear band. We present a novel 2D periodic shear apparatus made of 21 independent, aligned and mirrored glass rings. Each of ring can be moved independently which permits us to impose any desired shear profile. The circular geometry allows access to any strain value. The forces between grains are measured using reflective photoelasticity. This talk will present this novel apparatus and discuss inital results.

  19. Coronal magnetic fields produced by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Yang, W.-H.

    1987-01-01

    The magneto-frictional method is used for computing force free fields to examine the evolution of the magnetic field of a line dipole, when there is relative shearing motion between the two polarities. It found that the energy of the sheared field can be arbitrarily large compared with the potential field. It is also found that it is possible to fit the magnetic energy, as a function of shear, by a simple functional form.

  20. Effects of incoming wind condition and wind turbine aerodynamics on the hub vortex instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, R.; Viola, F.; Gallaire, F.; Iungo, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics and instabilities occurring in the near-wake of wind turbines have a crucial role for the wake downstream evolution, and for the onset of far-wake instabilities. Furthermore, wake dynamics significantly affect the intra-wind farm wake flow, wake interactions and potential power losses. Therefore, the physical understanding and predictability of wind turbine wake instabilities become a nodal point for prediction of wind power harvesting and optimization of wind farm layout. This study is focused on the prediction of the hub vortex instability encountered within wind turbine wakes under different operational conditions of the wind turbine. Linear stability analysis of the wake flow is performed by means of a novel approach that enables to take effects of turbulence on wake instabilities into account. Stability analysis is performed by using as base flow the time-averaged wake velocity field at a specific downstream location. The latter is modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex and helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disc model. The results show that hub vortex instability is promoted by increasing the turbine thrust coefficient. Indeed, a larger aerodynamic load produces an enhanced wake velocity deficit and axial shear, which are considered the main sources for the wake instability. Nonetheless, wake swirl also promotes hub vortex instability, and it can also affect the azimuthal wavenumber of the most unstable mode.

  1. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta...

  2. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-05-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  3. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  4. Arch generated shear bands in granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordignon, A. L.; Sigaud, L.; Tavares, G.; Lopes, H.; Lewiner, T.; Morgado, W. A. M.

    2009-06-01

    We propose an arch based model, on cubic and square lattices, to simulate the internal mobility of grains, in a dense granular system under shear. In this model, the role of the arches in granular transport presents a non-linear dependence on the local values of the stress components that can be modeled geometrically. This non-linearity is very important since a linear dependence on the stress will make the models behave similarly to viscous fluids, which will not reproduce highly interesting properties of the sheared systems such as shear bands. In particular, we study a modified Couette flow and find the appearance of shear bands in accordance with the literature.

  5. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R. ); Hashimoto, P.S. ); Reed, J.W. and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA )

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs.

  6. Novel shear mechanism in nanolayered composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Nathan; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti; Hirth, John P; Dickerson, Patricia O; Misra, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that two-phase nanocomposite materials with semicoherent interfaces exhibit enhanced strength, deformability, and radiation damage resistance. The remarkable behavior exhibited by these materials has been attributed to the atomistic structure of the bi-metal interface that results in interfaces with low shear strength and hence, strong barriers for slip transmission due to dislocation core spreading along the weak interfaces. In this work, the low interfacial shear strength of Cu/Nb nanoscale multilayers dictates a new mechanism for shear banding and strain softening during micropillar compression. Previous work investigating shear band formation in nanocrystalline materials has shown a connection between insufficient strain hardening and the onset of shear banding in Fe and Fe-10% Cu, but has also shown that hardening does not necessarily offset shear banding in Pd nanomaterials. Therefore, the mechanisms behind shear localization in nanocrystalline materials are not completely understood. Our findings, supported by molecular dynamics simulations, provide insight on the design of nanocomposites with tailored interface structures and geometry to obtain a combination of high strength and deformability. High strength is derived from the ability of the interfaces to trap dislocations through relative ease of interfacial shear, while deformability can be maximized by controlling the effects of loading geometry on shear band formation.

  7. Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Cerreta, Ellen K; Bingert, John F; Trujillo, Carl P; Lopez, Mike F; Gray, George T

    2009-01-01

    The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.

  8. Analysis of turbulence structures in shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Moon J.

    1989-01-01

    Outline of the research program and a recent progress in the studies of sheared turbulence are described. The research program reported is directed at two goals: (1) understanding of fundamental physics of organized structures in turbulent shear flows; and (2) development of phenomenological models of turbulence based on physical arguments. Three projects that were carried out are: (1) structure of sheared turbulence near a plane boundary; (2) distortion of turbulence by axisymmetric strain and dilation; and (3) study of energy transfer in turbulent shear flow.

  9. Cyclic shearing deformation behavior of saturated clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianfeng; Luan, Maotian; Feng, Xiuli; Ma, Tailei; Nie, Ying

    2007-10-01

    The apparatus for static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear soil testing is employed to perform stress-controlled cyclic single-direction torsional shear tests and two-direction coupled shear tests under unconsolidated-undrained conditions. Through a series of tests on saturated clay, the effects of initial shear stress and stress reversal on the clays strain-stress behavior are examined, and the behavior of pore water pressure is studied. The experimental results indicate that the patterns of stress-strain relations are distinctly influenced by the initial shear stress in the cyclic single-direction shear tests. When the initial shear stress is large and no stress reversal occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by an accumulative effect. When the initial shear stress is zero and symmetrical cyclic stress occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by a cyclic effect. The pore water pressure fluctuates around the confining pressure with the increase of cycle number. It seems that the fluctuating amplitude increases with the increase of the cyclic stress. But a buildup of pore water pressure does not occur. The deformations of clay samples under the complex initial and the cyclic coupled stress conditions include the normal deviatoric deformation and horizontal shear deformation, the average deformation and cyclic deformation. A general strain failure criterion taking into account these deformations is recommended and is proved more stable and suitable compared to the strain failure criteria currently used.

  10. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, Neville; Long, Eric; Sarkisian, Mark; Huang Zhihui

    2008-07-08

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research.

  11. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Neville; Sarkisian, Mark; Long, Eric; Huang, Zhihui

    2008-07-01

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research.

  12. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  13. WAKE OF A BLOCK VEHICLE IN A SHEAR-FREE BOUNDARY FLOW: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wake of a moving vehicle was simulated using a specially-constructed wind tunnel with a moving floor. A 'block-shaped' model vehicle was fixed in position over the test-section floor while the floor moved at the freestream air speed to produce a uniform, shear-free, approach ...

  14. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE WAKE OF A BLOCK-SHAPED VEHICLE IN A SHEAR-FREE BOUNDARY FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wake of a moving vehicle was simulated using a specially-constructed wind tunnel with a moving floor. A 'block-shaped' model vehicle was fixed in position over the test-section floor while the floor moved at the freestream air speed to produce a uniform, shear-free, approach ...

  15. Upwelling of Arctic pycnocline associated with shear motion of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, M. G.; Kwok, R.; Robins, R.; Coon, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution radar imagery shows that the dynamic response of winter sea ice to gradients in large-scale surface wind stress is often localized along quasi-linear fractures hundreds of kilometers long. Relative shearing motion across these narrow fractures can exceed 10 cm/s. In one event recorded during the drift of the SHEBA ice camp, we observed an intense zone of pycnocline upwelling (approx.14 m) associated with significant shear motion near the camp, while upward turbulent heat flux in the ocean boundary layer reached nearly 400 W/sq m, an order of magnitude greater than at any other time during the year-long drift. We attribute the upwelling to Ekman pumping associated with concentrated ice shear. Over the entire Arctic Ocean sea ice cover, this process could be responsible for significant heat exchange between the cold surface layer and warmer subsurface water at the ubiquitous fractures resulting from large-scale atmosphere-ice interactions.

  16. Aeolian Shear Stress Ratio Measurements within Mesquite-Dominated Landscapes of the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James; Nickling, W. G.; Gilliles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted to ascertain the amount of protection that mesquite-dominated communities provide to the surface from wind erosion. The dynamics of the locally accelerated evolution of a mesquite/coppice dune landscape and the undetermined spatial dependence of potential erosion by wind from a shear stress partition model were investigated. Sediment transport and dust emission processes are governed by the amount of protection that can be provided by roughness elements. Although shear stress partition models exist that can describe this, their accuracy has only been tested against a limited dataset because instrumentation has previously been unable to provide the necessary measurements. This study combines the use of meteorological towers and surface shear stress measurements with Irwin sensors to measure the partition of shear stress in situ. The surface shear stress within preferentially aligned vegetation (within coppice dune development) exhibited highly skewed distributions, while a more homogenous surface stress was recorded at a site with less developed coppice dunes. Above the vegetation, the logarithmic velocity profile deduced roughness length (based on 10-min averages) exhibited a distinct correlation with compass direction for the site with vegetation preferentially aligned, while the site with more homogenously distributed vegetation showed very little variation in the roughness length. This distribution in roughness length within an area, defines a distribution of a resolved shear stress partitioning model based on these measurements, ultimately providing potential closure to a previously uncorrelated model parameter.

  17. Shears bands in Pb isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldsiefen, G.; Chmel, S.; Hubel, H.

    1995-04-01

    High-spin states of {sup 197-202}Pb were populated by using several different reactions at the VICKSI accelerator of the HMI Berlin. Gamma-ray coincidences, were measured with the OSIRIS spectrometer consisting of 12 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and a multiplicity filter of 48 BGO detectors. Sixteen regular sequences of enhanced magnetic dipole transitions, with weak E2 crossovers in some cases, have been found. Six of them have been connected to the previously known spherical level scheme at lower spin. They are built on oblate proton 2p-2h states that are coupled to neutron-hole excitations. Tilted-axis cranking calculations show that the angular momentum along with the bands is predominantly generated by the shears effect, a continuous and simultaneous reorientation of the proton and neutron spins into the direction of the total angular momentum.

  18. Quadruple Lap Shear Processing Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Tony N.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Thiokol, Science and Engineering Huntsville Operations (SEHO) Laboratory has previously experienced significant levels of variation in testing Quadruple Lap Shear (QLS) specimens. The QLS test is used at Thiokol / Utah for the qualification of Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle flex bearing materials. A test was conducted to verify that process changes instituted by SEHO personnel effectively reduced variability, even with normal processing variables introduced. A test matrix was designed to progress in a series of steps; the first establishing a baseline, then introducing additional solvents or other variables. Variables included normal test plan delay times, pre-bond solvent hand-wipes and contaminants. Each condition tested utilized standard QLS hardware bonded with natural rubber, two separate technicians and three replicates. This paper will report the results and conclusions of this investigation.

  19. Tuning graphene properties by shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Cheng, Shengfeng; Covaci, Lucian; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-03-01

    Graphene being the thinnest possible membrane made out of carbon atoms is prone to deformations under slight external forcing. Here, we take advantage of this proneness to deformations to manipulate transport properties of graphene ribbons. We analyze the effect on conductance and LDOS of the spontaneous pattern produced when a wide ribbon is subject to shear. The deformation of the ribbon produces pseudo-magnetic fields, scalar potentials, and Fermi velocity renormalization resulting in the modification of transmission properties without the need of an external gate potential. Our proposal paves the way for producing electronic waveguides by using an elastic instability that spans from the nano to macro-scales. AC was partially supported by Conicyt PAI 79112004 and Fondecyt iniciacion 11130075. LC acknowledges individual support from FWO-Vlaanderen.

  20. Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.

    2008-10-15

    The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.

  1. Time and flow-direction responses of shear-styress-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Muraqtore, J. J.; Heinick, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Time and flow-direction responses of shear-stress liquid crystal coatings were exploresd experimentally. For the time-response experiments, coatings were exposed to transient, compressible flows created during the startup and off-design operation of an injector-driven supersonic wind tunnel. Flow transients were visualized with a focusing schlieren system and recorded with a 100 frame/s color video camera.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Surface Shear-Stress Variability in Live Plant Canopies and Cube Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Leonard, Katherine C.; Manes, Costantino; Lehning, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This study presents spatiotemporally-resolved measurements of surface shear-stress τ s in live plant canopies and rigid wooden cube arrays to identify the sheltering capability against sediment erosion of these different roughness elements. Live plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations mainly used in other wind-tunnel studies. Mean velocity and kinematic Reynolds stress profiles show that well-developed natural boundary layers were generated above the 8 m long wind-tunnel test section covered with the roughness elements at four different roughness densities ( λ = 0, 0.017, 0.08, 0.18). Speed-up around the cubes caused higher peak surface shear stress than in experiments with plants at all roughness densities, demonstrating the more effective sheltering ability of the plants. The sheltered areas in the lee of the plants are significantly narrower with higher surface shear stress than those found in the lee of the cubes, and are dependent on the wind speed due to the plants ability to streamline with the flow. This streamlining behaviour results in a decreasing sheltering effect at increasing wind speeds and in lower net turbulence production than in experiments with cubes. Turbulence intensity distributions suggest a suppression of horseshoe vortices in the plant case. Comparison of the surface shear-stress measurements with sediment erosion patterns shows that the fraction of time a threshold skin friction velocity is exceeded can be used to assess erosion of, and deposition on, that surface.

  3. A Fiber Optic Sensor Sensitive To Normal Pressure And Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Frank W.; Kidwell, Robert S.; Hu, Andong

    1986-11-01

    A fiber optic lever sensing technique that can be used to measure normal pressure as well as shear stresses is discussed. This method uses three unequal fibers combining small size and good sensitivity. Static measurements appear to confirm the theoretical models predicted by geometrical optics and dynamic tests performed at frequencies up to 10 kHz indicate a flat response within this frequency range. These sensors are intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment.

  4. Magnetofluid Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2008-01-01

    The solar wind shows striking characteristics that suggest that it is a turbulent magnetofluid, but the picture is not altogether simple. From the earliest observations, a strong correlation between magnetic fluctuations and plasma velocity fluctuations was noted. The high corrections suggest that the fluctuations are Alfven waves. In addition, the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuation showed evidence of an inertial range that resembled that seen in fully-developed fluid turbulence. Alfven waves, however, are exact solutions of the equations of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Thus, there was a puzzle: how can a magnetofluid consisting of Alfven waves be turbulent? The answer lay in the role of velocity shears in the solar wind that could drive turbulent evolution. Puzzles remain: for example, the power spectrum of the velocity fluctuations is less steep than the slope of the magnetic fluctuations, nor do we understand even now why the solar wind appears to be nearly incompressible with a -5/3 power-spectral index.

  5. Could Crop Height Impact the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture-intensive United States Midwest and Great Plains regions feature some of the best wind resources in the nation. Collocation of cropland and wind turbines introduces complex meteorological interactions that could affect both agriculture and wind power production. Crop management practices may modify the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. In this study, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. We parameterized a hypothetical array of 121 1.8 MW turbines at the site of the 2011 Crop/Wind-energy Experiment field campaign using the WRF wind farm parameterization. We estimated the impact of crop choices on power production by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 10 cm and 25 cm represent a mature soy crop and a mature corn crop respectively. Results suggest that the presence of the mature corn crop reduces hub-height wind speeds and increases rotor-layer wind shear, even in the presence of a large wind farm which itself modifies the flow. During the night, the influence of the surface was dependent on the boundary layer stability, with strong stability inhibiting the surface drag from modifying the wind resource aloft. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop management practices.

  6. Development of a MEMS dual-axis differential capacitance floating element shear stress sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Casey; Griffin, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A single-axis MEMS wall shear stress sensor with differential capacitive transduction method is produced. Using a synchronous modulation and demodulation interface circuit, the system is capable of making real time measurements of both mean and fluctuating wall shear stress. A sensitivity of 3.44 mV/Pa is achieved, with linearity in response demonstrated up to testing limit of 2 Pa. Minimum detectable signals of 340 μPa at 100 Hz and 120 μPa at 1 kHz are indicated, with a resonance of 3.5 kHz. Multiple full scale wind tunnel tests are performed, producing spectral measurements of turbulent boundary layers in wind speeds ranging up to 0.5 Ma (18 Pa of mean wall shear stress). The compact packaging allows for minimally invasive installation, and has proven relatively robust over multiple testing events. Temperature sensitivity, likely due to poor CTE matching of packaged materials, is an ongoing concern being addressed. These successes are being directly leveraged into a development plan for a dual-axis wall shear stress sensor, capable of producing true vector estimates at the wall.

  7. Internal gravity-shear waves in the atmospheric boundary layer from acoustic remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulyukin, V. S.; Kallistratova, M. A.; Kouznetsov, R. D.; Kuznetsov, D. D.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Chirokova, G. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The year-round continuous remote sounding of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by means of the Doppler acoustic radar (sodar) LATAN-3 has been performed at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2008. A visual analysis of sodar echograms for four years revealed a large number of wavelike patterns in the intensity field of a scattered sound signal. Similar patterns were occasionally identified before in sodar, radar, and lidar sounding data. These patterns in the form of quasi-periodic inclined stripes, or cat's eyes, arise under stable stratification and significant vertical wind shears and result from the loss of the dynamic stability of the flow. In the foreign literature, these patterns, which we call internal gravity-shear waves, are often associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. In the present paper, sodar echograms are classified according to the presence or absence of wavelike patterns, and a statistical analysis of the frequency of their occurrence by the year and season was performed. A relationship between the occurrence of the patterns and wind shear and between the wave length and amplitude was investigated. The criteria for the identification of gravity-shear waves, meteorological conditions of their excitation, and issues related to their observations were discussed.

  8. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  9. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Overview of 6- X 6-foot wind tunnel aero-optics tests. [transonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The splitter-plate arrangement used in tests in the 6 x 6 foot wind tunnel and how it was configured to study boundary layers, both heated and unheated, shear layers over a cavity, separated flows behind spoilers, accelerated flows around a turret, and a turret wake are described. The flows are characterized by examples of the steady-state pressure and of velocity profiles through the various types of flow layers.

  11. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  12. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  13. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a

  14. Low shear viscosity due to Anderson localization

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Ren Haicang; Li Jiarong

    2008-01-15

    We study the Anderson localization effect on the shear viscosity in a system with random medium by Kubo formula. We show that this effect can suppress nonperturbatively the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients. The possible relevancy of such a suppression to the near perfect fluid behavior of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  15. Nonlinear shear viscosity and long time tails

    PubMed Central

    Zwanzig, R.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical connection between nonlinear shear viscosity and the long time tail of the equilibrium stress-stress correlation function is pointed out. The connection is a consequence of the Goddard-Miller rheological equation of state which takes into account the angular rotation of a fluid in steady uniform shear. PMID:16593025

  16. Shear buckling of square perforated plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosskurth, J. F., Jr.; White, R. N.; Gallagher, R. H.; Thomas, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of thin square perforated plates under the action of uniform shear deformation is studied experimentally and analytically using finite element analysis. Elastic Shear buckling strength is established as a function of the diameter of a round, centrally located hole in the plate. Post buckling behavior and the behavior of perforated plates with various ring stiffeners are also studied experimentally.

  17. Effect of Friction on Shear Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient ? ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ? between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We put the Teflon-wrapped photoelastic disks, lowering the friction substantially from previous experiments, in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al. PRL (2013)), which provides a uniform simple shear. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ?J -?S is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger anisotropies in fragile states compared to experiments with higher friction particles at the same density. In ongoing work we are studying systems using photoelastic disks with fine gears on the edge to generate very large effective friction. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NSF Grant DMS-1248071, NASA Grant NNX10AU01G and William M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  19. Method and apparatus for shear wave logging

    SciTech Connect

    Benzing, W. M.; Cadle, L. C.; Patterson, W.

    1985-09-17

    Apparatus for shear wave logging of formations adjacent a borehole wherein a tubular apparatus is specifically constructed for sympathetic movement with the borehole in response to low frequency horizontal shear waves. The apparatus consists of tubular frame structure with end members including housings for rigid seating of orthogonal pairs of horizontal wave detectors. Outer sleeve structure may be utilized for buoyancy adjustment.

  20. Colloidal Plastic Crystals in a Shear Field.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fangfang; Heptner, Nils; Lu, Yan; Siebenbrger, Miriam; Lindner, Peter; Dzubiella, Joachim; Ballauff, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We study the structure and viscoelastic behavior of 3D plastic crystals of colloidal dumbbells in an oscillatory shear field based on a combination of small-angle neutron scattering experiments under shear (rheo-SANS) and Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Sterically stabilized dumbbell-shaped microgels are used as hard dumbbell model systems which consist of dumbbell-shaped polystyrene (PS) cores and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shells. Under increasing shear strain, a discontinuous transition is found from a twinned-fcc-like crystal to a partially oriented sliding-layer phase with a shear-molten state in between. In the novel partially oriented sliding-layer phase, the hard dumbbells exhibit a small but finite orientational order in the shear direction. We find that this weak correlation is sufficient to perturb the nature of the nonequilibrium phase transition as known for hard sphere systems. The discontinuous transition for hard dumbbells is observed to be accompanied by a novel yielding process with two yielding events in its viscoelastic shear response, while only a single yielding event is observed for sheared hard spheres. Our findings will be useful in interpreting the shear response of anisotropic colloidal systems and in generating novel colloidal crystals from anisotropic systems with applications in colloidal photonics. PMID:25635343

  1. Direct measurement of piezoelectric shear coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials exhibit electromechanical coupling which has led to their widespread application for sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. These materials possess anisotropic behavior with the shear coefficient, and have the largest electromechanical coupling coefficient. However, the shear mode is difficult to measure with existing techniques and thus has not been fully capitalized upon in recent devices. Better understanding of the full shear response with respect to the driving electric field would significantly help the design of optimized piezoelectric shear devices. Here, a simple and low cost direct measurement method based on digital image correlation is developed to characterize the shear response of piezoelectric materials and its nonlinear behavior as a function of external field. The piezoelectric shear coefficient (d15) of a commercial shear plate actuator is investigated in both bipolar and unipolar electric fields. Two different nonlinearities and hysteresis behaviors of the actuators were observed, and the relation between the driving field amplitude and the corresponding d15 coefficient is determined. Moreover, the measured transverse displacement of the plate actuator in simple shear condition is validated through a laser interferometry technique.

  2. Dynamic wetting of shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seevaratnam, G. K.; Suo, Y.; Ram, E.; Walker, L. M.; Garoff, S.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of non-Newtonian behavior on dynamic wetting is critical since many fluids exhibit such behavior somewhere in the high-shear environment inherent in the wedge flow near a moving contact line. This impact will be different for two broad categories of non-Newtonian behavior, shear thinning, and elasticity. In this paper, we discuss the steady-state wetting of a fluid, aqueous solutions of xanthan gum, dominated by shear thinning but with negligible elasticity. In the shear thinning fluid, viscous bending near the contact line is greatly reduced compared to a Newtonian fluid having the same zero-shear viscosity. Concomitant with this reduction in viscous bending, the effective dynamic contact angle has a much weaker dependence on capillary number, Ca, than is observed in, or predicted for, Newtonian fluids. A simple lubrication model using a constitutive relation with power-law shear thinning at high shear rates and a Newtonian plateau at low shear rates mimics the trends seen in our data and elucidates the origins of the reduced viscous bending.

  3. Shear alters motility of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 μm. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  4. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of overturning moments and any normal forces that might act on the steel shear wall.

  5. Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation

    SciTech Connect

    T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim

    2002-07-29

    We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.

  6. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  7. Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

  8. WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, S.

    2010-11-10

    Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

  9. Determining Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    A "simplified shear solution" method approximates the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on an extension of laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather, it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply-level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply-by-ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. The method has been incorporated within the HyperSizer commercial structural sizing software to improve its predictive capability for designing composite structures. The HyperSizer structural sizing software is used extensively by NASA to design composite structures. In the case of through-thickness shear loading on panels, HyperSizer previously included a basic, industry-standard, method for approximating the resulting shear stress distribution in sandwich panels. However, no such method was employed for solid laminate panels. The purpose of the innovation is to provide an approximation of the through-thickness shear stresses in a solid laminate given the through-thickness shear loads (Qx and Qy) on the panel. The method was needed for implementation within the HyperSizer structural sizing software so that the approximated ply-level shear stresses could be utilized in a failure theory to assess the adequacy of a panel design. The simplified shear solution method was developed based on extending and generalizing bi-material beam theory to plate-like structures. It is assumed that the through-thickness shear stresses arise due to local bending of the laminate induced by the through-thickness shear load, and by imposing equilibrium both vertically and horizontally, the through-thickness shear stress distribution can be calculated. The resulting shear stresses integrate to the applied shear load, are continuous at the ply interfaces, and are zero at the laminate-free surfaces. If both Qx and Qy shear loads are present, it is assumed that they act independently and that their effects can be superposed. The calculated shear stresses can be rotated within each ply to the principal material coordinates for use in a ply-level failure criterion. The novelty of the simplified shear solution method is its simplicity and the fact that it does not require solution of a particular boundary value problem. The advantages of the innovation are that an approximation of the though-thickness shear stress distribution can be quickly determined for any solid laminate or solid laminate region within a stiffened panel.

  10. Elysium Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03283 Elysium Winds

    The multiple trends of yardangs in this image indicate that the winds in the Elysium region have changed direction several times.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.6N, Longitude 151.2E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Non Steady State Granular Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Kwon, Gene

    2002-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the shear flow of granular matter in a cylindrical Couette cell. Since granular flows dissipate energy, they must be continuously driven to remain in a flowing state. Previous experiments on steady state shear flows have found that velocity gradients are confined to a thin shear band, and that the shear force is roughly independent of shear rate if the material is allowed to dilate. Our experiments in a Couette geometry focus on two related questions about non-steady state flows: 1) How does a granular shear flow start? 2) How does a granular system respond to oscillatory shear? In particular, we investigate the role of boundary conditions, which we expect to be of particular importance, since granular flows must be continuously driven (in general from a boundary) in order to be sustained. In our Couette cell a shear flow is generated by moving either the inner cylinder or the outer cylinder or both cylinders. The motion of grains on the top surface is measured directly with fast imaging and particle tracking techniques. Previous studies have indicated that the velocity profile on the top surface is very similar to the velocity profile within the bulk. Measurements of the corresponding shear forces are in progress. Initial experiments determined the steady state flow profiles under different driving conditions, with either inner, outer or both cylinders moving. In steady state, velocity gradients are confined to a roughly exponential shearband several particle diameters wide. The shear band is always located at the inner cylinder. A probable reason for this observation is the slightly smaller surface area of the inner cylinder compared to the outer cylinder. Since shear forces are transmitted from one cylinder to the other, the smaller surface area of the inner cylinder leads to larger shear stresses. Shear flow confined to regions of high stress can be reproduced in continuum mechanics models which include plastic flow, non-Newtonian fluid models, or locally Newtonian hydrodynamic models that include a strong density dependence of viscosity. Most of these models are isotropic with respect to the shear direction. However, anisotropies manifest themselves in two distinct flow transients, when rotation of one of the cylinders is started. When the cylinder had been rotated in the same direction before, the thin shear band immediately forms. When the previous motion of the cylinder had been in the opposite direction, particles far from the moving cylinder are initially more mobile. After an extra displacement of up to six particle diameters, a thin shearband forms again in steady state. The extra displacement of particles far from the shear surface does not strongly depend on the shear rate prior or after the stop, solely on the direction of prior shear. This indicates that the static configuration of grains after a shear flow exhibits anisotropies. The flow transient, at least, can then no longer be modeled with the isotropic form of the models described above. Finally, we investigate oscillatory shear flow. During small amplitude oscillations the shear flow is confined to a thin shear band. In addition, a gradual compaction and strengthening of the granular material is observed. For sufficiently large oscillation amplitudes, the flow resembles a sequence of shear reversals. In oscillatory flows driven by the outer cylinder, coexistence of shearbands at the outer and inner cylinder can be found. In summary, we have elucidated important properties of granular shear flows from non-steady state flow measurements: First, shear bands form preferentially near the inner cylinder, even when the outer cylinder is sheared. Transiently a shear band can also form near the outer cylinder during oscillatory driving. These observations should help refine models of granular shear flow. One challenge in improving models of granular shear flow is the observation that the initial flow transient contains 'memory' of the direction of previously applied shear. In order to incorporate this observation into flow models, the nature of the anisotropy requires further study. Currently we are investigating the three dimensional configuration of grains during the start of shear flow using confocal microscopy.

  12. A study of some effects of vertical shear on thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of vortices and vortex pairs in thunderstorms. A preliminary parameterized model of the nonthermal generation of thunderstorm vortices derived from field observations of storms and laboratory observations of a jet in crossflow is reported, together with an explanation of how such a model might be used to guide analysis of mesoscale rawinsonde, radar, and satellite data toward an improved capability for prediction of thunderstorm motion and growth. Preliminary analyses of radar and satellite data from Atmospheric Variability Experiment IV are used with available rawinsonde data to develop a correlation between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development. Specific studies are recommended for best development of concepts and utilization of data from Atmospheric Variability and Atmospheric Variability Severe Storms Experiments.

  13. Parameterization of Wind Farms in a Mesoscale NWP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, A. C.; Olson, J. B.; Lundquist, J. K.; Dudhia, J.; Gupta, A. K.; Michalakes, J.; Barstad, I.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and wind turbines has become an important issue with wind energy the fastest growing renewable energy resource worldwide, with increasingly large wind farms in development. The development of a new wind farm parameterization for the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model WRF provides a tool to improve understanding of the interaction between wind farms and the boundary layer. Wind turbines are represented as a sink of momentum and source of turbulence (turbulent kinetic energy) at model levels containing turbine blades. The parameterization can represent a wide range of turbines based on hub height, blade diameter, nominal power and cut-in/cut-out speeds. Results are presented for a series of idealized experiments which investigate the impact of large wind farms on the boundary layer. For an idealized offshore wind farm covering 10x10 km, the wind speed deficit was found to extend throughout the depth of the neutral boundary layer. Downstream, the wake was found to decay with an e-folding length scale of 60 km. However, the turbulent kinetic energy generated within the farm was found to decay much more quickly downstream due to high dissipation within the farm. Above the farm to the top of the boundary layer, the turbulent kinetic energy was increased due to vertical transport and shear production caused by the momentum deficit within the farm. The turbulent kinetic energy was also increased near the surface below the turbines, causing an increase in the wind.

  14. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  15. Surface Shear Stress Around a Single Flexible Live Plant and a Rigid Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B. A.; Gromke, C.; Leonard, K. C.; Clifton, A.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    The sheltering effect of vegetation against soil erosion and snow transport has direct implications on land degradation and local water storage as snow in many arid and semi arid regions. Plants influence the erosion, transport and redeposition of soil and snow by the wind through momentum absorption, local stress concentration, trapping particles in motion and reducing the area of sediment exposed to the wind. The shear stress distributions on the ground beneath plant canopies determine the onset and magnitude of differential soil and snow erosion on rough or vegetated surfaces, but this has been studied exclusively with artificial and rigid vegetation elements thus far. Real plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous. They align with the flow at higher wind speeds, resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations of comparable size. We present measurements in the SLF atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of the surface shear stress distribution around a live grass plant (Lolium Perenne) and a solid cylinder of comparable size. Irwin sensors are used to measure pressure differences close to the surface which can be calibrated with surface shear stress velocities. The basal to frontal area index of the plant and the cylinder as well as the Reynolds number of the two experimental setups have been checked for similarity and show good agreement. Distinctive differences between the shear stress pattern around the plant and the cylinder can be attributed to the influence of the plants porosity and flexibility. The sheltered zone behind the plant is narrower in cross-stream and longer in streamwise direction than that of the cylinder. For the plant, the lowest shear stresses in the sheltered zone are 50% lower than the mean surface shear stress (? = 0.15 N/m2) in the undisturbed flow. The sheltering was higher behind the cylinder with values reduced by 70% relative to background. Speed-up zones on both sides of the roughness elements experienced peak shear stress values 60% above background for the plant and almost 130% higher for the cylinder. While the integral sheltering effect of the plant is smaller in size and magnitude than that of the cylinder, the peak shear stresses in the lateral speed up zones are significantly lower. Since the onset of soil erosion occurs when a critical threshold shear stress is experienced, the lower peak shear stress means that plants provide better protection against soil erosion than rigid elements. This result suggests that parameterizations of flow over vegetated surfaces based on measurements of rigid elements may be incorrect. Further work will investigate sheltering and shear stress concentrations as a function of cylinder / plant density using real canopies instead of single objects.

  16. Non-linear dynamic response of a wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, I.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the nonlinear dynamic analysis of an isolated three-degree flap-lag-feather wind turbine blade under a gravity field and with shear flow. Lagrangian equations are used to derive the nonlinear equations of motion of blade for arbitrarily large angular deflections. The limit cycle analysis for forced oscillations and the determination of the principal parametric resonance of the blade due to periodic forces from the gravity field and wind shear are performed using the harmonic balance method. Results are obtained first for a two-degree flap-lag blade, then the effect of the third degree of freedom (feather) is studied. The self-excited flutter solutions are obtained for a uniform wind and with gravity forces neglected. The effects of several parameters on the blade stability are examined, including coning angle, structural damping, Lock number, and feather frequency. The limit cycle flutter solution of a typical configuration shows a substantial nonlinear softening spring behavior.

  17. Structure of the Highly Sheared Tropical Storm Chantal During CAMEX-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Ritchie, E.; Simpson, Joanne; Molinari, J.; Tian, L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 4th Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) focused on Atlantic hurricanes during the 2001 hurricane season and it involved both NASA and NOAA participation. The NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft were instrumented with unique remote sensing instruments to help increase the overall understanding of hurricanes. This paper is concerned about one of the storms studied, Tropical Storm Chantal, that was a weak storm which failed to intense into a hurricane. One of the practical questions of high importance is why some tropical stoins intensify into hurricanes, and others remain weak or die altogether. The magnitude of the difference between the horizontal winds at lower levels and upper altitudes in a tropical storm, i.e., the wind shear, is one important quantity that can affect the intensification of a tropical storm. Strong shear as was present during Tropical Storm Chantal s lifetime and it was detrimental to its intensification. The paper presents an analysis of unique aircraft observations collected from Chantal including an on-board radar, radiometers, dropsondes, and flight level measurements. These measurements have enabled us to examine the internal structure of the winds and thermal structure of Chantal. Most of the previous studies have involved intense hurricanes that overcame the effects of shear and this work has provided new insights into what prevents a weaker storm from intensifying. The storm had extremely intense thunderstorms and rainfall, yet its main circulation was confined to low levels of the atmosphere. Chantal's thermal structure was not configured properly for the storm to intensify. It is most typical that huricanes have a warm core structure where warm temperatures in upper levels of a storm s circulation help intensify surface winds and lower its central pressure. Chantal had two weaker warm layers instead of a well-defined warm core. These layers have been related to the horizontal and vertical winds and precipitation structure and have helped us learn more about why this storm didn't develop.

  18. Validity of Measurement of Shear Modulus by Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography in Human Pennate Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probes principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20 obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  19. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  20. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-06-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  1. Validity of measurement of shear modulus by ultrasound shear wave elastography in human pennate muscle.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probe's principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20° obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  2. Shear Senses and Viscous Dissipation of Layered Ductile Simple Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit

    2015-10-01

    Velocity profiles and shear heat profiles for inclined, layered Newtonian simple shear zones are considered. Reverse fault-like simple shear of the boundaries and upward net pressure gradient act together in such shear zones. As the velocity of the boundary increases, the point of highest velocity shifts from the lower layer of less viscosity into the upper layer. The shear heat profile shows a temperature peak inside the lower layer. For a more viscous upper layer, the point of highest velocity is located inside the upper layer and shifts towards the upper boundary of the shear zone. The shear heat profile shows a maximum temperature within the upper layer. Depending on the flow parameters of the two layers, the slip rate of the boundary, and the dip and thickness of the shear zone, a shear sense in reverse to the relative movement of the shear zone boundaries may develop. These models can decipher thermo-kinematics of layered shear zones in plate-scale hot orogens.

  3. An Observational Study of Wind Profiles in the Baroclinic Convective Mixed Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Zhou, Mingyu; Moeng, Chin-Hoh; et al.

    A comprehensive planetary boundary-layer (PBL) and synoptic data set is used to isolate the mechanisms that determine the vertical shear of the horizontal wind in the convective mixed layer. To do this, we compare a fair-weather convective PBL with no vertical shear through the mixed layer (10 March 1992), with a day with substantial vertical shear in the north-south wind component (27 February). The approach involves evaluating the terms of the budget equations for the two components of the vertical shear of the horizontal wind; namely: the time-rate-of-change or time-tendency term, differential advection, the Coriolis terms (a thermal wind term and a shear term), and the second derivative of the vertical transport of horizontal momentum with respect to height (turbulent-transport term). The data, gathered during the 1992 STorm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (STORM) Fronts Experiments Systems Test (FEST) field experiment, are from gust-probe aircraft horizontal legs and soundings, 915-MHz wind profilers, a 5-cm Doppler radar, radiosondes, and surface Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) stations in a roughly 50 50 km boundary-layer array in north-eastern Kansas, nested in a mesoscale-to-synoptic array of radiosondes and surface data.We present evidence that the shear on 27 February is related to the rapid growth of the convective boundary layer. Computing the shear budget over a fixed depth (the final depth of the mixed layer), we find that the time-tendency term dominates, reflecting entrainment of high-shear air from above the boundary layer. We suggest that shear within the mixed layer occurs when the time-tendency term is sufficiently large that the shear-reduction terms - namely the turbulent-transport term and differential advection terms - cannot compensate. In contrast, the tendency term is small for the slowly-growing PBL of 10 March, resulting in a balance between the Coriolis terms and the turbulent-transport term. Thus, the thermal wind appears to influence mixed-layer shear only indirectly, through its role in determining the entrained shear.

  4. Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Jiang, Jile; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

    2011-01-01

    By shearing electrorheological (ER) fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (<1?s(-1)) and a high critical electric field strength (>100 V/mm), which can be characterized by a critical apparent viscosity. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced interparticle friction forces are considered to play an important role in the origin of lateral shear resistance of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric-field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance electrorheological-magnetorheological fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying a local electric field, other field-responsive materials, and intelligent systems. PMID:21405692

  5. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

  6. Wind energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication.

  7. Measuring the force of drag on air sheared sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2012-11-01

    To blow a drop along or off of a surface (i.e. to shed the drop), the drag force on the drop (based on flow conditions, drop shape, and fluid properties) must overcome the adhesion force between the drop and the surface (based on surface tension, drop shape, and contact angle). While the shedding of sessile drops by shear flow has been studied [Milne, A. J. B. & Amirfazli, A. Langmuir 25, 14155 (2009).], no independent measurements of the drag or adhesion forces have been made. Likewise, analytic predictions are limited to hemispherical drops and low air velocities. We present, therefore, measurements of the drag force on sessile drops at air velocities up to the point of incipient motion. Measurements were made using a modified floating element shear sensor in a laminar low speed wind tunnel to record drag force over the surface with the drop absent, and over the combined system of the surface and drop partially immersed in the boundary layer. Surfaces of different wettabilities were used to study the effects of drop shape and contact angles, with drop volume ranged between approximately 10 and 100 microlitres. The drag force for incipient motion (which by definition equals the maximum of the adhesion force) is compared to simplified models for drop adhesion such as that of Furmidge

  8. THE SHEARING H I SPIRAL PATTERN OF NGC 1365

    SciTech Connect

    Speights, Jason C.; Westpfahl, David J.

    2011-07-20

    The Tremaine-Weinberg equations are solved for a pattern speed that is allowed to vary with radius. The solution method transforms an integral equation for the pattern speed to a least-squares problem with well-established procedures for statistical analysis. The method applied to the H I spiral pattern of the barred, grand-design galaxy NGC 1365 produces convincing evidence for a radial dependence in the pattern speed. The pattern speed behaves approximately as 1/r and is very similar to the material speed. There are no clear indications of corotation or Lindblad resonances. Tests show that the results are not selection biased, and that the method is not measuring the material speed. Other methods of solving the Tremaine-Weinberg equations for shearing patterns are found to produce results in agreement with those obtained using the current method. Previous estimates that relied on the assumptions of the density-wave interpretation of spiral structure are inconsistent with the results obtained using the current method. The results are consistent with spiral structure theories that allow for shearing patterns, and contradict fundamental assumptions in the density-wave interpretation that are often used for finding spiral arm pattern speeds. The spiral pattern is winding on a characteristic timescale of {approx}500 Myr.

  9. Comparison of transient and quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis of wind turbine blade in steady wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargin, H.; Kayran, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the preliminary design stage of wind turbine blade, faster and simpler methods are preferred to predict the aeroelastic response of the blades in order to get an idea about the appropriateness of the blade stiffness. Therefore, in the present study, applicability of the quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis of wind turbine blade is investigated in terms of how accurately the quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis predicts the deformed state of the blade at certain azimuthal positions. For this purpose, comparative study of transient and quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis of a composite wind turbine blade in steady wind conditions is conducted. To perform the transient analysis, a multi-body wind turbine model is generated with almost rigid components except for the dynamic superelement blade that is inverse designed. Transient analysis of the multi body wind turbine system is performed by imposing constant rotational speed to the main shaft and bypassing the controller. Quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis of the same composite wind turbine blade is performed, by coupling a structural finite element solver with a blade element momentum tool, in steady wind conditions at different azimuthal positions including the effect of the centrifugal and gravitational forces. Results show that for the wind turbine system taken as the case study, reasonably good agreement is obtained between the tip deflections and flapwise root shear forces determined by the transient aeroelastic analysis of the wind turbine and quasi-steady aeroelastic analysis of the blade only.

  10. Modulation of the Wind Speed Response of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.

    2014-12-01

    We explore a possible feedback mechanism of marine boundary layer clouds in response to expected 21st century changes in large scale wind speed. The mechanism proceeds via the effect of wind speed on the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, horizontal momentum (shear), and sea spray aerosol, and associated changes to cloud properties. An increase in wind speed produces, e.g., a higher latent heat flux from the surface, which causes stronger entrainment of free tropospheric air, and an adjustment in cloud properties. We have investigated how free tropospheric humidity and the evolution of the boundary layer modify the response of marine stratocumulus clouds to changes in wind speed. Results of cloud-system-resolving simulations are presented. The response of cloud properties and of radiative forcing to changes in surface wind speed is quantified under different free tropospheric conditions (dry vs. moist) and different boundary layer states (growing vs. steady state).

  11. An integrated dynamic model of a flexible wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongers, Peter M. M.; Bierbooms, Wim A. A.; Dijkstra, Sjoerd; Vanholten, Theo

    1990-06-01

    A model to study the dynamic behavior of flexible wind turbines was developed. The different subsystems of the wind turbine are individually modeled with about the same degree of accuracy. The aerodynamic part describes wind shear, gravity effects, unsteady effects, and dynamic inflow. The rotor blades are provided with degrees of freedom in lag and flap directions. The tower construction is modeled including the first bending mode. The first torsional mode of the transmission is included in the model. The model of synchronous generator with dc link consists of a nonlinear fourth order model, including saturation effects. The different models of the subsystems are coupled into one integrated dynamic model which is implemented as simulation code in the DUWECS (Delf University Wind Energy Converter Simulation Package) program. The DUWECS program is developed in such a manner that it is an easy to handle tool for the study of the dynamic features of wind turbine systems.

  12. Effects of shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number flow: an experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Vortex shedding has been identified as a potential major source of loading on the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant Cold Water Pipe (CWP). To gain a better understanding of the vortex shedding phenomena, a series of model tests has been conducted. The results of this investigation are presented. The effects of current shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number (R/sub e/) flow around a circular cylinder used to model the OTEC CWP are addressed. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel on a 56-inch long, 6-inch diameter circular cylinder for various flow and shear conditions. Measurements were conducted to describe the frequencies of the eddies shed from the cylinder and to investigate the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder. From these tests it was determined that shedding for high R/sub e/ sheared flow is characterized by the formation of distinct cells of eddies with constant frequency, that pressure fluctuations on the surface of the cylinder are greater for sheared flow than unsheared flow, and that the mean surface pressures are generally independent of the magnitude of shear.

  13. Wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension in a deep lake during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kristin E.; Bombardelli, Fabin. A.; Moreno-Casas, Patricio A.; Rueda, Francisco J.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Ongoing public concern over declining water quality at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (USA) led to an investigation of wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension that combined field measurements and modeling. Field data included: wind speed and direction, vertical profiles of water temperature and currents, nearbed velocity, lakebed sediment characteristics, and suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution. Bottom shear stress was computed from ADV-measured nearbed velocity data, adapting a turbulent kinetic energy method to lakes, and partitioned according to its contributions attributed to wind-waves, mean currents, and random motions. When the total shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress, the contribution to overall shear stress was about 80% from wind-waves and 10% each from mean currents and random motions. Therefore, wind-waves were the dominant mechanism resulting in sediment resuspension as corroborated by simultaneous increases in shear stress and total measured sediment concentration. The wind-wave model STWAVE was successfully modified to simulate wind-wave-induced sediment resuspension for viscous-dominated flow typical in lakes. Previous lake applications of STWAVE have been limited to special instances of fully turbulent flow. To address the validity of expressions for sediment resuspension in lakes, sediment entrainment rates were found to be well represented by a modified 1991 Garca and Parker formula. Last, in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution revealed that the predominance of fine particles (by particle count) that most negatively impact clarity was unchanged by wind-related sediment resuspension. Therefore, we cannot assume that wind-driven sediment resuspension contributes to Lake Tahoe's declining nearshore clarity.

  14. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coon, E.; Kelemen, P.; Hirth, G.; Spiegelman, M.

    2005-12-01

    Kelemen and Hirth (Fall 2004 AGU) presented a model for periodic, viscous shear heating instabilities along pre-existing, fine grained shear zones. This provides an attractive alternative to dehydration embrittlement for explaining intermediate-depth earthquakes, especially those in a narrow thermal window within the mantle section of subducting oceanic plates (Hacker et al JGR03). Ductile shear zones with widths of cm to m are common in shallow mantle massifs and peridotite along oceanic fracture zones. Pseudotachylites in a mantle shear zone show that shear heating temperatures exceeded the mantle solidus (Obata & Karato Tectonophys95). Olivine grain growth in shear zones is pinned by closely spaced pyroxenes; thus, once formed, these features do not `heal' on geological time scales in the absence of melt or fluid (Warren & Hirth EPSL05). Grain-size sensitive creep will be localized within these shear zones, in preference to host rocks with olivine grain size from 1 to 10 mm. Inspired by the work of Whitehead & Gans (GJRAS74), we proposed that such pre-existing shear zones might undergo repeated shear heating instabilities. This is not a new concept; what is new is that viscous deformation is limited to a narrow shear zone, because grain boundary sliding, sensitive to both stress and grain size, may accommodate creep even at high stress and high temperature. These new ideas yield a new result: simple models for a periodic shear heating instability. Last year, we presented a 1D numerical model using olivine flow laws, assuming that viscous deformation remains localized in shear zones, surrounded by host rocks undergoing elastic deformation. Stress evolves due to elastic strain and drives viscous deformation in a shear zone of specified width. Shear heating and thermal diffusion control T. A maximum of 1400 C (substantial melting of peridotite ) was imposed. Grain size evolves due to recrystallization and diffusion. For strain rates of E-13 to E-14 per sec and initial T of 600 to 850 C, this produced periodic viscous shear heating events with periods of 100's to 1000's of years. Strain rates during these events approach 1 per second as temperatures reach 1400. Cooling between events returns the shear zone almost to its initial temperature, though ultimately shear zone temperature between events exceeds 850 C resulting in stable viscous creep. Analysis shows that our system of equations jumps from one steady state to another, depending on a non-dimensional number relating the rate of shear heating to the rate of diffusive cooling. This year, Kelemen and Hirth show that the rate of stress drop during shear heating events is greater than the rate of elastic stress relaxation, so that shear heating events are a runaway instability. Rather than capping the temperature at 1400 C, we parameterize melt fraction as a function of T, and shear viscosity as a function of melt fraction. A problem with our 1D model is that predicted displacements are too large (1 to 20 m) during shear heating events, essentially because there is no resistance at shear zone ends. To address this, Coon and Spiegelman have embarked on a 3D model, incorporating a pre-existing fine-grained, tabular shear zone of finite extent, with a visco-elastic rheology for both shear zone and wall rocks. Preliminary 1D models using this approach show that the more complicated rheology yields the same result as the simpler model. We will present preliminary results, and determine the Maxwell time for this problem, since low strain rates could produce viscous relaxation in both shear zone and wall rocks with negligible shear heating.

  15. Shear-Stress Partitioning in Live Plant Canopies and Modifications to Raupach's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Lehning, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The spatial peak surface shear stress {tau _S^'' on the ground beneath vegetation canopies is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment and its precise and accurate prediction is essential when modelling soil, snow or sand erosion. This study investigates shear-stress partitioning, i.e. the fraction of the total fluid stress on the entire canopy that acts directly on the surface, for live vegetation canopies (plant species: Lolium perenne) using measurements in a controlled wind-tunnel environment. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison since previous wind-tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear-stress partitioning. The drag partitioning model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 60:375-395, 1992) and Raupach et al. (J Geophys Res 98:3023-3029, 1993), which allows the prediction of the total shear stress τ on the entire canopy as well as the peak {(tau _S ^''/tau )^{1/2}} and the average {(tau _S^'/tau )^{1/2}} shear-stress ratios, is tested against measurements to determine the model parameters and the model's ability to account for shape differences of various roughness elements. It was found that the constant c, needed to determine the total stress τ and which was unspecified to date, can be assumed a value of about c = 0.27. Values for the model parameter m, which accounts for the difference between the spatial surface average {tau _S^' and the peak {tau _S ^'' shear stress, are difficult to determine because m is a function of the roughness density, the wind velocity and the roughness element shape. A new definition for a parameter a is suggested as a substitute for m. This a parameter is found to be more closely universal and solely a function of the roughness element shape. It is able to predict the peak surface shear stress accurately. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a parameter for different kinds of roughness elements.

  16. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  17. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  18. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, R.E.

    1993-05-25

    A wind turbine assembly including a rotor body is described having mounted thereon a plurality of rotor blades, wherein each of the rotor blades is joined at an inner extremity the blade stem projection extending interiorly into the rotor body and secured there within to the rotor body by torsional- and axial-shock damping connection means, wherein each blade stem projection comprises a hollow cylindrical housing defining a central longitudinal axis therein, with a support member interiorly disposed in the housing at an intermediate position along its axis and fixedly secured to the housing, a shaft fixedly secured at one end thereof to the rotor body and coupled at its other end with the support member in a manner allowing limited axial and rotational movement of the housing relative to the rotor body, and a longitudinally outwardly biasing means between the support member and the rotor body, extending along the axis of the housing and outwardly abuttingly biased against the support member, whereby the biasing means provides torsional and axial shock damping to the rotor blade. The wind turbine assembly includes a nacelle to which the rotor body is coupled for rotation with respect to the nacelle, and a tower having an upper portion to which the nacelle is secured by coupling means, and a lower portion positionable on a support body, the tower upper portion including a cylindrical member at an upper end of the tower, an oarlock connector joined to the bottom stem portion; a pitch biasing and damping member interconnecting the nacelle and the oarlock connector, for pitch damping of the nacelle; and yaw biasing and damping means connecting the oarlock and upper portion of the tower, whereby the pitch damping/biasing member and the yaw biasing and damping means bias the rotor body and nacelle to a selected base position in relation to the tower, and dampen pitch and yaw displacements from said base position.

  19. Quasi-3D Modeling of Shear Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Svendsen, I.

    2001-12-01

    Shear waves were first addressed by Oltman-Shay et. al (1989). Since then, they have been studied intensively. Most of these studies are either based on linear stability analysis or direct simulation utilizing nonlinear shallow water equations. One reason that shear waves attract so much attention is that they are believed to be a plausible mechanism that could contribute to the mixing in the nearshore circulation modeling. On the other hand, Svendsen and Putrevu (1994) found that the 3D structure of currents will also introduce momentum mixing which is similar to the dispersion effect discovered by Taylor (1954), and which is at least one order larger than the turbulence mixing. In this work, we will utilize a quasi-3D nearshore circulation model SHORECIRC (Svendsen et. al, 2000) to simulate finite amplitude shear waves. Our purpose was to investigate how the 3D dispersion mixing and the lateral mixing provided by the shear waves affect each other. To achieve this, 2D and quasi-3D numerical experiments are carried out simultaneously. Our calculations showed that shear waves are more organized in the quasi-3D simulation than that in 2D simulation. We also found that under certain circumstances, the mixing provided by shear waves can be even stronger than that of the 3D dispersive mixing. As the shear waves grow, the 3D dispersive mixing decreases.

  20. Shear thinning in deeply supercooled melts

    PubMed Central

    Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2009-01-01

    We compute, on a molecular basis, the viscosity of a deeply supercooled liquid at high shear rates. The viscosity is shown to decrease at growing shear rates, owing to an increase in the structural relaxation rate as caused by the shear. The onset of this non-Newtonian behavior is predicted to occur universally at a shear rate significantly lower than the typical structural relaxation rate, by approximately two orders of magnitude. This results from a large size—up to several hundred atoms—of the cooperative rearrangements responsible for mass transport in supercooled liquids and the smallness of individual molecular displacements during the cooperative rearrangements. We predict that the liquid will break down at shear rates such that the viscosity drops by approximately a factor of 30 below its Newtonian value. These phenomena are predicted to be independent of the liquid's fragility. In contrast, the degree of nonexponentiality and violation of the Stokes–Einstein law, which are more prominent in fragile substances, will be suppressed by shear. The present results are in agreement with existing measurements of shear thinning in silicate melts.

  1. Hierarchical cosmic shear power spectrum inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till

    2016-02-01

    We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models a posteriori without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear E-mode, B-mode and EB-cross power spectra from a simulated galaxy shear catalogue with a number of important features; galaxies distributed on the sky and in redshift with photometric redshift uncertainties, realistic random ellipticity noise for every galaxy and a complicated survey mask. The obtained posterior distributions for the tomographic power spectrum coefficients recover the underlying simulated power spectra for both E- and B-modes.

  2. Impact response of shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric; Ozgen, Oktar; Kallmann, Marcelo; Allen, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Dense suspensions of hard particles such as cornstarch in water exhibit shear thickening, in which the energy dissipation rate under shear dramatically increases with increasing shear rate. Recent work has established that in steady-state shear this phenomena is a result of a dynamic jamming of the particles in suspension. Several dynamic phenomena observed in such suspensions have long been assumed to be a consequence of this shear thickening; strong impact resistance, the ability of a person to run on the fluid surface, fingering and hole instabilities under vibration, and oscillations in the speed of sinking of an object in the fluid. However, I will present results of experiments consisting of an indenter impacting a dense suspension which demonstrate that the strong impact resistance cannot be explained by existing models for steady-state shear thickening. I will show these dynamic phenomena can be reproduced by graphical simulations based on a minimal phenomenological model in which the fluid has a stiffness with a dependence on velocity history. These and other recent results suggest a need for new models to understand the dynamic phenomena associated with shear thickening fluids.

  3. Surface shear inviscidity of soluble surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Nowbahar, Arash; Mansard, Vincent; Leal, L. Gary; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Mecca, Jodi M.; Tucker, Christopher J.; Squires, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Foam and emulsion stability has long been believed to correlate with the surface shear viscosity of the surfactant used to stabilize them. Many subtleties arise in interpreting surface shear viscosity measurements, however, and correlations do not necessarily indicate causation. Using a sensitive technique designed to excite purely surface shear deformations, we make the most sensitive and precise measurements to date of the surface shear viscosity of a variety of soluble surfactants, focusing on SDS in particular. Our measurements reveal the surface shear viscosity of SDS to be below the sensitivity limit of our technique, giving an upper bound of order 0.01 ?Ns/m. This conflicts directly with almost all previous studies, which reported values up to 103104 times higher. Multiple control and complementary measurements confirm this result, including direct visualization of monolayer deformation, for SDS and a wide variety of soluble polymeric, ionic, and nonionic surfactants of high- and low-foaming character. No soluble, small-molecule surfactant was found to have a measurable surface shear viscosity, which seriously undermines most support for any correlation between foam stability and surface shear rheology of soluble surfactants. PMID:24563383

  4. Statistical properties of the linear tidal shear

    SciTech Connect

    Desjacques, Vincent; Smith, Robert E.

    2008-07-15

    Large-scale structures originate from coherent motions induced by inhomogeneities in the primeval gravitational potential. Here, we investigate the two-point statistics of the second derivative of the potential, the tidal shear, under the assumption of Gaussianity. We derive an exact closed form expression for the angular averaged, two-point distribution of the shear components which is valid for an arbitrary Lagrangian separation. This result is used to write down the two-point statistics of the shear eigenvalues in compact form. Next, we examine the large-scale asymptotics of the correlation of the shear eigenvalues and the alignment of the principal axes. The analytic results are in good agreement with measurements obtained from random realizations of the gravitational potential. Finally, we show that a number of two-point distributions of the shear eigenvalues are well approximated by Gaussian bivariates over a wide range of separation and smoothing scales. We speculate that the Gaussian approximation also holds for multiple point distributions of the shear eigenvalues. It is hoped that these results will be relevant for studies aimed at describing the properties of the (evolved) matter distribution in terms of the statistics of the primordial shear field.

  5. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simley, Eric J.

    Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by the turbine are unknown, a Kalman filter-based wind speed estimator is developed that relies on turbine sensor outputs. Using simulated lidar measurements in conjunction with wind speed estimator outputs based on aeroelastic simulations of the NREL 5-MW turbine model, it is shown how the optimal prefilter can adapt to varying degrees of measurement quality.

  6. Modeling of shear localization in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; LeBlanc, M.; Riddle, B.; Jorgensen, B.

    1998-02-11

    The deformation response of a Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been studied during shear localization. The study has involved well-controlled laboratory tests involving a double-notch shear sample. The results have been used to provide a comparison between experiment and the predicted response using DYNA2D and two material models (the Johnson-Cook model and an isotropic elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic model). The work will serve as the basis for the development of a new material model which represents the different deformation mechanisms active during shear localization.

  7. A magnetorheological elastomer compressive and shear sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoorianfar, Nima; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-04-01

    A magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based wireless sensor is designed, developed and tested, which is capable of sensing compression and shear forces. The MRE wireless sensor system consists of a disk-shape MRE sample with two thin steel electrodes attached to both sides and two wires connected to electrodes. Electrical resistance of MRE sensor samples changes due to piezoresistance behavior of MRE as various axial and shear stresses are applied. Electrical resistance decreases as the applied compressive axial forces increases, on the other hand, the electrical resistance increases as the applied shear force increases. Different MRE sensor configurations are evaluated for design optimization.

  8. Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Watson, Clyde D.

    1977-01-01

    A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly.

  9. Coherent motion in excited free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wygnanski, Israel J.; Petersen, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the inviscid instability approach to externally excited turbulent free shear flows at high Reynolds numbers is explored. Attention is given to the cases of a small-deficit plane turbulent wake, a plane turbulent jet, an axisymmetric jet, the nonlinear evolution of instabilities in free shear flows, the concept of the 'preferred mode', vortex pairing in turbulent mixing layers, and experimental results for the control of free turbulent shear layers. The special features often attributed to pairing or to the preferred mode are found to be difficult to comprehend; the concept of feedback requires further substantiation in the case of incompressible flow.

  10. Simplified Shear Solution for Determination of the Shear Stress Distribution in a Composite Panel from the Applied Shear Resultant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Collier, Craig S.

    2008-01-01

    The simplified shear solution method is presented for approximating the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate or panel based on laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants (as determined, for instance, by finite element analysis) at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply by ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. Comparisons to existing theories are made for a variety of laminates, and design examples are provided illustrating the use of the method for determining through-thickness shear stress margins in several types of composite panels and in the context of a finite element structural analysis.

  11. Determination of the Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate from the Applied Shear Resultant--A Simplified Shear Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The simplified shear solution method is presented for approximating the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem, rather it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants (as determined, for instance, by finite element analysis) at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply by ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. Comparisons to existing theories are made for a variety of laminates, and design examples are provided illustrating the use of the method for determining through-thickness shear stress margins in several types of composite panels and in the context of a finite element structural analysis.

  12. Wind Statistics from a Forested Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnqvist, Johan; Segalini, Antonio; Dellwik, Ebba; Bergström, Hans

    2015-07-01

    An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40 wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most representative for large-scale forest conditions, and from that sector first-, second- and third-order statistics, as well as analyses regarding the characteristic length scale, the flux-profile relationship and surface roughness are presented for a wide range of stability conditions. The results are discussed with focus on the validity of different scaling regimes. Significant wind veer, decay of momentum fluxes and reduction in shear length scales with height are observed for all stability classes, indicating the influence of the limited depth of the boundary layer on the measured profiles. Roughness sublayer characteristics are however not detected in the presented analysis. Dimensionless gradients are shown to follow theoretical curves up to 100 m in stable conditions despite surface-layer approximations being invalid. This is attributed to a balance of momentum decay and reduced shear length scale growth with height. The wind profile shows a strong stability dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length, with a 50 % decrease from neutral to stable conditions.

  13. Buoyancy and shear characteristics of hurricane-tornado environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents detailed composite profiles of temperature, moisture, and wind constructed for tornado environments in tropical cyclones that affected the U.S. between 1948 and 1986. Winds are composited in components radial and tangential to the tropical cyclone center at observation time. Guided by observed patterns of tornado occurrence, composites are constructed for a variety of different stratifications of the data, including proximity to tornadoes, position relative to the cyclone center, time of day, time after cyclone landfall, cyclone translation speed, and landfall location. The composites are also compared to composite soundings from Great Plains tornado environments. A variety of sounding parameters are examined to see which are most closely related to the tornado distribution patterns. Lower-tropospheric vertical shears are found to be stronger in the tropical cyclone tornado environments than on the Great Plains. Buoyancy for the tropical cyclone tornado cases is much smaller than that seen with Great Plains tornado events and exhibits a weak negative correlation with tornado outbreak severity.

  14. A hydrodynamical model of shear flow over semi-infinite barriers with application to density currents

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A. )

    1992-12-01

    Vertically sheared airflow over semi-infinite barriers is investigated with a simple hydrodynamical model. The idealized flow is steady, two-dimensional, neutrally buoyant, and inviscid, bounded on the bottom by a semi-infinite impermeable barrier and on the top by a rigid tropopause lid. With attention further restricted to an exponentially decreasing wind shear, the equations of motion (Euler's equations) reduce, without approximation, to a modified Poisson equation for a pseudo streamfunction and a formula for the Exner function. The free parameters characterizing the model's environment are the tropopause height, the density scale height, the wind speed at ground level, and the wind speed at tropopause level. Additional parameters characterize the barrier geometry. Exact solutions of the equations of motion are obtained for semi-infinite plateau barriers and for a barrier qualitatively resembling the shallow density current associated with some thunderstorm outflows. These solutions are noteworthy in that the reduction of a certain nondimensional shear parameter (through negative values) results in greater vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite a corresponding reduction in the vertical velocity. This steepening tendency culminates in overturning motions associated with both upstream and down-stream steering levels. In this latter case the low-level inflow impinging on the barrier participates in a mixed jump and overturning updraft reminiscent of updrafts simulated in numerical convective models. Conversely, for large values of the nondimensional shear parameter, parcels undergo small vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite large vertical velocities. This latter behavior may account for the finding that strong convergence along the leading edge of storm outflows does not always trigger deep convection even in unstable environments.

  15. Estimation of bora wind gusts using a limited area model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belui?, Danijel; Benceti? Klai?, Zvjezdana

    2004-08-01

    A performance of the wind gust estimate (WGE) method on the bora wind has been examined. Numerical simulations of several bora episodes have been performed using a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO6. The model captured well the onset and cessation of the bora while the agreement between simulated and observed wind speeds differed from episode to episode. In cases with accurately simulated wind speeds, the WGE results were very good, thus indicating that the method could be used in forecasting bora gusts.The performance of the WGE method for the examined bora cases also suggested a possibility of further simplification of the method for the bora applications. Inspection of the bora flow and its thermodynamical structure revealed that after the bora onset the shear instabilities completely overwhelm the buoyant forces. This means that the parcels with the maximum wind speed in the boundary layer will always be able to reach the surface and result in wind gusts. Therefore, it is enough to have only a vertical profile of the wind speed. Although completely derived from the physical considerations, this represents a very simple way of determining bora wind gusts and can thus be easily implemented in the operational bora wind forecasting models.

  16. Wind tunnel investigation of the influence of surface moisture content on the entrainment and erosion of beach sand by wind using sands from tropical humid coastal southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Zhang, Kecun; Zu, Ruiping; Niu, Qinghe; Liao, Kongtai

    2009-03-01

    Wind erosion has major impacts on dune growth, desertification, and architecture on sea coasts. The deflation threshold shear velocity is a crucial parameter in predicting erosion, and surface moisture greatly affects this threshold and thus sand stability. Wind tunnel studies have shown that reduced moisture contents decrease entrainment thresholds and increase wind erosion, but field and wind tunnel test data is lacking for tropical humid coastal areas. In this study, we investigated the influence of surface moisture contents (at 1 mm depth) on sand entrainment and erosion using tropical humid coastal sands from southern China. Shear velocities were deduced from velocity profiles above the sand. The threshold shear velocity increased linearly with increasing ln100 M ( M, gravimetric moisture content). The increase was steepest below a moisture content of 0.0124 (i.e., at M1.5, the moisture content in the sand at a matric potential of - 1.5 MPa). We compared several popular models that predict threshold shear velocity of moisture sediment, and found substantial differences between their predicted results. At a surface moisture content of 0.0124, the predicted increase in the wet threshold shear velocity compared with the dry threshold shear velocity ranged from 34% to 195%. The empirical model of Chepil and Selah simulated the data well for M < 0.0062 (i.e., 0.5 M1.5), whereas Belly's empirical model simulated the data best for M > 0.0062. Wind erosion modulus increased with increasing effective wind velocity following a power function with a positive exponent at all moisture contents, but decreased with increasing surface moisture content following a power function with a negative exponent. When wind speed and moisture content varied simultaneously, wind erosion modulus was proportional to the 0.73 power of effective wind velocity, but inversely proportional to the 1.48 power of M. The increase in resistance to erosion at low moisture contents probably results from cohesive forces in the water films surrounding the sand particles. At a moisture content near M1.5, wind erosion ceases nearly for all wind velocities that we tested.

  17. Scaling and intermittency in incoherent ?-shear dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-03-01

    We consider mean-field dynamo models with fluctuating ? effect, both with and without large-scale shear. The ? effect is chosen to be Gaussian white noise with zero mean and a given covariance. In the presence of shear, we show analytically that (in infinitely large domains) the mean-squared magnetic field shows exponential growth. The growth rate of the fastest growing mode is proportional to the shear rate. This result agrees with earlier numerical results of Yousef et al. and the recent analytical treatment by Heinemann, McWilliams & Schekochihin who use a method different from ours. In the absence of shear, an incoherent ?2 dynamo may also be possible. We further show by explicit calculation of the growth rate of third- and fourth-order moments of the magnetic field that the probability density function of the mean magnetic field generated by this dynamo is non-Gaussian.

  18. Shear wave instability for electrified falling films.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Arghya

    2013-11-01

    The effect of an electric field on the shear wave instability pertaining to a gravity driven conducting liquid film is studied based on the Chebyshev-Tau method. The shear wave appears at very large values of the Reynolds number when the inclination angle is sufficiently small. The presence of an electric field shows peculiar behavior on the critical Reynolds number corresponding to the shear mode. It suppresses shear wave instability through the amplification of the critical Reynolds number and leads to a nontrivial stabilizing effect when inclination angle B?3'. On the other hand, the reduction of the critical Reynolds number is found if the inclination angle is further lowered in magnitude. PMID:24329346

  19. Interfacial shear strengths between carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengxiang; Liu, Yilun; Yao, Xuefeng; Ito, Masaei; Noguchi, Toru; Zheng, Quanshui

    2010-03-19

    Interfacial shear strengths or static frictions between carbon nanotubes (CNT) in contact at different cross angles are studied by using atomic mechanics. It is shown that the axial interfacial shear strengths between parallel CNTs in commensurate are two orders of magnitude greater than those in incommensurate. This strong chiral dependence is not surprising and is similar to that of the friction between two graphite basal planes. In contrast, we find that the interfacial shear strengths of crossly contacted CNT pairs are much less dependent upon chirality. The estimated values of interfacial shear strengths, ranging from 0.05 to 0.35 GPa, agree very well with experimentally measured results available in the literature. These results may thus be used as a basis for explaining the observed tension strengths of CNT bundles and films that are mainly bonded by van der Waals interactions and the mechanical behaviors of composite materials with highly concentrated CNTs. PMID:20173225

  20. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  1. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.L.; Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys.

  2. Influence of magnetic shear on impurity transport

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, H.; Fueloep, T.; Candy, J.; Strand, P.; Weiland, J.

    2007-05-15

    The magnetic shear dependence of impurity transport in tokamaks is studied using a quasilinear fluid model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron (TE) mode driven turbulence in the collisionless limit and the results are compared with nonlinear gyrokinetic results using GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys 186, 545 (2003)]. It is shown that the impurity transport is sensitive to the magnetic shear, in particular for weak, negative, and large positive shear where a strong reduction of the effective impurity diffusivity is obtained. The fluid and gyrokinetic results are in qualitative agreement, with the gyrokinetic diffusivities typically a factor 2 larger than the fluid diffusivities. The steady state impurity profiles in source-free plasmas are found to be considerably less peaked than the electron density profiles for moderate shear. Comparisons between anomalous and neoclassical transport predictions are performed for ITER-like profiles [R. Aymar, P. Barabaschi, and Y. Shimomura, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 519 (2002)].

  3. Effects of transverse shearing flexibility on the postbuckling of plates loaded by inplane shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Manuel

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents buckling and postbuckling results for plates loaded by inplane shear. The buckling results have been plotted to show the effects of thickness on the stress coefficient for aluminum plates. Results are given for various length-to-width ratios. Postbuckling results for thin plates with transverse shearing flexibility are compared to results from classical theory. The problems considered are the postbuckling response of plates in shear made of aluminum and of a + or - 45 deg graphite-epoxy laminate. Thus the materials are isotropic and orthotropic, respectively. The plates are considered to be long with side edges simply supported, with various inplane edge conditions, and the plates are subject to a constant shearing displacement along the side edges. Characteristic curves presenting the average shear stress resultant as a function of the applied displacement are given. These curves indicate that change in inplane edge conditions influence plate postbuckling stiffness and that transverse shearing is important in some cases.

  4. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Pclet number squared, as in classical TaylorAris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  5. Speckle Shearing Interferometry And Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingtang, Ke; Hongqing, Zhang; Yeling, He; Yanfu, Chang

    1983-12-01

    The paper deals with experiments made to verify the theory of bending of plates and related problems by method of speckle shearing interferometry, which is proved to be highly sensitive. Tests carried out on rubber products: (such as tires)and thin-walled containers have demonstrated the prospects of using image-shearing camera in nondestructive in-situ testing of industrial products, suggesting a potentiality still wider than that of holographic interferometry.

  6. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  7. Modeling shear behavior of the annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Nathaniel T; Wagner, Diane R

    2011-10-01

    Modeling the mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus has two distinct challenges: the complex loading state experienced in vivo and the anisotropic, nonlinear nature of the tissue. Previous efforts to model the annulus fibrosus have not considered shear data in the analysis, yet the shear response may be critical to understanding tissue behavior and damage. In this study, we compared four hyperelastic constitutive models fitted to uniaxial and biaxial tension, confined compression, and shear experiments from the literature. Models were either directly based on Spencer's formulation for a fiber-reinforced composite material with two equivalent fiber families or represented the annulus as two transversely isotropic materials. Each model was composed of additive strain energy terms that represent specific constituents of the annulus fibrosus (proteoglycan matrix, collagen fibers, and collagen crosslinks). Additionally, we investigated the effect of restricting the fibers such that they supported tensile loads only. Best fit coefficients for these models were calculated both including and excluding shear data from the regression. All of the models fit the data well when shear data was excluded from the regression; when shear data was included in the regression, two models that were based on Spencer's formulation performed better than the others. None of the models could consistently predict data that was not included in the regression. Restricting the fibers to support only tensile loads had only a modest effect on the fit of the models, but did alter which constituent carried the majority of the strain energy in shear deformations. Our study suggests that a single hyperelastic model may capture the anisotropic behavior of the annulus fibrosus for multiple loading cases, including shear. However, care must be taken when extrapolating these models to additional deformations outside of the training dataset. PMID:21783119

  8. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  9. Emergency wind erosion control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  10. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  11. Energy from the wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-07-01

    This document provides a brief description of the use of wind power. Windmills from the 18th century are described. Modern wind turbines and wind turbine arrays are discussed. Present and future applications of wind power in the U.S. are explained.

  12. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent

  13. The effect of the arbitrary level assignment of satellite cloud motion wind vectors on wind analyses in the pre-thunderstorm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The impact of satellite-derived cloud motion vectors on SESAME rawinsonde wind fields was studied in two separate cases. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of the satellite data is assessed to coordinate surfaces in a severe storm environment marked by strong vertical wind shear. Objective analyses of SESAME rawinsonde winds and combined winds are produced and differences between these two analyzed fields are used to make an assessment of coordinate level choice. It is shown that the standard method of arbitrarily assigning wind vectors to a low level coordinate surface yields systematic differences between the rawinsonde and combined wind analyses. Arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to the 0.9 sigma surface produces smaller differences than assignment to the 825 mb pressure surface. Systematic differences occur near moisture discontinuities and in regions of horizontal and vertical wind shears. The differences between the combined and SESAME wind fields are made smallest by vertically interpolating cloud motions to either a pressure or sigma surface.

  14. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  15. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  16. Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.

    PubMed

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059

  17. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    PubMed

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N H

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  18. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    PubMed

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations. PMID:26181770

  19. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-11-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape.

  20. Shear Jamming for Slippery Granular Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Shear Jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficients ?s ~= 0 . 6 . Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ?S <= ? <=?J between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of ``force chains,'' which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. The issue that we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We use either Teflon disks, or disks that have been wrapped with Teflon, lowering the friction coefficient substantially from previous experiments. The Teflon disks were placed in a 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al., PRL 110, 018302 (2013)), with two rows of uncoated photoelastic particles at the periphery. The interior Teflon particles formed the ``system,'' and the outer ring of photoelastic particles provided force data. For Teflon disks, shear jamming was also observed, but the difference ?J -?S was smaller than for higher friction particles. Ongoing work is focused on studies using the Teflon-wrapped particles, which completely fill the apparatus. Currently at Merck & Co.

  1. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  2. Cavitation inception in a turbulent shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental investigations were made into the inception processes in a large turbulent free shear layer generated by a sharp edged plate in a water tunnel at Reynolds numbers up to 2 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Optical techniques were used to study the relation of cavitation inception to flow characteristics, in particular to the coherent vortices of the free shear layer turbulent structure. Two distinct types of vortex motion were evident, primary spanwise and secondary longitudinal vortices. Cavitation inception consistently occurs in the secondary shear layer vortices and more fully developed cavitation is visible in both structures, with the streamwise cavities typically confined to the braid regions between adjacent spanwise vortices. Measurements of fluctuating pressures in the turbulent shear layer were made by holographically monitoring the size of air bubbles injected into the non-cavitating flow, showing that pressure fluctuations were much stronger than previously reported, with positive and negative pressure peaks as high as 3 times the freestream dynamic pressure, sufficient to explain the occurrence of cavitation inception at high values of the inception index. The occurrence of inception in the secondary vortices of the shear layer, and previous reports of velocity dependence of these cores, may provide the key to explaining the commonly observed Reynolds number scaling of the inception index in shear flows. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  4. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    PubMed Central

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  5. Analysis of shear banding in twelve materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, R. C.; Kim, C. H.

    The problem of the initiation and growth of shear bands in 12 different materials, namely, OFHC copper, Cartridge brass, Nickel 200, Armco IF (interstitial free) iron, Carpenter electric iron, 1006 steel, 2024-T351 aluminum, 7039 aluminum, low alloy steel, S-7 tool steel, Tungsten alloy, and Depleted Uranium (DU -0.75 Ti) is studied with the objectives of finding out when a shear band initiates, and upon what parameters does the band width depend. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations governing the overall simple shearing deformations of a thermally softening viscoplastic block are analyzed. It is assumed that the thermomechanical response of these materials can be adequately represented by the Johnson-Cook law, and the only inhomogeneity present in the block is the variation in its thickness. The effect of the defect size on the initiation and subsequent growth of the band is also studied. It is found that, for each one of these 12 materials, the deformation has become nonhomogeneous by the time the maximum shear stress occurs. Also the band width, computed when the shear stress has dropped to 85 percent of its peak value, does not correlate well with the thermal conductivity of the material. The band begins to grow rapidly when the shear stress has dropped to 90 percent of its maximum value.

  6. The wind characteristics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.

    Wind characteristics research activities emphasize wind resource assessment, site selection and evaluation techniques, and wind characteristics for wind turbine design, performance and operations evaluation. Wind resource analysis shows the greatest area of high wind power resource is in the midsection of the U.S. High wind power is available in other sections of the country and is described in some detail on a state by state basis in twelve regional atlases. To carry the wind prospecting process to a finer scale, site selection techniques for small and large wind turbines were developed, tested, and documented. There is a broad range of sophistication and reliability in these techniques and their application must be matched with the priorities and time available for energy planning efforts. The nature of wind gustiness was evaluated statistically and modeled for calculating fatigue cycles and extreme events.

  7. Streamwise development of the wind turbine boundary layer over a model wind turbine array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Jensen; Lebron, Jose; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano

    2013-08-01

    The streamwise development of turbulence statistics and mean kinetic energy in a model wind farm consisting of 3 5 wind turbines is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. The analysis uses planar Particle Image Velocimetry data obtained at the centerline plane of the wind farm, covering the inflow as well as four planes in between five downstream wind turbines. The data analysis is organized by dividing these measurement planes into three regions: the above-rotor, rotor-swept, and below-rotor regions. For each field, flow development is quantified using a properly defined relative difference norm based on an integration over each of the regions. Using this norm, it is found that the mean streamwise velocity approaches a fully developed state most rapidly, whereas the flow development is more gradual for the second-order statistics. The vertical entrainment flux of the mean kinetic energy by the Reynolds shear stress, ?U??u'v'?, is observed to develop at a rate similar to that of the Reynolds shear stress rather than the mean streamwise velocity component. Its development is slowest in the layer nearest to the ground. Analysis of various terms in the mean kinetic energy equation shows that the wind turbine boundary layer has not yet reached fully developed conditions by the fifth turbine but that it is approaching such conditions. By comparing the vertical entrainment flux with the horizontal flux due to the mean flow, it is found that the former increases, whereas the latter decreases, as function of downstream distance, but that the former is already an important contributor in the developing region.

  8. Numerical modeling of the wind flow over a transverse dune

    PubMed Central

    Arajo, Ascnio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pschel, Thorsten; Andrade, Jos S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Transverse dunes, which form under unidirectional winds and have fixed profile in the direction perpendicular to the wind, occur on all celestial objects of our solar system where dunes have been detected. Here we perform a numerical study of the average turbulent wind flow over a transverse dune by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We find that the length of the zone of recirculating flow at the dune lee the separation bubble displays a surprisingly strong dependence on the wind shear velocity, u*: it is nearly independent of u* for shear velocities within the range between 0.2?m/s and 0.8?m/s but increases linearly with u* for larger shear velocities. Our calculations show that transport in the direction opposite to dune migration within the separation bubble can be sustained if u* is larger than approximately 0.39?m/s, whereas a larger value of u* (about 0.49?m/s) is required to initiate this reverse transport. PMID:24091456

  9. The shear-stress intensity factor for a centrally cracked stiff-flanged shear web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    By use of the principle of superposition the stiff-flanged shear web is modeled mathematically by an infinite elastic strip with fixed longitudinal edges. The shear-stress intensity factor for a central longitudinal crack is calculated for various values of the ratio of strip width to crack length, h/a, in the range 0.1-10. The interaction of the crack with the boundaries is illustrated by boundary shear-stress distributions for three values of h/a. Some implications of the results for the design of damage-tolerant shear webs are discussed briefly.

  10. The brittle-viscous-plastic evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovská, Zita; Jeřábek, Petr; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Lexa, Ondrej; Milke, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Shear bands are microscale shear zones that obliquely crosscut an existing anisotropy such as a foliation. The resulting S-C fabrics are characterized by angles lower than 45° and the C plane parallel to shear zone boundaries. The S-C fabrics typically occur in granitoids deformed at greenschist facies conditions in the vicinity of major shear zones. Despite their long recognition, mechanical reasons for localization of deformation into shear bands and their evolution is still poorly understood. In this work we focus on microscale characterization of the shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone, where the S-C fabrics were first recognized by Berthé et al. (1979). The initiation of shear bands in the right-lateral South Armorican Shear Zone is associated with the occurrence of microcracks crosscutting the recrystallized quartz aggregates that define the S fabric. In more advanced stages of shear band evolution, newly formed dominant K-feldspar, together with plagioclase, muscovite and chlorite occur in the microcracks, and the shear bands start to widen. K-feldspar replaces quartz by progressively bulging into the grain boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains, leading to disintegration of quartz aggregates and formation of fine-grained multiphase matrix mixture. The late stages of shear band development are marked by interconnection of fine-grained white mica into a band that crosscuts the original shear band matrix. In its extremity, the shear band widening may lead to the formation of ultramylonites. With the increasing proportion of shear band matrix from ~1% to ~12%, the angular relationship between S and C fabrics increases from ~30° to ~40°. The matrix phases within shear bands show differences in chemical composition related to distinct evolutionary stages of shear band formation. The chemical evolution is well documented in K-feldspar, where the albite component is highest in porphyroclasts within S fabric, lower in the newly formed grains within microcracks and nearly absent in matrix grains in the well developed C bands. The chemical variation between primary and secondary new-formed micas was clearly identified by the Mg-Ti-Na content. The microstructural analysis documents a progressive decrease in quartz grain size and increasing interconnectivity of K-feldspar and white mica towards more mature shear bands. The contact-frequency analysis demonstrates that the phase distribution in shear bands tends to evolve from quartz aggregate distribution via randomization to K-feldspar aggregate distribution. The boundary preferred orientation is absent in quartz-quartz contacts either inside of outside the C bands, while it changes from random to parallel to the C band for the K-feldspar and and K-feldspar-quartz boundaries. The lack of crystallographic preferred orientation of the individual phases in the mixed matrix of the C planes suggests a dominant diffusion-assisted grain boundary sliding deformation mechanism. In the later stages of shear band development, the deformation is accommodated by crystal plasticity of white mica in micaceous bands. The crystallographic and microstructural data thus indicate two important switches in deformation mechanisms, from (i) brittle to Newtonian viscous behavior in the initial stages of shear band evolution and from (ii) Newtonian viscous to power law in the later evolutionary stages. The evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone thus document the interplay between deformation mechanisms and chemical reactions in deformed granitoids.

  11. Characterization of winds through the rotor plane using a phased array SODAR and recommendations for future work.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne

    2010-02-01

    Portable remote sensing devices are increasingly needed to cost effectively characterize the meteorology at a potential wind energy site as the size of modern wind turbines increase. A short term project co-locating a Sound Detection and Ranging System (SODAR) with a 200 meter instrumented meteorological tower at the Texas Tech Wind Technology Field Site was performed to collect and summarize wind information through an atmospheric layer typical of utility scale rotor plane depths. Data collected identified large speed shears and directional shears that may lead to unbalanced loads on the rotors. This report identifies suggestions for incorporation of additional data in wind resource assessments and a few thoughts on the potential for using a SODAR or SODAR data to quantify or investigate other parameters that may be significant to the wind industry.

  12. Controls of dust emission fluxes and wind erosion threshold on a wet playa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggs, G.; King, J.; Thomas, D. S.; Washington, R.

    2012-12-01

    The control of dust emissions from crusted surfaces is both highly variable and difficult to measure directly. Seasonal changes in moisture availability, temperature, evaporation, surface roughness, and sediment supply result in a highly complex surface condition that remains to be fully described in the context of wind erosion potential. A highly intensive project on Sua Pan, Botswana using the PI-SWERL (portable wind tunnel) combined with surface measurements of crust and soil properties has led to a new understanding of the controls on wind erosion from these surfaces. The PI-SWERL is a highly portable wind tunnel that applies a wind shear to the surface using a motor-controlled rotating annular blade and measures resulting dust emissions with a DustTrak dust monitor. We undertook a sequence of tests with the PI-SWERL to obtain both the wind erosion threshold (using a slowly increasing shear velocity) and a dust emission flux (using a constant shear velocity) across a 12 km by 12 km grid across the pan surface. A total of just under 1000 wind tunnel tests and 2000 correlated measurements of a variety of surface properties including crust thickness, surface and subsurface soil moisture, shearing strength (shear vane), normal stress resistance (penetrometer), and surface roughness were conducted in August 2011. These results show that wind erosion potential is best described by measurements of normal stress resistance rather than shearing strength at low dust emission fluxes, but despite their frequent use in wind erosion studies of crusted surfaces neither metric provided a good explanation of higher dust emission fluxes. Surface soil moisture explained the most variation in both dust emissions and wind erosion threshold although much variation remains unexplained. Our results suggested that combining measurements of surface roughness, soil moisture, and crust thickness provided a reasonable explanation of wind erosion potential on the salt pan surface. As pan surfaces can exhibit a range of aerodynamic roughness lengths over three orders of magnitude the small-scale partition of wind stress could be considered. Surface soil moisture also had a very large range in which a relatively sharp threshold was found to increase dust emissions when combined with other surface factors. Although the role of surface moisture in dust emissions is understood it remains a very difficult (yet critical) parameter to measure and a call for more precise estimations of this metric is highly encouraged.

  13. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  14. Wind Power Outlook 2004

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-01-01

    The brochure, expected to be updated annually, provides the American Wind Energy Association's (AWAE's) up-to-date assessment of the wind industry. It provides a summary of the state of wind power in the U.S., including the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. It provides summary information on the growth of the industry, policy-related factors such as the federal wind energy production tax credit status, comparisons with natural gas, and public views on wind energy.

  15. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  16. An Icelandic wind atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nna Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldr; Arason, rur; Jnasson, Kristjn

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  17. An analysis for aerodynamic performance of the vertical axis 'phi' type rotor wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, D.-J.

    A method of calculating the aerodynamic performance of the vertical axis phi-type rotor wind turbine is proposed. Two integral equations determining the work output of the turbine are derived from a stream sheet taken on a differential length of the rotor along the vertical axis. Given the equality of the equations, the factor of influence and the wind energy efficiency of the stream sheet are obtained. By the summation of the efficiencies of all the stream sheets, the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine is determined regardless of differences in shape or the shear effects of the wind.

  18. How to create mylonitic shear zones in the presence of shear heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielmann, Marcel; Rozel, Antoine; Kaus, Boris; Ricard, Yanick

    2013-04-01

    Lithospheric-scale shear zones are commonly defined as regions inhomogeneous and localized deformation. Strain softening has been demonstrated to be necessary for localization in those shear zones, but there is still debate about the physical cause of this softening. Here, we investigate the interplay between two mechanisms that have been suggested to have a significant impact on lithospheric localization: shear heating and grain size reduction. Shear heating has been suggested to play an important role in i) creating deep focus as well as intermediate-depth earthquakes (Ogawa (1987), Kelemen and Hirth (2007)) and ii) creating lithospheric-scale shear zones, thus creating a weak decoupling interface that enables subsequent subduction initiation (Kaus and Podlatchikov (2006), Crameri and Kaus (2010)). As natural shear zones typically have a significantly reduced grain size, it has been put forward that grain size reduction provides the necessary strain softening to localize deformation. As grain size reduces, the dominant deformation mechanism switches from dislocation to diffusion creep, thus requiring less stress to deform the rock. Usually, the equilibrium grain size is thought to follow a piezometric relationship, thus indicating the stress under which a shear zone deformed. Recent work (Austin and Evans (2007), Rozel et al. (2011)) suggests that the equilibrium grain size is not dependent on stress, but rather on the deformational work. In our study, we employ the grain size evolution law of Rozel et al. and use 1D viscoelastic numerical models of simple shear deformation to investigate the influence of both weakening mechanisms and their interaction for a variety of boundary conditions. We find that grain size reduction in pure olivine does not localize very efficiently, as grain size very rapidly reaches a steady state. Even when a fraction of the deformational work is used by grain size reduction processes, shear heating is found to localize very efficiently (Kaus & Podlatchikov (2005), Braeck et al. (2009)) and the significant temperature increase induced by shear heating severely affects the grain size in the shear zone. Generally, we find that the elevated temperature inside the shear zone results in a larger grain size inside the shear zone compared to the surrounding rock matrix. This finding is not compatible with field observations, where shear zones are usually characterized by small grain sizes. This indicates that further mechanisms are needed to keep either the grain size small (e.g. pinning by secondary phases (Herwegh et. al (2011), Bercovici and Ricard (2012) ) or to limit the temperature increase inside the shear zone.

  19. Shear and Ellipticity in Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeton, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Seljak, U.

    1997-06-01

    Galaxies modeled as singular isothermal ellipsoids with an axis ratio distribution similar to the observed axis ratio distribution of E and S0 galaxies are statistically consistent with both the observed numbers of two-image and four-image lenses and the inferred ellipticities of individual lenses. However, no four-image lens is well fitted by the model (typical ?2/Ndof ~ 20), the axis ratio of the model can be significantly different from that of the observed lens galaxy, and the major axes of the model and the galaxy may be slightly misaligned. We found that models with a second, independent, external shear axis could fit the data well (typical ?2/Ndof ~ 1), while adding the same number of extra parameters to the radial mass distribution does not produce such a dramatic improvement in the fit. An independent shear axis can be produced by misalignments between the luminous galaxy and its dark matter halo, or by external shear perturbations due to galaxies and clusters correlated with the primary lens or along the line of sight. We estimate that the external shear perturbations have no significant effect on the expected numbers of two-image and four-image lenses but that they can be important perturbations in individual lens models. However, the amplitudes of the external shears required to produce good fits are larger than our estimates for typical external shear perturbations (10%-15% shear instead of 1%-3%), suggesting that the origin of the extra angular structure must be intrinsic to the primary lens galaxy in most cases.

  20. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-12-01

    The impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapid intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, ?b, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by ?m, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller ?m not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.

  1. Wind speed forecasting for wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    With more wind energy being integrated into our grid systems, forecasting wind energy has become a necessity for all market participants. Recognizing the market demands, a physical approach to site-specific hub-height wind speed forecasting system has been developed. This system is driven by the outputs from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. A simple interpolation approach benchmarks the forecasting accuracy inherited from GEM. Local, site specific winds are affected on a local scale by a variety of factors including representation of the land surface and local boundary-layer process over heterogeneous terrain which have been a continuing challenge in NWP models like GEM with typical horizontal resolution of order 15-km. In order to resolve these small scale effects, a wind energy industry standard model, WAsP, is coupled with GEM to improve the forecast. Coupling the WAsP model with GEM improves the overall forecasts, but remains unsatisfactory for forecasting winds with abrupt surface condition changes. Subsequently in this study, a new coupler that uses a 2-D RANS model of boundary-layer flow over surface condition changes with improved physics has been developed to further improve the forecasts when winds coming from a water surface to land experience abrupt changes in surface conditions. It has been demonstrated that using vertically averaged wind speeds to represent geostrophic winds for input into the micro-scale models could reduce forecast errors. The hub-height wind speed forecasts could be further improved using a linear MOS approach. The forecasting system has been evaluated, using a wind energy standard evaluation matrix, against data from an 80-m mast located near the north shore of Lake Erie. Coupling with GEM-LAM and a power conversion model using a theoretical power curve have also been investigated. For hub-height wind speeds GEM appears to perform better with a 15-Ian grid than the high resolution GEM-2.5Ian version at the validation site.

  2. Divergent Shear Thinning and Shear Thickening Behavior of Supramolecular Polymer Networks in Semidilute Entangled Polymer Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghua; Liu, Chen-Yang; Craig, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The steady shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers and semidilute entangled solutions of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) is reported. The steady shear behavior of the networks depends on the dissociation rate and association rate of the cross-linkers, the concentration of cross-linkers, and the concentration of the polymer solution. The divergent steady shear behaviorshear thinning versus shear thickeningof samples with identical structure but different cross-linker dynamics (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1683-1686) is further explored in this paper. The divergent steady shear behavior for networks with different cross-linkers is connected to a competition between different time scales: the average time that a cross-linker remains open (?1) and the local relaxation time of a segment of polymer chain (?segment). When ?1 is larger than ?segment, shear thickening is observed. When ?1 is smaller than ?segment, only shear thinning is observed. PMID:21547008

  3. Influence of shear heating on microstructurally defined plate boundary shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, John P.

    2015-10-01

    In plate-boundary scale ductile shear zones defined by microstructural weakening, shear heating may lead to a temperature increase over 5 m.y. of up to 80C just below the brittle ductile transition, up to 120C just below the Moho, and to thermal boundary zones tens of km wide on either side of the shear zone. Where rock strength is highest, shear zones are narrow (?1km), and thermal gradients within the shear zone itself are low, so there is no tendency for increased localization. Heating results in thermal weakening, but this is partly offset by grain growth related to the decrease in stress. In shear zones of the order of 10km width, shear stress, strain rate, and hence heat generation are lower, and thermal gradients are insufficient to cause additional strain localization. Temperature increases in the mid-crust are of the order of 10C, insufficient to cause partial melting or an increase in metamorphic grade. In the upper mantle, shear zones may be 50km or more wide, and the temperature increase is less than 20C in 5m.y., but temperature differences between center and margin may enhance the strain rate at the center by up to 18%.

  4. Shear-current effect in a turbulent convection with a large-scale shear.

    PubMed

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2007-04-01

    The shear-current effect in a nonrotating homogeneous turbulent convection with a large-scale constant shear is studied. The large-scale velocity shear causes anisotropy of turbulent convection, which produces the mean electromotive force epsilon (W) proportional to W x J and the mean electric current along the original mean magnetic field, where W is the background mean vorticity due to the shear and J is the mean electric current. This results in a large-scale dynamo even in a nonrotating and nonhelical homogeneous sheared turbulent convection, whereby the alpha effect vanishes. It is found that turbulent convection promotes the shear-current dynamo instability, i.e., the heat flux causes positive contribution to the shear-current effect. However, there is no dynamo action due to the shear-current effect for small hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers even in a turbulent convection, if the spatial scaling for the turbulent correlation time is tau(k) proportionalto to k-2, where k is the small-scale wave number. PMID:17500991

  5. Repeated buckling of composite shear panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Josef; Weller, Tanchum

    1990-01-01

    Failures in service of aerospace structures and research at the Technion Aircraft Structures Laboratory have revealed that repeatedly buckled stiffened shear panels might be susceptible to premature fatigue failures. Extensive experimental and analytical studies have been performed at Technion on repeated buckling, far in excess of initial buckling, for both metal and composite shear panels with focus on the influence of the surrounding structure. The core of the experimental investigation consisted of repeated buckling and postbuckling tests on Wagner beams in a three-point loading system under realistic test conditions. The effects of varying sizes of stiffeners, of the magnitude of initial buckling loads, of the panel aspect ratio and of the cyclic shearing force, V sub cyc, were studied. The cyclic to critical shear buckling ratios, (V sub cyc/V sub cr) were on the high side, as needed for efficient panel design, yet all within possible flight envelopes. The experiments were supplemented by analytical and numerical analyses. For the metal shear panels the test and numerical results were synthesized into prediction formulas, which relate the life of the metal shear panels to two cyclic load parameters. The composite shear panels studied were hybrid beams with graphite/epoxy webs bonded to aluminum alloy frames. The test results demonstrated that composite panels were less fatigue sensitive than comparable metal ones, and that repeated buckling, even when causing extensive damage, did not reduce the residual strength by more than 20 percent. All the composite panels sustained the specified fatigue life of 250,000 cycles. The effect of local unstiffened holes on the durability of repeatedly buckled shear panels was studied for one series of the metal panels. Tests on 2024 T3 aluminum panels with relatively small unstiffened holes in the center of the panels demonstrated premature fatigue failure, compared to panels without holes. Preliminary tests on two graphite epoxy shear panels with small holes in the center showed no similar fatigue life degradation and no shift in failure mode. Further tests on the effect of holes are in progress.

  6. Extreme model reduction of shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qawasmeh, Bashar Rafee

    The aim of this research is to develop nonlinear low-dimensional models (LDMs) to describe vortex dynamics in shear layers. A modified Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection method is developed to obtain models at extremely low dimension for shear layers. The idea is to dynamically scale the shear layer along y direction to factor out the shear layer growth and capture the dynamics by only a couple of modes. The models are developed for two flows, incompressible spatially developing and weakly compressible temporally developing shear layers, respectively. To capture basic dynamics, the low-dimensional models require only two POD modes for each wavenumber/frequency. Thus, a two-mode model is capable of representing single-wavenumber/frequency dynamics such as vortex roll-up, and a four-mode model is capable of representing the nonlinear dynamics involving a fundamental wavenumber/frequency and its subharmonic, such as vortex pairing/merging. Most of the energy is captured by the first mode of each wavenumber/frequency, the second POD mode, however, plays a critical role and needs to be included. In the thesis, we first apply the approach on temporally developing weakly compressible shear layers. In compressible flows, the thermodynamic variables are dynamically important, and must be considered. We choose isentropic Navier-Stokes equations for simplicity, and choose a proper inner product to present both kinetic energy and thermal energy. Two cases of convective Mach numbers are studied for low compressibility and moderate compressibility. Moreover, we study the sensitivity of the compressible four-mode model to several flow parameters: Mach number, the strength of initial perturbations of the fundamental and its subharmonic, and Reynolds number. Secondly we apply the approach on spatially developing incompressible shear layers with periodicity in time. We consider a streamwise parabolic form of the Navier-Stokes equations. When we add arbitrary excitation at different harmonics to the model, we observe the promoting or delaying/eliminating of vortex merging events as a result of mode competition. To study coherent structures in shear layers, we solve the Direct Lyapunov Exponents (DLEs) to identify the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). The negative-time LCS provide structures similar to the ones shown by flow visualization in experiments. The positive-time LCS are also important in describing the dynamics. Both negative and positive LCS are plotted together to give a complete picture of dynamics in shear layers.

  7. Nonmonotonic flow curves of shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Denn, Morton M.

    2015-05-01

    The discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions is a remarkable phenomenon in which the viscosity can increase by several orders of magnitude at a critical shear rate. It has the appearance of a first-order phase transition between two hypothetical "states" that we have recently identified as Stokes flows with lubricated or frictional contacts, respectively. Here we extend the analogy further by means of stress-controlled simulations and show the existence of a nonmonotonic steady-state flow curve analogous to a nonmonotonic equation of state. While we associate DST with an S -shaped flow curve, at volume fractions above the shear jamming transition the frictional state loses flowability and the flow curve reduces to an arch, permitting the system to flow only at small stresses. Whereas a thermodynamic transition leads to phase separation in the coexistence region, we observe a uniform shear flow all along the thickening transition. A stability analysis suggests that uniform shear may be mechanically stable for the small Reynolds numbers and system sizes in a rheometer.

  8. Shear flow stabilization of Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv, Ioana

    A z-pinch plasma is in principle an efficient and cost-effective way of heating a small amount of matter to high temperatures, while also achieving high densities. In practice, the heating and compression are very nonuniform because z-pinches are very unstable. One of the proposed means of stabilization of the most dangerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability modes, the m=0 ("sausage") and m=1 ("kink"), is to use sheared plasma flow to tear off the instability structure. A detailed study of the linear and nonlinear development of the m=0 instability in the presence of sheared axial flows has been performed in this dissertation. For this purpose we have used a two-dimensional MHD numerical code, MHRDR, to solve the ideal set of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations. In order to accurately study shear flow stabilization of a z-pinch, the code was modified to include periodic boundary conditions and a monotonic van Leer advection algorithm. Linear growth rates obtained with MHRDR were in good agreement with the linear theory (<10% difference). Nonlinear mode coupling and saturation of the sausage instability have been studied for plasma equilibria with and without sheared flows. It was found that sheared flows changed the m=0 development by reducing the linear growth rates, decreasing the saturation amplitude, and modifying the instability spectrum. High spatial frequency modes were stabilized to small amplitudes, and only the long wavelengths continued to grow. Full stabilization was predicted for supersonic plasma flows.

  9. Granular Shear Flow in Varying Gravitational Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.; de Lophem, T.-L.; Michel, P.; Losert, W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their very low surface gravities, asteroids exhibit a number of different geological processes involving granular matter. Understanding the response of this granular material subject to external forces in microgravity conditions is vital to the design of a successful asteroid sub-surface sampling mechanism, and in the interpretation of the fascinating geology on an asteroid. We have designed and flown a Taylor-Couette shear cell to investigate granular flow due to rotational shear forces under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity. The experiments occur under weak compression. First, we present the technical details of the experimental design with particular emphasis on how the equipment has been specifically designed for the parabolic flight environment. Then, we investigate how a steady state granular flow induced by rotational shear forces differs in varying gravitational environments. We find that the effect of constant shearing on the granular material, in a direction perpendicular to the effective acceleration, does not seem to be strongly influenced by gravity. This means that shear bands can form in the presence of a weak gravitational field just as on Earth.

  10. Shear-enhanced adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the development of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, which are the cause of many problems in medical devices and industrial water systems. However the underlying mechanisms of initial bacterial attachment are not fully understood. We have investigated the effects of hydrodynamics on the probability of adsorption and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 on model surfaces under flow, in straight microfluidic channels, and measured the distribution of bacteria residence time as a function of the shear rate. Our main discovery is a counter-intuitive enhanced adhesion as the shear stress is increased over a wide range of shear rates. In order to identify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed experiments with several mutant strains. Our results show that shear-enhanced adhesion is not regulated by primary surface organelles, and that this process is not specific to a certain type of surface, but rather appears a general feature of the adhesive behavior of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that shear-induced adhesion could be a very widespread strategy in nature.

  11. Viscoelasticity and shear thinning of nanoconfined water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Karan; Amandeep, Patil, Shivprasad

    2014-01-01

    Understanding flow properties and phase behavior of water confined to nanometer-sized pores and slits is central to a wide range of problems in science, such as percolation in geology, lubrication of future nano-machines, self-assembly and interactions of biomolecules, and transport through porous media in filtration processes. Experiments with different techniques in the past have reported that viscosity of nanoconfined water increases, decreases, or remains close to bulk water. Here we show that water confined to less than 20-nm-thick films exhibits both viscoelasticity and shear thinning. Typically viscoelasticity and shear thinning appear due to shearing of complex non-Newtonian mixtures possessing a slowly relaxing microstructure. The shear response of nanoconfined water in a range of shear frequencies (5 to 25 KHz) reveals that relaxation time diverges with reducing film thickness. It suggests that slow relaxation under confinement possibly arises due to existence of a critical point with respect to slit width. This criticality is similar to the capillary condensation in porous media.

  12. Viscoelasticity and shear thinning of nanoconfined water.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; Amandeep; Patil, Shivprasad

    2014-01-01

    Understanding flow properties and phase behavior of water confined to nanometer-sized pores and slits is central to a wide range of problems in science, such as percolation in geology, lubrication of future nano-machines, self-assembly and interactions of biomolecules, and transport through porous media in filtration processes. Experiments with different techniques in the past have reported that viscosity of nanoconfined water increases, decreases, or remains close to bulk water. Here we show that water confined to less than 20-nm-thick films exhibits both viscoelasticity and shear thinning. Typically viscoelasticity and shear thinning appear due to shearing of complex non-Newtonian mixtures possessing a slowly relaxing microstructure. The shear response of nanoconfined water in a range of shear frequencies (5 to 25 KHz) reveals that relaxation time diverges with reducing film thickness. It suggests that slow relaxation under confinement possibly arises due to existence of a critical point with respect to slit width. This criticality is similar to the capillary condensation in porous media. PMID:24580317

  13. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-05-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d33 and the d31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances.

  14. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S.P. )

    1992-12-01

    An electrostatic ion cyclotron instability driven by sheared velocity flow perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field is investigated in the local approximation. The dispersion equation, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter, is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and solved numerically. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (but modified by the shear) with the growth rate of the individual harmonics overlapping in wavenumber. At small values of the shear parameter, the instability exists in two branches, one at long wavelength, [kappa][rho][sub i] [approximately] 0.5, and one at short wavelength, [kappa][rho][sub i] > 1.5 ([kappa][rho][sub i] is the wavenumber normalized to the ion gyroradius). At larger values of the shear parameter only the longer wavelength branch persists. The growth rate of the long wavelength mode, maximized over wavenumber and frequency, increases monotonically with the shear parameter. Properties of the instability are compared to those of Ganguli et al. obtained in the nonlocal limit.

  15. Shear Jamming in Frictionless Particulate Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Thibault; O'Hern, Corey S.; Behringer, R. P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    We numerically study two-dimensional packings of frictionless bidisperse disks created using compresive and simple shearing protocols. To create jammed packings by compression, we start N particles from random positions and grow their diameters followed by relaxation of particle overlaps using energy minimization. These compressed packings exist over a range of packing fractions ?. As a result, during compression the system may reach a ? above the minimum value before jamming. If this unjammed packing is then sheared by a strain ?, it can jam. Using a combination of compression and shearing, we can define jamming protocols as trajectories in the (? , ?) plane that yield jammed packings. In this plane, we can reach a particular point (?n ,?n) in many ways. We will focus on two protocols: (1) shearing to ?n at ? = 0 followed by compression to ?n at ? = gamman and (2) compression to ?n at ? = 0 followed by shearing to ?n at ? =?n . For protocol 1, we find that the probability of finding a jammed packing at ? and ?, P (? , ?) = Q (?) is indepependent of ?. For protocol 2, we use a simple theory to deduce P (? , ?) from Q (?) . W. M. Keck Foundation Science and Engineering Grant.

  16. Shear Jamming in Frictionless Particulate Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertran, Thibault; O'Hern, Corey S.; Behringer, R. P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    We numerically study two-dimensional packings of frictionless bidisperse disks created using compresive and simple shearing protocols. To create jammed packings by compression, we start N particles from random positions and grow their diameters followed by relaxation of particle overlaps using energy minimization. These compressed packings exist over a range of packing fractions ?. As a result, during compression the system may reach a ? above the minimum value before jamming. If this unjammed packing is then sheared by a strain ?, it can jam. Using a combination of compression and shearing, we can define jamming protocols as trajectories in the (? , ?) plane that yield jammed packings. In this plane, we can reach a particular point (?n ,?n) in many ways. We will focus on two protocols: (1) shearing to ?n at ? = 0 followed by compression to ?n at ? = gamman and (2) compression to ?n at ? = 0 followed by shearing to ?n at ? =?n . For protocol 1, we find that the probability of finding a jammed packing at ? and ?, P (? , ?) = Q (?) is indepependent of ?. For protocol 2, we use a simple theory to deduce P (? , ?) from Q (?) . W. M. Keck Foundation Science and Engineering Grant

  17. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce themore » specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .« less

  18. Colloidal Aggregate Structure under Shear by USANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony K.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.; Nakatani, Alan I.

    2015-03-01

    Paints are complex formulations of polymeric binders, inorganic pigments, dispersants, surfactants, colorants, rheology modifiers, and other additives. A commercially successful paint exhibits a desired viscosity profile over a wide shear rate range from 10-5 s-1 for settling to >104 s-1 for rolling, and spray applications. Understanding paint formulation structure is critical as it governs the paint viscosity profile. However, probing paint formulation structure under shear is a challenging task due to the formulation complexity containing structures with different hierarchical length scales and their alterations under the influence of an external flow field. In this work mesoscale structures of paint formulations under shear are investigated using Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (rheo-USANS). Contrast match conditions were utilized to independently probe the structure of latex binder particle aggregates and the TiO2 pigment particle aggregates. Rheo-USANS data revealed that the aggregates are fractal in nature and their self-similarity dimensions and correlations lengths depend on the chemistry of the binder particles, the type of rheology modifier present and the shear stress imposed upon the formulation. These results can be explained in the framework of diffusion and reaction limited transient aggregates structure evolution under simple shear.

  19. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2011-10-01

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  20. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermes, Laurie G.; Witt, Arthur; Smith, Steven D.; Klingle-Wilson, Diana; Morris, Dale; Stumpf, Gregory J.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system was primarily designed to address the operational needs of pilots in the avoidance of low-altitude wind shears upon takeoff and landing at airports. One of the primary methods of wind-shear detection for the TDWR system is the gust-front detection algorithm. The algorithm is designed to detect gust fronts that produce a wind-shear hazard and/or sustained wind shifts. It serves the hazard warning function by providing an estimate of the wind-speed gain for aircraft penetrating the gust front. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms together serve a planning function by providing forecasted gust-front locations and estimates of the horizontal wind vector behind the front, respectively. This information is used by air traffic managers to determine arrival and departure runway configurations and aircraft movements to minimize the impact of wind shifts on airport capacity. This paper describes the gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms to be fielded in the initial TDWR systems. Results of a quantitative performance evaluation using Doppler radar data collected during TDWR operational demonstrations at the Denver, Kansas City, and Orlando airports are presented. The algorithms were found to be operationally useful by the FAA airport controllers and supervisors.