Sample records for wind shear

  1. Fighting wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A “coherent and sustained program” of improved radar detection of weather, pilot training, and better communication between pilots and air controllers can greatly reduce the risk of wind shear to airplanes landing or taking off, according to a National Research Council (NRC) committee.Wind shear, characterized by winds rapidly changing direction and speed, has caused several serious accidents in recent years; among the most notable is the July 8, 1982, crash of a Pan American World Airlines jetliner at the New Orleans International Airport, which killed 153 persons. Following the accident, Congress directed the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to contract with the NRC to study wind shear.

  2. Wind shear radar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

  3. Wind shear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techniques for forecasting and detecting a type of wind shear called microbursts are being tested this month in an operational program at Denver's Stapleton International Airport as part of an effort to reduce hazards to airplanes and passengers.Wind shear, which can be spawned by convective storms, can occur as a microburst. These downbursts of cool air are usually recognizable as a visible rain shaft beneath a thundercloud. Sometimes, however, the rain shaft evaporates before reaching the ground, leaving the downdraft invisible. Although thunderstorms are traditionally avoided by airplane pilots, these invisible downdrafts also harbor hazards in what usually appear to be safe skies. When the downdraft reaches the earth's surface, the downdraft spreads out horizontally, much like a stream of water gushing from a garden hose on a concrete surface, explained John McCarthy, director of the operational program. Airplanes can encounter trouble when the downdraft from the microburst causes sudden shifts in wind direction, which may reduce lift on the wing, an especially dangerous situation during takeoff.

  4. Continuous wave laser for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Loren

    1991-01-01

    Details of the design and development of a continuous-wave heterodyne carbon dioxide laser which has wind shear detection capabilities are given in viewgraph form. The goal of the development was to investigate the lower cost CW (rather than pulsed) lidar option for look-ahead wind shear detection from aircraft. The device has potential utility for ground based wind shear detection at secondary airports where the high cost of a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system is not justifiable.

  5. Shearing wind helicity and thermal wind helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Wu, R. S.; Fang, J.

    2006-07-01

    Helicity is defined as H = V . omega, where V and omega are the velocity and vorticity vectors, respectively. Many works have pointed out that the larger the helicity is, the longer the life cycle of the weather system is. However, the direct relationship of the helicity to the evolution of the weather system is not quite clear. In this paper, the concept of helicity is generalized as shearing wind helicity (SWH). Dynamically, it is found that the average SWH is directly related to the increase of the average cyclonic rotation of the weather system. Physically, it is also pointed out that the SWH, as a matter of fact, is the sum of the torsion terms and the divergence term in the vorticity equation. Thermal wind helicity (TWH), as a derivative of SWH, is also discussed here because it links the temperature field and the vertical wind field. These two quantities may be effective for diagnosing a weather system. This paper applies these two quantities in cylindrical coordinates to study the development of Hurricane Andrew to validate their practical use. Through analyzing the hurricane, it is found that TWH can well describe the characteristics of the hurricane such as the strong convection and release of latent heat. SWH is not only a good quantity for diagnosing the weather system, but also an effective one for diagnosing the development of the hurricane.

  6. Summary Proceedings of a Wind Shear Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Melvin, W. W.; Frost, W.; Camp, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A number of recent program results and current issues were addressed: the data collection phase of the highly successful Joint Airport Weather Study (JAWS) Project and the NASA-B5f7B Gust Gradient Program, the use of these data for flight crew training through educational programs (e.g., films) and with manned flight training simulators, methods for post-accident determination of wind conditions from flight data recorders, the microburst wind shear phenomenon which was positively measured and described the ring vortex as a possible generating mechanism, the optimum flight procedure for use during an unexpected wind shear encounter, evaluation of the low-level wind shear alert system (LLWSAS), and assessment of the demonstrated and viable application of Doppler radar as an operational wind shear warning and detection system.

  7. Wind shear related research at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) real-time decision aiding-aircraft guidance for wind shear avoidance; (2) reducing the thrust-manual recovery strategies; and (3) dynamic behaviour of and aircraft encountering a single axis vortex.

  8. Wind shear and turbulence simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1987-01-01

    The aviation community is increasing its reliance on flight simulators. This is true both in pilot training and in research and development. In moving research concepts through the development pipeline, there is a sequence of events which take place: analysis, ground based simulation, inflight simulation, and flight testing. Increasing fidelity as progress toward the flight testing arena is accompanied by increasing cost. The question that seems to be posed in relation to the meteorological aspects of flight simulation is, How much fidelity is enough and can it be quantified. As a part of the Langley Simulation Technology Program, there are three principal areas of focus, one being improved simulation of weather hazards. A close liaison with the JAWS project was established because of the Langley Simulation Technology interests regarding reliable simulation of severe convective weather phenomena and their impact on aviation systems. Simulation offers the only feasible approach for examining the utility of new technology and new procedures for coping with severe convective weather phenomena such as wind shear. These simulation concepts are discussed in detail.

  9. Flight penetration of wind shear: Control strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Amit S.

    1988-01-01

    Wind shear is a dangerous condition where there is a sharp change in the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity over a short distance or time. This condition is especially dangerous to aircraft during landing and takeoff and can cause a sudden loss of lift and thereby height at a critical time. A numerical simulation showed the effective performance of the Linear Quadratic Regulator and the Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics controllers. The major conclusions are listed and discussed.

  10. Simulated performance of an airborne lidar wind shear detection system

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Kenneth Scott

    1987-01-01

    shear related phenomena and their potential hazard to aviation. Coherent Doppler lidar measurement concepts are presented with empha- sis on atmospheric correction factors to the ideal signal ? to ? noise equation. The contbined cotuputer simulation i... I. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Objective 1. 2 Research Tasks . Page II. THE WIND SHEAR HAZARD 2. 1 The Wind Shear Phenomenon 2. 2 The Microburst Phenomenon 2. 3 Hazard Analysis 2. 4 FAA Response to Wind Shear . III. DOPPLER LIDAR MEASUREMENT OF WIND...

  11. Case history of FAA/SRI wind shear models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlickenmaier, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the development of the FAA/SRI wind fields, it is important to understand the operating philosophy of the FAA's Wind Shear Program Office. The goal of the office was to ensure an integrated solution to the wind shear problem which addressed three area: ground based equipment and coordination; airborne systems and procedures; and weather prediction. This triply addressed goal was central to the development of the wind fields. The primary user of the wind shear modeling during the FAA's program was airborne simulation. The project requirement was to use wind shear models that resulted from accidents so that effective procedures and/or equipment could be found for hazardous wind shear encounters. The wind shear model development is discussed in detail.

  12. Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.A.; Goldstein, M.L.; Ghosh, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Matthaeus, W.H. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The authors use a two-dimensional, incompressible MHD spectral code to establish that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ({open_quotes}Alfvenicity{close_quotes}) at small scales. They find that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. While the fluctuations thus produced are not Alfvenic, they are nearly equipartitioned between magnetic and kinetic energy. The authors report simulations with Alfvenic fluctuations at high wave numbers, both with and without shear layers and find that it is the low cross helicity at low wave numbers that is critical to the cross helicity evolution, rather than the geometry of the flow or the dominance of kinetic energy at large scales. The fluctuations produced by shear effects are shown to evolve similarly but more slowly in the presence of a larger mean field and to be anisotropic with a preferred direction of spectral transfer perpendicular to the mean field. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of HMD turbulence, and thus seems in many respects to be an instance of a more generic turbulent evolution rather than due to specific conditions in the solar wind. 75 refs., 18 figs.

  13. Optimal recovery from microburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1993-01-01

    Severe low-altitude wind variability represents an infrequent but significant hazard to aircraft taking off or landing. During the period from 1964 to 1985, microburst wind shear was a contributing factor in at least 26 civil aviation accidents involving nearly 500 fatalities and over 200 injuries. A microburst is a strong localized downdraft that strikes the ground, creating winds that diverge radially from the impact point. The physics of microbursts have only been recently understood in detail, and it has been found that effective recovery from inadvertent encounters may require piloting techniques that are counter-intuitive to flight crews. The goal of this work was to optimize the flight path of a twin-jet transport aircraft encountering a microburst during approach to landing. The objective was to execute an escape maneuver that maintained safe ground clearance and an adequate stall margin during the climb-out portion of the trajectory.

  14. Microbursts as an aviation wind shear hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The downburst-related accidents or near-misses of jet aircraft have been occurring at the rate of once or twice a year since 1975. A microburst with its field comparable to the length of runways can induce a wind shear which endangers landing or liftoff aircraft; the latest near miss landing of a 727 aircraft at Atlanta, Ga. in 1979 indicated that some microbursts are too small to trigger the warning device of the anemometer network at major U.S. airports. The nature of microbursts and their possible detection by Doppler radar are discussed, along with proposed studies of small-scale microbursts.

  15. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  16. Wind Behavior of Buildings with and without Shear Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasikan, Alfa; Rajendran, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    Shear walls are specially designed structural walls which are incorporated in buildings to resist lateral forces that are produced in the plane of wall due to wind, earthquake and flexural members. This paper presents the study and comparison of the difference between the wind behavior of buildings with and without shear wall using Staad pro

  17. Pilot-aircraft system reponse to wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonlinear aircraft motion and automatic control model is expanded to incorporate the human pilot into simulations of aircraft response to wind to wind shear. The human pilot is described by a constant gains lag filter. Two runs are carried out using pilot transfer functions. Fixed-stick, autopilot, and manned computer simulations are made with an aircraft having characteristics of a small commuter type aircraft flown through longitudinal winds measured by a Doppler radar beamed along the glide slope. Simulations are also made flying an aircraft through sinusoidal head wind and tail wind shears at the phugoid frequency to evaluate the response of manned aircraft in thunderstorm wind environments.

  18. Cockpit display of hazardous wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information on cockpit display of wind shear information is given in viewgraph form. Based on the current status of windshear sensors and candidate data dissemination systems, the near-term capabilities for windshear avoidance will most likely include: (1) Ground-based detection: TDWR (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar), LLWAS (Low-Level Windshear Alert System), Automated PIREPS; (2) Ground-Air datalinks: Air traffic control voice channels, Mode-S digital datalink, ACARS alphanumeric datalink. The possible datapaths for integration of these systems are illustrated in a diagram. In the future, airborne windshear detection systems such as lidars, passive IR detectors, or airborne Doppler radars may also become available. Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.

  19. Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Vertical Wind Shear.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Martin L. M.; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2004-08-01

    The structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones (TCs) in environmental vertical wind shear (VWS) are investigated in this study using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5). Triply nested domains of 36-, 12-, and 4-km resolution are used with fully explicit moisture physics in the 4-km domain. Idealized environments with easterly shears of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 m s-1 between 800 and 200 hPa are applied on an f plane. Under small values of VWS (2 and 4 m s-1), the TC intensities are similar to that of the control (CTRL; i.e., no VWS) after initial adjustments. The TCs under 6 and 8 m s-1 of VWS are not as intense, although they do not weaken during the simulation. On the other hand, the TC in 10 m s-1 of VWS weakened significantly.Given the same VWS, the TC intensity is also found to be sensitive to TC size. Experiments with TCs with a smaller radius of 15 m s-1 wind reveal that while the TC in 2 m s-1 of VWS remains as intense as the CTRL, the TC in the 4 m s-1 VWS case weakened significantly to a minimal hurricane by the end of the simulation. A VWS of 6 m s-1 is strong enough to cause dissipation of the TC in 72 h. These results indicate that the size of a TC has to be taken into account in determining the intensity change of a TC in VWS.In the 10 m s-1 VWS case, the average temperature over the lower half of the troposphere within 50 km from the TC surface center is higher than that of the CTRL throughout the simulation. Such a warming, though of a small magnitude, is also observed for a brief period in the upper half of the troposphere before the rapid weakening of the TC and is related to the asymmetry of temperature required for a tilt of the vortex axis. The evolution of the vortex tilt is found to be similar to the dry simulations in previous studies, with the midlevel center (? = 0.525) located mainly in the southeast quadrant of the surface center. A tendency for the midlevel center to rotate about the surface center is also observed. These results support the idea that the resistance to vertical tilt by the mutual rotation between the low-level and midlevel centers is also valid in the moist simulations.It is hypothesized that the secondary circulation and the associated diabatic heating reduce the vertical tilt and the weakening. Condensation heating offsets the anomalous cooling effect due to the anomalous rising motion ahead of the vortex tilt. For small VWS, the vertical motion asymmetry is not strong enough to destroy the complete secondary circulation and the eyewall. As a result, a large temperature asymmetry and the associated vortex tilt cannot develop. Furthermore, there is no entrainment of cool/dry air in the upper troposphere. Therefore, TCs under small shears can be as intense as the CTRL.Large-scale asymmetries in the form of anticyclones found in previous studies are also observed. These asymmetries are apparently related to the change of shears near the TCs. While the shears at outer radii stay roughly constant with time, the shears near the TC centers can have large temporal fluctuations both in magnitude and orientation. This result suggests that the location at which the VWS is estimated in observational studies could be important in determining the relationship between VWS and TC intensity change.


  20. Shear at the surface of a lake in light winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Bernard C.

    1991-04-01

    Standard computer cards released at 1-min intervals from the same point beneath a hydrometeorological tower were observed to segregate by color according to their depth of integration of the current. Green cards floated flat at the lake surface. Orange cards, on the other hand, curved downward when placed on the lake surface and averaged the currents in the top 1 cm. The separation of the cards into two distinct plumes resulted from wind-directed shear in the first centimeter below the surface that was superimposed upon a barotropic current flowing crosswind. Using time-lapse aerial photography, the magnitude and direction of the shear was quantified. The mean shear in the top cm was 3.5 s-1 and was aligned with the mean wind direction. The wind-directed shear was similar to that expected for a viscous sublayer in light winds (1.3-1.8 m s-1).

  1. An experimental cockpit display for TDWR wind shear alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Daly, Peter M.; Demillo, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The first successful ground-to-air data link and cockpit display of terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) wind shear warnings in real-time are reported. During the summer of 1990, wind shear warnings generated by the TDWR testbed radar at Orlando, Florida, were transmitted in real-time to a research aircraft performing microburst penetrations. Automatic delivery of TDWR wind shear warnings potentially result in decreased controller workload and improved pilot information. Pilot responses indicate that the information provided by the cockpit displays was useful in visualizing the location of wind shear hazards. The graphical display of microburst hazards provided better information than that currently provided by ATC verbal messages and pilot reports. This information was useful in assessing the microburst hazard, deciding whether to continue the approach, and planning escape maneuvers.

  2. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmon, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear on 31 May 1984 is discussed by an airline employee. The specs of the plane are given, the weather conditions are listed, and the actions taken by the flight crew are discussed.

  3. Influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1988-01-01

    The aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters is investigated and characterized. The wind shear effect is computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitudes if the aerodynamic effects are demonstrated by computation of the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and horizontal stability configuration on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results indicate that as much as 20 percent of the control authority of the airplane may be required to counteract the wind-shear-induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

  4. Study of wind shear over forested areas around airport runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, Alexander V.; Danilkin, Evgeniy A.; Nuternan, Roman B.; Terenteva, Mariya V.

    2014-11-01

    A micro-scale meteorological model has been developed to estimate detailed wind conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer near an airport taking into account the influence of buildings with different number of floors, vegetation areas and heterogeneity of underlying surface. Modeling results help to identify the low-altitude wind shear influencing flight performance of taking off and landing aircrafts.

  5. Quantifying shear-induced wave transformations in the solar wind

    E-print Network

    Grigol Gogoberidze; Andria Rogava; Stefaan Poedts

    2007-03-20

    The possibility of velocity shear-induced linear transformations of different magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind is studied both analytically and numerically. A quantitative analysis of the wave transformation processes for all possible plasma-$\\beta$ regimes is performed. By applying the obtained criteria for effective wave coupling to the solar wind parameters, we show that velocity shear-induced linear transformations of Alfv\\'en waves into magneto-acoustic waves could effectively take place for the relatively low-frequency Alfv\\'en waves in the energy containing interval. The obtained results are in a good qualitative agreement with the observed features of density perturbations in the solar wind.

  6. Study of the Low Level Wind Shear using AMDAR reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlea, Ana-Denisa; Pietrisi, Mirela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effects of the wind shear on aircraft flights, in particularly when it appears on path of take-off or landing phase which is the most troublesome phase. This phenomenon has a lot of generating sources as: convection, frontal surfaces, strong surface wind coupled with local topography, breezes (either sea or mountain originated), mountain waves or low level temperature inversions. Low Level Jet is also a most frequent cause of Low Level Wind Shear. It has a lot of generating causes, but in Romania the most encountered is the presence of a Mediterranean low in southeastern part of Europe mainly in winter, sometimes in the first days of spring or the last days of autumn. It generates Low Level Wind Shear between surface and up to 600m, affecting approaching, landing or take-off phases of an aircraft flight. Diagnosis of meteorological general and local conditions and presence of Low Level Jet- generating Low Level Wind Shear is made using Meteo-France ARPEGE products model and ALARO high resolution model dedicated to Romanian area. The study is focused on use of real-time and in situ data as AMDAR (Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay) registrations with verification of a mobile Doppler SODAR registrations-("SOnic Detection And Ranging" system -PCS.2000- Metek manufactured by Meteorologische Messtechnik GMBH) in the processes of estimation of the quantitative and qualitative manifestation of Low Level Wind Shear. The results will be used to improve the timing and the accuracy of the Low Level Wind Shear forecasting for the aerodrome area.

  7. Simulation model of wind turbine 3p torque oscillations due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale S. L. Dolan; Peter W. Lehn

    2006-01-01

    To determine the control structures and possible power quality issues, the dynamic torque generated by the blades of a wind turbine must be represented. This paper presents an analytical formulation of the generated aerodynamic torque of a three-bladed wind turbine including the effects of wind shear and tower shadow. The comprehensive model includes turbine-specific parameters such as radius, height, and

  8. Simulation Model of Wind Turbine 3p Torque Oscillations due to Wind Shear and Tower Shadow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale S. L. Dolan; P. W. Lehn

    2006-01-01

    To determine control structures and possible power quality issues, the dynamic torque generated by the blades of a wind turbine must be represented. This paper presents an analytical formulation of the generated aerodynamic torque of a three bladed wind turbine including effects of wind shear and tower shadow. The comprehensive model includes turbine specific parameters such as radius, height, and

  9. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  10. Analysis of low-altitude wind speed and direction shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Horizontal wind profile measurements recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower Facility at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., are analyzed to evaluate wind shears known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Twenty 5-s intervals of high (between 10 and 18 m/s) and gale force (18 to 33 m/s) surface winds provided instantaneous recordings every 0.1 s per speed, direction, and tower level from 3-150 m. Mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) and graphical (percentage frequency distribution) descriptions of absolute, positive, and negative speed and direction shears with altitude (six vertical layers) and along flight path (one horizontal distance) are presented as functions of the intensity categories and significant values.

  11. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  12. The Effects of Abrupt Wind Shears in the Solar Wind on the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, J.; Boudouridis, A.; Birn, J.; Denton, M.

    2014-12-01

    The solar wind is filled sudden velocity shears. The shears take the form of vorticity layers co-located with current sheets. The velocity vector makes its change in a few seconds. For shear layers with vector velocity changes greater than 50 km/s, an average of 12 shear layers pass the Earth per day. Global magnetospheric MHD simulations with four different simulation codes have been performed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) to examine the reaction of the Earth to the solar-wind velocity shears. All 4 simulation codes predict comet-like disconnections of the magnetotail, the magnetosheath, and the bow shock on the flanks as a shear layer passes the Earth. The simulation codes also predict sudden changes in the cross-polar-cap potential and ionospheric Joule dissipation as the shear layers pass the Earth. A data-analysis research effort is underway to look for signatures of the Earth's reaction to abrupt wind shear events; preliminary results of that effort will be discussed.

  13. Wind Shear/Turbulence Inputs to Flight Simulation and Systems Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L. (editor); Frost, Walter (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for industry, universities, and government to assess current status and likely future requirements for application of flight simulators to aviation safety concerns and system certification issues associated with wind shear and atmospheric turbulence. Research findings presented included characterization of wind shear and turbulence hazards based on modeling efforts and quantitative results obtained from field measurement programs. Future research thrusts needed to maximally exploit flight simulators for aviation safety application involving wind shear and turbulence were identified. The conference contained sessions on: Existing wind shear data and simulator implementation initiatives; Invited papers regarding wind shear and turbulence simulation requirements; and Committee working session reports.

  14. Real-time decision aiding - Aircraft guidance for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stratton, D. A.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Modern control theory and artificial intelligence technology are applied to the Wind Shear Safety Advisor, a conceptual airborne advisory system to help flight crews avoid or survive encounter with hazardous low-altitude wind shear. Numerical and symbolic processes of the system fuse diverse, time-varying data from ground-based and airborne measurements. Simulated wind-shear-encounter scenarios illustrate the need to consider a variety of factors for optimal decision reliability. The wind-shear-encounter simulations show the Wind Shear Safety Advisor's potential for effectively integrating the available information, highlighting the benefits of the computational techniques employed.

  15. Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M. (compiler); Delnore, V. E. (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide first a review of the current FAA and NASA wind shear programs, then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking sensors. This document is intended to informally record the essence of the technology updates (represented here through unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining unresolved.

  16. Aircraft performance and control in downburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    The methods developed for analyses of the winds and of aircraft performance during an investigation of a downburst wind-shear-induced accident have been utilized in a more general study of aircraft performance in such encounters. The computed responses of a generic, large transport aircraft to take-off and approach encounters with a downburst wind field were used in examining the effects of performance factors and control procedures on the ability of the aircraft to survive. Obvious benefits are seen for higher initial encounter speeds, maximum thrust-weight values typical of two-engined aircraft, and immediacy of pilot response. The results of controlling to a constant, predetermined, pitch attitude are demonstrated. Control algorithms that sacrifice altitude for speed appear to provide a higher level of survivability, but guidance displays more explicitly defining flightpath than those commonly in use might be required.

  17. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  18. Vector wind and vector wind shear models 0 to 27 km altitude for Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques are presented to derive several statistical wind models. The techniques are from the properties of the multivariate normal probability function. Assuming that the winds can be considered as bivariate normally distributed, then (1) the wind components and conditional wind components are univariate normally distributed, (2) the wind speed is Rayleigh distributed, (3) the conditional distribution of wind speed given a wind direction is Rayleigh distributed, and (4) the frequency of wind direction can be derived. All of these distributions are derived from the 5-sample parameter of wind for the bivariate normal distribution. By further assuming that the winds at two altitudes are quadravariate normally distributed, then the vector wind shear is bivariate normally distributed and the modulus of the vector wind shear is Rayleigh distributed. The conditional probability of wind component shears given a wind component is normally distributed. Examples of these and other properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution function as applied to Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California, wind data samples are given. A technique to develop a synthetic vector wind profile model of interest to aerospace vehicle applications is presented.

  19. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine would encounter under hurricane strength winds. These flow fields can be used to estimate wind turbine loads and responses with AeroDyn (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/aerodyn/) and FAST (http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/) codes also developed by NREL.

  20. Ris-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind

    E-print Network

    Risø-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Rozenn Wagner Risø-PhD-58(EN) - Short version April 2010 #12;#12;Author: Rozenn Wagner Title: Accounting of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ig- noring

  1. Algorithms for airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillberg, Jeff; Pockrandt, Mitch; Symosek, Peter; Benser, Earl T.

    1992-01-01

    Honeywell has developed algorithms for the detection of wind shear/microburst using airborne Doppler radar. The Honeywell algorithms use three dimensional pattern recognition techniques and the selection of an associated scanning pattern forward of the aircraft. This 'volumetric scan' approach acquires reflectivity, velocity, and spectral width from a three dimensional volume as opposed to the conventional use of a two dimensional azimuthal slice of data at a fixed elevation. The algorithm approach is based on detection and classification of velocity patterns which are indicative of microburst phenomenon while minimizing the false alarms due to ground clutter return. Simulation studies of microburst phenomenon and x-band radar interaction with the microburst have been performed and results of that study are presented. Algorithm performance indetection of both 'wet' and 'dry' microbursts is presented.

  2. Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.

  3. Effects of Tropospheric Wind Shear on the Spectrum of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, Jadwiga H.; Alexander, M. Joan; Holton, James R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors examine the effects of tropospheric wind shear on the phase speed spectrum of gravity waves generated by tropical convection. A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to perform numerous squall line simulations with the vertical shear of the horizontal wind varied in three layers of the troposphere. Several simplified simulations using prescribed heating are also performed to elucidate the interactions of wind shear with thermal forcing. It is found that the dominant phase speed range of convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves is primarily determined by the vertical scale of the tropospheric heating and is then modified by the tropospheric wind. The gravity wave spectrum is especially sensitive to shear in the upper troposphere. Through a mechanism similar to critical level filtering, such shear acts to reduce the momentum flux of waves propagating in the same direction as the storm-relative mean wind. Through interaction with convective turrets, shear in the upper troposphere increases the momentum flux of waves propagating opposite to the storm-relative mean wind (the `obstacle effect'). The resulting spectrum of momentum fluxes produced by convectively generated gravity waves is generally not symmetric in the east and west directions; the east-west asymmetry depends primarily on the difference between the wind above the storm and the storm's motion. Thus, it is important that the effects of tropospheric wind shear be included in any attempt to parameterize the effects of gravity wave stress and turbulence in general circulation models.

  4. Effects of Tropospheric Wind Shear on the Spectrum of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JADWIGA H. BERES; M. Joan Alexander; James R. Holton

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT The authors examine,the effects of tropospheric wind shear on the phase speed spectrum,of gravity waves generated by tropical convection. A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to perform numerous,squall line simulations with the vertical shear of the horizontal wind varied in three layers of the troposphere. Several simplified simulations using prescribed heating are also performed,to elucidate the interactions of wind

  5. Influences of offshore environmental conditions on wind shear profile parameters in Nantucket Sound

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    on offshore data collected for the Cape Wind project in Nantucket Sound, off the coast of Massachusetts unusable. SITE AND DATA The data [3] used in this project were taken at a tower owned by Cape WindInfluences of offshore environmental conditions on wind shear profile parameters in Nantucket Sound

  6. Microburst Wind Structure and Evaluation of Doppler Radar for Airport Wind Shear Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James W.; Roberts, Rita D.; Kessinger, Cathy; McCarthy, John

    1984-06-01

    Doppler weather radar data from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project are used to determine the horizontal and vertical structure of airflow within microbursts. Typically, the associated downdraft is about 1 km wide and begins to spread horizontally at a height below 1 km. The median time from initial divergence at the surface to maximum differential wind velocity across the microburst is 5 min. The height of maximum differential velocity is 75 m. The median velocity differential is 22 m s1 over an average distance of 3.1 km. The outflow is asymmetric, averaging twice as strong along the maximum shear axis compared to the minimum axis.Doppler radar could be an effective means for identifying microbursts and warning aircraft of wind shear hazards. For microburst detection such a radar must be able to measure wind velocities in clear air as well as in heavy rain and hail. Scan update rates should be approximately every 2 min and the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere must be observed. Ground clutter must be considerably reduced from levels typically obtained with present Doppler radars. New antenna technology and signal processing techniques may solve this problem. Automated range and velocity unfolding is required, as well as automated identification and dissemination techniques.

  7. Comparison of low-altitude wind-shear statistics derived from measured and proposed standard wind profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Wind shear statistics were calculated for a simulated set of wind profiles based on a proposed standard wind field data base. Wind shears were grouped in altitude in altitude bands of 100 ft between 100 and 1400 ft and in wind shear increments of 0.025 knot/ft. Frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations for each altitude band were derived for the total sample were derived for both sets. It was found that frequency distributions in each altitude band for the simulated data set were more dispersed below 800 ft and less dispersed above 900 ft than those for the measured data set. Total sample frequency of occurrence for the two data sets was about equal for wind shear values between +0.075 knot/ft, but the simulated data set had significantly larger values for all wind shears outside these boundaries. It is shown that normal distribution in both data sets neither data set was normally distributed; similar results are observed from the cumulative frequency distributions.

  8. A method for three-dimensional modeling of wind-shear environments for flight simulator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A computational method for modeling severe wind shears of the type that have been documented during severe convective atmospheric conditions is offered for use in research and training flight simulation. The procedure was developed with the objectives of operational flexibility and minimum computer load. From one to five, simple down burst wind models can be configured and located to produce the wind field desired for specific simulated flight scenarios. A definition of related turbulence parameters is offered as an additional product of the computations. The use of the method to model several documented examples of severe wind shear is demonstrated.

  9. Parametrization of convection with wind shear effect in global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhiyu; Herzog, Michael; Graf, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Convection is a fundamental process in the climate system and remains one of the major uncertainties in our understanding and numerical modeling of the atmosphere. It manifests itself as cumulus clouds that are parameterized in global climate models due to their subgrid scale nature. Wind shear affects entrainment and plays a key role in the formation and growth of cumulus clouds. Strong wind shear inhibits the growth of cumulus clouds by disrupting or weakening the conditional instability. The Convective Cloud Field Model (CCFM) is a spectral mass flux parameterization, consisting of a one-dimensional entraining parcel model for individual convective clouds and a calculation of the cloud spectrum for the number of convective clouds. The wind shear effect can be parameterized by the entrainment rate. The entrainment rate in a windy environment is calculated in three dimensions in which the motion of parcel, ambient air and the plume angle are considered. The horizontal dynamics of cumulus clouds is introduced in the entraining parcel model based on the conservation of horizontal momentum. CCFM with wind shear effects has been successfully implemented and tested within the ECHAM6 climate model. We will presents the parameterization of wind shear effects and discuss their impact within ECHAM6, with a particular focus on tropical precipitation distributions. Keywords: convection, entrainment, wind shear effect

  10. Thunderstorms over a tropical Indian station, Minicoy: Role of vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, H. S.; Sawaisarje, G. K.; Ranalkar, M. R.; Sen, P. N.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to bring out the observational aspects of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms over Minicoy. Case studies of thunderstorm events have been examined to find out the effect of vertical wind shear and instability on strength and longevity of thunderstorms. Role of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms and its mechanism has been explored in this study. Results reveal that for prolonged thunderstorms high and low instability along with moderate to high vertical wind shear (moderate: 0.003 S-1 ? vertical wind shear ? 0.005 S-1 and high: > 0.005 S-1) play a significant role in longevity and strength of thunderstorms. The mechanism of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms was investigated in a few cases of thunderstorm events where the duration of thunderstorm was covered by the radiosonde/rawin ascent observation taken at Minicoy. Empirical model has been developed to classify thunderstorm type and to determine the strength and longevity of thunderstorms. Model validation has been carried out for selected cases. Model could classify thunderstorm type for most of the cases of thunderstorm events over island and coastal stations.

  11. Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Pulsations driven by velocity shear at the magnetopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Claudepierre; S. R. Elkington; M. Wiltberger

    2008-01-01

    We present results from global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind\\/magnetosphere interaction. These MHD simulations are used to study ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations in the Earth's magnetosphere driven by shear instabilities at the flanks of the magnetopause. We drive the simulations with idealized, constant solar wind input parameters, ensuring that any discrete ULF pulsations generated in the

  12. THIRD MOMENTS AND THE ROLE OF ANISOTROPY FROM VELOCITY SHEAR IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, Joshua E.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Smith, Charles W. [Physics Department, Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Forman, Miriam A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Klewicki, Joseph, E-mail: jek32@cisunix.unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu, E-mail: Joe.Klewicki@unh.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    We have extended the recent analyses of magnetohydrodynamic third moments as they relate to the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind to consider the effects of large-scale shear flows. Moments from a large set of Advanced Composition Explorer data have been taken, and chosen data intervals are characterized by the rate of change in the solar wind speed. Mean dissipation rates are obtained in accordance with the predictions of homogeneous shear-driven turbulence. Agreement with predictions is best made for rarefaction intervals where the solar wind speed is decreasing with time. For decreasing speed intervals, we find that the dissipation rates increase with increasing shear magnitude and that the shear-induced fluctuation anisotropy is consistent with a relatively small amount.

  13. The impact of wind shear on mid-latitude convection in convection-allowing WRF simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. D.; Goines, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Since pioneering studies by Rotunno, Klemp, and Weisman in the 1980s, wind shear has been known to have an important impact on convective storms, controlling mode, strength, and longevity. Despite this knowledge, the impact of wind shear on convection has largely been ignored at the scale of climate models due to a lack of observations. In leiu of these observations, convection-allowing simulations can be used to understand these relationships. Although these simulations are computationally expensive, several institutions maintain large databases of simulations run over the contiguous US in support of the NOAA Hazardous Weather Tesbed (HWT). Multiple years of daily simulations from NSSL and NCEP run in support of this project will be used to understand the relationship between wind shear and convective properties such updraft strength and area. It will be shown that in environments with weak instability, wind shear decreases convective area and strength for areas the size of climate model grids. When sufficient instability is present, however, both of these properties increase with wind shear. Although many of these results are consistent between the NSSL/NCEP simulations, some differences exist. These differences will also be discussed.

  14. Nocturnal wind direction shear and its potential impact on pollutant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Baars, J.A.; Stone, G.L.

    1997-09-01

    The estimation of transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants during the nighttime is challenging, especially over complex terrain where gravity driven drainage flows may be overlain with wind from a different direction. This study investigates the character of wind direction shear in the lowest 100 m using tower measurements from a complex, semi-arid site where local thermally-driven flows are common. the effects of wind direction shear on plume transport are studied by simulating a hypothetical elevated term release. This is accomplished by first simulating transport and dispersion using wind measurements from only the 12-m level from a network of towers. This case represents the approach commonly taken at many facilities where a network of short towers is available. Then the release is modeled using wind measurements made at four levels in the lowest 100 m. The differences between the two simulations are significant and would lead to very different responses in an emergency situation.

  15. A candidate concept for display of forward-looking wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is proposed which integrates forward-look wind shear information with airplane performance capabilities to predict future airplane energy state as a function of range. The information could be displayed to a crew either in terms of energy height or airspeed deviations. The anticipated benefits of the proposed display information concept are: (1) a wind shear hazard product that scales directly to the performance impact on the airplane and that has intuitive meaning to flight crews; (2) a reduction in flight crew workload by automatic processing of relevant hazard parameters; and (3) a continuous display of predicted airplane energy state if the approach is continued. Such a display may be used to improve pilot situational awareness or improve pilot confidence in wind shear alerts generated by other systems. The display is described and the algorithms necessary for implementation in a simulation system are provided.

  16. Air flow and shear stress modifications resulting from annual wind barriers 

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Robert Craig

    1992-01-01

    barrier structures upon windward and leeward reductions in surface shearing stress. Vertical prot iles of wind velocity were measured in a wind tunnel at fixed distances windward and leeward of barriers composed of model sorghum and pigeon pea plants... thickness Disturbed boundary layers. Atmospheric stability CHARACTERIZATION OF BARRIER EFFECT . Sheltered distance Summation of velocity measurements Leeward relative velocity minimum Resistance coefficients 28 28 28 32 33 33 34 35 37 37 38...

  17. Generation of auroral Omega bands by shear instability of the neutral winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thermospheric neutral wind acceleration via ion drag in the conducting E-region of the ionosphere is greatly increased by electron precipitation associated with auroras. This increased acceleration can lead to the development of significant horizontal wind shears, which were found to be unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. Numerical simulation of the neutral response to an intense, postmidnight, diffuse aurora shows tne formation of an E-region 'jet stream' within the aurora, with peak winds speeds greather than 700 m/s after one hour. It is proposed that this jet stream produces unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, which can drive waves of discrete aurora along the poleward boundary of the preexisting diffuse aurora. It is suggested that such auroral waves, driven by the neutral winds, form eastward propagating waves (omega bands) occasionally observed along the poleward boundary of postmidnight diffuse auroras. It was found that neutral wind shears that develop in response to discrete auroral arcs are unstable; however, the resulting wind waves are not expected to drive significant auroral waves along discrete arcs.

  18. Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear G. D. Nastromà Max: 30 January 1997 Abstract. The spectral width observed by Doppler radars can be due to several eects including the atmospheric turbulence within the radar sample volume plus eects associated

  19. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  20. Eddy and deep chlorophyl maximum response to wind-shear in the lee of Gran Canaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Basterretxea; E. D. Barton; P. Tett; P. Sangra; E. Navarroperez; J. Ar??stegui

    2002-01-01

    The physical and biological properties of the warm wake of Gran Canaria were examined during a survey carried out in June 1998. The sampling region was dominated by the presence of a warm triangular region downwind the island and an anticyclonic eddy spun off the island. Convergent and divergent frontal regions were generated by the wind shear zones extending along

  1. Simulator investigation of wind shear recovery techniques. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was the development of practical flight procedures and guidance for near-optimal trajectories during inadvertent wind shear encounters following takeoff. The approach was to conduct preliminary development of candidate strategies using batch simulation of the point mass B737-100 performance model and to evaluate candidate guidance strategies in piloted, real time, six degrees of freedom simulation.

  2. Spaced-Antenna Interferometry to Measure Crossbeam Wind, Shear, and Turbulence: Theory and Formulation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guifu

    Spaced-Antenna Interferometry to Measure Crossbeam Wind, Shear, and Turbulence: Theory's resolution volume V6 is described. Spaced-antenna weather radar interferometry is formulated for such measurements using phased-array weather radar. The formulation for a spaced-antenna interferometer (SAI

  3. Airborne operation of an infrared low-level wind shear prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.; Caracena, F.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne testing under simulated and actual low-level wind shear conditions is underway on a NASA-Ames Learjet. An infrared CO2 band radiometer with a forward 'look distance' of 5 to 8 kilometers measures the air temperature weighted to this range ahead of the approach configured aircraft. Shear alerts occur when the difference between the forward temperature and static air temperature at the aircraft exceed a set value or when a perturbation occurs in the normally constant potential temperature. Aircraft approaches into thunderstorm downburst phenomena were simulated by approaches into cool estuarine air adjacent to much warmer air over land and by actual light wind shear conditions at Travis Air Force Base. Conditions were verified by the radiometer system with extensive on-board data acquisition.

  4. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind at Current Sheets Associated with Extremely Small Field Shear Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Using Wind 3-s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified three reconnection exhausts within a large magnetic flux rope embedded within an interplanetary coronal mass ejection in the solar wind on 19 October 1998. These exhausts were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles ranging from 4.1 to 9.3 degrees, the smallest field shear angles (strongest guide fields) yet associated with identified reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (<0.01) proton beta and very high (281 - 383 km/s) Alfvén speed. The very low external plasma beta in these events minimized the effect of diamagnetic drift of the X-line and thus allowed reconnection to occur in a sustained fashion. And, the very high external Alfvén speed translated into sufficiently fast (> 10 km/s) exhaust jets that could be adequately resolved by the Wind 3DP plasma experiment. Thin, very small field shear-angle current sheets are common in the solar wind, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma beta or particularly high Alfvén speeds. On the other hand, small field shear angle current sheets must also be dominant in topologically complex environments such as the solar corona where the plasma beta is often less than 0.01 and the Alfvén speed is high. Our observations thus suggest that reconnection at thin, low field shear angle current sheets should commonly occur in the corona, and lend some credence to models that suggest that reconnection at low field shear angle current sheets contributes substantially to coronal heating.

  5. Solar Wind Driving of Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Pulsations Driven by Velocity Shear at the Magnetopause

    E-print Network

    Claudepierre, S G; Wiltberger, M; 10.1029/2007JA012890

    2010-01-01

    We present results from global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind/magnetosphere interaction. These MHD simulations are used to study ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations in the Earth's magnetosphere driven by shear instabilities at the flanks of the magnetopause. We drive the simulations with idealized, constant solar wind input parameters, ensuring that any discrete ULF pulsations generated in the simulation magnetosphere are not due to fluctuations in the solar wind. The simulations presented in this study are driven by purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, changing only the solar wind driving velocity while holding all of the other solar wind input parameters constant. We find surface waves near the dawn and dusk flank magnetopause and show that these waves are generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. We also find that two KH modes are generated near the magnetopause boundary. One mode, the magnetopause KH mode, propagates tailwa...

  6. Transient growth of IGW in the ionosphere with non-uniform shear winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chargazia, Khatuna; Kharshiladze, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Linear mechanism of intensification and transient growth of internal gravity waves (IGW) at smoothly stratified dissipative ionosphere at interaction with non-uniform zonal winds (shear flows) is studied. It is shown that amplification of IGW with respect to time is not flowing exponentially, but in algebraic power law manner. Frequency and wave number of the generated IGW modes are functions of time. So, in the ionosphere with shear flows due to linear mechanism, when the nonlinear and turbulent effects are absent, the wide spectra of wave perturbations will generate. Effectiveness of the IGW amplification mechanism is analyzed at interaction with the zonal winds. It is shown, that at the initial stage of evolution IGW perturbations effectively extract energy from the shear flows sufficiently increasing own amplitude and energy (almost by an order). Energy exchange process between the shear flows and the wave perturbations is based on the "lift-up" mechanism, according to which the perturbations carry the liquid from the high velocity region to the lower ones and vise versa. Energy exchange between the spatial Fourier harmonics as intensive, as faster moves the liquid particle along the shear flow. The value of the threshold velocities for compressible and incompressible wave perturbations is estimated. Numerical simulations are carried out and phenomenon of the mutual transformation of the wave modes is revealed.

  7. Contributions on the Subject of Longitudinal Movements of Aircraft in Wind Shears. Ph.D. Thesis - Technischen Univ., 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of downburst-type wind shears on the longitudinal dynamic behavior of an unguided aircraft is simulated numerically on the basis of published meteorological data and the flight characteristics of an A300-B passenger jet. The nonlinear differential equations of the aircraft motion are linearized by conventional methods, and the wind effects are introduced via the linear derivatives of the wind components referred to the wind gradients to obtain simplified technical models of the longitudinal response to all possible types of constant-gradient wind shears during the first 20-60 sec. Graphs, maps, and diagrams are provided, and a number of accidents presumed to have involved wind shears are analyzed in detail.

  8. Investigation of the influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft using a vortex-lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to investigate and characterize the aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters. The wind shear effect was computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitude of the aerodynamic effect was demonstrated by computing the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and tail combination on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results of the study indicate that a significant amount of the control authority of an airplane may be required to counteract the wind shear induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

  9. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  10. Effects of Vertical Wind Shear on the Intensity and Structure of Numerically Simulated Hurricanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Frank; Elizabeth A. Ritchie

    2001-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of tropical cyclones in idealized large-scale environments is performed to examine the effects of vertical wind shear on the structure and intensity of hurricanes. The simulations are performed using the nonhydrostatic Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth-generation Mesoscale Model using a 5-km fine mesh and fully explicit representation of moist processes. When large-scale

  11. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  12. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 10611074 Seasonal variation of mesopause region wind shears,

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 1061­1074 Seasonal variation of mesopause region wind shears, convective and dynamic instabilities above Fort Collins, CO: A statistical) temperature and horizontal wind, observed by Colorado State University sodium lidar over Fort Collins, CO (411

  13. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (compiler); Passman, Robert H. (compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  14. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  15. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  16. Microburst Wind Structure and Evaluation of Doppler Radar for Airport Wind Shear Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Wilson; Rita D. Roberts; Cathy Kessinger; John McCarthy

    1984-01-01

    Doppler weather radar data from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project are used to determine the horizontal and vertical structure of airflow within microbursts. Typically, the associated downdraft is about 1 km wide and begins to spread horizontally at a height below 1 km. The median time from initial divergence at the surface to maximum differential wind velocity across

  17. Turbulent transport model of wind shear in thunderstorm gust fronts and warm fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Teske, M. E.; Segur, H. C. O.

    1978-01-01

    A model of turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer was used to simulate the low-level wind and turbulence profiles associated with both local thunderstorm gust fronts and synoptic-scale warm fronts. Dimensional analyses of both type fronts provided the physical scaling necessary to permit normalized simulations to represent fronts for any temperature jump. The sensitivity of the thunderstorm gust front to five different dimensionless parameters as well as a change from axisymmetric to planar geometry was examined. The sensitivity of the warm front to variations in the Rossby number was examined. Results of the simulations are discussed in terms of the conditions which lead to wind shears which are likely to be most hazardous for aircraft operations.

  18. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind at Current Sheets Associated with Extremely Small Field Shear Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2013-02-01

    Using Wind 3 s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified nine reconnection exhausts within a solar wind disturbance on 1998 October 18-20 driven by a moderately fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). Three of the exhausts within the ICME were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles, ?, ranging from 4° to 9°, the smallest reported values of ? yet associated with reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (0.02-0.04) plasma ?, and very high (281-383 km s-1) Alfvén speed, V A. Low ? allows reconnection to occur at small ? and high V A leads to exhaust jets that are fast enough relative to the surrounding solar wind to be readily identified. Very small-? current sheets are common in the solar wind at 1 AU, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma ? or high V A. On the other hand, small-? current sheets should be common in the lower solar corona, a plasma regime of extremely low ? and extremely high V A. Our observations lend credence to models that predict that reconnection at small-? current sheets is primarily responsible for coronal heating.

  19. Instrumented aircraft verification of clear-air radar detection of low-level wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Elmore, K. L.; Doviak, R. J.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described in which the longitudinal wind component at airports, measured by Doppler radar, is put through a Fourier transformation to produce an energy density spectrum. The result is multiplied by the aircraft response characteristics to produce quantitative data on aircraft performance in a wind shear situation. The Doppler radar measurements are made along the intended flight path. Two case studies, along a 3 deg approach path, are described from measurements in two modes: Lagrangian, where predictions were computed one range gate ahead of the plane, and Eulerian, where samples were measured instantaneously along the flight path. Wind data obtained every second were interpolated to fit a numerical model by using a cubic spline. Eulerian data were superior to Lagrangian data in terms of ranging, and nearly equal for wind speeds. Improvements in current 75% accuracy are noted to be possible with shrouded antennas to reduce sidelobes and use of Doppler radar with higher resolution to eliminate effects of small scale disturbances within the pulse volume.

  20. Spectrum characteristics of Denver and Philadelphia ground clutter and the problem of distinguishing wind shear targets from moving clutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis of 1991 wind shear flight data has provided information about the power spectral density, spectral width, and velocity of ground clutter detected by the wind shear radar at several major airports. Ground clutter must be recognized and separated from weather targets before wind shear can be computed. Information will be presented characterizing and comparing ground clutter and weather target spectra. The information includes (1) spectral widths of stationary ground clutter seen at various scan and tilt angles, (2) power spectral density and velocity of moving ground clutter relative to the stationary ground clutter, and (3) spectral widths and velocities of weather targets. A summary of numerical results in the form of histograms and example numerical results in the form of spectral plots are presented.

  1. Positive cloud-to-ground flashes and wind shear in Tel-Aviv thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Zev; Yair, Yoav; Ziv, Baruch

    The occurrence of negative and positive ground flashes in Tel-Aviv, Israel (32.05 N, 34.45 E) has been monitored through daily registrations of a CGR3-SN5 lightning flash counter (Mackerras, 1985). Measurements were conducted from 1987 to 1995, with the most continuous data sets available for the period 1992-1995. The lightning data was augmented by radar measurements of the thunderclouds (starting from 1994) and by radiosonde data. It was found that the fraction R of positive lightning from the total ground flash count is highly variable, with a long-term average of 0.25. It is shown that storms having a relatively large value of R coincide with strong vertical shear of the horizontal wind component. The dependence of R on the intensity of the wind shear S in the cloud layer between the 0°C and -25°C isotherms, may be expressed by: log R = aS - b, where a=0.1504 and b=1.1471.

  2. The Orlando TDWR testbed and airborne wind shear date comparison results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven; Berke, Anthony; Matthews, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this talk is on comparing terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne wind shear data in computing a microburst hazard index called the F factor. The TDWR is a ground-based system for detecting wind shear hazards to aviation in the terminal area. The Federal Aviation Administration will begin deploying TDWR units near 45 airports in late 1992. As part of this development effort, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory operates under F.A.A. support a TDWR testbed radar in Orlando, FL. During the past two years, a series of flight tests has been conducted with instrumented aircraft penetrating microburst events while under testbed radar surveillance. These tests were carried out with a Cessna Citation 2 aircraft operated by the University of North Dakota (UND) Center for Aerospace Sciences in 1990, and a Boeing 737 operated by NASA Langley Research Center in 1991. A large data base of approximately 60 instrumented microburst penetrations has been obtained from these flights.

  3. Simple kinematic models for the environmental interaction of tropical cyclones in vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemer, M.; Montgomery, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A major impediment to the intensity forecast of tropical cyclones (TCs) is believed to be associated with the interaction of TCs with dry environmental air. However, the conditions under which pronounced TC-environment interaction takes place are not well understood. As a step towards improving our understanding of this problem, we analyze here the flow topology of a TC immersed in an environment of vertical wind shear in an idealized, three-dimensional, convection-permitting numerical experiment. A set of distinct streamlines, the so-called manifolds, can be identified under the assumptions of steady and layer-wise horizontal flow. The manifolds are shown to divide the flow around the TC into distinct regions. The manifold structure in our numerical experiment is more complex than the well-known manifold structure of a non-divergent point vortex in uniform background flow. In particular, one manifold spirals inwards and ends in a limit cycle, a meso-scale dividing streamline encompassing the eyewall above the layer of strong inflow associated with surface friction and below the outflow layer in the upper troposphere. From the perspective of a steady and layer-wise horizontal flow model, the eyewall is well protected from the intrusion of environmental air. In order for the environmental air to intrude into the inner-core convection, time-dependent and/or vertical motions, which are prevalent in the TC inner-core, are necessary. Air with the highest values of moist-entropy resides within the limit cycle. This "moist envelope" is distorted considerably by the imposed vertical wind shear, and the shape of the moist envelope is closely related to the shape of the limit cycle. In a first approximation, the distribution of high- and low-?e air around the TC at low to mid-levels is governed by the stirring of convectively modified air by the steady, horizontal flow. Motivated by the results from the idealized numerical experiment, an analogue model based on a weakly divergent point vortex in background flow is formulated. The simple kinematic model captures the essence of many salient features of the manifold structure in the numerical experiment. A regime diagram representing realistic values of TC intensity and vertical wind shear can be constructed for the point-vortex model. The results indicate distinct scenarios of environmental interaction depending on the ratio of storm intensity and vertical-shear magnitude. Further implications of the new results derived from the manifold analysis for TCs in the real atmosphere are discussed.

  4. A shear sensitive monomer-polymer liquid crystal system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of a liquid crystal system, comprised of a shear-sensitive cholesteric-monomer liquid crystal thin-film coated on a liquid-crystal polymer substrate, are described. The system provides stable Grandjean texture, a desirable feature for shear-stress measurements using selective reflection from the monomer liquid-crystal helix structure. Impingement of gas or air flow on the monomer liquid-crystal free surface changes the wavelength of the selective reflection for an incident white light from red toward blue with increase in the rate of gas flow. The contrast of the selectively reflected light improves considerably by providing a thin black coating of about 5 microns at the monomer-polymer interface. The coating thickness is such that the steric interactions are still sufficiently strong to maintain Grandjean texture. For a small angle of incidence of a monochromatic light, the measurement of the reflected light intensity normal to the monomer-polymer liquid-crystal interface enables the determination of the wavelength for selective reflection as a function of the gas-flow differential pressure applied in the plane of the interface. The variation of the wavelength with the pressure is linear with a slope of about 2 nm/mmHg. Furthermore, the shear-stress effects are reversible unlike for monomer liquid crystal-metal systems used for flow visualization on wind-tunnel model surfaces. The present system offers a suitable method for direct on-line measurement of shear stress field from measurements of the wavelength for selective reflection for an incident white light.

  5. Piloted-simulation evaluation of escape guidance for microburst wind shear encounters. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous air carrier accidents and incidents result from encounters with the atmospheric wind shear associated with microburst phenomena, in some cases resulting in heavy loss of life. An important issue in current wind shear research is how to best manage aircraft performance during an inadvertent wind shear encounter. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop techniques and guidance for maximizing an aircraft's ability to recover from microburst encounters following takeoff, (2) develop an understanding of how theoretical predictions of wind shear recovery performance might be achieved in actual use, and (3) gain insight into the piloting factors associated with recovery from microburst encounters. Three recovery strategies were implemented and tested in piloted simulation. Results show that a recovery strategy based on flying a flight path angle schedule produces improved performance over constant pitch attitude or acceleration-based recovery techniques. The best recovery technique was initially counterintuitive to the pilots who participated in the study. Evidence was found to indicate that the techniques required for flight through the turbulent vortex of a microburst may differ from the techniques being developed using classical, nonturbulent microburst models.

  6. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  7. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  8. Dynamic impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind on the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ninghao; Xu, Xin; Song, Lili; Bai, Lina; Ming, Jie; Wang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fiveforce balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria's model, under different VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial inflow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifies. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial inflow is significantly suppressed, even with divergent outflow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensification of TC.

  9. Time-accurate aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in yaw and shear using a coupled CFD-CSD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D. O.; Kwon, O. J.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, aeroelastic simulations of horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor blades were conducted using a coupled CFD-CSD method. The unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the dynamic blade response due to yaw misalignment and non-uniform sheared wind were investigated. For this purpose, a CFD code solving the RANS equations on unstructured meshes and a FEM-based CSD beam solver were used. The coupling of the CFD and CSD solvers was made by exchanging the data between the two solvers in a loosely coupled manner. The present coupled CFD-CSD method was applied to the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine rotor, and the results were compared with those of CFD-alone rigid blade calculations. It was found that aeroelastic blade deformation leads to a significant reduction of blade aerodynamic loads, and alters the unsteady load behaviours, mainly due to the torsional deformation. The reduction of blade aerodynamic loads is particularly significant at the advancing rotor blade side for yawed flow conditions, and at the upper half of rotor disk where wind velocity is higher due to wind shear.

  10. The ATC evaluation of the prototype Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP) at Orlando International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Radame

    1993-03-01

    The Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP), also known as Airport Surveillance Radar-9 (ASR-9) modification for low altitude wind shear detection, is a production ASR-9 with an expanded weather channel for added processing capabilities. The primary mission of the ASR-WSP is to enhance the safety of air travel through the timely detection and reporting of hazardous wind shear in and near the terminal approach and departure zones of the airport. It will also improve the management of air traffic (AT) in the terminal area through the forecast of precipitation, and ultimately the detection of other hazardous weather phenomena. The ASR-WSP may be used as a stand-alone system at airports without a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) or Enhanced-Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (E-LLWAS), or in an integrated mode with either or both the TDWR and E-LLWAS. An operational evaluation of a prototype ASR-WSP, developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratories (MIT/LL), was conducted at the Orlando International Airport (MCO) in Orlando, Florida, during the period 29 Jun. to 31 Aug. 1992. The objective of the evaluation was to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic controller reaction to the prototype ASR-WSP weather data and display equipment. The following are highlights of the evaluation: (1) the ASW-WSP is very useful when making runway configuration changes; (2) the ASR-WSP is not perceived to be as accurate as the prototype TDWR; (3) the gust front prediction feature is not reliable; and (4) the information provided on both the RDT and the GSD is very useful.

  11. CloudSat & A-Train Observations of Tropical Cyclones: Examining Effects of Wind Shear on Storm Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, N. D.; Knaff, J. A.; Demaria, M.; Stephens, G. L.; Vane, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat (CS) heralded a new era of profiling the planet's cloud systems and storms with its launch in 2006. This satellite flies the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar and the data collected has provided a unique perspective on Earth's cloudiness and processes that affect clouds. While passes of the nadir-pointing CPR antenna occur infrequently over tropical cyclones (TCs), they happen enough to provide a detailed compilation of the inner structure of clouds and precipitation of these complex storm systems. Over 8,000 vertical profiles of TCs have been collected during the period June 2006 through June 2014 and observations continue as CS flies in daylight only mode. Each unique overpass profiled by CS has been compiled with corresponding A-Train sensors, model data and storm specific best track information.With the volume of data collected, it is possible to composite TC structure information with respect to various environmental parameters that are known to have a controlling influence on storms. To illustrate this characteristic of the data, we show composites of the vertical structure of TCs as a function of environmental wind shear. Observations of wind shear at varying levels (for example 200-850 mb) and TC composites relative to the direction of the larger scale shear will be examined and discussed in detail.

  12. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of strong, linear mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and may provide a conceptual model for the persistence of strong MCSs above a surface nocturnal inversion in situations that are not forced by a low-level jet.

  13. Competing Mechanisms of Plasma Transport in Inhomogeneous Configurations with Velocity Shear: The Solar-Wind Interaction with Earth's Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Faganello, M.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma.

  14. Competing mechanisms of plasma transport in inhomogeneous configurations with velocity shear: the solar-wind interaction with earth's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Faganello, M; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma. PMID:18232777

  15. Simulation of a STOL airlifter in wind shear, using total energy and glideslope angular error methods for glidepath control

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric William

    1988-01-01

    ( WKE 1 W - d(TMSE)/dt WYp + TMEE WYE WZE W WZE (22) Since the stability derivatives multiplied by p, q, r in the linear expansion of the aerodynamic coefficients are based on values of angu- lar velocity relative to the atmosphere m - m must... Approved as to style and content by: D. T. Ward (Chai. r of Committee) S. R. Vadali (Member) J. M. Herrmann (Member) W. E. Haisler (Head of Department) May 1988 ABSTRACT Simulation of a STOL Airlifter in Wind Shear, Using Total Energy...

  16. Experimental evaluation of a wind shear alert and energy management display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K.-F.; Baty, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for onboard measurement and display of specific windshear and energy management data derived from an air data computer. An open-loop simulation study is described which was carried out to verify the feasibility of this display concept, and whose results were used as a basis to develop the respective cockpit instrumentation. The task was to fly a three-degree landing approach under various shear conditions with and without specific information on the shear. Improved performance due to augmented cockpit information was observed. Critical shears with increasing tailwinds could be handled more consistently and with less deviation from the glide path.

  17. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  18. An airport wind shear detection and warning system using Doppler radar: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Blick, E. F.; Elmore, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether ground based Doppler radar could measure the wind along the path of an approaching aircraft with sufficient accuracy to predict aircraft performance. Forty-three PAR approaches were conducted, with 16 examined in detail. In each, Doppler derived longitudinal winds were compared to aircraft measured winds; in approximately 75 percent of the cases, the Doppler and aircraft winds were in acceptable agreement. In the remaining cases, errors may have been due to a lack of Doppler resolution, a lack of co-location of the two sampling volumes, the presence of eddy or vortex like disturbances within the pulse volume, or the presence of point targets in antenna side lobes. It was further concluded that shrouding techniques would have reduced the side lobe problem. A ground based Doppler radar operating in the optically clear air, provides the appropriate longitudinal winds along an aircraft's intended flight path.

  19. Development of a MEMS shear stress sensor for use in wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Casey; Meloy, Jessica; Sheplak, Mark; Interdisciplinary Microsystems Group Team

    2013-11-01

    The measurement of mean and fluctuating wall shear-stress in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers and channel flows has applications both in industry and the scientific community. Currently there is no method for time resolved, direct measurement of wall shear stress at the spatial and temporal scales of turbulent flow structures inside model testing facilities. To address this need, a silicon micromachined differential capacitance shear stress sensor system has been developed. Mean measurements are enabled by custom synchronous modulation/demodulation circuitry, which allows for measurement of both magnitude and phase of incident wall shear stress. Sizes of the largest device features are on the order of relevant viscous length scales, to minimize flow disturbance and provide a hydraulically smooth sensing surface. Static calibration is performed in a flow cell setup, and an acoustic plane wave tube is used for dynamic response data. Normalized sensitivity of 1.34 mV/V/Pa has been observed over a bandwidth of 4.8 kHz, with a minimum detectable signal of 6.5 mPa. Initial results show qualitative agreement with contemporary measurement techniques. The design, fabrication, support electronics, characterization, and preliminary experimental performance of this sensor will be presented. The measurement of mean and fluctuating wall shear-stress in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers and channel flows has applications both in industry and the scientific community. Currently there is no method for time resolved, direct measurement of wall shear stress at the spatial and temporal scales of turbulent flow structures inside model testing facilities. To address this need, a silicon micromachined differential capacitance shear stress sensor system has been developed. Mean measurements are enabled by custom synchronous modulation/demodulation circuitry, which allows for measurement of both magnitude and phase of incident wall shear stress. Sizes of the largest device features are on the order of relevant viscous length scales, to minimize flow disturbance and provide a hydraulically smooth sensing surface. Static calibration is performed in a flow cell setup, and an acoustic plane wave tube is used for dynamic response data. Normalized sensitivity of 1.34 mV/V/Pa has been observed over a bandwidth of 4.8 kHz, with a minimum detectable signal of 6.5 mPa. Initial results show qualitative agreement with contemporary measurement techniques. The design, fabrication, support electronics, characterization, and preliminary experimental performance of this sensor will be presented. The support of NASA SFW-NRA NNX11AI30A, AFOSR grant #FA 9550-12-1-0469, and Sandia Campus Executive Fellowship are gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Dispersion of passive tracer in the atmospheric convective boundary layer with wind shears: a review of laboratory and numerical model studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fedorovich

    2004-01-01

    Summary Paper reviews recent laboratory and numerical model studies of passive gaseous tracer dispersion in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) with surface and elevated wind shears. Atmospheric measurement data used for validation of these two model techniques are briefly discussed as well. A historical overview is given of laboratory studies of dispersion in the atmospheric CBL. Model studies of

  1. Effect of Vertical Wind Shear on Concentration Fluctuation Statistics in a Point Source Plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hilderman; David J. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of concentration fluctuation intensity, intermittency factor, and integral time scale were made in a water channel\\u000a for a plume dispersing in a well-developed, rough surface, neutrally stable, boundary layer, and in grid-generated turbulence\\u000a with no mean velocity shear. The water-channel simulations apply to full-scale atmospheric plumes with very short averaging\\u000a times, on the order of 1–4 min, because plume meandering

  2. Wind-forced motions in stratified lakes and their effect on mixed-layer shear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Monismith

    1985-01-01

    The solution for the response of a rectangular, n-layered, stratified lake to an arbitrarily varying (in time) wind stress is presented. The case n = 3 is considered in detail. For a three-layered lake the response is made up of the individual responses of one external and two internal modes. When the upper layer is shallow relative to the other

  3. VELOCITY-SHEAR-INDUCED MODE COUPLING IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE AND SOLAR WIND: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLASMA HEATING AND MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. [Space Science Center, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh., E-mail: joe.hollweg@unh.edu, E-mail: ekaghash@aer.com, E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, A Verisk Analytics Company, 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We analytically consider how velocity shear in the corona and solar wind can cause an initial Alfven wave to drive up other propagating signals. The process is similar to the familiar coupling into other modes induced by non-WKB refraction in an inhomogeneous plasma, except here the refraction is a consequence of velocity shear. We limit our discussion to a low-beta plasma, and ignore couplings into signals resembling the slow mode. If the initial Alfven wave is propagating nearly parallel to the background magnetic field, then the induced signals are mainly a forward-going (i.e., propagating in the same sense as the original Alfven wave) fast mode, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; both signals are compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. For an initial Alfven wave propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field, the induced signals are mainly forward- and backward-going fast modes, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; these signals are all compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. A backward-going Alfven wave, thought to be important in the development of MHD turbulence, is also produced, but it is very weak. However, we suggest that for oblique propagation of the initial Alfven wave the induced fast-polarized signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave may interact coherently with the initial Alfven wave and distort it at a strong-turbulence-like rate.

  4. Comparison of vertical wind shear impacts on hurricane structure deduced from a high-resolution numerical model and airborne Doppler radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Reasor; S. Gopalakrishnan; S. Lorsolo; J. Gamache; F. D. Marks

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of environmental vertical wind shear upon hurricane structure are examined here through a multi-case analysis of real-time simulated storms using an experimental version of the Hurricane Weather and Research Forecast model (HWRFx) and a database of Doppler-radar observed storms. The present HWRFx dataset consists of 69 forecasts run with a 3-km resolution movable inner mesh. At this time

  5. Motion and interaction of decaying trailing vortices in spanwise shear wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Lu, T.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation is presented of the drift of trailing vortices in a cross-wind near the ground by an unsteady, two-dimensional, rotational flow field with a concentration of large vorticity in vortical spots (having a finite but small effective size and finite total strength). The problem is analyzed by a combination of the method of matched asymptotic analyses for the decay of the vortical spots and the Euler solution for the unsteady rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, a special numerical method is developed in which the grid size and time step depend only on the length and velocity scales of the background flow and are independent of the effective core size of a vortical spot. The core size can be much smaller than the grid size, whereas the peak velocity in the core is inversely propertional to the spot size. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the strong interaction between the trajectories of the vortical spots and the change of the vorticity distribution in the background flow field.

  6. Wind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project

    2003-01-01

    This document examine wind power as an energy resource. The reading will define wind and discuss topics such as (1) The history of wind machines, (2) Today's windmills, and (3) Types of wind machines. This resource is structured as an informational handout to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

  7. Wind energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Miller; M. Martinez-Sanchez; J. Dugundji; E. E. Larrabee; I. Chopra; T. Humes; S. Y. Chung; J. C. Gohard; J. T. Edwards

    1976-01-01

    Various problems associated with the design of horizontal axis, low solidity, and high performance wind turbines are investigated. Wind turbine performance as determined from various elementary and more refined momentum theories, aerodynamic vortex theories for blade loadings including unsteady effects and wind shear velocity gradients, and nonlinear dynamic response of rotor blades including gravity and wind shear excitation were studied.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF INCIDENT WIND SHEAR AND TURBULENCE LEVEL ON THE FLOW AROUND A BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of incident shear and turbulence on flow around a cubical building are being investigated by a turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (k-e) model (TEMPEST). he numerical simulations demonstrate significant effects due to the differences in the incident flow. he addition...

  9. TRMM-retrieved cloud structure and evolution of MCSs over the northern South China Sea and impacts of CAPE and vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangshu; Guo, Xueliang; Fu, Danhong

    2013-01-01

    Cloud structure and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) were investigated and compared with some pioneer studies based on soundings and models over the northern South China Sea (SCS). The impacts of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and environmental vertical wind shear on MCSs were also explored. The main features of MCSs over the SCS were captured well by both TRMM PR and TMI. However, the PR-retrieved surface rainfall in May was less than that in June, and the reverse for TMI. TRMM-retrieved rainfall amounts were generally consistent with those estimated from sounding and models. However, rainfall amounts from sounding-based and PR-based estimates were relatively higher than those retrieved from TRMM-TMI data. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling simulation underestimated the maximum rain rate by 22% compared to that derived from TRMM-PR, and underestimated mean rainfall by 10.4% compared to the TRMM-TMI estimate, and by 12.5% compared to the sounding-based estimate. The warm microphysical processes modeled from both the WRF and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models were quite close to those based on TMI, but the ice water contents in the models were relatively less compared to that derived from TMI. The CAPE and wind shear induced by the monsoon circulation were found to play critical roles in maintaining and developing the intense convective clouds over SCS. The latent heating rate increased more than twofold during the monsoon period and provided favorable conditions for the upward transportation of energy from the ocean, giving rise to the possibility of inducing large-scale interactions.

  10. Wind turbine wake aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

  11. Shearing Photoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupeng, Wang; Bin, Du; Zhu, Xu

    1988-12-01

    The physical conception of shearing photoelasticity is established on the base of the image photocarrier Tablot effect and shearing moire method. The mathmatical formula is derived. The theory and technique of the shearing photoelasticity is presented . The information of ?n/?Si can be dirived to separate principal stresses in 3-D photoelasticity.

  12. Effect of shear on aircraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.; Reeves, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to determine the effect of wind shear on aircraft landings. The landing of various type of commercial and military aircraft was digitally simulated starting from an initial altitude of 300 feet. Assuming no pilot feedback during descent, the deviation in touchdown point due to vertical profiles of wind shear was determined. The vertical profiles of wind shear are defined in terms of surface roughness, Z sub 0, and stability, L, parameters. The effects on touchdown due to Z sub 0 and L have been calculated for the different type aircraft. Comparisons were made between the following types of aircraft: (1) C-130E, (2) C-135A, (3) C-141, (4) DC-8, (5) Boeing 747, and (6) an augmentor-wing STOL. In addition, the wind shear effect on touchdown resulting from different locations of the center of gravity and gross weights was also analyzed.

  13. Vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation begins with a brief description of the downdraft measurement problem for airborne Doppler based systems and the importance of the downdraft in assessing the hazard posed by a microburst wind shear. This is followed by a review of research on the feasibility of using simple microburst models to compute the downdraft from horizontal wind measurements. The current methodologies for computing the vertical wind are then discussed. A summary of the results and the plan for future research are also presented.

  14. Periodic pulsations from a three-bladed wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torbjörn Thiringer; Jan-Åke Dahlberg

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, periodic power pulsations from a three-bladed wind turbine are analyzed. The influence of wind shear, wind speed, turbulence intensity, rotor position and tower oscillation is investigated. No clear dependence between the periodic power components and the wind shear or turbulence intensity has been verified. The investigated turbine sometimes produces large power pulsations at the tower resonance frequency.

  15. Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.

  16. Wind Energy and Climate: Modeling the Atmospheric Impacts of Wind Energy Turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Adams; D. W. Keith

    2007-01-01

    The size and number of wind farms is growing across the globe. Wind energy provides the climatic benefit of producing energy without emitting CO2, however wind energy also produces unintended impacts. Large wind farms directly influence the atmospheric boundary layer by (1.) reducing wind speeds, (2.) generating blade scale turbulence in the wake of the turbines, and (3.) generating shear

  17. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteady behavior on the power generation capability of a Savonius wind turbine rotor are assessed in view of measurements conducted, both in two statistically steady shear flows and in the wind, of rotor tip speed and torque at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the rotor bucket overlap ratio. It is found that, even in the absence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine rotor is most strongly dependent on tip speed ratio.

  18. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  19. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  20. Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines 

    E-print Network

    Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

    2012-12-04

    A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

  1. Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines

    E-print Network

    Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

    2012-12-04

    A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

  2. Towards a Wind Energy Climatology at Advanced Turbine Hub-Heights: Preprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schwartz; D. Elliott

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights up to and above 100 m are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) evaluate changes in wind characteristics and wind shear over the area swept by the blades. Developing wind climatology at advanced turbine hub

  3. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  4. Wind-shearing in gaseous protoplanetary disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagai B. Perets; Ruth Murray-Clay

    2010-01-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small\\u000aplanetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary\\u000aembryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas\\u000afrom the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties,\\u000aplanetesimals of different sizes\\/shapes experience different drag forces from\\u000athe gas at these stage.

  5. Wind-shearing in gaseous protoplanetary disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagai B. Perets; Ruth Murray-Clay

    2011-01-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of different sizes\\/shapes experience different drag forces from the gas at these stage.

  6. LiDAR observations of offshore winds at future wind turbine operating heights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Peña; Sven-Erik Gryning; Charlotte B. Hasager

    Combined LiDAR\\/cup anemometer observa- tions performed in the summer of 2006 of wind speed profiles up to 161 m have been analyzed within an open sea sector at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. The influence of atmospheric stability on the surface layer wind shear is studied by using a bulk formulation of the Richardson number to derive the Obukhov

  7. Interpretation of combined wind profiler and aircraft-measured tropospheric winds and clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Syrett, William J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    In the first experiment, it was found that wind profilers are far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found. In the second experiment, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radar operating beneath a jet stream. Richardson number and wind shear statistics were examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  8. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other remote wind sensors must operate.

  9. Sea surface wind stress in stratified atmospheric flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Marine Hydrodynamics; Slaattelid, O.H. [Norwegian Marine Technology Research Inst., Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the wind shear stress on the sea surface as well as the velocity profile in stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer flow over wind waves by using similarity theory. For a given geostrophic velocity, Coriolis parameter, spectral peak period and stratification parameter the sea surface shear stress is determined. Further, the direction of the sea surface shear stress and the velocity profile are given. Parameterizations of the results are also presented. Finally, the engineering relevance of the results is discussed.

  10. Failure During Sheared Edge Stretching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Levy; C. J. Van Tyne

    2008-01-01

    Failure during sheared edge stretching of sheet steels is a serious concern, especially in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS)\\u000a grades. The shearing process produces a shear face and a zone of deformation behind the shear face, which is the shear-affected\\u000a zone (SAZ). A failure during sheared edge stretching depends on prior deformation in the sheet, the shearing process, and\\u000a the subsequent

  11. Wind-Blown Sand: Threshold of Motion 

    E-print Network

    Swann, Christy Michelle

    2014-11-12

    The fluid threshold for wind-blown sand is the minimum shear velocity required to initiate grain movement by the force of the wind alone, and is used to predict dust emission and landform change in sandy environments. R.A. ...

  12. Directional shear force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, A. R.; Carpick, R. W.

    2001-01-15

    We describe a technique, based on shear force microscopy, that allows one to detect shear forces in a chosen direction at the nanometer scale. The lateral direction of an oscillating probe tip is determined by selecting which of the four quadrants are excited on the piezo driver. The shear forces depend directly on this lateral direction if structural anisotropies are present, as confirmed with polydiacetylene monolayers.

  13. Shear Thinning in Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  14. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  15. Principles of Convection III: Shear and Convective Storms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2003-11-18

    This module discusses the role of wind shear in the structure and evolution of convective storms. Using the concept of horizontal vorticity, the module demonstrates how shear enhances uplift, leading to longer-lived supercell and multicell storms. The module also explores the role of shear in the development of mesoscale convective systems, including bow echoes and squall lines. Most of the material in this module previously appeared in the COMET modules developed with Dr. Morris Weisman. This version includes a concise summary for quick reference and a final exam to test your knowledge. The module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

  16. Analysis of Rhode Island Coastal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, K. I.; Merrill, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Eleven wind profile data sets were collected at sites in Rhode Island between 2007 and the present, extending over periods from 6 to 20 months, with a mean of 14 months. The data was gathered from meteorological towers via anemometers and wind vanes at heights up to 60 m, or using SoDAR (Sonic Detection And Ranging) instruments at heights up to 200 m. Wind speeds are generally greater in the fall and winter, with minimum wind speeds occurring in the summer. Winds blow most frequently from the northwest in the winter and from the southwest in the summer. The power law describes wind speed with height in neutral static stability conditions; the fitted shear coefficient characterizes the distribution and is used in wind resource assessment. Marine sites exhibit higher wind speeds and lower shear than terrestrial sites, due to lower surface drag. In contrast, terrestrial sites experience more shear and greater temporal variability. The magnitude of diel and seasonal differences between marine and terrestrial locations will be discussed. The land-breeze sea-breeze cycle influences wind throughout the study area; the magnitude of this variation, along with azimuthal shear will be considered. In addition to the short-term profile data, we used several multi-decadal single height anemometer data sets. Wind estimates at hub height over an extended time period calculated using Measure Correlate Predict (MCP) algorithms will be discussed in the context of hypothesized temporal trends in the wind speeds. Utilization of such data for wind energy and other applications will be discussed.

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 21, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006 717 Simulation Model of Wind Turbine 3p Torque

    E-print Network

    Lehn, Peter W.

    Turbine 3p Torque Oscillations due to Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Dale S. L. Dolan, Student Member, IEEE quality issues, the dynamic torque generated by the blades of a wind turbine must be represented turbine including the effects of wind shear and tower shadow. The comprehensive model includes turbine

  18. Wind Sheltering of a Lake by a Tree Canopy or Bluff Topography Corey D. Markfort1,2

    E-print Network

    Porté-Agel, Fernando

    in a boundary layer wind tunnel, by investigating mean velocity profiles and surface shear stress development downwind of two canopies and a bluff. The wind tunnel experiments are validated with field measurements over an ice-covered lake. Both wind tunnel and field experiments show that reduced surface shear stress

  19. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a Simulink environment to study the flicker contribution of the wind turbine in the wind-diesel system. By using a new wind power plant representation method, a large wind farm (consisting of 96 fixed speed wind turbines) is modelled to study the power quality of wind power system. The flicker contribution of wind farm is also studied with different wind turbine numbers, using the flickermeter model. Keywords. Simulink, FAST, TurbSim, AreoDyn, wind energy, doubly-fed induction generator, variable speed wind turbine, voltage sag, tower vibration, power quality, flicker, fixed speed wind turbine, wind shear, tower shadow, and yaw error.

  20. The effect of shear on heat budgets in a simulated Mesoscale Convective System 

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Justin David

    2000-01-01

    The evolution and structure of simulated Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) were examined using the Collaborative Model for Multiscale Atmospheric Simulations. Three numerical simulations were performed, with the amount of vertical wind shear...

  1. Measurements of wind friction speeds over lava surfaces and assessment of sediment transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Iversen, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Wind velocity profiles were obtained over alluvial plains, lava flows, and a cinder cone in the Mojave Desert to determine the wind shear and the potential for particle transport. It was found that aerodynamic roughness for winds increases nearly a factor of 5 as flow crosses from the alluvium to the lava surface, resulting in wind shear that is 21 percent greater. Thus, wind erosion and sand flux may be substantially enhanced over the lava field. Moreover, wind flow turbulence is enhanced in the wake of the cinder cone, which also increases erosion and sediment transportation by the wind.

  2. Aeroelastic large eddy simulations using vortex methods: unfrozen turbulent and sheared inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branlard, E.; Papadakis, G.; Gaunaa, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Larsen, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    Vortex particles methods are applied to the aeroelastic simulation of a wind turbine in sheared and turbulent inflow. The possibility to perform large-eddy simulations of turbulence with the effect of the shear vorticity is demonstrated for the first time in vortex methods simulations. Most vortex methods formulation of shear, including segment formulations, assume a frozen shear. It is here shown that these formulations omit two source terms in the vorticity equation. The current paper also present unfrozen simulation of shear. The infinite support of the shear vorticity is accounted for using a novel approach relying on a Neumann to Dirichlet map. The interaction of the sheared vorticity with the wind turbine is shown to have an important impact on the wake shape. The obtained wake shape are closer to the one obtained using traditional computational fluid dynamics: Results with unfrozen shear do not have the severe upward motion of the wake observed in vortex methods simulation with frozen shear. The interaction of the shear and turbulence vorticity is shown to reduce the turbulence decay otherwise observed. The vortex code implemented is coupled to an aeroelastic code and examples of aeroelastic simulations under sheared and turbulent inflow are presented.

  3. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar including combined RF-acoustic antenna installed coaxially with the gondola of the wind power turbine. The work of the technique is synchronized with rotation of blades to eliminate their shielding action. Dangerous in terms of dynamic strength is the wind load pulse, the rise time which is comparable with the period of the natural frequency of the wind turbine elements (blade, tower, rotor, etc.). The amplitude decay of resonant vibrations at critical values of the speed of rotation can be realized through the use of mechanical elastic supports with nonlinear artificial dampers. They have a high coefficient of resistance, but may cause self-excited oscillations. We propose the way to deal with raised vibration of wind turbine elements at the expense of short-term increase of damping in the range of critical rotary axis speeds or during impulsive effects of wind loadings (wind gusts). This is possible through the use of non-linear electromagnetic dampers or active magnetic bearings. Their feature is the possibility of varying the mechanical stiffness and damping properties by changing the electrical parameters of electromagnets. The controlling of these parameters is carried out by the control system (CS) with the information feedback on the spatial-temporal structure of the wind field obtained from IRASS. In the composition of the CS can also be included the rotational speed sensor of the WPT rotor. This approach to the adaptation of wind turbines will allow to reduce vibration and to perform early compensation of the load on their components, which arise under the wind gusts. In addition, corrections about the wind field obtained with IRASS, would increase the mean power of WPT.

  4. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-06-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three dimensional turbulent wind field in real-time, scanned by a lidar system with an optimized trajectory.

  5. Radial Heliospheric Magnetic Fields in Solar Wind Rarefaction Regions: Ulysses Observations

    E-print Network

    Sanahuja, Blai

    Radial Heliospheric Magnetic Fields in Solar Wind Rarefaction Regions: Ulysses Observations D it observed solar wind shears from the incursions of high-latitude fast solar wind toward the low-latitude slow solar wind. We look for nearly radial field orientations commonly observed in rarefaction regions

  6. Angular shear plate

    DOEpatents

    Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  7. Methodology for reconstructing wind direction, wind speed and duration of wind events from aeolian cross-strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, Erin N.; Kocurek, Gary; Mohrig, David; Swanson, Travis

    2012-09-01

    A methodology for reconstructing wind direction, speed, and event duration from aeolian dune cross-strata was developed from analysis of crescentic dunes at White Sands, New Mexico, during wind events. Dune lee faces were surveyed, lee-face deposits mapped, deposition rates measured, grain size sampled by stratification type, and winds characterized from meteorological and field data. The spatial distribution of lee-face stratification styles is a function of the incidence angle formed between the wind and the brinkline, with secondary controls by wind speed and dune sinuosity and height. Sets of wind-ripple strata form at incidence angles of 25°-40°, grainfall/grainflow foresets over wind-ripple bottomsets at 40°-70°, and grainflow/grainfall foresets at 70°-90°. Erosional reactivation surfaces form at incidence angles up to 15°; bypass surfaces up to 25°. The total sediment load is fractionated within lee-face stratification types. Wind speed can be reconstructed from relationships between grain size, transport mode, shear velocity and grain-settling velocity. Where the full range of grain transport modes occurs and grain size is limited by shear stress, the shear velocity and grain-size range in each transport mode can be estimated by assuming the coarse fraction in grainflow strata traveled in creep, and the coarse fraction in grainfall traveled in saltation. The minimum duration of a wind event can be estimated using measures of shear velocity, dune height and dune forward migration. Method limitations arise with source-area control on grain size, extremes in wind events, and severe truncation of sets of cross-strata.

  8. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity {\\boldsymbol{ ? }} in an axial background shear of magnitude ? by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector {\\boldsymbol{ ? }} and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lateral and vertical vorticity can be phase shifted by half a wavelength. The linear and nonlinear evolutions of the vortex in the shear flow are studied numerically. Linearized simulations confirm the results of the stability analysis. The nonlinear simulations reveal further evolution of the helix in the shear flow. The linearly excited mode persists in co-existence with evolving smaller scale instabilities until the flow becomes fully turbulent at the time of O(100 {{? }-1}). Turbulent mixing dampens the amplifying mode. The described phenomenon of vortex meandering may serve as an alternative explanation for the excitation of wind turbine wake meandering in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  9. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-print Network

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  10. Shear Unzipping of DNA

    E-print Network

    Buddhapriya Chakrabarti; David R. Nelson

    2009-04-09

    We study theoretically the mechanical failure of a simple model of double stranded DNA under an applied shear. Starting from a more microscopic Hamiltonian that describes a sheared DNA, we arrive at a nonlinear generalization of a ladder model of shear unzipping proposed earlier by deGennes [deGennes P. G. C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. IV; Phys., Astrophys. 2001, 1505]. Using this model and a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we study the DNA "unzipping" transition when the shearing force exceeds a critical threshold at zero temperature. We also explore the effects of sequence heterogeneity and finite temperature and discuss possible applications to determine the strength of colloidal nanoparticle assemblies functionalized by DNA.

  11. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    PubMed

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests. PMID:25698000

  12. Science and Technical Considerations for Wind Farm Siting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This instructional module was created at the 2009 ATEEC Fellows Institute on Wind Power. The following sections are provided: An introduction to wind power classes, Offshore turbine tower foundations, Wind speed lab, Wind shear project, Turbulence and links to supporting resources. The classroom lessons include student worksheets. The entire guide may be downloaded in PDF file format. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  13. Winds aloft statistical analysis in support of day of launch Shuttle systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.; Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Hill, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the development of the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) for utilization by the Launch Systems Evaluation Advisory Team (LSEAT), requirements have been established to expand the pre-launch analysis of winds aloft for the Space Shuttle. Statistical analyses developed for the system include: comparison of pre-launch wind component profiles to wind component extremes at each altitude calculated from launch site historical data; conditional probability ellipses for wind vectors at a future time given the wind vector at an initial time; comparison of observed extreme wind shear and associated wind speed with launch site historical data utilizing the bivariate extreme value (Gumbel) distribution; estimation of extremes of wind speed or wind shear at a future time given the extremes of either variable at an initial time, utilizing the conditional extreme value distribution; power spectrum analysis for tracking wind perturbation energy in sequential pre-launch Jimsphere wind profiles.

  14. Strong near-inertial shear in the Gulf Stream front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitt, D. B.; Thomas, L. N.; Lee, C. M.; Klymak, J. M.; Ordonez, C.; Shearman, R. K.; D'Asaro, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Coherent bands of strong ageostrophic shear, characteristic of amplified near-inertial waves, were observed below the surface boundary layer in the highly baroclinic north wall of the Gulf Stream. These were observed under strong and variable wind forcing during the February-March 2012 LATeral MIXing (LATMIX) experiment. Lines of constant ageostrophic shear, nearly parallel to slanted isopycnals, propagate upwards with time and show a pronounced peak in energy at near-inertial frequencies. Vertical profiles of the shear show enhanced clockwise over counter-clockwise polarization with depth suggesting predominantly downward energy propagation. The gradient Richardson number, Ri, is also coherently banded and regions of low Ri coincide with maxima in ageostrophic shear. Within these bands there are areas about 1 km wide and 10 m deep where Ri < ¼ and hence the flow is susceptible to shear instability. We argue, using a theory appropriate for near-inertial waves propagating in submesoscale, geostrophic currents, that the strong ageostrophic shear is likely associated with the modification of the waves by both the baroclinicity and relative vorticity of the Gulf Stream front. This interaction preconditions the flow for shear instability. The amplified wave shear is superimposed on an already strong geostrophic shear and may enhance diapycnal mixing as well as isopycnal mixing—the latter through shear dispersion. To investigate this claim, we analyze the LATMIX data set, which includes high spatial and temporal resolution observations of velocity, hydrography, and microstructure made with a variety of shipboard, towed, and glider-mounted instruments collected in a nearly Lagrangian frame of reference.

  15. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  16. Jamming by shear.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dapeng; Zhang, Jie; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Behringer, R P

    2011-12-15

    A broad class of disordered materials including foams, glassy molecular systems, colloids and granular materials can form jammed states. A jammed system can resist small stresses without deforming irreversibly, whereas unjammed systems flow under any applied stresses. The broad applicability of the Liu-Nagel jamming concept has attracted intensive theoretical and modelling interest but has prompted less experimental effort. In the Liu-Nagel framework, jammed states of athermal systems exist only above a certain critical density. Although numerical simulations for particles that do not experience friction broadly support this idea, the nature of the jamming transition for frictional grains is less clear. Here we show that jamming of frictional, disk-shaped grains can be induced by the application of shear stress at densities lower than the critical value, at which isotropic (shear-free) jamming occurs. These jammed states have a much richer phenomenology than the isotropic jammed states: for small applied shear stresses, the states are fragile, with a strong force network that percolates only in one direction. A minimum shear stress is needed to create robust, shear-jammed states with a strong force network percolating in all directions. The transitions from unjammed to fragile states and from fragile to shear-jammed states are controlled by the fraction of force-bearing grains. The fractions at which these transitions occur are statistically independent of the density. Jammed states with densities lower than the critical value have an anisotropic fabric (contact network). The minimum anisotropy of shear-jammed states vanishes as the density approaches the critical value from below, in a manner reminiscent of an order-disorder transition. PMID:22170683

  17. On the Solar-Wind/Magnetosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, M.

    2012-12-01

    We would like to address a number of points about the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. (1) There are two aspects to the solar-wind driving of convection in the magnetosphere: reconnection (connecting the generator) and the solar-wind MHD generator. Most effort focuses on reconnection and ignores the physics of the generator. (2) Solar-wind coupling functions, and why the solar-wind electric field works so well. (3) The role of solar-wind density: feeding the magnetosphere. (4) Mach-number effects. (5) CME storms and CIR storms and why they differ. (6) The difference between storms driven by helmet-streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs. (7) Some things we don't understand: the viscous interaction, the role of on-off driving, and the importance of wind shear.

  18. Development of conjugate shear bands during bulk simple shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, L. B.; Cobbold, P. R.

    In rocks possessing a strong planar fabric, shear bands of constant shear sense and oriented at an oblique angle to the foliation are considered by many authors to be characteristic of a non-coaxial bulk deformation history, whereas conjugate shear bands are considered to indicate coaxial shortening. However, in two areas where bulk deformation history appears to be non-coaxial (Cap Corse, Corsica and Ile de Groix, Brittany), conjugate shear bands are observed. In order to investigate this problem, experiments were performed by bulk simple shearing using Plasticine as a rock analogue. When slip between layers of the model is permitted, shear bands of normal-fault geometry form with both the same and opposite shear sense as the bulk simple shearing at approximately the same angle with the layering (40°) irrespective of layer orientation in the undeformed state (for initial orientations of 50, 30 and 15°). Shear bands are initially formed within individual layers and may propagate across layer interfaces when further movement along these is inhibited. The existence of conjugate shear bands in Corsica and Ile de Groix is therefore not incompatible with a model of bulk simple shearing for these two regions. In field studies, one should perhaps exercise care in using shear bands to determine the kind of motion or the sense of bulk shearing.

  19. Free volume under shear

    E-print Network

    Moumita Maiti; H. A. Vinutha; Srikanth Sastry; Claus Heussinger

    2015-06-20

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems -- particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution, in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  20. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof,...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof,...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof,...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof,...

  4. Using deformed critters to determine angular shear and shear strain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela Moore

    This activity provides a step by step example to help students figure out how to determine the angular shear and shear strain, using fossils with bilateral symmetry. Students first complete the work on an idealized critter, and then on a sheared trilobite using simple graphical techniques and basic trigonometry.

  5. Observation of Shear-Induced Turbulence Using HARLIE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Sanders, Jason; Guerra, David; Moody, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric aerosol structure were made using the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) during the HOLO-1 field campaign. The scanning ability of HARLIE affords a unique opportunity to view various atmospheric phenomena. Shear-induced turbulence plays an important role in the transport of kinetic energy in the atmosphere and on March 10, 1999, several instances of shear-induced turbulence were observed via HARLIE. Using the data collected and upper-air wind profiles the nature of the instabilities is discussed.

  6. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  7. Turbulence Suppression by Shear

    E-print Network

    suppression when , the ¦§© shearing rate, is on the order of the linear growth rate or a turbulent §© flow only intro- duces a doppler shift, and is not included here. By introducing the variable with the #12;equilibrium flow, the %'p)21 365 term is introduced, consistent with smooth statistically

  8. Wind turbine wake detection with a single Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Using scanning lidar wind turbine wakes can be probed in three dimensions to produce a wealth of temporally and spatially irregular data that can be used to characterize the wakes. Unlike data from a meteorological mast or upward pointing lidar, the spatial coordinates of the measurements are not fixed and the location of the wake also varies in three dimensions. Therefore the challenge is to provide automated detection algorithms to identify wakes and quantify wake characteristics from this type of dataset. Here an algorithm is developed and evaluated on data from a large wind farm in the Midwest. A scanning coherent Doppler wind lidar was configured to measure wind speed in the wake of a continuously yawing wind turbine for two days during the experiment and wake profiles were retrieved with input of wind direction information from the nearby meteorological mast. Additional challenges to the analysis include incomplete coverage of the entire wake due to the limited scanning domain, and large wind shear that can contaminate the wake estimate because of the height variation along the line-of-sight. However, the algorithm developed in this paper is able to automatically capture wakes in lidar data from Plan Position Indicator (PPI) scans and the resultant wake statistics are consistent with previous experiment's results.

  9. Wind Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about wind energy by making a pinwheel to model a wind turbine. Just like engineers, they decide where and how their turbine works best by testing it in different areas of the playground.

  10. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  11. Shear stress and the endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Ballermann; Alan Dardik; Eudora Eng; Ailian Liu

    1998-01-01

    Shear stress and the endothelium. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo are influenced by two distinct hemodynamic forces: cyclical strain due to vessel wall distention by transmural pressure, and shear stress, the frictional force generated by blood flow. Shear stress acts at the apical cell surface to deform cells in the direction of blood flow; wall distention tends to deform

  12. A wake detector for wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Cacciola, S.; Schreiber, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes an observer capable of detecting the impingement on a wind turbine rotor of the wake of an upstream machine. The observer estimates the local wind speed and turbulence intensity on the left and right parts of the rotor disk. The estimation is performed based on blade loads measured by strain gages or optical fibers, sensors which are becoming standard equipment on many modern machines. A lower wind speed and higher turbulence intensity on one part of the rotor, possibly in conjunction with other information, can then be used to infer the presence of a wake impinging on the disk. The wake state information is useful for wind plant control strategies, as for example wake deflection by active yawing. In addition, the local wind speed estimates may be used for a rough evaluation of the vertical wind shear.

  13. Wind Whispers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on the career and technical aspects of wind energy. In addition to discussing careers in wind, the presentation covers the siting of wind turbines and some electricity basics. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  14. Evaluation of Lagrangian footprint model using data from wind tunnel convective boundary layer

    E-print Network

    Fedorovich, Evgeni

    Evaluation of Lagrangian footprint model using data from wind tunnel convective boundary layer N-B was evaluated using data from SF6 tracer release experiments in a wind tunnel with a sheared convective boundary-B. It was found that the dispersion patterns and the concentration footprints compared well with the wind-tunnel

  15. Field Wind Tunnel Testing of Two Silt Loam Soils on the North American Central High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a natural process of sediment redistribution resulting from the shear force of the wind interacting with unprotected soil surfaces. Globally, wind erosion accounts for nearly half of all soil loss. Breaking of the prairie sod and mechanical tillage of agricultural soils on the semi...

  16. Gelation under shear

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  17. Shear-thinning Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Whipped cream and the filling for pumpkin pie are two familiar materials that exhibit the shear-thinning effect seen in a range of industrial applications. It is thick enough to stand on its own atop a piece of pie, yet flows readily when pushed through a tube. This demonstrates the shear-thinning effect that was studied with the Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. CVX observed the behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The principal investigator was Dr. Robert Berg of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD.

  18. CLASS: Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor. Windshear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell

    1991-01-01

    The coherent lidar airborne shear sensor (CLASS) is an airborne CO2 lidar system being designed and developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) under contract to NASA Langley Research Center. The goal of this program is to develop a system with a 2- to 4-kilometer range that will provide a warning time of 20 to 40 seconds, so that the pilot can avoid the hazards of low-altitude wind shear under all weather conditions. It is a predictive system which will warn the pilot about a hazard that the aircraft will experience at some later time. The ability of the system to provide predictive warnings of clear air turbulence will also be evaluated. A one-year flight evaluation program will measure the line-of-sight wind velocity from a wide variety of wind fields obtained by an airborne radar, an accelerometer-based reactive wind-sensing system, and a ground-based Doppler radar. The success of the airborne lidar system will be determined by its correlation with the windfield as indicated by the onboard reactive system, which indicates the winds actually experienced by the NASA Boeing 737 aircraft.

  19. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    E-print Network

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-01-01

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  20. Shear thickening fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, E. N.; Dawson, Ch. R.; Morrison, M. E.

    1985-03-05

    The instant invention is directed to shear thickening fluids to prevent unwanted flow in wells penetrating subterranean formations. The shear thickening fluids comprise (1) a water swellable granular clay present in sufficient quantity so that, upon interaction with an aqueous phase, a stiff paste rapidly forms having a strength of at least 2000 lbs/100 ft/sup 2/, (2) a nonaqueous phase comprising a hydrocarbon material and a surfactant, and (3) an aqueous phase comprising water and a watersoluble polymer. The granular clay and water-polymer solution are kept separated by the intervening hydrocarbon-surfactant composition, which is the continuous phase. The intervening oil phase prevents the interaction between the water-polymer phase and the granular clay and results in a stable, nonreacting, pumpable composite until such time as the granular clay is fragmented by application of a sufficiently high shear force. Upon such fragmenting, the clay and aqueous phase interact resulting in a semi-rigid high strength paste which plugs any unwanted flow.

  1. Dual-hologram shearing interferometry with regulated sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Toker, G R; Levin, D

    1998-08-01

    A novel optical diagnostic technique, namely, dual-hologram shearing interferometry with regulated sensitivity, is proposed for visualization and measuring of the density gradients of compressible flows in wind tunnels. It is superior to conventional shearing interferometry in both accuracy and sensitivity. The method is especially useful for strong turbulent or unsteady regions of the flows, including shock flows. The interferometer has proved to be insensitive to mechanical vibrations and has allowed us to record holograms during the noisy wind-tunnel run. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to a supersonic flow over spherically blunted and sharp nose-cone-cylinder models. We believe that the technique will become an effective tool for receiving optical data in many flow facilities. PMID:18285991

  2. A study of compressible turbulent reattaching free shear layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Samimy; A. L. Addy; H. L. Petrie

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-dimensional, compressible, turbulent reattaching free shear layer formed by the geometrical separation of a Mach 2.46 flow with a turbulent boundary layer and a Reynolds number of 5.01 x 10 to the 7th\\/m from a 25.4 mm high backward facing step. The wind tunnel test section was specifically designed to obtain a

  3. An experimental study of compressible turbulent reattaching free shear layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Samimy

    1984-01-01

    Compressible, two-dimensional, turbulent reattaching free shear layers formed by geometrical separation of a Mach 2.46 and a Mach 2.07 turbulent boundary layer flows over a backward-facing step were investigated. In the first set of experiments, the wind tunnel test section was specifically designed to obtain flow separation at the step without any flow expansion or compression. In the second set

  4. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoman, D.R.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes a wind turbine. It comprises: a vertical axis rotor assembly coupled to a rotatable drive shaft for driving electrical power generating means; first wind deflector means for initially reflecting wind current into the rotor assembly; second wind deflector means to redirect the initially deflected wind current into the rotor assembly; and mounting means for mounting the first and second wind deflector means in the normal positions. The mounting means including an outer shaft through which the drive shaft extends and which is normally fixed with respect thereto. The outer shaft having at least one lower groove winding in one of a left-hand or right-hand direction, at least one lower groove constituting a first lower groove set, and at least one upper groove winding in the other of the left-hand or right-hand direction, at least one upper groove constituting a second upper groove set, and first lower and second upper connector rings coupled to the first and second wind deflector means respectively, and mounted on the outer shaft proximate to the first and second groove sets respectively. The first and second connector rings including guide means cooperating with at least one groove of the first and second groove sets respectively. The mounting means allowing at least one of the first and second wind deflector means to automatically move relative to each other and from its respective normal position when the velocity of the wind current exceeds a first predetermined value to increase the inter-deflector spacing and causing at least one of the first and second wind deflector means to automatically return to its respective normal position when the velocity of the wind current diminishes to a value below the first predetermined value.

  5. Assessment of Atmospheric Winds Aloft during NASA Space Shuttle Program Day-of-Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center in support of the Space Shuttle Program day of launch operations. High resolution wind profiles are derived from radar tracked Jimsphere balloons, which are launched at predetermined times preceding the launch, for evaluation. The spatial (shear) and temporal (persistence) wind characteristics are assessed against a design wind database to ensure wind change does not violate wind change criteria. Evaluations of wind profies are reported to personnel at Johnson Space Center.

  6. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoman, D.R.

    1987-03-24

    A wind turbine is described comprising: a vertical axis rotor assembly coupled to a rotatable drive shaft for driving electrical power generating means; first wind deflector means mounted on the wind turbine normally positioned generally upwind and to one side of the rotor assembly for initially deflecting wind current into the rotor assembly and second wind deflector means mounted on the wind turbine normally positioned on another side of the rotor assembly to redirect the initially deflected wind current into the rotor assembly. The first and second wind deflector means are normally spaced from each other by a certain inter-deflector spacing; mounting means for mounting the first and second wind deflector means in the normal positions, the mounting means including an outer shaft through which the drive shaft extends and which is normally fixed with respect thereto. The outer shaft has an upwardly facing circumferentially extending shoulder formed therein including a first shoulder portion extending around a major portion of the circumference of the outer shaft and a pair of upwardly sloping portions which reet at an apex.

  7. Tuning colloidal gels by shear.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, Nick; Moghimi, Esmaeel; Besseling, Rut; Poon, Wilson C K; Brady, John F; Petekidis, George

    2015-06-01

    Using a powerful combination of experiments and simulations we demonstrate how the microstructure and its time evolution are linked with mechanical properties in a frustrated, out-of-equilibrium, particle gel under shear. An intermediate volume fraction colloid-polymer gel is used as a model system, allowing quantification of the interplay between interparticle attractions and shear forces. Rheometry, confocal microscopy and Brownian dynamics reveal that high shear rates, fully breaking the structure, lead after shear cessation to more homogeneous and stronger gels, whereas preshear at low rates creates largely heterogeneous weaker gels with reduced elasticity. We find that in comparison, thermal quenching cannot produce structural inhomogeneities under shear. We argue that external shear has strong implications on routes towards metastable equilibrium, and therefore gelation scenarios. Moreover, these results have strong implications for material design and industrial applications, such as mixing, processing and transport protocols coupled to the properties of the final material. PMID:25962849

  8. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  9. Shear viscosity of nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    Jun Xu

    2013-02-01

    In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.

  10. Shear fracture tests of concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. P. Bažant; P. A. Pfeiffer

    1986-01-01

    Symmetrically notched beam specimens of concrete and mortar, loaded near the notches by concentrated forces that produce a\\u000a concentrated shear force zone, are tested to failure. The cracks do not propagate from the notches in the direction normal\\u000a to the maximum principal stress but in a direction in which shear stresses dominate. Thus, the failure is due essentially\\u000a to shear

  11. True Shear Parallel Plate Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2010-01-01

    This viscometer (which can also be used as a rheometer) is designed for use with liquids over a large temperature range. The device consists of horizontally disposed, similarly sized, parallel plates with a precisely known gap. The lower plate is driven laterally with a motor to apply shear to the liquid in the gap. The upper plate is freely suspended from a double-arm pendulum with a sufficiently long radius to reduce height variations during the swing to negligible levels. A sensitive load cell measures the shear force applied by the liquid to the upper plate. Viscosity is measured by taking the ratio of shear stress to shear rate.

  12. The production of turbulent stress in a shear flow by irrotational fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartshore, I. S.; Durbin, P. A.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the way in which external turbulence affects an initially turbulence-free region in which there is a mean velocity gradient. External turbulence induces irrotational fluctuations in the sheared region which interact with the shear to produce rotational velocity fluctuations and mean Reynolds stresses. Since the actual front between the initial external turbulence and the shear flow is a randomly contorted surface, the turbulence near the front is intermittent, and is presently included in the form of a simple statistical model. In wind tunnel tests, turbulent shear stress was found to grow from zero to significant values in the interaction region. Observed stress magnitude and extent agrees with predictions, and it is concluded that turbulent stresses can be produced by irrotational fluctuations in a region of mean shear.

  13. The role of shear in the transition from continuous shear thickening to discontinuous shear thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weifeng; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-04-01

    Dense non-Brownian suspension has rich rheology and is hard to understand, especially for distinguishing continuous shear thickening (CST) from discontinuous shear thickening (DST). By studying the shear stress dependent rheology of a well-known DST suspension of cornstarch in water, we find that the transition from CST to DST could occur not only by increasing the volume fraction ? but also by increasing the shear stress ?. For the recovery process of jammed suspension, we observe that the shear activates the time-dependent nature of particle rearrangement. DST can then be interpreted as the consequence of shear-induced jamming. Based on the test data, we plot the schematic phase diagram in the ?-? plane and find out that ? and ? perform almost the same effect on flow-state transition.

  14. Impact of shear and curvature on surface gravity wave stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. M. A.; Martins, J. P. A.; Teixeira, M. A. C.

    2009-09-01

    It has been shown that surface gravity wave stress is sensitive to the low level wind profile shape. The simplest way of incorporating those effects in a theoretical model has been recently proposed, using a second order WKB approach, which leads to closed analytical formulae for the surface stress as a function of stability, low level wind and its two first derivatives (shear and curvature). In the present study, we assess the impact of those calculations on global scale gravity wave stress and the corresponding torque, using 6-hourly data from ERA-40 reanalysis, at full resolution. While the theory shows that linear wind shear leads to a reduced stress and curvature may lead to stress enhancement, the present results indicate that the latter effect is dominant. However, when one looks for regionally integrated stress fields for the large mountain ranges, where cancellation effects take place thorough time and space integration, the overall effect is one of drag enhancement in regions of dominant easterly flow, namely Antarctica and East Africa, leading to a slight reduction of the global westerly torque due to mountain waves. Drag enhancement due to wind profile curvature seems to be an important effect in Antarctic flow, where it accounts for a 50% increase in the mean regional torque, with implied consequences for the dynamics of the polar vortex.

  15. Infrasonic wind noise under a deciduous tree canopy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jeremy; Raspet, Richard

    2015-05-01

    In a recent paper, the infrasonic wind noise measured at the floor of a pine forest was predicted from the measured wind velocity spectrum and profile within and above the trees [Raspet and Webster, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 651-659 (2015)]. This research studies the measured and predicted wind noise under a deciduous forest with and without leaves. A calculation of the turbulence-shear interaction pressures above the canopy predicts the low frequency peak in the wind noise spectrum. The calculated turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure due to the turbulence field near the ground predicts the measured wind noise spectrum in the higher frequency region. The low frequency peak displays little dependence on whether the trees have leaves or not. The high frequency contribution with leaves is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than the contribution without leaves. Wind noise levels with leaves are very similar to the wind noise levels in the pine forest. The calculated turbulence-shear contribution from the wind within the canopy is shown to be negligible in comparison to the turbulence-turbulence contribution in both cases. In addition, the effect of taller forests and smaller roughness lengths than those of the test forest on the turbulence-shear interaction is simulated based on measured meteorological parameters. PMID:25994698

  16. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  17. Low-altitude wind measurements from wide-body jet transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    For a 2-week period in the spring of 1977, data were collected onboard wide-body jet transports for the determination of winds and wind shear during landings and take-offs. The data represent about 640 take-offs or landings at 14 airports in Europe and the United States. Analysis of the wind-shear data indicates that shears of a given value are equally likely to occur at any altitude in the lower 1400-ft section of the atmosphere. Analysis of the data indicates that low shears (plus or minus .033 knot/per ft) have a 67-percent chance of occurrence during a landing or take-off, while higher values (plus or minus 0.15 knot/per ft) have a 0.5-percent chance of occurrence. A determination of the duration of a given shear was not made.

  18. Wind field variability in high-resolution simulations for wind energy forecasts and resource assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, N.; Chow, F. K.; Wharton, S.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Wind farm resource assessment, operational wind power forecasting, and wind turbine micrositing may benefit from high-resolution simulations of atmospheric flow over complex terrain. Domains can be refined from mesoscale to finer scales using grid nesting to adequately resolve turbulence and terrain in the atmospheric boundary layer. In previous work, we showed that nesting down to fine resolutions (~100 m horizontal spacing) using the WRF model does not clearly improve mean wind forecasts for our case study wind farm when modeling either synoptically or locally driven events. Differences due to increased vertical resolution or using one- vs. two-way nesting were also minimal. The LES models we tested gave similar results and were only slightly closer to the observations than the RANS models. For this particular domain, it appears that key topographic features are well resolved even at coarser resolutions, so that there is minimal change in mean winds at finer resolutions. In this work, we investigate temporal and spatial variability of predicted fields to gain further insight into possible differences due to changes in grid configuration. We also perform week-long simulations at fine resolutions of 300 or 100 meters to determine if we can obtain more detailed results for wind energy resource assessment. High-resolution representation of the spatial structure of the wind flow might be able to better capture variations in wind velocity that are relevant to wind resource assessment. Improved turbulence closure schemes will also be tested and should be able to better capture the fluctuations in the wind fields which may contribute to turbine fatigue. Long term, fine resolution runs should provide more insight into wind patterns and yield frequency distributions of wind speed, wind shear, TKE, and other factors that are invaluable to wind farm operators in determining appropriate sites for turbines and times for greatest power output.

  19. Wind Energy Leasing Handbook

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Wind Energy Leasing Handbook Wind Energy Leasing Handbook E-1033 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension? .................................................................................................................. 24 How has wind been used to generate power in the past?..................................................................................................................... 31 What do wind developers consider in locating wind energy projects

  20. Mathematics of the ShearWarp Factorization

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    is to factor an arbitrary affine viewing transformation matrix M view as follows: M view = Mwarp \\Delta M shear M shear is a shear matrix and Mwarp is an affine transformation matrix. The matrix factors must

  1. The limited growth of vegetated shear layers

    E-print Network

    Ghisalberti, M.

    In contrast to free shear layers, which grow continuously downstream, shear layers generated by submerged vegetation grow only to a finite thickness. Because these shear layers are characterized by coherent vortex structures ...

  2. Direct shear testing of polished slickensided surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Meehan; Thomas L. Brandon; J. Michael Duncan; Binod Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    A series of ring shear and direct shear tests were performed to measure the drained residual strength of three clay soils.\\u000a For each of the soils, slickensided direct shear specimens were prepared by wire-cutting intact specimens, and polishing the\\u000a resulting shear plane on a variety of surfaces to align the clay particles in the direction of shear. Drained direct shear

  3. Wind Tunnel 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 67 APPENDIX G DISTRIBUTION OE LAKE CHARLES OBSERVED WIND DIPUECT1ON Wl', 'N TUE OUSL'RVL'D UOUSTON WIND DIR). CTION IS 1'ROill 'lklE EAST-NORTH- EAST, EAST, OR EAST- SOU'lklEAS'lL. . . . . . . . . . P aBa 72 APPENDIX II DETAII ED SOLUT10N... levels ro the results obtained b; rcg: i ssinf the Uouston low- levcl !&inde-aloft on the Houston surface wind. Althou?h d Leisure correlation coofficip!its show a definite urmr)er siinisiurs, they indicate that from &iB'/. to 77X (depending on season...

  4. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ? evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ?? 1. 4M ?. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various dynamical driving processes and what they imply for key wind parameters like the wind flow speed and mass loss rate.

  5. Wind profile estimation from point to point laser distortion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The author's results on the problem of using laser distortion data to estimate the wind profile along the path of the beam are presented. A new model for the dynamics of the index of refraction in a non-constant wind is developed. The model agrees qualitatively with theoretical predictions for the index of refraction statistics in linear wind shear, and is approximated by the predictions of Taylor's hypothesis in constant wind. A framework for a potential in-flight experiment is presented, and the estimation problem is discussed in a maximum likelihood context.

  6. Wind Monitoring Report for Fort Wainwright's Donnelly Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2011-01-18

    Using the wind data collected at a location in Fort Wainwright’s Donnelly Training Area (DTA) near the Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC) test track, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the gross and net energy productions that proposed turbine models would have produced exposed to the wind resource measured at the meteorological tower (met tower) location during the year of measurement. Calculations are based on the proposed turbine models’ standard atmospheric conditions power curves, the annual average wind speeds, wind shear estimates, and standard industry assumptions.

  7. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  8. Shear at the surface of a lake in light winds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard C. Kenney

    1991-01-01

    Standard computer cards released at 1-min intervals from the same point beneath a hydrometerological tower were observed to segregate by color according to their depth of integration of the current. Green cards floated flat at the lake surface. Orange cards, on the other hand, curved downward when placed on the lake surface and averaged the currents in the top 1

  9. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  10. Simulated performance of an airborne lidar wind shear detection system 

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Kenneth Scott

    1987-01-01

    of these variables, leading to spatial fluctuations in n. The optical index ? of ? refraction structure parameter, Cs, is a measure of the optical turbulence properties of the atmosphere, and is given by: C& = (ni ? ns)& / Ls s n where ni and ns are values.... Aerosol backscattcr profile 37 16. Optical index-of-refractiou structure parameter 17. f;Oz SAR . validatioii . 46 18. Ho: YAG S. "iR . 19. Signal Reduction Fact. or 47 20 Atmosplieric extiiiction ? lvlidlatitude Summer model 21. Atmospheric...

  11. Smectic Edge Dislocations under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peilong; Lu, Chun-Yi David

    2011-09-01

    Layer structures around an edge dislocation in a smectic phase under shear are studied with both phase field and order parameter models. It is shown that, contrast to a crystal solid, the conventional picture of the Peach--Koehler force experienced by dislocations when the sample is under a shear stress cannot be readily applied to the smectic phases. Under a uniform shear flow, we obtain the phase field and order parameter solutions around an edge dislocation. The solutions elucidate properties such as the layer distortion range around the dislocation and scaling of inter-dislocation interaction on dislocation separation. Calculations on energy dissipation indicate the extreme shear-thinning behavior that an edge dislocation induces a shear stress independent of the shear rate. Finally in a bulk sample with dislocation forming loops and networks, we argue that the uniform flow component around the dislocation is important to the energy dissipation and we show that its scaling exponent with the shear rate is very close to results from many previous rheology measurements.

  12. Study of the turbulent characteristics of the near-wake field of a medium-sized wind turbine operating in high wind conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Helmis, C.G.; Soilemes, A.T.; Papageorgas, P.G.; Asimakopoulos, D.N. [Lab. of Meteorology, Athens (Greece)] [Lab. of Meteorology, Athens (Greece)

    1995-07-01

    The near-wake turbulent structure that is downwind of a medium-sized, horizontal axis wind turbine at a distance of one rotor diameter is discussed. The experimental site is the Samos Island Wind Park comprising nine wind turbines installed on the top of a 400 m-high saddle. The analysis is based on experimental data obtained mainly under strong wind conditions by two masts erected upstream and downstream of a wind turbine. The field of wind turbulence is examined both in integral and spectral form. Consideration of the perturbation produced by the tower construction is crucial in the interpretation of results. Observations show that the turbulent field varies from the edge to the center of the wake and strongly depends on the incident wind speed. Increased turbulent levels are observed near the blade tips, with evidence of a similar trend around the hub height for all wind speeds. Decreases of wind turbulence are observed in mid frequencies inside the wake due to the reduced shear associated with the flat crosswind velocity profile. This effect seems to dominate in the variation of the integral values of the longitudinal wind component variance. The low frequency portion of wind spectra reverses behavior in high wind speeds, i.e., an increase in energy relative to background values is observed. This is probably due to the shape of the turbine characteristic power curve. Cross-wind profiles of turbulent shear stresses at the lower boundary of the wake are also discussed. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. LENSING BIAS IN COSMIC SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Fabian; Dodelson, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rozo, Eduardo [CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hui Lam [Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), New York, NY (United States); Sheldon, Erin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Only galaxies bright enough and large enough to be unambiguously identified and measured are included in galaxy surveys used to estimate cosmic shear. We demonstrate that because gravitational lensing can scatter galaxies across the brightness and size thresholds, cosmic shear experiments suffer from lensing bias. We calculate the effect on the shear power spectrum and show that-unless corrected for-it will lead analysts to cosmological parameters estimates that are biased at the 2-3{sigma} level in DETF Stage III experiments, such as the Dark Energy Survey.

  14. Structure of Highly Sheared Tropical Storm Chantal during CAMEX-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Ritchie, E.; Simpson, Joanne; Molinari, J.; Tian, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tropical Storm Chantal during August 2001 was a storm that failed to intensify over the few days prior to making landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula. An observational study of Tropical Storm Chantal is presented using a diverse dataset including remote and in situ measurements from the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 and the NOAA WP-3D N42RF aircraft and satellite. The authors discuss the storm structure from the larger-scale environment down to the convective scale. Large vertical shear (850-200-hPa shear magnitude range 8-15 m/s) plays a very important role in preventing Chantal from intensifying. The storm had a poorly defined vortex that only extended up to 5-6-km altitude, and an adjacent intense convective region that comprised a mesoscale convective system (MCS). The entire low-level circulation center was in the rain-free western side of the storm, about 80 km to the west-southwest of the MCS. The MCS appears to have been primarily the result of intense convergence between large-scale, low-level easterly flow with embedded downdrafts, and the cyclonic vortex flow. The individual cells in the MCS such as cell 2 during the period of the observations were extremely intense, with reflectivity core diameters of 10 km and peak updrafts exceeding 20 m/s. Associated with this MCS were two broad subsidence (warm) regions, both of which had portions over the vortex. The first layer near 700 hPa was directly above the vortex and covered most of it. The second layer near 500 hPa was along the forward and right flanks of cell 2 and undercut the anvil divergence region above. There was not much resemblance of these subsidence layers to typical upper-level warm cores in hurricanes that are necessary to support strong surface winds and a low central pressure. The observations are compared to previous studies of weakly sheared storms and modeling studies of shear effects and intensification. The configuration of the convective updrafts, low-level circulation, and lack of vertical coherence between the upper- and lower-level warming regions likely inhibited intensification of Chantal. This configuration is consistent with modeled vortices in sheared environments, which suggest the strongest convection and rain in the downshear left quadrant of the storm, and subsidence in the upshear right quadrant. The vertical shear profile is, however, different from what was assumed in previous modeling in that the winds are strongest in the lowest levels and the deep tropospheric vertical shear is on the order of 10-12 m/s.

  15. Influence of refraction on wind turbine noise

    E-print Network

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2013-01-01

    A semi-empirical method is applied to calculate the time-average sound level of wind turbine noise generation and propagation. Both are affected by wind shear refraction. Under upwind conditions the partially ensonified zone separates the fully ensonified zone (close to the turbine) and the shadow zone (far away from the turbine). Refraction is described in terms of the wind speed linear profile fitted to the power law profile. The rotating blades are treated as a two-dimensional circular source in the vertical plane. Inside the partially ensonified zone the effective A-weighted sound power decreases to zero when the receiver moves from the turbine toward the shadow zone. The presented results would be useful in practical applications to give a quick estimate of the effect of refraction on wind turbine noise.

  16. Recommendations for a wind profiling network to support Space Shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamora, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility is examined of a network of clear air radar wind profilers to forecast wind conditions before Space Shuttle launches during winter. Currently, winds are measured only in the vicinity of the shuttle launch site and wind loads on the launch vehicle are estimated using these measurements. Wind conditions upstream of the Cape are not monitored. Since large changes in the wind shear profile can be associated with weather systems moving over the Cape, it may be possible to improve wind forecasts over the launch site if wind measurements are made upstream. A radar wind profiling system is in use at the Space Shuttle launch site. This system can monitor the wind profile continuously. The existing profiler could be combined with a number of radars located upstream of the launch site. Thus, continuous wind measurements would be available upstream and at the Cape. NASA-Marshall representatives have set the requirements for radar wind profiling network. The minimum vertical resolution of the network must be set so that the wind shears over the depths greater than or = 1 km will be detected. The network should allow scientists and engineers to predict the wind profile over the Cape 6 hours before a Space Shuttle launch.

  17. Quantitative visualization of compressible turbulent shear flows using condensate-enhanced Rayleigh scattering

    E-print Network

    Miles, Richard

    million con- centration) of a condensable vapor (here, water or carbon dioxide) is introduced into the airQuantitative visualization of compressible turbulent shear flows using condensate-enhanced Rayleigh was based on laser scattering from particles of H2O or CO2 condensate that form in the wind tunnel nozzle

  18. Shear angle of magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanping, Lü; Wang, Jingxiu; Wang, Huaning

    1993-11-01

    The authors introduce a new parameter, the shear angle of vector magnetic fields, ??, to describe the non-potentiality of magnetic fields in active regions, which is defined as the angle between the observed vector magnetic field and its corresponding current-free field. In the case of highly inclined field configurations, this angle is approximately equal to the "angular shear", ??, defined by Hagyard et al. (1984). ?? can be considered as the projection of the shear angle, ??, on the photosphere. For the active region studied, the shear angle, ??, seems to have a better and neater correspondence with flare activity than does ??. It gives a clearer explanation of the non-potentiality of magnetic fields. It is a better measure of the deviation of the observed magnetic field from a potential field, and is directly related to the magnetic free energy stored in non-potential fields.

  19. Creep in shear of experimental solder joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tribula; J. W. Jr. Morris

    1989-01-01

    Thermal fatigue failures of solder joints in electronic devices are a great concern in the electronics industry. Since the fatigue load is often in shear the details of thermal fatigue failure in shear are of particular interest. Recent work indicates that similar failure mechanisms operate in both thermal fatigue in shear and unidirectional creep in shear. Additionally, since the operative

  20. Dry snow slab shear fracture speeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. McClung

    2007-01-01

    Dry snow slab avalanches release by propagating shear fractures within thin weak layers underneath thicker, stronger planar slabs. In this paper, measured shear fracture speeds from small scale snow slabs are compared with theoretical estimates compatible with dynamic fracture mechanics. Given the important physical quantities including density and elastic shear modulus, it is concluded that estimated snow slab shear fracture

  1. Determining flow type, shear rate and shear stress in magmas from bubble shapes and orientations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Rust; Michael Manga; K. V. Cashman

    2003-01-01

    We interpret the shear environments that produced bubble textures in obsidian samples using the results of theoretical, numerical and experimental studies on the deformation of bubbles in shear flows. In particular, we use the shapes and orientations of bubbles (vesicles) in obsidian to estimate shear rates and shear stresses, and assess flow type (simple vs. pure shear). This technique can

  2. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  3. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII...385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind...

  4. Analysis of Wind Characteristics at United States Tall Tower Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.

    2008-12-01

    A major initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure that 20% of the country's electricity is produced by wind energy by the year 2030. An understanding of the boundary layer characteristics, especially at elevated heights greater than 80 meters (m) above the surface is a key factor for wind turbine design, wind plant layout, and identifying potential markets for advanced wind technology. The wind resource group at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory is analyzing wind data collected at tall (80+ m) towers across the United States. The towers established by both public and private initiative, measure wind characteristics at multiple levels above the surface, with the highest measurement levels generally between 80 and 110 m. A few locations have measurements above 200 m. Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) directly assess and analyze specific wind resource characteristics such as wind speed shear over the turbine blade swept area. The majority of the available public tall tower measurement sites are located between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The towers are not evenly distributed among the states. The states with the largest number of towers include Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. These states have five or six towers collecting data. Other states with multiple tower locations include Texas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Ohio. The primary consideration when analyzing the data from the tall towers is identifying tower flow effects that not only can produce slightly misleading average wind speeds, but also significantly misleading wind speed shear values. In addition, the periods-of-record of most tall tower data are only one to two years in length. The short data collection time frame does not significantly affect the diurnal wind speed pattern though it does complicate analysis of seasonal wind patterns. The tall tower data analysis revealed some distinct regional features of wind shear climatology. For example, the wind shear exponent (alpha) at the towers in the Central Plains is generally between 0.15 and 0.25, greater than the commonly used 1/7 power law exponent value of 0.143. Another characteristic of Central Plains wind climatology was that winds from the south had alpha values of 0.2 to 0.3, while northerly winds had lower alpha values from 0.1 to 0.2. The wind resource at a particular tower is affected not only by the regional climatology but also by local conditions such as terrain, surface roughness, and structure of the lower boundary layer.

  5. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  6. Wind Tunnel 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ESL-TR-12-07-01 STATEWIDE AIR EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS FROM WIND AND OTHER RENEWABLES SUMMARY REPORT A Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality For the Period September 2011 – July 2012 Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P.E... 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 E l e c t r i c i t y G e n e r a t e d i n M W h Year Annual Electricity Generated in Texas by Renewable Sources Biomass Hydro Landfill gas Solar Wind Figure 1-5: Electricity Generation...

  7. Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the development of improved parameterizations of wind turbines in high-resolution numerical models, such as large-eddy simulations (LES).

  8. Design of the armature windings of a compensated pulsed alternator engineering prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Gully; W. L. Bird; T. M. Bullion; H. G. Rylander; W. F. Weldon; H. H. Woodson

    1979-01-01

    The design of the armature windings of a 6-kV, 70-kA compensated pulsed alternator engineering prototype is presented. Consideration is given to winding configuration, conductor design, rotor ground plane insulation, stator ground plane insulation, and stator gap insulation. Rotor banding, mechanical clearance, corona suppression, and tooling and fabrication are outlined and rotary shear tests are described.

  9. Fluxes and energy dissipation in thermal convection and shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, B.; Grossmann, S.; Lohse, D.

    2007-04-01

    We expose analogies between turbulence in a fluid heated from below (Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) flow) and shear flows: The unifying theory for RB flow (see Grossmann S. and Lohse D., J. Fluid Mech., 407 (2000) 27 and subsequent refinements) can be extended to the flow between rotating cylinders (Taylor-Couette flow) and pipe (Poiseuille) flow. We identify "wind" dissipation rates and momentum fluxes that are analogous to the dissipation rate and heat flux in RB flow. The proposed unifying description for the three cases is consistent with the experimental data.

  10. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation, vortex shedding, and local turbulence intensity and wind shear values. To achieve accurate results, attention must of course be paid to issues such as ensuring Reynolds number independence, avoiding blockage issues, and properly matching the velocity power spectrum, but once this is done, the laws of fluid mechanics take care of the rest. There will not be an overproduction of turbulent kinetic energy at the top of escarpments, or unacceptable dissipation of inlet turbulence levels. Modern atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels are also often used to provide validation data for evaluating the performance of CFD model in complex flow environments. Present day computers have further increased the quality and quantity of data that can be economically obtained in a timely manner, for example through wind speed measurement using a computer controlled 3-D measurement positioning system Given this accuracy and widespread acceptance, it is perhaps surprising that ours was the only wind tunnel model in the Bolund blind experiment, an indication of how seldom physical modelling is used when estimating terrain effect for wind farms. In demonstrating how the Bolund test was modeled, this presentation will provide background on wind tunnel testing, including the governing scaling parameters. And we’ll see how our results compared to the full scale tests.

  11. Wind Chimes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach Office,

    Students are challenged to design and build wind chimes using their knowledge of physics and sound waves, and under given constraints such as weight, cost and number of musical notes it must generate. They make mathematical computations to determine the pipe lengths.

  12. Gap Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    This module provides a basic understanding of why gap winds occur, their typical structures, and how gap wind strength and extent are controlled by larger-scale, or synoptic, conditions. You will learn about a number of important gap flows in coastal regions around the world, with special attention given to comprehensively documented gap wind cases in the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Columbia River Gorge. Basic techniques for evaluating and predicting gap flows are presented. The module reviews the capabilities and limitations of the current generation of mesoscale models in producing realistic gap winds. By the end of this module, you should have sufficient background to diagnose and forecast gap flows around the world, and to use this knowledge to understand their implications for operational decisions. Other features in this module include a concise summary for quick reference and a final exam to test your knowledge. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

  13. Shear flow instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotti, Matthew Lee

    The outflows from young, massive protostars are observed to contain, in many instances, more mass than the protostar producing them. Entrainment, spurred on by hydrodynamical or magnetohydrodynamical instabilities, is one possible mechanism of gathering the extra mass. The instability found at a shear flow boundary layer is known as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). This thesis lays the groundwork to start answering the outflow question by examining the KHI in more detail through the use of 2D simulations. I investigate the role of resistivity on the saturation and non-linear evolution of the KHI under the influence of a weak magnetic field. The models run cover magnetic Reynolds numbers ranging from Rm = 1000 toRm = 50000 which, admittedly, is much lower than the Reynolds numbers found in the ISM (Rm ˜ 10 15). Wherever possible, I have tried to postulate the effects of going to even higher Reynolds numbers. Additionally, I have also examined the mixing properties of the KHI by utilizing passive Lagrangian particles initially distributed evenly within the boundary layer. The particles are then tracked as they are advected through the velocity field. Finally, I examine the KHI in a weakly ionized medium. In reality, the molecular interstellar medium is partially ionized, with an ionization fraction Xe ˜ 10-8--10-7. In the absence of collisions, the ions will evolve as the MHD instability does and the neutrals will evolve as the HD instability. However, collisions between the ions and neutrals will affect that evolution. I found that the role of resistivity has a large effect on the non-linear evolution, causing the kinetic and magnetic energy to decay on a much longer timescale. The transport of momentum is greater in the MHD model, with an increasing effect with magnetic Reynolds number, than in the HD model. However, the particle transport remains the same for both the HD and MHD models. The effect is attributed to a large effect on the momentum transport from the Maxwell Stress. Collisions tend to damp out the energy in the instability for a strong magnetic field case.

  14. Observations of Wind Asymmetries in Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, E.; Davis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most major cities are located on coastlines, vulnerable to the direct impacts of tropical cyclones. Therefore, it is critical to understand and improve prediction of these storms in order to make communities more resilient. Though hurricane warning systems have improved in recent years, these warnings are insufficient, because they fail to account for an indication of tropical cyclone wind asymmetry, or the radial extent of maximum winds in different locations within the cyclone. This study explored the wind asymmetry (defined by magnitude and orientation) among 337 Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1988-2012, utilizing the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) Extended Best Track Dataset (EBT) and Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Asymmetry was defined as the magnitude of the largest difference in the radius of gale-force wind across opposing quadrants, normalized by the average of the four wind radii. The asymmetry orientation pointed along the axis of maximum asymmetry toward the quadrant with the greater gale radius. Relationships between wind asymmetry and various storm characteristics such as geographical location, storm life cycle, intensity, size, storm motion, and vertical wind shear were examined. The magnitude of asymmetry increased in higher latitudes and along coastlines, particularly in smaller storms. Asymmetry was higher at the beginning of a storm's life, possibly owing to a less well-organized structure, and higher at the end of a storm's life, coinciding with an increase in vertical wind shear and translation speed. Results from this study may allow for improved tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings to help protect seaside communities.

  15. Hydraulic jumps with upstream shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kelly; Helfrich, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic jumps in flows with background shear are investigated, motivated by applications such as the flow over sills in Knight Inlet and the Pre-Bosphorus Channel. The full solution space and allowable solutions to several two-layer theories for hydraulic jumps with upstream shear are identified. The two-layer theories considered, including a recent theory by Borden et al. (JFM, 2012), are distinguished by how dissipation is partitioned between the layers. It is found that upstream shear with a faster and thinner lower layer causes an increase in bore speed, for a given jump height. Further, these two-layer solutions only exist for a limited range of upstream shear. 2D numerical simulations are conducted, guided by the two-layer theory solution space, and the results are compared to the theories. The simulations show the qualitative types of hydraulic transitions that occur, including undular bores, fully turbulent jumps, and conjugate state-like solutions; the type depends on the jump height and upstream shear for fixed upstream layer depths. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the mixing. Finally, a few 3D numerical simulations were made and are found to be consistent with the 2D results.

  16. Transport suppression by shear reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinell, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between transport and shear is a problem of considerable interest to magnetically confined plasmas. It is well known that there are cases in which an increase of flow shear can lead to a reduction of turbulent transport. However, this is not a generic result, and there are transport problems in which the opposite is the case. In particular, as originally discussed in Ref. footnotetextdel-Castillo-Negrete and Morrison, Phys. Fluids A 5, 948 (1993), barriers to chaotic transport typically form in regions of vanishing shear. This property, which is generic to the so-called non-twist Hamiltonian systems footnotetextdel-Castillo-Negrete, Greene, and Morrison, Physica D 91, 1 (1996), explains the observed resilience of transport barriers in non-monotonic zonal flows in plasmas and fluids and the robustness of shearless magnetic surfaces in reverse shear configurations. Here we study the role of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the suppression of chaotic transport by shear reduction in a simplified model. Following Ref. footnotetextdel-Castillo-Negrete, Phys. Plasmas, 7, 1702 (2000) we consider a model consisting of a superposition of drift waves and a non-monotonic zonal flow. The FLR effects are incorporated by gyroaveraging the E xB velocity, and transport is studied by following the evolution of ensembles of test particles.

  17. Effects of incoming wind condition and wind turbine aerodynamics on the hub vortex instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, R.; Viola, F.; Gallaire, F.; Iungo, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics and instabilities occurring in the near-wake of wind turbines have a crucial role for the wake downstream evolution, and for the onset of far-wake instabilities. Furthermore, wake dynamics significantly affect the intra-wind farm wake flow, wake interactions and potential power losses. Therefore, the physical understanding and predictability of wind turbine wake instabilities become a nodal point for prediction of wind power harvesting and optimization of wind farm layout. This study is focused on the prediction of the hub vortex instability encountered within wind turbine wakes under different operational conditions of the wind turbine. Linear stability analysis of the wake flow is performed by means of a novel approach that enables to take effects of turbulence on wake instabilities into account. Stability analysis is performed by using as base flow the time-averaged wake velocity field at a specific downstream location. The latter is modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex and helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disc model. The results show that hub vortex instability is promoted by increasing the turbine thrust coefficient. Indeed, a larger aerodynamic load produces an enhanced wake velocity deficit and axial shear, which are considered the main sources for the wake instability. Nonetheless, wake swirl also promotes hub vortex instability, and it can also affect the azimuthal wavenumber of the most unstable mode.

  18. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Rosochowski, Andrzej [Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Olejnik, Lech [Institute of Materials Processing, Warsaw University of Technology, Narbutta 85, 02-524 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-04-07

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant.

  19. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A; Folgering, Erik H T E; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Smit, Theo H

    2004-03-01

    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1 x g control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the centrifuge and the geometry of the experiment hardware used these shear forces may contribute as much as 99% to the total force acting on the cells or tissues. The inertial shear force artifact should be dealt with for future experiment hardware development for Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for the interpretation of previous spaceflight and on-ground research data. PMID:16145797

  20. A wind-tunnel study of sea breeze effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Ogawa; Richard Griffiths; Walter G. Hoydysh

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze has been attempted. No attempt was made to reproduce the recirculation that characterizes a sea breeze, but the results indicate that the low-level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of

  1. A Study of Thermal Wind in the Vicinity of a Jet Stream 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Newton William

    1960-01-01

    Computation of Thermal Wind 12 12 14 IV. APPROACH 16 V. PROCEDURE Geostrophic Wind Gradient Wmd Mean Aircraft Wind 18 18 19 21 VI. DISCUSSION TABLE I TABLE 2 TABLE 3 REFERENCES FIGURES 26 28 29 31-41 LIST OF FIGURES Fi~e 1. Aircraft... OF FIGURES (Cont'd. ) Figure 9. Distance By (in 10 feet upper scale and nautical miles lower 5 scale) vs. average percentage departure of mean lower level wind plus geostrophic shear from mean upper level wind. . . . . . . . . 39 ( "383mb g) 280mb 280mb...

  2. Shear jamming in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ?J below which no jammed states exist. Recent experiments have shown that applying shear to a stress-free initial state can generate states which are either fragile or shear jammed depending on the way the force-network is percolated (Bi et al. Nature 2011). The nature of the jamming transition however is obscured because the existence of friction between the system and the third dimension. A new apparatus at SJTU has been designed to completely eliminate this friction by letting the particles float on the surface of a shallow water layer, which allows a study of the more detailed nature of the shear-jammed states and the transition from an unjammed state to a shear-jammed state. In this study, we also use high-precision force sensors to monitor the dynamical changes near the jamming transition. We further combine numerical simulations with the experiments to diagnose the nature of this jamming transition and its possible dependence on certain particle properties. For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ?J below which no jammed states exist. Recent experiments have shown that applying shear to a stress-free initial state can generate states which are either fragile or shear jammed depending on the way the force-network is percolated (Bi et al. Nature 2011). The nature of the jamming transition however is obscured because the existence of friction between the system and the third dimension. A new apparatus at SJTU has been designed to completely eliminate this friction by letting the particles float on the surface of a shallow water layer, which allows a study of the more detailed nature of the shear-jammed states and the transition from an unjammed state to a shear-jammed state. In this study, we also use high-precision force sensors to monitor the dynamical changes near the jamming transition. We further combine numerical simulations with the experiments to diagnose the nature of this jamming transition and its possible dependence on certain particle properties. The work at SJTU is in collaboration with Ling Zhang and Jie Zheng. The numerical simulations are in collaboration with Maobin Hu at Univ. of Sci. & Tech. of China.

  3. Computer analysis of wind turbine blade dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.; Hershberg, E.L.; Wright, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    The flapping motion of a single wind turbine rotor blade has been analyzed and equations describing the flapping motion have been developed. The analysis was constrained to allow only flapping motions for a cantilevered blade, and the equations of motion are linearized. A computer code, called FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program), to solve the equations of motion and compute the blade loads has been completed and compared to measured loads for a 3-bladed downwind turbine with stiff blades. The results of the program are presented in tabulated form for equidistant points along the blade and equal azimuth angles around the rotor disk. The blade deflection, slope and velocity, flapwise shear and moment, edgewise shear and moment, blade tension, and blade torsion are given. The deterministic excitations considered in the analysis include wind shear, tower shadow, gravity, and a prescribed yaw motion.

  4. A computer analysis of wind turbine blade dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Wright, A.D.; Hershberg, E.L.

    1986-02-01

    The flapping motion of a single wind turbine rotor blade has been analyzed and equations describing the flapping motion have been developed. The analysis was constrained to allow only flapping motions for a cantilevered blade, and the equations of motion are linearized. A computer code, called FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program), to solve the equations of motion and compute the blade loads, has been completed and compared to measured loads for a 3-bladed downwind turbine with stiff blades. The results of the program are presented in tabulated form for equidistant points along the blade and equal azimuth angles around the rotor disk. The blade deflection, slope and velocity, flapwise shear and moment, edgewise shear and moment, blade tension, and blade torsion are given. The deterministic excitations considered in the analysis include wind shear, tower shadow, gravity, and a prescribed yaw motion.

  5. Effect of cyclic shearing on shear localisation in granular bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tejchman; E. Bauer

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic shearing of an infinite narrow layer of dry and cohesionless sand between two very rough boundaries under constant vertical pressure is numerically modelled with the finite element method using a polar hypoplastic constitutive relation. The constitutive relation was obtained through an extension of a non-polar model by polar quantities, viz. particle rotations, curvatures, couple stresses using the mean grain

  6. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  7. Shear-wave velocity of slope sediments near Hudson Canyon from analysis of ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. C.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Flores, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present new ambient noise data that help constrain the shear strength of marine sediments on the continental slope north of Hudson Canyon on the U.S. Atlantic margin. Sediment shear strength is a key parameter in models of potentially tsunamigenic, submarine slope failures, but shear strength is difficult to measure in situ and is expected to evolve in time with changes in pore pressure. The ambient noise data were recorded by 11 short-period, ocean-bottom seismometers and hydrophones deployed in a ~1 by 1.5 km array for ~6 months on the continental slope. These high frequency (~0.1 - 50 Hz), narrow-aperture data are expected to record noise propagating as interface waves and/or resonating in the upper ~500 m of sediment. Propagation of interface waves is controlled by the shear-wave velocity of the sediment, which we measure by calculating lag-times in cross-correlations of waveforms recorded by pairs of receivers. These measurements of shear-wave velocity will be used to constrain shear strength. The data also appear to record wind-generated noise resonating in layered sediment. We expect this resonance to also be sensitive to shear-wave velocity, and spectral analysis and modeling of harmonics may provide a second constraint on sediment shear strength. Both the correlogram- and spectral-based measurements can be made using hour- to day-long segments of data, enabling us to constrain temporal evolution of shear-wave velocity and potential forcing mechanisms (e.g., tidal and storm loading and submarine groundwater discharge) through the ~6 month deployment.

  8. An analysis of the variation of the shearing stresses and momentum exchange in the friction layer over Cape Kennedy, Florida

    E-print Network

    Bradham, John Harvin

    1970-01-01

    Kennedy, Florida. (January 1970) John 11. Bradham, B. S. , 1lniversity of South Carolina; Directed by: Dr. James R. Scoggins The method of geostrophic departure was employed in an analysis of t'ne variation of the shearing stresses and momentum... exchange coefficients in the friction layer over Cape Kennedy. FPS-16 radar/Jimsphere (RJ) wind profiles, rawinsonde (RW) data, and computations of geostrophic velocity were used in the analysis. The analysis was performed for five specific mean wind...

  9. Granular Couette Flow at High Shear Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg; Sundquist, Jamie; Gollub, Jerry

    2002-11-01

    We present an experimental study of couette flow of granular material at very high shear rates. Wall velocities up to 9.4 m/s and shear rates up to 2400 s-1 (based on a shear band that is 4 particle diameters thick) are achieved. We find a surprising non-monotonic dependence of the torque on the shear rate. This effect shows large variability even when the obvious variables such as temperature, humidity and preparation history are controlled. We interpret the variability as arising from particle wear that changes the frictional interactions that dominate the torque at lower shear rates. At very high shear rates, the torque increases monotonically with shear rate and is quite reproducible. We interpret this behavior as reflecting collisional dynamics at high shear rates. Non-dimensional parameters that control the change from friction dominated to collision dominated interactions will be discussed. (Work supported by NSF Division of Materials Research)

  10. Wrinkling of Stretched Films: Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Report presents theoretical investigation on nonlinear shearing characteristics of wrinkling films under applied shear stress. Report helps explain force/deflection characteristic of in-planeboom and solar-array blanket structural combinations.

  11. Elliptical Void Growth in Shear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Lin Pan; Zhu-Ping Huang; Xing Ji

    1995-01-01

    An approximate upper bound approach is developed to analyse the growth of an eliptical void contained in a finite unit cell undergoing simple shearing combined with superimposed hydrostatic tension. The matrix is assumed to be an incompressible nonlinear power-law viscous solid. For a void in an infinite linearly viscous matrix material, the present result is in good agreement with Eshelby's

  12. Teaching Case: Scissors and Shears

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ann Velenchik

    This case is the transcript of the 1962 Congressional Testimony of BC Deuschle, President of the Scissors, Shears and Manicure Implement Manufacturers' Association, with regard to the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. Deuschle opposes the act, fearing that reduced protection will destroy his industry. The case includes all of the classic economic and political motives for protection.

  13. Plotting shear-flow forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furuike, T.; Long, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysts can use computer program to study shear-flow and in-plane forces characteristic of quadrilateral panels subjected to different loading conditions. Digital outputs are presented for engineers and management, with various options to allow bulk of data to be analyzed quickly.

  14. Direct Measurement of Turbulent Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanus, Stefanus; Steers, Stanley; Goldburg, Walter

    2010-11-01

    Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) is used to directly measure the mean shear rate s in a turbulent soap film. A 5 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser is focused on the film at a point r, the spot size being w =100 ?m. The scattered light intensity I(t) is analyzed by a correlator that measures the average, over time t, of the correlation function G(?) = /shear s averaged over w and the standard deviation of s. Of special interest is the shear at points r near a solid boundary. The PCS measurements of s (in Hz) are compared with those obtained by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The two techniques yield values of s that agree within a standard deviation. The PCS method has the advantage of compactness and rapid data collection, making it of potential use in biology and medicine. By changing the orientation of the incident and scattered beams, one can measure various components of the shear tensor. The implementation of the PCS method does not require the presence of a mean flow. It can also be applied to three-dimensional turbulence.

  15. Module Handbook Specialisation Wind Energy

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    ;Specialisation Wind Energy, NTU Athens, 2nd Semester Module 1/Wind Energy: Wind potential, Aerodynamics & Loading of Wind Turbines Module name: Wind potential, Aerodynamics & Loading of Wind Turbines Section Classes Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential Wind turbine Aerodynamics Static and dynamic Loading of Wind turbines

  16. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Wind Velocity from Mini-Sodar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnenko, N. P.; Tarasenkov, M. V.; Shamanaeva, L. G.

    2015-03-01

    Mini-sodar measurements of wind velocity profiles in the 20-200 m layer have demonstrated the high efficiency of the use of mini-sodars in monitoring the fine structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and in detecting jets and wind shear. An analysis of measurements of vertical profiles of the wind velocity and its vertical and horizontal components has shown that analytical approximations of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind velocity are possible for both neutral and unstable stratifications of the atmosphere. They are well described by a logarithmic law. The approximation constants are found and the errors associated with their use are estimated. The established physical trends and the obtained constants for the horizontal and vertical components of the wind velocity allow a description of their hourly and daily dynamics and can be recommended for use in ABL models intended for prognostic calculations (forecasting). The vector representation makes it possible to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of the wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer, in particular to estimate the shape and size of jets and wind shear in them.

  17. Computational studies of evaporating sprays in a shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Bakhtier

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the research project was to numerically predict the characteristics of evaporating sprays in a turbulent shear layer. The calculations were performed such that the essential physical processes in spray evaporation in gas turbine combustors are adequately realized. The calculations modeled parallel experiments (ARO Contract number DAAG29-84-K-0165) carried out in a vertically down-flowing wind tunnel where a splitter plate separates two air streams having different velocities. The two air streams meet at the end of the splitter plate and give rise to a confined shear layer. A flat prefilming airblast atomizer is located at the trip of the splitter plate. A liquid spray formed at the atomizer tip evaporates in the turbulent shear layer and is convected downstream. An Eulerian description of the turbulent gas phase flow and a Lagrangian formulation of the droplet size class motion and heat and mass transfer were considered. Single phase two dimensional turbulent flow calculations in a duct were considered.

  18. Shear viscosity of the quark matter

    E-print Network

    Masaharu Iwasaki; Hiromasa Ohnishi; Takahiko Fukutome

    2007-05-14

    We discuss shear viscosity of the quark matter by using Kubo formula. The shear viscosity is calculated in the framework of the quasi-particle RPA for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We obtain a formula that the shear viscosity is expressed by the quadratic form of the quark spectral function in the chiral symmetric phase. The magnitude of the shear viscosity is discussed assuming the Breit-Wigner type for the spectral function.

  19. Effects of shear on proteins in solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Thomas; D. Geer

    2011-01-01

    The effects of “shear” on proteins in solution are described and discussed. Research on this topic covers many decades, beginning\\u000a with investigations of possible denaturation of enzymes during processing, whilst more recent concerns are how the quality\\u000a of therapeutic proteins might be affected by shear or shear related effects. The paradigm that emerges from most studies is\\u000a that shear in

  20. Comparison of steady-state shear viscosity and complex shear modulus in Langmuir Monolayers

    E-print Network

    Dennin, Michael

    1 Comparison of steady-state shear viscosity and complex shear modulus in Langmuir Monolayers-state shear viscosity, , and the complex shear modulus, )(* G . In particular, one might expect to find of liquid crystal phases of monolayers of simple long-chain fatty acids confined to the air-water interface

  1. BEHAVIOUR OF PRECAST CONCRETE SHEAR WALL CONNECTIONS UNDER LARGE REVERSED CYCLIC SHEAR LOADS

    E-print Network

    gravity loads. The influence of mild steel reinforcement, post tensioning and shear keys on the behaviourBEHAVIOUR OF PRECAST CONCRETE SHEAR WALL CONNECTIONS UNDER LARGE REVERSED CYCLIC SHEAR LOADS J The performance of precast concrete load bearing shear wall panel structures subjected to earthquakes relies

  2. Shear viscosity and shear thinning in two-dimensional Yukawa , J. Goree2

    E-print Network

    Goree, John

    Shear viscosity and shear thinning in two-dimensional Yukawa liquids Z. Donk´o1 , J. Goree2 , P using two different nonequi- librium molecular dynamics simulation methods. Shear viscosity values.e., the viscosity diminishes with increasing shear rate. It is expected that two-dimensional dusty plasmas

  3. ForReview.Confidential-ACS Homogeneous shear, wall slip and shear banding of

    E-print Network

    Wang, Shi-Qing

    ForReview.Confidential-ACS Homogeneous shear, wall slip and shear banding of entangled polymeric to Macromolecules #12;ForReview.Confidential-ACS 1 Homogeneous shear, wall slip and shear banding of entangled 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 #12;ForReview.Confidential

  4. New configurations for the rotating shear-plate interferometer, a.k.a. shear madness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Sweatt; Richard N. Shagam

    1993-01-01

    We present two new devices that contain a lateral shear-plate interferometer, held in a mount that can be rotated about the centerline of the incident laser beam. This configuration ensures constant shear while allowing the shear orientation to be varied. One of these new systems relays the sheared image to a fixed video, 35 mm film, or other camera. With

  5. Shear strength parameters from direct shear tests - influencing factors and their significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KARSTEN THERMANN; CHRISTIAN GAU; JOACHIM TIEDEMANN

    The shear strength of soils is essential for any kind of stability analysis. Therefore, it is important to determine reliable values. For this purpose triaxial tests are most appropriate. Nevertheless, direct shear tests are mostly performed to determine the shear strength of soils. This paper deals with the factors affecting the results of direct shear tests. The influence caused by

  6. High resolution numerical simulations of unstable colliding stellar winds

    E-print Network

    Lamberts, Astrid; Dubus, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of the interaction of two supersonic winds in binary systems. The collision of the winds creates two shocks separated by a contact discontinuity. The overall structure depends on the momentum flux ratio eta of the winds. We use the code RAMSES with adaptive mesh refinement to study the shock structure up to smaller values of eta, higher spatial resolution and greater spatial scales than have been previously achieved. 2D and 3D simulations, neglecting orbital motion, are compared to widely-used analytic results and their applicability is discussed. In the adiabatic limit, velocity shear at the contact discontinuity triggers the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We quantify the amplitude of the resulting fluctuations and find that they can be significant even with a modest initial shear. Using an isothermal equation of state leads to the development of thin shell instabilities. The initial evolution and growth rates enables us to formally identify the non-linear thin shell instabili...

  7. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  8. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  9. Acoustic shear wave displacement measurement using ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinayak Dutt; Randall R. Kinnick; James F. Greenleaf

    1996-01-01

    Echo ultrasound can be used to detect and measure acoustic shear waves. Earlier it has been shown that a phase contrast based magnetic resonance imaging technique can be used for cyclic shear wave displacement measurement. Echo ultrasound presents an alternate method for imaging of such shear waves. The ultrasound based method uses the phase of quadrature echo signals to estimate

  10. Shear thickening in highly viscous granular suspensions

    E-print Network

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    oscillatory shear. Directly imaging the suspension-air interface, we observe dilation beyond a critical strain moves. Analyzing the shear profile, we extract the viscosity contributions due to hydrodynamics h, dilation c and sedimentation g. While g governs the shear thinning regime, h and c together determine

  11. Wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension in a deep lake during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kristin E.; Bombardelli, Fabián. A.; Moreno-Casas, Patricio A.; Rueda, Francisco J.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Ongoing public concern over declining water quality at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (USA) led to an investigation of wind-driven nearshore sediment resuspension that combined field measurements and modeling. Field data included: wind speed and direction, vertical profiles of water temperature and currents, nearbed velocity, lakebed sediment characteristics, and suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution. Bottom shear stress was computed from ADV-measured nearbed velocity data, adapting a turbulent kinetic energy method to lakes, and partitioned according to its contributions attributed to wind-waves, mean currents, and random motions. When the total shear stress exceeded the critical shear stress, the contribution to overall shear stress was about 80% from wind-waves and 10% each from mean currents and random motions. Therefore, wind-waves were the dominant mechanism resulting in sediment resuspension as corroborated by simultaneous increases in shear stress and total measured sediment concentration. The wind-wave model STWAVE was successfully modified to simulate wind-wave-induced sediment resuspension for viscous-dominated flow typical in lakes. Previous lake applications of STWAVE have been limited to special instances of fully turbulent flow. To address the validity of expressions for sediment resuspension in lakes, sediment entrainment rates were found to be well represented by a modified 1991 García and Parker formula. Last, in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution revealed that the predominance of fine particles (by particle count) that most negatively impact clarity was unchanged by wind-related sediment resuspension. Therefore, we cannot assume that wind-driven sediment resuspension contributes to Lake Tahoe's declining nearshore clarity.

  12. Kinematics and shear heat pattern of ductile simple shear zones with `slip boundary condition'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit

    2015-06-01

    Extrusion by Poiseuille flow and simple shear of hot lower crust has been deciphered from large hot orogens, and partial-slip boundary condition has been encountered in analogue models. Shear heat and velocity profiles are deduced from a simplified form of Navier-Stokes equation for simple shear together with extrusive Poiseuille flow and slip boundary condition for Newtonian viscous rheology. A higher velocity at the upper boundary of the shear zone promotes higher slip velocity at the lower boundary. The other parameters that affect the slip are viscosity and thickness of the shear zone and the resultant pressure gradient that drives extrusion. In the partial-slip case, depending on flow parameters (resultant pressure gradient, density and viscosity) and thickness of the shear zone, the velocity profiles can curve and indicate opposite shear senses. The corresponding shear heat profiles can indicate temperature maximum inside shear zones near either boundaries of the shear zone, or equidistant from them.

  13. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 September 2003

    Bright wind streaks are present in the lee of craters and other obstacles in this image, located in Sinus Sabaeus, near the Martian equator. These streaks indicate that the local winds blow from the northeast (upper right in the image). The brightness of the streaks indicates that either bright material has been deposited in the lee of the craters, or that the surface has eroded preferentially in the lee of craters, exposing an underlying bright material. Because the streaks are bright regardless of the surrounding surface brightness, the first hypothesis most likely. The streaks probably all represent deposits of the same bright material that settled out of the atmosphere in the wind shelter provided by topographic peaks.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.3, Longitude 14.1 East (345.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Modulation of the Wind Speed Response of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.

    2014-12-01

    We explore a possible feedback mechanism of marine boundary layer clouds in response to expected 21st century changes in large scale wind speed. The mechanism proceeds via the effect of wind speed on the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, horizontal momentum (shear), and sea spray aerosol, and associated changes to cloud properties. An increase in wind speed produces, e.g., a higher latent heat flux from the surface, which causes stronger entrainment of free tropospheric air, and an adjustment in cloud properties. We have investigated how free tropospheric humidity and the evolution of the boundary layer modify the response of marine stratocumulus clouds to changes in wind speed. Results of cloud-system-resolving simulations are presented. The response of cloud properties and of radiative forcing to changes in surface wind speed is quantified under different free tropospheric conditions (dry vs. moist) and different boundary layer states (growing vs. steady state).

  15. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

  16. Satellite Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about the using successive satellite observations of clouds to determine wind direction and speed. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  17. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  18. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on the properties of sheared granular materials near the jamming transition. The project currently involves two aspects. The first of these is an experiment that is a prototype for a planned ISS (International Space Station) flight. The second is discrete element simulations (DES) that can give insight into the behavior one might expect in a reduced-g environment. The experimental arrangement consists of an annular channel that contains the granular material. One surface, say the upper surface, rotates so as to shear the material contained in the annulus. The lower surface controls the mean density/mean stress on the sample through an actuator or other control system. A novel feature under development is the ability to 'thermalize' the layer, i.e. create a larger amount of random motion in the material, by using the actuating system to provide vibrations as well control the mean volume of the annulus. The stress states of the system are determined by transducers on the non-rotating wall. These measure both shear and normal components of the stress on different size scales. Here, the idea is to characterize the system as the density varies through values spanning dense almost solid to relatively mobile granular states. This transition regime encompasses the regime usually thought of as the glass transition, and/or the jamming transition. Motivation for this experiment springs from ideas of a granular glass transition, a related jamming transition, and from recent experiments. In particular, we note recent experiments carried out by our group to characterize this type of transition and also to demonstrate/ characterize fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. These experiments give key insights into what one might expect in near-zero g. In particular, they show that the compressibility of granular systems diverges at a transition or critical point. It is this divergence, coupled to gravity, that makes it extremely difficult if not impossible to characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  19. Winds Report: Measuring Ocean Winds from Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Users of this resource can access imagery and animations made from scatterometry data from the SeaWinds instrument, which flies aboard the QuikSCAT satellite. A scatterometer is a radar instrument which bounces electromagnetic energy off the surface of the ocean. Combining the radar return from the same patch of ocean, but as seen from from different directions, allows the calculation of both wind speed and wind direction. In the animations, the background color shows the wind speed: blue is low wind speed and yellow or magenta, high. The direction of the wind field is shown by the direction of motion of imaginary "particles" in the animation.

  20. Wind tower augmentation of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, M. N.

    The operating principle of the 'Baud-Geers' wind towers traditionally used in Iran for ventilation and passive cooling of architectural structures is presently adapted to house a vertical axis wind turbine. Unlike annular diffuser-augmented, horizontal axis wind turbines, the 'wind tower' does not have to be trained into the wind and generates less noise. It may also be either free standing or incorporated into the structure of existing buildings. Attention is given to the continuity and energy equations of this system, and to the results of wind tunnel model testing which ascertained turbine load factor and augmentation ratio.

  1. Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.

  2. Cracks faster than the shear wave speed

    PubMed

    Rosakis; Samudrala; Coker

    1999-05-21

    Classical dynamic fracture theories predict the surface wave speed to be the limiting speed for propagation of in-plane cracks in homogeneous, linear elastic materials subjected to remote loading. This report presents experimental evidence to the contrary. Intersonic shear-dominated crack growth featuring shear shock waves was observed along weak planes in a brittle polyester resin under far-field asymmetric loading. When steady-state conditions were attained, the shear cracks propagated at speeds close to 2 times the material shear wave speed. These observations have similarities to shallow earthquake events where intersonic shear rupture speeds have been surmised. PMID:10334984

  3. Wind resources of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Pallabazzer, R. (Univ. della Calabria (Italy)); Gabow, A.A. (Somali National Univ., Mogadisho (Somalia))

    1991-01-01

    The results of wind energy research in Somalia are presented. The wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on 85% of the country, very intense on 10% and uniform on 70%, being regular throughout. Two areas of different wind regimes have been identified and characterized; the wind-distribution characteristics of 11 sites are presented and discussed, together with the territorial maps of the wind intensity and of the wind energy.

  4. WAKE OF A BLOCK VEHICLE IN A SHEAR-FREE BOUNDARY FLOW: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wake of a moving vehicle was simulated using a specially-constructed wind tunnel with a moving floor. A 'block-shaped' model vehicle was fixed in position over the test-section floor while the floor moved at the freestream air speed to produce a uniform, shear-free, approach ...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE WAKE OF A BLOCK-SHAPED VEHICLE IN A SHEAR-FREE BOUNDARY FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wake of a moving vehicle was simulated using a specially-constructed wind tunnel with a moving floor. A 'block-shaped' model vehicle was fixed in position over the test-section floor while the floor moved at the freestream air speed to produce a uniform, shear-free, approach ...

  6. Stability Criteria of 3D Inviscid Shears

    E-print Network

    Y. Charles Li

    2009-11-09

    The classical plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and pipe Poiseuille flow share some universal 3D steady coherent structure in the form of "streak-roll-critical layer". As the Reynolds number approaches infinity, the steady coherent structure approaches a 3D limiting shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. All such 3D shears are steady states of the 3D Euler equations. This raises the importance of investigating the stability of such inviscid 3D shears in contrast to the classical Rayleigh theory of inviscid 2D shears. Several general criteria of stability for such inviscid 3D shears are derived. In the Appendix, an argument is given to show that a 2D limiting shear can only be the classical laminar shear.

  7. Aeolian Shear Stress Ratio Measurements within Mesquite-Dominated Landscapes of the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James; Nickling, W. G.; Gilliles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted to ascertain the amount of protection that mesquite-dominated communities provide to the surface from wind erosion. The dynamics of the locally accelerated evolution of a mesquite/coppice dune landscape and the undetermined spatial dependence of potential erosion by wind from a shear stress partition model were investigated. Sediment transport and dust emission processes are governed by the amount of protection that can be provided by roughness elements. Although shear stress partition models exist that can describe this, their accuracy has only been tested against a limited dataset because instrumentation has previously been unable to provide the necessary measurements. This study combines the use of meteorological towers and surface shear stress measurements with Irwin sensors to measure the partition of shear stress in situ. The surface shear stress within preferentially aligned vegetation (within coppice dune development) exhibited highly skewed distributions, while a more homogenous surface stress was recorded at a site with less developed coppice dunes. Above the vegetation, the logarithmic velocity profile deduced roughness length (based on 10-min averages) exhibited a distinct correlation with compass direction for the site with vegetation preferentially aligned, while the site with more homogenously distributed vegetation showed very little variation in the roughness length. This distribution in roughness length within an area, defines a distribution of a resolved shear stress partitioning model based on these measurements, ultimately providing potential closure to a previously uncorrelated model parameter.

  8. Controlled shear/tension fixture

    DOEpatents

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN); George, Easo P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-07-24

    A test fixture for simultaneously testing two material test samples is provided. The fixture provides substantially equal shear and tensile stresses in each test specimens. By gradually applying a load force to the fixture only one of the two specimens fractures. Upon fracture of the one specimen, the fixture and the load train lose contact and the second specimen is preserved in a state of upset just prior to fracture. Particular advantages of the fixture are (1) to control the tensile to shear load on the specimen for understanding the effect of these stresses on the deformation behavior of advanced materials, (2) to control the location of fracture for accessing localized material properties including the variation of the mechanical properties and residual stresses across the thickness of advanced materials, (3) to yield a fractured specimen for strength measurement and an unfractured specimen for examining the microstructure just prior to fracture.

  9. Shear instability in skin tissue

    E-print Network

    Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L

    2013-01-01

    We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.

  10. WIND DATA REPORT Mattapoisett

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of Massachusetts, Amherst in the course of performing work sponsored by the Renewable Energy Trust (RET...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  12. Wind Power Today: Federal Wind Program Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  13. Wind Power! Designing a Wind Turbine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn how engineers transform wind energy into electrical energy by building their own miniature wind turbines and measuring the electrical current it produces. They explore how design and position affect the electrical energy production.

  14. Modeling of turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.

    1992-01-01

    The current progress is documented in the research and development of modeling techniques for turbulent shear flows. These include a two-scale model for compressible turbulent flows and a new energy transfer model. The former represents the status of the efforts to identify compressibility effects in turbulence. The energy transfer model refines a weakly nonlinear wave model developed earlier, which models directly the turbulent large structures. The objective of these activities is to develop second-order closures for compressible turbulent flows.

  15. Shear Viscosity of Strongly Coupled

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Policastro; D. T. Son; A. O. Starinets

    2001-01-01

    Using the anti--de Sitter\\/conformal field theory correspondence, we relate the shear viscosity η of the finite-temperature N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the large N, strong-coupling regime with the absorption cross section of low-energy gravitons by a near-extremal black three-brane. We show that in the limit of zero frequency this cross section coincides with the area of the horizon. From this

  16. A wind tunnel study of gaseous tracer dispersion in the convective boundary layer capped by a temperature inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fedorovich; J. Thäter

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from wind tunnel simulations of gaseous pollutant dispersion in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) capped by a temperature inversion. The experiments were performed in the thermally stratified wind tunnel of the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. In the tunnel, the case of horizontally evolving, sheared CBL is reproduced. This distinguishes the employed experimental setup from the preceding

  17. Recording wind microstructure with a seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeples, Don W.; Schmeissner, Chris; Macy, Brian

    In an effort to characterize the effects of atmospheric waves on seismic sensors at the surface of the earth, we used geophones to perform some simple experiments allowing us to “watch” the wind. By examining the wind noise on the resulting seismograms, we were able to characterize the microstructure of atmospheric wind gusts at a horizontal scale of 1 to 10 m. In a first experiment to detect the wind-induced wave field, we placed 96 geophones on the ground in a straight line aligned parallel with the wind at intervals of 0.3 m. We recorded the resulting data using a 96-channel exploration seismograph. In essence, the seismograph system served as a linear array of 96 ground-level wind sensors. On a 1- to 2-m scale, wind-gust details became apparent after the seismograph had recorded for a period of 7.5 s. When wind-gust speeds were between 4 and 7 m/s (as measured directly from the time-and-distance relationships obtained from the seismogram), the wavelength of the gusts was between 3 and 6 m. In a second experiment, we used an array consisting of three parallel lines of 32 geophones each and were able to detect the lateral components of wind motion and turbulence relative to the long axis of the array. We noted variations in both space and time in the effect of the wind gusts on the geophones. The sensing system we describe is preliminary; however, when further refined, it may be a useful way of looking at the microstructure of atmospheric motion near the ground. The data we obtained also suggest that when models are constructed and near-ground atmospheric observations are made using grid spacings of more than 1 m, the results may be subject to serious spatial-aliasing effects. The authors offer these results in the hope that they will stimulate new, cross-disciplinary scientific inquiry. Moreover, applications of the technique might include the generation of data to support improved modeling of atmospheric turbulence at meter scales, which could be of interest to those requiring information about wind shear, wind-induced soil erosion, the dispersion of pollutants and toxins, and other subjects of interest.

  18. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, Neville; Long, Eric [Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP, One Front Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 (United States); Sarkisian, Mark [Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP, One Front Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 (United States); Huang Zhihui [Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP, One Front Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research.

  19. Wind profiles for large wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Hasager; A. Peña; S.-E. Gryning; T. Mikkelsen; M. Courtney

    2009-01-01

    The 12MW project aimed to describe wind profiles and turbulence at levels high in the atmosphere where large wind turbines operate. During the project observations up to 180 m above sea level were collected using mast and lidar offshore in the North Sea at the Horns Rev wind farm in 2006. Later also land-based observations were collected at the coastal

  20. Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields

    E-print Network

    Yu Tian; Minliang Zhang; Jile Jiang; Noshir Pesika; Hongbo Zeng; Jacob Israelachvili; Yonggang Meng; Shizhu Wen

    2010-08-24

    Shear thickening is a phenomenon of significant viscosity increase of colloidal suspensions. While electrorheological (ER) fluids can be turned into a solid-like material by applying an electric field, their shear strength is widely represented by the attractive electrostatic interaction between ER particles. By shearing ER fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (100 V/mm), which could be characterized by a modified Mason number. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced inter-particle friction forces is considered to be the real origin of the high shear strength of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance ER/magnetorheological (MR) fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying local electric field, other field-responsive materials and intelligent systems.

  1. Wind Statistics from a Forested Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnqvist, Johan; Segalini, Antonio; Dellwik, Ebba; Bergström, Hans

    2015-07-01

    An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40 wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most representative for large-scale forest conditions, and from that sector first-, second- and third-order statistics, as well as analyses regarding the characteristic length scale, the flux-profile relationship and surface roughness are presented for a wide range of stability conditions. The results are discussed with focus on the validity of different scaling regimes. Significant wind veer, decay of momentum fluxes and reduction in shear length scales with height are observed for all stability classes, indicating the influence of the limited depth of the boundary layer on the measured profiles. Roughness sublayer characteristics are however not detected in the presented analysis. Dimensionless gradients are shown to follow theoretical curves up to 100 m in stable conditions despite surface-layer approximations being invalid. This is attributed to a balance of momentum decay and reduced shear length scale growth with height. The wind profile shows a strong stability dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length, with a 50 % decrease from neutral to stable conditions.

  2. Ring shear characteristics of waste rock materials in response to drainage and shear velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonoh; Jeong, Sueng Won; Cho, Yong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    The ring shear characteristics of Imgi waste materials collected from an abandoned mine deposit, Busan Metropolitan city, were investigated to examine the slope stability and mobility of failed masses. A series of ring shear tests were carried out to investigate the shear stress characteristics of waste materials under different drainage, consolidation and shearing speed conditions. The tests are performed at the same normal stress (16 kPa), but different drainage (drained and undrained conditions) and shearing speed (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 mm/sec) conditions. From the test results, we found that a ring shear stress is dependent on the drainage and the shearing speed conditions at the same normal stress. The materials tested typically exhibited a strain softening behavior. However, at the same shearing speed (especially for V < 10 mm/sec), the shear stress under drained condition is slightly smaller than the shear stress under undrained condition. In particular, it increases with increasing shearing speed. Grain crushing is also dependent on the drainage condition. Under drained conditions, the grain crushing has been observed in the shearing zone from the shearing surface to the bottom (i.e., ? 3.5 cm), but under undrained condition it has been observed only at the shearing surface (i.e., ? 1 cm).

  3. A Velocity Shear Driven Turbulence Model for Recent ACE Magnetometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Roelof, E. C.; Smith, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recent magnetometer measurements from the ACE spacecraft show magnetic fluctuation enhancements above the normal Kolmogorov cascade levels adjacent the Doppler-shifted proton gyro-scales. It has been suggested that enhanced wave activity associated with a large solar wind structure, such as glancing passage of a CME, could explain the observations; however to date, a physical process has not been explored aside from conjectures that velocity shear-based Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities may be present. Here we use a two-and-one-half dimensional compressible MHD code, initialized with plasma parameters and initial conditions consistent with the observations, to show that large-scale velocity shears can lead to spectral enhancements adjacent the proton gyro-scales for appropriate orientations of the solar wind magnetic field and the normal plane of the velocity shears. Our model includes finite frequency (Hall) and finite wavenumber (Finite Larmor Radius) effects. The development of spectral anisotropies due to velocity shears appears as a natural consequence of wave advection and does not depend on threshold conditions of the KH instability. Thus, the range of applicability for our model is somewhat broader than the KH instability.

  4. Nucleation of shear bands in amorphous alloys.

    PubMed

    Perepezko, John H; Imhoff, Seth D; Chen, Ming-Wei; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-03-18

    The initiation and propagation of shear bands is an important mode of localized inhomogeneous deformation that occurs in a wide range of materials. In metallic glasses, shear band development is considered to center on a structural heterogeneity, a shear transformation zone that evolves into a rapidly propagating shear band under a shear stress above a threshold. Deformation by shear bands is a nucleation-controlled process, but the initiation process is unclear. Here we use nanoindentation to probe shear band nucleation during loading by measuring the first pop-in event in the load-depth curve which is demonstrated to be associated with shear band formation. We analyze a large number of independent measurements on four different bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys and reveal the operation of a bimodal distribution of the first pop-in loads that are associated with different shear band nucleation sites that operate at different stress levels below the glass transition temperature, Tg. The nucleation kinetics, the nucleation barriers, and the density for each site type have been determined. The discovery of multiple shear band nucleation sites challenges the current view of nucleation at a single type of site and offers opportunities for controlling the ductility of BMG alloys. PMID:24594599

  5. Numerical modeling of the wind flow over a transverse dune

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Transverse dunes, which form under unidirectional winds and have fixed profile in the direction perpendicular to the wind, occur on all celestial objects of our solar system where dunes have been detected. Here we perform a numerical study of the average turbulent wind flow over a transverse dune by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We find that the length of the zone of recirculating flow at the dune lee — the separation bubble — displays a surprisingly strong dependence on the wind shear velocity, u*: it is nearly independent of u* for shear velocities within the range between 0.2?m/s and 0.8?m/s but increases linearly with u* for larger shear velocities. Our calculations show that transport in the direction opposite to dune migration within the separation bubble can be sustained if u* is larger than approximately 0.39?m/s, whereas a larger value of u* (about 0.49?m/s) is required to initiate this reverse transport. PMID:24091456

  6. Distributed Wind Evaluation Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. McDermott

    2009-01-01

    The Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG) has undertaken a Distributed Wind Impacts project, which has produced software tools, application guides, and case studies to evaluate distributed wind projects. The project size may range from 1.5 to 15 MW, or higher in the near future. Given a number and size of available utility-scale wind turbines, and a candidate site, the evaluation

  7. Wind driven energy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Currah; G. W. Harper

    1980-01-01

    A system for conversion of wind power to electrical energy is described. The system provides for use during a wide range of wind velocities by use of the following: an external deflection system consisting of baffles and peripheral turbulence creating walls designed to increase the wind velocity and to divert the wind stream to the aperture of the system; a

  8. Wind Power Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Department of Energy; Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This animation, from the US Department of Energy, discusses the advantages of wind power, the workings of a wind turbine, and wind resources in the United States. It also describes how wind power is used in small- and large-scale applications.

  9. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  10. Danish Wind Industry Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this non-profit site can access introductory information about wind turbines and the generation of electricity by wind power. For kids, there is an interactive tour of a wind turbine. For older learners, there is a tutorial that covers all aspects of wind energy. The site is available in several languages, including French and Spanish.

  11. Wind power 85

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on wind turbines. Topics considered at the conference included resource assessment, wind tunnels, performance testing, aerodynamics, turbulence, fatigue, electric generators, wind loads, horizontal axis turbines, vertical axis turbines, Darrieus rotors, wind-powered pumps, economics, environmental impacts, national and international programs, field tests, flow models, feasibility studies, turbine blades, speed regulators, and airfoils.

  12. Wind power 85

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on wind turbines. Topics considered at the conference included resource assessment, wind tunnel testing, vertical axis turbines, wind turbine generators, aerodynamics, airfoils, wind loads, Darrieus rotors, economics, legislation, regulations, environmental impacts, national and international programs, fatigue testing, and horizontal axis turbines.

  13. Wind With Miller

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wind With Miller is a collection of classroom activities that provide good background information about wind energy. The site also provides students with opportunities to build small wind turbines, wind socks, and kites and has a section for teachers. There are a variety of exercises to use in the classroom provided on the site including topics such as small shaft, anemometer, and cooling systems.

  14. Hierarchical Cosmic Shear Power Spectrum Inference

    E-print Network

    Alsing, Justin; Jaffe, Andrew H; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till

    2015-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models \\emph{a posteriori} without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear $E$-...

  15. Shear-Layer Effects on Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Crosswind shear can influence the trailing vortex trajectories significantly, according to both field measurement and numerical simulations. Point vortex models are used in this paper to study the fluid dynamic mechanism in the interactions between trailing vortex pair and shear layers. It has been shown that the shear-layer deformation causes the vortex descent history difference in the two vortices of the vortex pair. When a shear layer is below the vortex pair with the same sign as the left vortex, the right vortex descends less than the left vortex. When the same shear layer is above the vortex pair, the right vortex descends more. The descent altitudes of the two vortices are the same when they go through a constant, non-deformed shear layer. Those trends are in agreement with Navier-Stokes simulations.

  16. Validation of a Wind Farm Parameterisation in COSMO-CLM using large eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; Van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Offshore wind deployment is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology of the coastal areas surrounding the Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea. The main aim of this project is to assess the climate effect of a change in sea use, due to large-scale offshore wind deployment. Wind turbines are shown to have an effect on wind speed and moisture when parameterized in COSMO-CLM. However the magnitude of these is still unclear on the kilometer scale, and direct comparison with offshore wind farm data remains difficult. Large eddy simulations offer insights into processes otherwise parameterised in regional climate models, and are used to validate the wind farm representation. This is done by implementing the wind farm parameterisation in an idealised version of COSMO-CLM and comparing its output with large eddy simulations. Changes in wind speed and shear stresses in and outside of the wind farm are assessed and the effect of wind farms on the geostrophic wind above the boundary layer will be investigated under different wind farm deployments.

  17. Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine

    E-print Network

    Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine X. Ma #3; , N. K. Poulsen #3; , H. Bindner y December 20, 1995 Abstract The wind speed varies over the rotor plane of wind turbine making the wind speed on the rotor plane will be estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind measuring device

  18. Structure of the Highly Sheared Tropical Storm Chantal During CAMEX-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Halverson, J.; Ritchie, E.; Simpson, Joanne; Molinari, J.; Tian, L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 4th Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) focused on Atlantic hurricanes during the 2001 hurricane season and it involved both NASA and NOAA participation. The NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft were instrumented with unique remote sensing instruments to help increase the overall understanding of hurricanes. This paper is concerned about one of the storms studied, Tropical Storm Chantal, that was a weak storm which failed to intense into a hurricane. One of the practical questions of high importance is why some tropical stoins intensify into hurricanes, and others remain weak or die altogether. The magnitude of the difference between the horizontal winds at lower levels and upper altitudes in a tropical storm, i.e., the wind shear, is one important quantity that can affect the intensification of a tropical storm. Strong shear as was present during Tropical Storm Chantal s lifetime and it was detrimental to its intensification. The paper presents an analysis of unique aircraft observations collected from Chantal including an on-board radar, radiometers, dropsondes, and flight level measurements. These measurements have enabled us to examine the internal structure of the winds and thermal structure of Chantal. Most of the previous studies have involved intense hurricanes that overcame the effects of shear and this work has provided new insights into what prevents a weaker storm from intensifying. The storm had extremely intense thunderstorms and rainfall, yet its main circulation was confined to low levels of the atmosphere. Chantal's thermal structure was not configured properly for the storm to intensify. It is most typical that huricanes have a warm core structure where warm temperatures in upper levels of a storm s circulation help intensify surface winds and lower its central pressure. Chantal had two weaker warm layers instead of a well-defined warm core. These layers have been related to the horizontal and vertical winds and precipitation structure and have helped us learn more about why this storm didn't develop.

  19. Coronal magnetic fields produced by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Yang, W.-H.

    1987-01-01

    The magneto-frictional method is used for computing force free fields to examine the evolution of the magnetic field of a line dipole, when there is relative shearing motion between the two polarities. It found that the energy of the sheared field can be arbitrarily large compared with the potential field. It is also found that it is possible to fit the magnetic energy, as a function of shear, by a simple functional form.

  20. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  1. Shear Viscosity of Quark Matter

    E-print Network

    W. M. Alberico; S. Chiacchiera; H. Hansen; A. Molinari; M. Nardi

    2007-07-30

    We consider the shear viscosity of a system of quarks and its ratio to the entropy density above the critical temperature for deconfinement. Both quantities are derived and computed for different modeling of the quark self-energy, also allowing for a temperature dependence of the effective mass and width. The behaviour of the viscosity and the entropy density is argued in terms of the strength of the coupling and of the main characteristics of the quark self-energy. A comparison with existing results is also discussed.

  2. Underground Imaging Using Shear Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, H.; Sugimoto, T.

    A method using shear waves has been proposed to detect buried relics and ruins at shallow depths. Pulse-compression processing is examined for improving the underground imaging resolution. Both down-chirp signals (600-300 Hz) and 1kHz burst signals can be generated using a super-magnetostriction vibrator as a sound source. First, pulse compression is simulated in the lab to confirm the resolution of underground images. Exploration experiments were then conducted at Heijyo-kyo in ancient Nara. The underground images are obtained from these experiments. We confirmed the effectiveness of the pulse-compression method for improving resolution.

  3. Shear Thickening in Concentrated Soft Sphere Colloidal Suspensions: A Shear Induced Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Joachim Kaldasch; Bernhard Senge; Jozua Laven

    2015-01-09

    A model of shear thickening in dense suspensions of Brownian soft sphere colloidal particles is established. It suggests that shear thickening in soft sphere suspensions can be interpreted as a shear induced phase transition. Based on a Landau model of the coagulation transition of stabilized colloidal particles, taking the coupling between order parameter fluctuations and the local strain-field into account, the model suggests the occurrence of clusters of coagulated particles (subcritical bubbles) by applying a continuous shear perturbation.The critical shear stress of shear thickening in soft sphere suspensions is derived while reversible shear thickening and irreversible shear thickening have the same origin. The comparison of the theory with an experimental investigation of electrically stabilized colloidal suspensions confirms the presented approach.

  4. Modified Laplacian Growth under Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1991-08-01

    Pattern formation is investigated in the modified Laplacian growth model with the third boundary condition under shear flow. The modified Laplacian growth model is simulated by the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with both sticking probability and drift. Morphological changes of DLA under shear flow are studied by computer simulation. The shear flow has an important effect on morphology of the deposit. It is found that the deposit leads to the formation of a characteristic needle morphology, the needle inclines to shear flow, and the width of the needle increases with decreasing sticking probability.

  5. Instability of periodic MHD shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zaqarashvili, T.V. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Al. Kazbegi ave. 2a, 380060 Tbilisi (Georgia); Oliver, R.; Ballester, J.L. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Belvedere, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Universita di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2004-11-12

    The stability of periodic MHD shear flows generated by an external transversal periodic force in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that the temporal behaviour of magnetosonic wave spatial Fourier harmonics in such flows is governed by Mathieu equation. Consequently the harmonics with the half frequency of the shear flows grow exponentially in time. Therefore the periodic shear motions are unstable to the perturbations of compressible magnetosonic waves. The motions represent the kinetic part of the transversal oscillation in magnetized plasma. Therefore due to the instability of periodic shear motions, the transversal oscillations may quickly be damped, so transferring their energy to compressible magnetosonic perturbations.

  6. Novel shear mechanism in nanolayered composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirth, John P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Patricia O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that two-phase nanocomposite materials with semicoherent interfaces exhibit enhanced strength, deformability, and radiation damage resistance. The remarkable behavior exhibited by these materials has been attributed to the atomistic structure of the bi-metal interface that results in interfaces with low shear strength and hence, strong barriers for slip transmission due to dislocation core spreading along the weak interfaces. In this work, the low interfacial shear strength of Cu/Nb nanoscale multilayers dictates a new mechanism for shear banding and strain softening during micropillar compression. Previous work investigating shear band formation in nanocrystalline materials has shown a connection between insufficient strain hardening and the onset of shear banding in Fe and Fe-10% Cu, but has also shown that hardening does not necessarily offset shear banding in Pd nanomaterials. Therefore, the mechanisms behind shear localization in nanocrystalline materials are not completely understood. Our findings, supported by molecular dynamics simulations, provide insight on the design of nanocomposites with tailored interface structures and geometry to obtain a combination of high strength and deformability. High strength is derived from the ability of the interfaces to trap dislocations through relative ease of interfacial shear, while deformability can be maximized by controlling the effects of loading geometry on shear band formation.

  7. Sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    1993-01-01

    Sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears are identified using simplified equations and the full aeroelastic analysis code, CAMRAD/JA (Johnson, 1988). Analytical results are obtained for an articulated rotor operating at moderate thrust and high airspeed. It is found that the blade chordwise inplane shear, which includes the aerodynamic component, the Coriolis contribution, and the inertial component, and the hub inplane shears are strongly dependent on the out-of-plane response. The sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears lie not only in the inplane response but depend on the flap and elastic flatwise responses/modes.

  8. Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear

    E-print Network

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

    2012-03-14

    We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

  9. Shear alters motility of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 ?m. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 ?m. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  10. Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Mike F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.

  11. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermes, Laurie G.; Witt, Arthur; Smith, Steven D.; Klingle-Wilson, Diana; Morris, Dale; Stumpf, Gregory J.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system was primarily designed to address the operational needs of pilots in the avoidance of low-altitude wind shears upon takeoff and landing at airports. One of the primary methods of wind-shear detection for the TDWR system is the gust-front detection algorithm. The algorithm is designed to detect gust fronts that produce a wind-shear hazard and/or sustained wind shifts. It serves the hazard warning function by providing an estimate of the wind-speed gain for aircraft penetrating the gust front. The gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms together serve a planning function by providing forecasted gust-front locations and estimates of the horizontal wind vector behind the front, respectively. This information is used by air traffic managers to determine arrival and departure runway configurations and aircraft movements to minimize the impact of wind shifts on airport capacity. This paper describes the gust-front detection and wind-shift algorithms to be fielded in the initial TDWR systems. Results of a quantitative performance evaluation using Doppler radar data collected during TDWR operational demonstrations at the Denver, Kansas City, and Orlando airports are presented. The algorithms were found to be operationally useful by the FAA airport controllers and supervisors.

  12. An Icelandic wind atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  13. Vane shear determination of the visco-elastic shear modulus of submarine sediments 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Herbert Scott

    1973-01-01

    VANE SHEAR DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOELASTIC SHEAR MODULUS OF SUBMARINE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by Herbert Scott Stevenson Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASiM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: Civil Engineering VANE SHEAR DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOELASTIC SHEAR MODULUS OF SUBMARINE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by Herbert Scott Stevenson Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committ e M...

  14. Shear resistance of the perfobond-rib shear connector depending on concrete strength and rib arrangement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Hee Ahn; Chan-Goo Lee; Jeong-Hun Won; Sang-Hyo Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a perfobond-rib shear connector between steel and concrete mixed girder bridge components is described. Push-out tests were conducted and the results were compared with established shear-capacity equations for perfobond shear connectors. Modified shear-capacity equations that consider the perfobond-rib arrangement, including rib height and spacing, are proposed. The test results were compared with studies of the concrete end-bearing

  15. Onset of the summer monsoon during the FGGE 1979 experiment off the East African Coast: A comparison of wind data collected by different means

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, F.; Partagas, J.F.

    1981-05-20

    During FGGE 1979, from March to July, an extensive oceanographic experiment with ships and moored stations was carried out in the Somali Current. The development of the monsoon winds off Somalia during the time of that experiment is described in a comparative analysis of standard ship wind observations, moored buoy wind measurements, low-level cloud winds, and winds from land stations. The onset 1979 is found to be of the multiple type, with northward winds off Somalia beginning around May 5 but dying down into early June; the real onset of sustained high winds starts around June 10. Cloud level wind observation numbers off Somalia decrease drastically with the monsoon onset because of lack of clouds over the quickly developing cold upwelling areas. An intercomparison of cloud level and ship winds for the period May 16 to July 6 at five offshore points shows good agreement in directions but reduction of ship wind speeds against cloud level winds off northern Somalia after the onset, which may explained by the increased vertical wind shear due to high air stability over the upwelled water and by geostrophic shear due to the strong gradients of sea surface temperature. A comparison of 3-day averages of buoy winds measured at 3-m height 30 km offshore, but still inland from the ship lane, with ship winds for the period March 3 to June 10 showed good agreement in directions but lower buoy wind speeds, which could partly be due to sensor height difference and partly due to horizontal wind shear towards the coast. Coastal stations and wind buoys near the coast are found not to be good indicators of the monsoon onset further out in the open ocean.

  16. Determining ow type, shear rate and shear stress in magmas from bubble shapes and orientations

    E-print Network

    Manga, Michael

    the shear environments that produced bubble textures in obsidian samples using the results of theoretical the shapes and orientations of bubbles (vesicles) in obsidian to estimate shear rates and shear stresses conduits, the origin of pyroclastic obsidian, and the emplacement history and dynamics of obsidian flows

  17. 15 Stellar Winds Stan Owocki

    E-print Network

    Owocki, Stanley P.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 2.1 Solar Corona and Wind, Spherically Symmetric Wind Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 3.4 Energy Expansion and Solar Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 4

  18. Q-Winds satellite hurricane wind retrievals and H*Wind comparisons

    E-print Network

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    1 Q-Winds satellite hurricane wind retrievals and H*Wind comparisons Pet Laupattarakasem and W This paper presents a new hurricane ocean vector wind (OVW) product known as Q-Winds produced from the SeaWinds for tropical cyclones. SeaWinds OVW retrievals are presented for ten hurricane passes with near

  19. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...Alta Wind V, LLC, Alta Wind VI, LLC, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind VIII, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC...tie-lines to interconnect Petitioners' full planned wind and solar generation capacity to the integrated...

  20. A Convective Storm Matrix: Buoyancy/Shear Dependencies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2003-04-09

    In order to help forecasters build a strategy for anticipating convective storm structures, their evolution, and the potential for severe weather, A Convective Storm Matrix provides learners the opportunity for extensive exploration of the relationship between a storm's environment and its structure. The matrix is composed of 54 four-dimensional numerical simulations based on the interactions of 16 different hodographs and 4 thermodynamic profiles. By comparing animated displays of these simulations, learners are able to discern the influences of varying buoyancy and vertical wind shear profiles on storm structure and evolution. A series of questions guides the exploration and helps to reveal key storm/environment relationships evident in the matrix. A synopsis of the physical processes that control storm structure, as well as the current conceptual models of key convective storms types, is included for reference. Subject matter expects for A Convective Storm Matrix: Buoyancy/Shear Dependencies include Mr. Steve Keighton, Mr. Ed Szoke, and Dr. Morris Weisman. Note: This module was originally published on CD-ROM in March 1996 (v1.1) and re-released in 2001 as v1.3 for Microsoft Windows users only. CD-ROM version 1.3 works fairly well with Windows 98/ME/NT4/2000 but has reported to be problematic with Windows XP. Users of version 1.1 should obtain the patch located at http://www.comet.ucar.edu/help/ModuleSupport/matrix_problem.htm or use the new, Web-based module.

  1. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for the LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for the launch customer.

  2. Wind ripple analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akins, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Efficient and economical utilization of wind power will require the ability to measure and ultimately predict the effects fluctuations in the incident wind will have on a wind turbine. In order to quantitatively assess these effects, experimental techniques have been developed which allow analysis of full-scale performance of wind turbines with particular emphasis on the effects caused by turbulence in the incident wind. Examples of these techniques are presented using data from the DOE/Sandia Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) program.

  3. Wind energy information guide

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  4. Wind Power Career Chat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  5. Analysis of vector wind change with respect to time for Cape Kennedy, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was used to determine the joint distribution of the four variables represented by the components of the wind vector at an initial time and after a specified elapsed time is hypothesized to be quadravariate normal; the fourteen statistics of this distribution, calculated from 15 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data are presented by monthly reference periods for each month from 0 to 27 km. The hypotheses that the wind component changes with respect to time is univariate normal, that the joint distribution of wind component change with respect to time is univariate normal, that the joint distribution of wind component changes is bivariate normal, and that the modulus of vector wind change is Rayleigh are tested by comparison with observed distributions. Statistics of the conditional bivariate normal distributions of vector wind at a future time given the vector wind at an initial time are derived. Wind changes over time periods from 1 to 5 hours, calculated from Jimsphere data, are presented. Extension of the theoretical prediction (based on rawinsonde data) of wind component change standard deviation to time periods of 1 to 5 hours falls (with a few exceptions) within the 95 percentile confidence band of the population estimate obtained from the Jimsphere sample data. The joint distributions of wind change components, conditional wind components, and 1 km vector wind shear change components are illustrated by probability ellipses at the 95 percentile level.

  6. Spatial phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoxian; Zeng, Aijun; Huang, Huijie

    2008-12-01

    The phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer is widely adopted for wavefront measurement with high accuracy. For real-time wavefront measurement, a spatial phase-shifting lateral shearing interferometer is proposed. The interferometer includes a polarization lateral shearing module, a spatial phase-shifting module and an imaging module. The polarization lateral shearing module consists of a Savart polariscope. The spatial phase-shifting module is component of a non-polarization beam splitter, a polarization beam splitter, two rectangular prisms and a half wave-plate. The imaging module includes an imaging system and a CCD. The measured wavefront is sheared by the polarization lateral shearing module. The polarization directions of the two shearing beams are perpendicular to each other. The two shearing beams are split into four groups of beams by the spatial phase-shifting module to form four interferograms in a 2x2 matrix. The phase step of the four interferograms is 90 degrees. The four interferograms are captured in a single frame image by the imaging module. In experiments, a spherical wavefront with large radius of curvature was measured. Four spatial phase-shifting interferograms of the wavefront was obtained simultaneously. The usefulness of the interferometer is verified.

  7. Creep in shear of experimental solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal fatigue failures of solder joints in electronic devices are a great concern in the electronics industry. Since the fatigue load is often in shear the details of thermal fatigue failure in shear are of particular interest. Recent work indicates that similar failure mechanisms operate in both thermal fatigue in shear and unidirectional creep in shear. Additionally, since the operative temperatures during thermal fatigue represent high solder homologous temperatures, creep deformation is certainly involved. These factors and the relative ease of conducting creep experiments encourage the study of solder joints under shear creep conditions. This work presents steady state shear creep rate vs shear stress data for several solder compositions, including the binary eutectic alloy and Pb-Sn alloyed with small amounts of Bi, Cd, In, and Sb, in a joint configuration. These data indicate that conventional creep mechanisms operate in the temperature and shear strain rate ranges studied. Extensive microstructural information is also reported. The microstructural evolution under creep conditions indicates that the instability of the as-cast binary Pb-Sn eutectic microstructure initiates creep failure. Changes of the as-solidified microstructure with the third element addition are reported as are the microstructural responses of each of these alloys to creep deformation. The efficacy of postponing the microstructural instability with the addition of small amounts of ternary elements is discussed. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. In-situ Vane Shear Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article briefly describes the in-situ shear vane test, including images and typical results. This procedure tests the undrained shear strength of soil. Procedures of the test are not outlined, but a general overview is given. The site contains photos, charts, diagrams and instructional test to help guide the user.

  9. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  10. Colloidal Plastic Crystals in a Shear Field.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fangfang; Heptner, Nils; Lu, Yan; Siebenbürger, Miriam; Lindner, Peter; Dzubiella, Joachim; Ballauff, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We study the structure and viscoelastic behavior of 3D plastic crystals of colloidal dumbbells in an oscillatory shear field based on a combination of small-angle neutron scattering experiments under shear (rheo-SANS) and Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Sterically stabilized dumbbell-shaped microgels are used as hard dumbbell model systems which consist of dumbbell-shaped polystyrene (PS) cores and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shells. Under increasing shear strain, a discontinuous transition is found from a twinned-fcc-like crystal to a partially oriented sliding-layer phase with a shear-molten state in between. In the novel partially oriented sliding-layer phase, the hard dumbbells exhibit a small but finite orientational order in the shear direction. We find that this weak correlation is sufficient to perturb the nature of the nonequilibrium phase transition as known for hard sphere systems. The discontinuous transition for hard dumbbells is observed to be accompanied by a novel yielding process with two yielding events in its viscoelastic shear response, while only a single yielding event is observed for sheared hard spheres. Our findings will be useful in interpreting the shear response of anisotropic colloidal systems and in generating novel colloidal crystals from anisotropic systems with applications in colloidal photonics. PMID:25635343

  11. Finite element modelling of fabric shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hua; Clifford, Mike J.; Long, Andrew C.; Sherburn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model to predict shear force versus shear angle for woven fabrics is developed. The model is based on the TexGen geometric modelling schema, developed at the University of Nottingham and orthotropic constitutive models for yarn behaviour, coupled with a unified displacement-difference periodic boundary condition. A major distinction from prior modelling of fabric shear is that the details of picture frame kinematics are included in the model, which allows the mechanisms of fabric shear to be represented more accurately. Meso- and micro-mechanisms of deformation are modelled to determine their contributions to energy dissipation during shear. The model is evaluated using results obtained for a glass fibre plain woven fabric, and the importance of boundary conditions in the analysis of deformation mechanisms is highlighted. The simulation results show that the simple rotation boundary condition is adequate for predicting shear force at large deformations, with most of the energy being dissipated at higher shear angles due to yarn compaction. For small deformations, a detailed kinematic analysis is needed, enabling the yarn shear and rotation deformation mechanisms to be modelled accurately.

  12. Shear wave splitting and subcontinental mantle deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Silver; W. Winston Chan

    1991-01-01

    We have made measurements of shear wave splitting in the phases SKS and SKKS at 21 broadband stations in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Measurements are made using a retrieval scheme that yields the azimuth of the fast polarization direction varphi and delay time deltat of the split shear wave plus uncertainties. Detectable anisotropy was found at

  13. Dynamic wetting of shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seevaratnam, G. K.; Suo, Y.; Ramé, E.; Walker, L. M.; Garoff, S.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of non-Newtonian behavior on dynamic wetting is critical since many fluids exhibit such behavior somewhere in the high-shear environment inherent in the wedge flow near a moving contact line. This impact will be different for two broad categories of non-Newtonian behavior, shear thinning, and elasticity. In this paper, we discuss the steady-state wetting of a fluid, aqueous solutions of xanthan gum, dominated by shear thinning but with negligible elasticity. In the shear thinning fluid, viscous bending near the contact line is greatly reduced compared to a Newtonian fluid having the same zero-shear viscosity. Concomitant with this reduction in viscous bending, the effective dynamic contact angle has a much weaker dependence on capillary number, Ca, than is observed in, or predicted for, Newtonian fluids. A simple lubrication model using a constitutive relation with power-law shear thinning at high shear rates and a Newtonian plateau at low shear rates mimics the trends seen in our data and elucidates the origins of the reduced viscous bending.

  14. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  15. SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF PRETENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS

    E-print Network

    with the influence of shear cracks on slippage of prestressing strands for pretensioned T-beams with typical is extended to the shear be- havior of beams when the slippage of strands is restricted. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental prograM was designed mainly to study the influence of slippage of prestressing

  16. 2008 Wind Energy Projects, Wind Powering America (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Wind Powering America program produces a poster at the end of every calendar year that depicts new U.S. wind energy projects. The 2008 poster includes the following projects: Stetson Wind Farm in Maine; Dutch Hill Wind Farm in New York; Grand Ridge Wind Energy Center in Illinois; Hooper Bay, Alaska; Forestburg, South Dakota; Elbow Creek Wind Project in Texas; Glacier Wind Farm in Montana; Wray, Colorado; Smoky Hills Wind Farm in Kansas; Forbes Park Wind Project in Massachusetts; Spanish Fork, Utah; Goodland Wind Farm in Indiana; and the Tatanka Wind Energy Project on the border of North Dakota and South Dakota.

  17. CFD modelling and validation of measured wind field data in a portable wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartmann, Andres; Fister, Wolfgang; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Müller, Mathias D.

    2011-12-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods enable the detailed study and analysis of three dimensional flow patterns. This article provides a basic introduction to the fundamentals of CFD and its application as an assessment tool for near-wall boundary layers in internal flows. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the k- ? turbulence model was used to model the characteristic channel flow properties observed in a portable wind tunnel with a coupled rainfall simulator. Wind velocity fields were measured at four cross-sections and compared to simulated data sets. A good correspondence between simulated and measured velocity profiles was obtained (RMSE 0.5 ms -1). In addition, we simulated the complex flow patterns caused by the specific construction of the wind tunnel and calculated the spatial distribution of derived measures such as wall shear stress and turbulence characteristics. It is shown that these measurements deviated significantly from their theoretical distributions, and an explanatory model for an observed bias in wind erosion and transport rates experimentally derived in the tunnel could be developed. We conclude that CFD is a valuable tool for modelling measured flow fields and to assess the spatial variation of variables that often cannot be sufficiently covered by measurements. Nevertheless, accurate measurements of the wind field are necessary to calibrate and validate such simulations and to provide reliable boundary conditions. CFD is thus a promising tool for aeolian research being complementary, to but never separated from, a measurement setup.

  18. Dynamic Jamming Point for Shear Thickening Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2009-08-01

    We report on rheometry measurements to characterize the critical behavior in two model shear thickening suspensions: cornstarch in water and glass spheres in oil. The slope of the shear thickening part of the viscosity curve is found to increase dramatically with packing fraction and diverge at a critical packing fraction ?c. The magnitude of the viscosity and the yield stress are also found to have scalings that diverge at ?c. We observe shear thickening as long as the yield stress is less than the stress at the viscosity maximum. Above this point the suspensions transition to purely shear thinning. Based on these data we present a dynamic jamming phase diagram for suspensions and show that a limiting case of shear thickening corresponds to a jammed state.

  19. Compressibility effects in turbulent shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1983-06-01

    For a number of reasons, it would be desirable to have a better understanding of the behavior of compressible turbulent shear layers. Such shear layers are important in the production of jet and rocket engine noise. They are present in supersonic combustion jet engine designs. Compressible shear layers are also important in many high power laser systems. In the present investigation, it is proposed to employ a Mach number M+ which may be of value in correlating compressibility effects. Experimental results showing the decrease of shear layer width with increasing Mach number are compared with the corresponding variations of theoretical instability growth rates calculated by Blumen et al. (1975). The agreement between theoretical and experimental results suggests that an important factor contributing to the decrease in the shear layer growth rate with increasing M+ is the decrease in the maximum growth rates of the large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities.

  20. Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

  1. Particle acceleration efficiencies in astrophysical shear flows

    E-print Network

    F. M. Rieger; P. Duffy

    2005-02-04

    The acceleration of energetic particles in astrophysical shear flows is analyzed. We show that in the presence of a non-relativistic gradual velocity shear, power law particle momentum distributions $f(p) \\propto p^{-(3+\\alpha)}$ may be generated, assuming a momentum-dependent scattering time $\\tau \\propto p^{\\alpha}$, with $\\alpha > 0$. We consider possible acceleration sites in astrophysical jets and study the conditions for efficient acceleration. It is shown, for example, that in the presence of a gradual shear flow and a gyro-dependent particle mean free path, synchrotron radiation losses no longer stop the acceleration once it has started to work efficiently. This suggests that shear acceleration may naturally account for a second, non-thermal population of energetic particles in addition to a shock-accelerated one. The possible relevance of shear acceleration is briefly discussed with reference to the relativistic jet in the quasar 3C 273.

  2. Shear stress and the endothelial transport barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tarbell, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The shear stress of flowing blood on the surfaces of endothelial cells that provide the barrier to transport of solutes and water between blood and the underlying tissue modulates the permeability to solutes and the hydraulic conductivity. This review begins with a discussion of transport pathways across the endothelium and then considers the experimental evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies that shows an influence of shear stress on endothelial transport properties after both acute (minutes to hours) and chronic (hours to days) changes in shear stress. Next, the effects of shear stress on individual transport pathways (tight junctions, adherens junctions, vesicles and leaky junctions) are described, and this information is integrated with the transport experiments to suggest mechanisms controlling both acute and chronic responses of transport properties to shear stress. The review ends with a summary of future research challenges. PMID:20543206

  3. Particle acceleration efficiencies in astrophysical shear flows

    E-print Network

    Rieger, F M

    2005-01-01

    The acceleration of energetic particles in astrophysical shear flows is analyzed. We show that in the presence of a non-relativistic gradual velocity shear, power law particle momentum distributions $f(p) \\propto p^{-(3+\\alpha)}$ may be generated, assuming a momentum-dependent scattering time $\\tau \\propto p^{\\alpha}$, with $\\alpha > 0$. We consider possible acceleration sites in astrophysical jets and study the conditions for efficient acceleration. It is shown, for example, that in the presence of a gradual shear flow and a gyro-dependent particle mean free path, synchrotron radiation losses no longer stop the acceleration once it has started to work efficiently. This suggests that shear acceleration may naturally account for a second, non-thermal population of energetic particles in addition to a shock-accelerated one. The possible relevance of shear acceleration is briefly discussed with reference to the relativistic jet in the quasar 3C 273.

  4. Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation

    SciTech Connect

    T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim

    2002-07-29

    We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.

  5. Coronal magnetic fields produced by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Sturrock, P. A.; Yang, W.-H.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetofrictional method for computing force-free fields is used to examine the evolution of the magnetic field of a line dipole, when there is relative shearing motion between the two polarities. It is found that the energy of the sheared field can be arbitrarily large compared with the potential field. It is also found that it is possible to fit the magnetic energy, as a function of shear amplitude, by a simple functional form. The fit parameters depend only on the distribution of normal field in the photosphere and the form of the shearing displacement. They show that the energy is relatively more enhanced if the shear occurs: (1) where the normal field is strongest; and/or (2) in the inner region of the dipole, near the axis; and/or (3) over a large fraction of the dipole area.

  6. Determining Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    A "simplified shear solution" method approximates the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on an extension of laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather, it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply-level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply-by-ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. The method has been incorporated within the HyperSizer commercial structural sizing software to improve its predictive capability for designing composite structures. The HyperSizer structural sizing software is used extensively by NASA to design composite structures. In the case of through-thickness shear loading on panels, HyperSizer previously included a basic, industry-standard, method for approximating the resulting shear stress distribution in sandwich panels. However, no such method was employed for solid laminate panels. The purpose of the innovation is to provide an approximation of the through-thickness shear stresses in a solid laminate given the through-thickness shear loads (Qx and Qy) on the panel. The method was needed for implementation within the HyperSizer structural sizing software so that the approximated ply-level shear stresses could be utilized in a failure theory to assess the adequacy of a panel design. The simplified shear solution method was developed based on extending and generalizing bi-material beam theory to plate-like structures. It is assumed that the through-thickness shear stresses arise due to local bending of the laminate induced by the through-thickness shear load, and by imposing equilibrium both vertically and horizontally, the through-thickness shear stress distribution can be calculated. The resulting shear stresses integrate to the applied shear load, are continuous at the ply interfaces, and are zero at the laminate-free surfaces. If both Qx and Qy shear loads are present, it is assumed that they act independently and that their effects can be superposed. The calculated shear stresses can be rotated within each ply to the principal material coordinates for use in a ply-level failure criterion. The novelty of the simplified shear solution method is its simplicity and the fact that it does not require solution of a particular boundary value problem. The advantages of the innovation are that an approximation of the though-thickness shear stress distribution can be quickly determined for any solid laminate or solid laminate region within a stiffened panel.

  7. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  8. WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SEDI-SAP, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Amara, A. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-11-10

    Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

  9. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-06-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  10. Validity of Measurement of Shear Modulus by Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography in Human Pennate Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probe’s principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20° obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  11. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries.

  12. On the onset of surface wind drift at short fetches as observed in a wind wave flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model wind waves and specially the early stages of surface waves development and ocean-atmosphere fluxes during incipient wind events and storms. In particular, wave models are not so accurate predicting wave behaviour at short fetches, where wind drift onset might be very important. The onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide reference information to the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at rather short non-dimensional fetches. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Surface drift values were up to 0.5 cm/s for the highest wind while very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm. Rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from ANUIES-ECOS M09-U01 project, CONACYT-187112 Estancia Sabática, and Institute Carnot, is greatly acknowledged.

  13. Controlled normal/shear loading and shear fracture in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Limited plasticity inhibits the engineering applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which often deform by the formation of localized shear bands. Overcoming the brittleness of BMGs necessitates advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of shear band initiation and propagation. Up to now, a major hurdle has been the ability to control the generation of shear bands and the associated fracture (e.g., by conventional uniaxial loading). Here we demonstrate a unique loading fixture that allows one not only to control the locations of shear band formation and shear fracture but also to alter the ratio of the normal to shear stress on the fracture plane. The capability of altering the stress ratio allows one to systematically examine how the normal stress affects shear fracture of BMGs. While some preliminary results with limited data have been presented in a prior publication, a comprehensive description of the unique test fixture is described here.

  14. A TURBULENCE-DRIVEN MODEL FOR HEATING AND ACCELERATION OF THE FAST WIND IN CORONAL HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Verdini, A. [Observatoire Royale de Belgique, 3 Avenue Circulaire, 1180, Bruxelles (Belgium); Velli, M. [Dipart. di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Univ. di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 3, 50125, Firenze (Italy); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, DE 19716 (United States); Oughton, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Dmitruk, P. [Depart. Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univ. de Buenos Aires-Conicet (Argentina)], E-mail: verdini@oma.be

    2010-01-10

    A model is presented for generation of fast solar wind in coronal holes, relying on heating that is dominated by turbulent dissipation of MHD fluctuations transported upward in the solar atmosphere. Scale-separated transport equations include large-scale fields, transverse Alfvenic fluctuations, and a small compressive dissipation due to parallel shears near the transition region. The model accounts for proton temperature, density, wind speed, and fluctuation amplitude as observed in remote sensing and in situ satellite data.

  15. Mechanical performance of magnet insulation materials fabricated by the “Insulate-Wind-and-React” technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bittner-Rohrhofer; K. Humer; H. Fillunger; R. K. Maix; H. W. Weber

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnet coils are usually fabricated according to the “Wind-React-Insulate-and-Transfer” technique. However, the alternative “Insulate-Wind-and-React” technique could simplify the coil manufacturing process considerably. An insulation system designed for this process has been investigated. It consists of a R-glass fiber reinforcement heat treated at 650°C and impregnated afterwards with epoxy. For the mechanical material characterization, tensile, short-beam shear (SBS) and tension–tension

  16. Evaluation of Lagrangian footprint model using data from wind tunnel convective boundary layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kljun; P. Kastner-kleinsupbsu; E. Fedorovich; M. W. Rotach

    2004-01-01

    The Lagrangian footprint model LPDM-B was evaluated using data from SF6 tracer release experiments in a wind tunnel with a sheared convective boundary layer. The evaluation considered both the dispersion module and the footprint predictions of LPDM-B. It was found that the dispersion patterns and the concentration footprints compared well with the wind-tunnel data. The footprint model was able to

  17. Shear viscosity of pion gas

    E-print Network

    Eiji Nakano

    2007-03-21

    Using chiral perturbation theory we investigate the QCD shear viscosity ($\\eta $) to entropy density ($s$) ratio below the deconfinement temperature ($\\sim 170$ MeV) with zero baryon number density. It is found that $\\eta /s$ of QCD is monotonically decreasing in temperature ($T$) and reaches 0.6 with estimated $\\sim 50%$ uncertainty at T=120 MeV. A naive extrapolation of the leading order result shows that $\\eta /s$ reaches the $1/4\\pi $ minimum bound proposed by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets using string theory methods at $T\\sim 210$ MeV. This suggests a phase transition or cross over might occur at $T\\lesssim 210$ MeV in order for the bound to remain valid. Also, it is natural for $\\eta /s$ to stay close to the minimum bound around the phase transition temperature as was recently found in heavy ion collisions.

  18. Quadruple Lap Shear Processing Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Tony N.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Thiokol, Science and Engineering Huntsville Operations (SEHO) Laboratory has previously experienced significant levels of variation in testing Quadruple Lap Shear (QLS) specimens. The QLS test is used at Thiokol / Utah for the qualification of Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle flex bearing materials. A test was conducted to verify that process changes instituted by SEHO personnel effectively reduced variability, even with normal processing variables introduced. A test matrix was designed to progress in a series of steps; the first establishing a baseline, then introducing additional solvents or other variables. Variables included normal test plan delay times, pre-bond solvent hand-wipes and contaminants. Each condition tested utilized standard QLS hardware bonded with natural rubber, two separate technicians and three replicates. This paper will report the results and conclusions of this investigation.

  19. Shear Alfven waves and shear flow instabilities in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronkov, Igor

    The objective of this thesis is the theoretical and computational study of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves and shear flow instabilities in the Earth's magnetosphere. We have developed a computer code to solve the nonlinear set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in curvilinear coordinates. This code has been used to simulate the excitation, growth, coupling of shear Alfvén waves and magneto-acoustic modes, and nonlinear saturation of standing shear Alfvén waves in the dipolar magnetosphere. The computational results were verified by comparing them with a nonlinear analytical model which was derived as part of this study. Using computer simulations, we have shown that shear Alfvén waves in the field line resonance region develop into an azimuthally stretched and radially confined region of a large amplitude shear flow in the equatorial magnetosphere. This shear flow may become unstable with respect to a shear flow instability with characteristic e-folding time smaller than a half-period of the shear Alfvén wave. Therefore, we have used the computer model to study shear flow and shear flow ballooning instabilities which can arise in the association with field line resonance regions. Initially, we used the MHD code to model the shear flow and ballooning instabilities in the equatorial plane of the Earth's magnetosphere. We have shown that a shear flow vortex couples effectively with a ballooning mode and grows with a characteristic time scale of tens of seconds extracting the potential energy from the ambient magnetic configuration. Therefore, the instability results in the generation and propagation of a large scale vortex structure which appears to be in agreement with observed scales of the vortices seen in auroral arcs. Finally, the study of shear flow and ballooning instabilities was accomplished using a three-dimensional computer model. We discuss the structure of vortices, magnetic field, and field-aligned currents obtained from the three-dimensional computer simulations and conclude that these instabilities may lead to vortices associated with discrete auroral arcs.

  20. Wind energy and assessment of wind energy potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the potential of wind energy and assessment of wind energy systems in Turkey were studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the wind energy potential and future wind conversion systems project in Turkey. The wind energy potential of various regions was investigated; and the exploitation of the wind energy in Turkey was discussed. Various

  1. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weis-Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers

  2. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weis-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives

  3. Effect of wind averaging time on wind erosivity estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) are widely used for estimating the wind-induced soil erosion at a field scale. Wind is the principal erosion driver in the two models. The wind erosivity, which describes the capacity of wind to cause soil erosion is ...

  4. Solar Wind Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (editor)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of discussion were: solar corona, MHD waves and turbulence, acceleration of the solar wind, stellar coronae and winds, long term variations, energetic particles, plasma distribution functions and waves, spatial dependences, and minor ions.

  5. Wind Tunnel Building - 6 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Distributed wind energy works for industrial clients. Corporations and other organizations are choosing to add Distributed Wind energy to their corporate goals for a numerous reasons: economic, environmental, marketing, values, and attracting new...

  6. Renewable Energy: Wind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson introduces students to the uses of wind energy. Topics include a history of wind usage (grinding grain, pumping water, transportation), including the development of wind power in the United States and its more recent adaptations for producing electricity. There is also discussion of the physics behind the operation of a windmill and what drives the wind patterns in Earth's atmosphere. The lesson includes an activity in which students use online resources to study the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed and direction. They will collect data on barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction for several days, map it, and look for relationships between wind speed and direction and the isobaric lines on the map.

  7. Wind Energy Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    Wind energy provides many benefits, including economic and environmental. This two-sided fact sheet succinctly outlines the top ten wind energy benefits and is especially well suited for general audiences.

  8. Wind power machines receiving fresh wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Seguier

    1976-01-01

    The history, current status, and future prospects of power generation by wind-activated power plants is surveyed. Vaned wind-power devices similar to those used in ancient Sumer are still in use in Iran today, while European windmills have shifted in function from flour milling to water pumping. The devices are most feasible in isolated locations where dispersed energy sources are needed,

  9. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coon, E.; Kelemen, P.; Hirth, G.; Spiegelman, M.

    2005-12-01

    Kelemen and Hirth (Fall 2004 AGU) presented a model for periodic, viscous shear heating instabilities along pre-existing, fine grained shear zones. This provides an attractive alternative to dehydration embrittlement for explaining intermediate-depth earthquakes, especially those in a narrow thermal window within the mantle section of subducting oceanic plates (Hacker et al JGR03). Ductile shear zones with widths of cm to m are common in shallow mantle massifs and peridotite along oceanic fracture zones. Pseudotachylites in a mantle shear zone show that shear heating temperatures exceeded the mantle solidus (Obata & Karato Tectonophys95). Olivine grain growth in shear zones is pinned by closely spaced pyroxenes; thus, once formed, these features do not `heal' on geological time scales in the absence of melt or fluid (Warren & Hirth EPSL05). Grain-size sensitive creep will be localized within these shear zones, in preference to host rocks with olivine grain size from 1 to 10 mm. Inspired by the work of Whitehead & Gans (GJRAS74), we proposed that such pre-existing shear zones might undergo repeated shear heating instabilities. This is not a new concept; what is new is that viscous deformation is limited to a narrow shear zone, because grain boundary sliding, sensitive to both stress and grain size, may accommodate creep even at high stress and high temperature. These new ideas yield a new result: simple models for a periodic shear heating instability. Last year, we presented a 1D numerical model using olivine flow laws, assuming that viscous deformation remains localized in shear zones, surrounded by host rocks undergoing elastic deformation. Stress evolves due to elastic strain and drives viscous deformation in a shear zone of specified width. Shear heating and thermal diffusion control T. A maximum of 1400 C (substantial melting of peridotite ) was imposed. Grain size evolves due to recrystallization and diffusion. For strain rates of E-13 to E-14 per sec and initial T of 600 to 850 C, this produced periodic viscous shear heating events with periods of 100's to 1000's of years. Strain rates during these events approach 1 per second as temperatures reach 1400. Cooling between events returns the shear zone almost to its initial temperature, though ultimately shear zone temperature between events exceeds 850 C resulting in stable viscous creep. Analysis shows that our system of equations jumps from one steady state to another, depending on a non-dimensional number relating the rate of shear heating to the rate of diffusive cooling. This year, Kelemen and Hirth show that the rate of stress drop during shear heating events is greater than the rate of elastic stress relaxation, so that shear heating events are a runaway instability. Rather than capping the temperature at 1400 C, we parameterize melt fraction as a function of T, and shear viscosity as a function of melt fraction. A problem with our 1D model is that predicted displacements are too large (1 to 20 m) during shear heating events, essentially because there is no resistance at shear zone ends. To address this, Coon and Spiegelman have embarked on a 3D model, incorporating a pre-existing fine-grained, tabular shear zone of finite extent, with a visco-elastic rheology for both shear zone and wall rocks. Preliminary 1D models using this approach show that the more complicated rheology yields the same result as the simpler model. We will present preliminary results, and determine the Maxwell time for this problem, since low strain rates could produce viscous relaxation in both shear zone and wall rocks with negligible shear heating.

  10. Guided Tour on Wind Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Danish Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association provides the Guided Tour on Wind Energy site. This tour caters to both the expert and the novice of wind energy. Sections included at the site are Wind Energy Resources, Computing Wind Turbine Energy Output, How does a Wind Turbine Work?, Designing a Wind Turbine, Research and Development in Wind Energy, Wind Energy in the Electrical Grid, and Wind Energy and the Environment, among others. Each section offers detailed information as well as images and diagrams. This is a great resource for anyone interested in learning more about wind energy.

  11. To Capture the Wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Thresher; Michael Robinson; Paul Veers

    2007-01-01

    From the birth of modern electricity-generating wind turbines in the late 1970s to now, wind energy technology has dramatically improved. Capital costs have plummeted, reliability has improved, and efficiency has increased. High-quality turbine manufacturers exist around the world, and wind plants of 300 MW and larger are being integrated into the electrical grid to exacting utility specifications. These modern wind

  12. Impact of the horizontal wind profile on the convective transport of chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1998-09-01

    The impact of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind in the troposphere and lower stratosphere on the vertical transport of chemical species induced by deep convective events has been studied using a two-dimensional cloud ensemble model. Seven horizontal wind profiles, including one observed during the Central and Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) have been chosen. These represent typical wind profiles over the tropical Pacific including upper level westerly and easterly cases and have been applied to the model as initial conditions to carry out the sensitivity runs. We have found that the pattern of the shear in the horizontal wind in the vicinity of the tropopause plays a significant role in controlling the development of deep convective clouds. As a result, the fluxes of chemical species from the planetary boundary layer to the free troposphere and from the free troposphere to the lower stratosphere are very different for different assumed profiles. It has been found specifically that a moderate wind shear crossing tropopause favors vertically advective transport of chemical species. Strong positive shear, though enhancing turbulent mixing from the troposphere to the stratosphere, generates the weakest vertically advective transport primarily due to its influence in limiting the vertical development of convective turrets. In addition, we have found that the smoothed wind profile derived from a more fluctuating observed profile produces clear differences in cloud development and associated tracer vertical transport compared with the results of the run with the nonsmoothed profile.

  13. A comparison of predicted wind turbine blade loads to test measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Thresher, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    The accurate prediction of wind turbine blade loads and response is important in predicting the fatigue life of wind machines. At the SERI Wind Energy Research Center, a rotor code called FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) is currently being validated by comparing predicted results to machine measurements. The FLAP code has been modified to allow the teetering degree of freedom. This paper describes these modifications and comparisons of predicted blade blending moments to test measurements. Wind tunnel data for a 1/20th scale model will be used to compare FLAP predictions for the cyclic flap-bending moments at the 33 percent spanwise station for three different wind speeds. The comparisons will be made for both rigid and teetering hubs. Currently, the FLAP code accounts for deterministic excitations such as wind shear, tower shadow, gravity, and prescribed yawing motions. Conclusions will be made regarding the code's accuracy in predicting the cyclic bending moments.

  14. User's guide for a personal computer model of turbulence at a wind turbine rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, J.R.; Powell, D.C.; Gower, G.L.

    1989-08-01

    This document is primarily (1) a user's guide for the personal computer (PC) version of the code for the PNL computational model of the rotationally sampled wind speed (RODASIM11) and (2) a brief guide to the growing literature on the subject of rotationally sampled turbulence, from which the model is derived. The model generates values of turbulence experienced by single points fixed in the rotating frame of reference of an arbitrary wind turbine blade. The character of the turbulence depends on the specification of mean wind speed, the variance of turbulence, the crosswind and along-wind integral scales of turbulence, mean wind shear, and the hub height, radius, and angular speed of rotation of any point at which wind fluctuation is to be calculated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Buoyancy and shear characteristics of hurricane-tornado environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents detailed composite profiles of temperature, moisture, and wind constructed for tornado environments in tropical cyclones that affected the U.S. between 1948 and 1986. Winds are composited in components radial and tangential to the tropical cyclone center at observation time. Guided by observed patterns of tornado occurrence, composites are constructed for a variety of different stratifications of the data, including proximity to tornadoes, position relative to the cyclone center, time of day, time after cyclone landfall, cyclone translation speed, and landfall location. The composites are also compared to composite soundings from Great Plains tornado environments. A variety of sounding parameters are examined to see which are most closely related to the tornado distribution patterns. Lower-tropospheric vertical shears are found to be stronger in the tropical cyclone tornado environments than on the Great Plains. Buoyancy for the tropical cyclone tornado cases is much smaller than that seen with Great Plains tornado events and exhibits a weak negative correlation with tornado outbreak severity.

  16. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind field measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton Huffaker, R.; Reveley, Paul A.

    1998-07-01

    Diode-pumped solid-state pulsed coherent laser radar systems have recently been developed at Coherent Technologies, Inc., for the remote measurement of atmospheric wind fields. Flashlamp-pumped systems have been utilized since 1990 for obtaining wind field measurements. These flashlamp-pumped lidar systems have been applied to wind profiling, aircraft-wake vortex measurements, airport wind shear and gust front monitoring, military cargo air drops and many other applications. The diode-pumped coherent lidar systems currently available are capable of near turnkey operation. The Tm:YAG laser transceivers operate at 0963-9659/7/4/021/img1 with output pulse energies of 1-10 mJ with PRFs of 1000 to 100 Hz, respectively. Range resolutions of 30-75 m are typical. A real-time lidar signal processor has also been developed for collecting and analysing laser radar (lidar) data. The signal processor is based on a commercial PC architecture and offers a real-time data acquisition, analysis, display, recording and playback environment. Wind measurements and overall system performance results will be presented. Wind measurement performance, for a variety of applications, is presented using the flashlamp- and diode-pumped coherent lidars including measured wind profiles from ground and on aircraft, wake vortex tracking results, and example flows over mountain terrain.

  17. Offshore wind energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Musgrove

    1978-01-01

    Wind energy systems deployed in the shallow but windy waters of the southern North Sea have the potential to provide more than 20% of UK electricity needs. With existing experience of windmills, and of aircraft and offshore structures, such wind energy systems could be developed within a relatively short timescale. A preliminary assessment of the economics of offshore wind energy

  18. Power from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  19. Dust driven winds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin Sedlmayr; Carsten Dominik

    1995-01-01

    The status of dust driven winds, constituting an important subclass of essentially radiation generated winds, is surveyed. Dust driven winds are conceived as a long lasting phenomenon of heavy mass loss concerning those luminous cool giants and supergiants, where dust condensation in the expanding flow determines both thestellar mass loss rate and thesubsonic-supersonic transition of the velocity field. Our contribution

  20. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  1. Energy from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelka, David G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale generation of electrical power by wind turbine fields is discussed. It is shown that the maximum power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 16/27 of the power available in the wind. (BB)

  2. Build a Wind Turbine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-20

    Learners build a wind turbine and test it to see how much energy is created. Learners can build a variety of wind blades, test a variety of wind speeds and see what effect these have on the energy created. Adult supervision recommended.

  3. Assessing offshore wind potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adesoji Adelaja; Charles McKeown; Benjamin Calnin; Yohannes Hailu

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry

  4. CONGRESSIONAL BRIEFING Offshore Wind

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    · Fishermen's Energy · Cape Wind · BVG Associates · Maryland Energy Administration · New Bedford (MA) MarineCONGRESSIONAL BRIEFING Offshore Wind Lessons Learned from Europe: Reducing Costs and Creating Jobs Thursday, June 12, 2014 Capitol Visitors Center, Room SVC 215 Enough offshore wind capacity to power six

  5. Offshore Wind Geoff Sharples

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    States Cape Wind PPA at 18 c/kWh #12;The cycle of non-innova?on OffshoreOffshore Wind Geoff Sharples geoff@clearpathenergyllc.com #12;Frequently Unanswered Ques?ons · Why don't "they" build more offshore wind? · Why not make

  6. Stator winding monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stone; J. Kapler

    1998-01-01

    Partial discharge tests can determine which motor and generator stator windings are experiencing insulation problems. A deteriorated winding has a PD activity which can be 30 times or more higher than a winding in good condition. This great difference in PD activity enables even nonspecialized maintenance personnel to identify the few motors or generators in a company which need further

  7. Wind Powering America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NREL

    This visualization is a utility-scale, land-based, 80-meter wind map. It states, utilities, and wind energy developers use to locate and quantify the wind resource, identifying potentially windy sites within a fairly large region and determining a potential site's economic and technical viability.

  8. The winds of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind-based power generation has been growing steadily in the United States and around the world, and this growth will continue—and accelerate—in the future, as the following background statistics demonstrate. The U.S. wind industry installed 8,358 megawatts (MW) of new wind generating capacity in 20...

  9. Wind Power Systems 1. Overview

    E-print Network

    Ding, Yu

    Wind Power Systems 1. Overview 2. Simulation model for wind farm operation 3. Research topics #12;Contents 1. Overview of wind power systems 1.1 Power systems 1.2 Renewable energy 1.3 Wind power systems 1.4 Wind power integration 1.5 Summary 2. Simulation model of wind farm operations 3. Research

  10. Why do meteorologists use wind vanes? Wind vanes are used to determine the direction of the wind. Wind

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Fun Facts Why do meteorologists use wind vanes? Wind vanes are used to determine the direction of the wind. Wind· vanes are also called weather vanes. What do wind vanes look like on a weather station? Wind vanes that are on weather stations look a lot like the one you· made! The biggest differences

  11. The Surface Drag and the Vertical Momentum Fluxes Produced by Mountain Waves in Flows with Directional Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, M.; Miranda, P. M.; Martins, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    In gravity wave drag (GWD) parametrization schemes that are necessary in numerical models of the atmosphere, both the surface GWD and the distribution of the wave momentum flux with height must be specified. The present study addresses these two aspects. Firstly, the impact of a recently-developed approach to the evaluation of surface GWD is assessed. This approach uses linear theory, but incorporates the effects of wind profile shear and curvature, by means of a second-order WKB approximation. While the theory predicts the possibility of either drag enhancement or reduction, depending on the wind profile, results obtained with the ERA-40 reanalysis data clearly indicate the predominance of local drag enhancement. However, the global impact of shear on the atmospheric axial GWD torque comes mostly from regions with predominantly easterly flow, contributing to a slight reduction of the bias found in different studies of the global angular momentum budget. The relative correction due to shear on linear GWD is found not to depend too strongly on the levels chosen for the computation of the low-level wind derivatives. Secondly, the wave momentum flux is investigated within the framework of linear theory for flow with directional wind shear over a circular mountain. The variation of the momentum flux with height is calculated for relatively large shears, extending previous calculations of the surface GWD by the authors. A WKB approximation is used to address flow with generic, but relatively slowly-varying wind profiles. The WKB approximation must be extended to third order to obtain momentum flux expressions that are accurate to second order. Inviscid, steady, non-rotating, hydrostatic flow is assumed. Since the momentum flux only varies vertically due to wave filtering by critical levels, the application of contour integration techniques enables it to be expressed in terms of simple 1D integrals. On the other hand, the momentum flux divergence (which corresponds to the force on the atmosphere that must be represented in GWD parameterizations) is given in closed analytical form. The momentum flux expressions are tested for idealized wind profiles, where they become a function of the Richardson number (Ri). These expressions tend, for high Ri, to those derived by previous authors (where wind profile effects on the surface drag were neglected and critical levels acted as perfect absorbers). The linear results are compared with linear and nonlinear numerical simulations, showing a considerable improvement upon previous models, developed for very high Ri.

  12. New combined shear and compression test method

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, P.E. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States); Reed, R.P. [Cryogenic Materials, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A new test method was developed to determine shear/compression properties of composite insulation systems used in superconducting magnets. It was developed specifically to enable in-situ testing (without warm-up) of insulation systems in a high flux neutron radiation and cryogenic (4 K) temperature environment at the Munich Research Reactor (FRM - Forschungsreaktor Munchen). The new shear/compression specimen consists of two sections of composite insulation bonded at a specific angle between three pieces of 316 stainless steel. During the test, the specimen is compressed between two loading platens. By varying the angle of the test specimen, different shear/compression ratios can be evaluated and a shear/compression envelope for various materials can be produced. This test method produces the same shear and compressive strengths found in other shear/compression tests, but the test fixture is smaller, and multiple test specimens are not required. The composite insulation systems were tested at 45{degrees} to demonstrate the feasibility of the test. Specimens were produced from a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) resin system and a prepreg resin system. Design and fabrication of the test specimens and their shear and compressive properties are presented.

  13. Generalized shear of a soft rectangular block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Wu, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of the simple shear of a block has been treated in terms of a shear displacement, applied uniformly in a lateral direction and assumed to be a linear function of the height above the base. In this paper, simple shear is generalized: the shear displacement is neither uniform in the lateral direction nor necessarily a linear function of the height. Using second-order isotropic elasticity, the analytical solutions show that the shear displacements are characterized by the product of sine and hyperbolic sine functions of the height and depth variables, respectively. The height dependence of the shear displacement is predicted to be a combination of linear and sinusoidal functions, and is verified against the test data of agar-gelatin cuboidal blocks. If the gravity effect is incorporated, a quadratic dependence on height is additionally predicted. The calculation of stresses reveals the presence of not only negative normal stresses but also sinusoidally varying shear stresses on the lateral planes tending to distort the block about the height direction. These results can be of great importance in tissue/cell mechanics.

  14. Shear thinning in deeply supercooled melts

    PubMed Central

    Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2009-01-01

    We compute, on a molecular basis, the viscosity of a deeply supercooled liquid at high shear rates. The viscosity is shown to decrease at growing shear rates, owing to an increase in the structural relaxation rate as caused by the shear. The onset of this non-Newtonian behavior is predicted to occur universally at a shear rate significantly lower than the typical structural relaxation rate, by approximately two orders of magnitude. This results from a large size—up to several hundred atoms—of the cooperative rearrangements responsible for mass transport in supercooled liquids and the smallness of individual molecular displacements during the cooperative rearrangements. We predict that the liquid will break down at shear rates such that the viscosity drops by approximately a factor of 30 below its Newtonian value. These phenomena are predicted to be independent of the liquid's fragility. In contrast, the degree of nonexponentiality and violation of the Stokes–Einstein law, which are more prominent in fragile substances, will be suppressed by shear. The present results are in agreement with existing measurements of shear thinning in silicate melts.

  15. Fluid shear stress threshold regulates angiogenic sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Galie, Peter A.; Nguyen, Duc-Huy T.; Choi, Colin K.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Janmey, Paul A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    The density and architecture of capillary beds that form within a tissue depend on many factors, including local metabolic demand and blood flow. Here, using microfluidic control of local fluid mechanics, we show the existence of a previously unappreciated flow-induced shear stress threshold that triggers angiogenic sprouting. Both intraluminal shear stress over the endothelium and transmural flow through the endothelium above 10 dyn/cm2 triggered endothelial cells to sprout and invade into the underlying matrix, and this threshold is not impacted by the maturation of cell–cell junctions or pressure gradient across the monolayer. Antagonizing VE-cadherin widened cell–cell junctions and reduced the applied shear stress for a given transmural flow rate, but did not affect the shear threshold for sprouting. Furthermore, both transmural and luminal flow induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, and this up-regulation was required for the flow-induced sprouting. Once sprouting was initiated, continuous flow was needed to both sustain sprouting and prevent retraction. To explore the potential ramifications of a shear threshold on the spatial patterning of new sprouts, we used finite-element modeling to predict fluid shear in a variety of geometric settings and then experimentally demonstrated that transmural flow guided preferential sprouting toward paths of draining interstitial fluid flow as might occur to connect capillary beds to venules or lymphatics. In addition, we show that luminal shear increases in local narrowings of vessels to trigger sprouting, perhaps ultimately to normalize shear stress across the vasculature. Together, these studies highlight the role of shear stress in controlling angiogenic sprouting and offer a potential homeostatic mechanism for regulating vascular density. PMID:24843171

  16. Time accurate simulations of compressible shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, Peyman; Steinberger, Craig J.; Vidoni, Thomas J.; Madnia, Cyrus K.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to employ direct numerical simulation (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing (or lack thereof) in compressible free shear flows and to suggest new means of enhancing mixing in such flows. The shear flow configurations under investigation are those of parallel mixing layers and planar jets under both non-reacting and reacting nonpremixed conditions. During the three-years of this research program, several important issues regarding mixing and chemical reactions in compressible shear flows were investigated.

  17. Modeling of shear localization in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; LeBlanc, M.; Riddle, B.; Jorgensen, B.

    1998-02-11

    The deformation response of a Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been studied during shear localization. The study has involved well-controlled laboratory tests involving a double-notch shear sample. The results have been used to provide a comparison between experiment and the predicted response using DYNA2D and two material models (the Johnson-Cook model and an isotropic elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic model). The work will serve as the basis for the development of a new material model which represents the different deformation mechanisms active during shear localization.

  18. Shear Viscosity from Effective Couplings of Gravitons

    E-print Network

    Rong-Gen Cai; Zhang-Yu Nie; Ya-Wen Sun

    2008-12-12

    We calculate the shear viscosity of field theories with gravity duals using Kubo-formula by calculating the Green function of dual transverse gravitons and confirm that the value of the shear viscosity is fully determined by the effective coupling of transverse gravitons on the horizon. We calculate the effective coupling of transverse gravitons for Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravities coupled with matter fields, respectively. Then we apply the resulting formula to the case of AdS Gauss-Bonnet gravity with $F^4$ term corrections of Maxwell field and discuss the effect of $F^4$ terms on the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density.

  19. Shear instability in magnetized, collisional dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. P.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Samarian, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    The shear instability of magnetized, collisional dusty plasma is investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that the relative drift between the charged dust and magnetised electrons and ions which give rise to the Hall effect is crucial to this instability. Although the nature of present shear instability is similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the role of magnetic field in the present case is important in destabilising waves. The maximum growth rate of the instability is proportional only to the shear gradient and is independent of the ambient magnetic field strength. Most unstable wavenumber is a function of ambient dust parameters.

  20. Shear instability in magnetized, collisional dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, B. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Vladimirov, S. V.; Samarian, A. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    The shear instability of magnetized, collisional dusty plasma is investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that the relative drift between the charged dust and magnetised electrons and ions which give rise to the Hall effect is crucial to this instability. Although the nature of present shear instability is similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the role of magnetic field in the present case is important in destabilising waves. The maximum growth rate of the instability is proportional only to the shear gradient and is independent of the ambient magnetic field strength. Most unstable wavenumber is a function of ambient dust parameters.

  1. On the Effect of Offshore Wind Parks on Ocean Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, E.; Pohlmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays renewable energy resources play a key role in the energy supply discussion and especially an increasingly interest in wind energy induces intensified installations of wind parks. At this offshore wind energy gains in popularity in the course of higher and more consistent energy availability than over land. For example Germany's government adopted a national interurban offshore wind energy program comprising the construction of hundreds of wind turbines within Germany's Exclusive Economic Zone to ensure up to 50% of Germany's renewable energy supply. The large number of installation in coastal regions asks for analyzing the impact of offshore wind parks (OWPs) on the atmosphere and the ocean. As known from literature such wind parks excite also-called wake-effect and such an influence on the wind field in turn affects ocean circulation. To cover OWP's impact on ocean dynamics we evaluate model simulations using the Hamburg Shelf-Ocean-Model (HAMSOM). All simulations were driven with a wind forcing produced by the Mesoscale Atmosphere Model of the Hamburg University (METRAS) which has implemented wind turbines. Wind forcing data were generated in collaboration with and by courtesy of the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg, Department Technical Meteorology, Numeric Modeling-METRAS. To evaluate dynamical changes forced by the OWP's wind wake-effect we did a sensitivity study with a theoretical setup of a virtual ocean of 60m depth with a flat bottom and a temperature and salinity stratification according to common North Sea's conditions. Here our results show that already a small OWP of 12 wind turbines, placed in an area of 4 km^2, lead to a complex change in ocean dynamics. Due to the wake-effect zones of upwelling and downwelling are formed within a minute after turning-on wind turbines. The evolving vertical cells have a size of around 15x15 kilometers with a vertical velocity in order of 10^-2 mm/sec influencing the dynamic of an area being hundred times bigger than the wind park itself. The emerged vertical structure is generated due to a newly created geostrophic balance resulting in a redistribution of the ocean mass field. A number of additional upwelling and downwelling cells around the wind park support an intensified vertical dispersion through all layers and incline the thermocline which also influences the lower levels. The disturbances of mass show a dipole structure across the main wind direction with a maximum change in thermocline depth of some meters close to the OWP. Diffusion, mostly driven by direct wind induced surface shear is also modified by the wind turbines and supports a further modification of the vertical patterns. Considering that wind turbines operate only in a special window of wind speed, i.e. wind turbines will stop in case of too weak or too strong wind speeds as well as in case of technical issues, the averaged dimension and intensity of occurring vertical cells depend on the number of rotors and expected wind speeds. Finally we will focus on scenario runs for the North Sea under fully realistic conditions to estimate possible changes in ocean dynamics due to OWPs in future and these results will be further used for process analyzes of the ecosystem. If we assume a continuous operation of North Sea's OWPs in future we expect a fundamental constant change in ocean dynamics and moreover in the ecosystem in its vicinity.

  2. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  3. Analyzing the Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value ofWind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and theNorthwest

    SciTech Connect

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-05-31

    Wind power production varies on a diurnal and seasonal basis. In this report, we use wind speed data modeled by TrueWind Solutions, LLC (now AWS Truewind) to assess the effects of wind timing on the value of electric power from potential wind farm locations in California and the Northwest. (Data from this dataset are referred to as ''TrueWind data'' throughout this report.) The intra-annual wind speed variations reported in the TrueWind datasets have not previously been used in published work, however, so we also compare them to a collection of anemometer wind speed measurements and to a limited set of actual wind farm production data. The research reported in this paper seeks to answer three specific questions: (1) How large of an effect can the temporal variation of wind power have on the value of wind in different wind resource areas? (2) Which locations are affected most positively or negatively by the seasonal and diurnal timing of wind speeds? (3) How compatible are wind resources in the Northwest and California with wholesale power prices and loads in either region? The latter question is motivated by the fact that wind power projects in the Northwest could sell their output into California (and vice versa), and that California has an aggressive renewable energy policy that may ultimately yield such imports. Based on our research, we reach three key conclusions. (1) Temporal patterns have a moderate impact on the wholesale market value of wind power and a larger impact on the capacity factor during peak hours. The best-timed wind power sites have a wholesale market value that is up to 4 percent higher than the average market price, while the worst-timed sites have a market value that is up to 11 percent below the average market price. The best-timed wind sites could produce as much as 30-40 percent more power during peak hours than they do on average during the year, while the worst timed sites may produce 30-60 percent less power during peak hours. (2) Northwestern markets appear to be well served by Northwestern wind and poorly served by California wind; results are less clear for California markets. Both the modeled TrueWind data and the anemometer data indicate that many Northwestern wind sites are reasonably well-matched to the Northwest's historically winter-peaking wholesale electricity prices and loads, while most California sites are poorly matched to these prices and loads. However, the TrueWind data indicate that most California and Northwestern wind sites are poorly matched to California's summer-afternoon-peaking prices and loads, while the anemometer data suggest that many of these same sites are well matched to California's wholesale prices and loads. (3) TrueWind and anemometer data agree about wind speeds in most times and places, but disagree about California's summer afternoon wind speeds: The TrueWind data indicate that wind speeds at sites in California's coastal mountains and some Northwestern locations dip deeply during summer days and stay low through much of the afternoon. In contrast, the anemometer data indicate that winds at these sites begin to rise during the afternoon and are relatively strong when power is needed most. At other times and locations, the two datasets show good agreement. This disagreement may be due in part to time-varying wind shear between the anemometer heights (20-25m) and the TrueWind reference height (50m or 70m), but may also be due to modeling errors or data collection inconsistencies.

  4. Turning to the wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.

    1981-10-01

    Consideration is given the economic and technological aspects of both free-stream (horizontal-axis) and cross-wind (vertical-axis) wind energy conversion systems, with attention to operational devices ranging in rotor diameter from 10 to 40 m and in output from 22 to 630 kW. After a historical survey of wind turbine design and applications development, the near-term technical feasibility and economic attractiveness of combined wind/fossil-fueled generator and wind/hydroelectric systems are assessed. Also presented are estimates of wind energy potential extraction in the U.S. and Denmark, the industrial requirements of large-scale implementation, energy storage possibilities such as pumped hydro and flywheels, and cost comparisons of electrical generation by large and small wind systems, coal-fired plants, and light-water fission reactors.

  5. Determination of the Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate from the Applied Shear Resultant--A Simplified Shear Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The simplified shear solution method is presented for approximating the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem, rather it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants (as determined, for instance, by finite element analysis) at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply by ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. Comparisons to existing theories are made for a variety of laminates, and design examples are provided illustrating the use of the method for determining through-thickness shear stress margins in several types of composite panels and in the context of a finite element structural analysis.

  6. An experimental investigation of techniques to suppress edgetones from perforated wind tunnel walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Dougherty Jr.; C. F. Anderson; R. L. Parker Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise emitted by perforated walls in transonic wind tunnels has been under study for several years at AEDC. This report presents a summary of recent experimental tests to suppress perforated wall noise in transonic test sections. The mechanism of noise generation from perforated walls having 60-deg inclined holes is the edgetone phenomenon where the shear layer over each

  7. Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    E-print Network

    Hu, Weihao

    shear and tower shadow effects. As a consequence, the wind turbine aerodynamic power will drop three, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) code which is qualified to simulate the complexity of three- bladed, and the aerodynamic torque considering the 3p effects is described. Section 3 demonstrates an overview of a DFIG based

  8. Representation of the QBO in the Tropical Stratospheric Wind by Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, William

    ) of the circulation dominates any annual cycle or other variations in the low­latitude stratosphere [see Hamilton to be incommensurate with the annual cycle or any harmonics or subharmonics of the annual cycle indicates that the QBO with the downward passage of strong vertical shear zones, iv) asymmetry between the wind reversals

  9. Representation of the QBO in the Tropical Stratospheric Wind by Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, William

    ) of the circulation dominates any annual cycle or other variations in the low-latitude stratosphere [see Hamilton to be incommensurate with the annual cycle or any harmonics or subharmonics of the annual cycle indicates that the QBO with the downward passage of strong vertical shear zones, iv) asymmetry between the wind reversals

  10. Statistical characteristics of instantaneous dense gas clouds released in an atmospheric boundary-layer wind tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Meroney; Achim Lohmeyer

    1984-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed to examine the behavior of suddenly released volumes of dense gas in a turbulent shear layer. Instantaneous concentrations were measured with hot-wire katherometers. Multiple replications of each cloud volume, density, and velocity combination produced statistics for plume arrival time, arrival of maximum concentration time, plume departure time, and maximum concentrations. Probability distributions and standard deviations

  11. the risk issue of wind measurement for wind turbine operation

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    · Wind energy estimation at Taiwan · The risk of wind turbine from typhoon disaster · The wind exposure of wind measurement #12;3/31/2011 7 10-m height of wind measurement V10 = Vz * (10/z)1/7 __Japan resolution 10-30-50-70-250m 2000~2009 10-min wind dataset 25 km #12;THE RISK OF WIND TURBINE FROM TYPHOON

  12. Self-organization of ULF electromagnetic wave structures in the shear flow driven dissipative ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.; Chargazia, K.; Kharshiladze, O.; Zimbardo, G.

    2014-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of nonlinear dynamics of planetary electromagnetic (EM) ultra-low-frequency wave (ULFW) structures in the rotating dissipative ionosphere in the presence of inhomogeneous zonal wind (shear flow). Planetary EM ULFW appears as a result of interaction of the ionospheric medium with the spatially inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The shear flow driven wave perturbations effectively extract energy of the shear flow increasing own amplitude and energy. These perturbations undergo self organization in the form of the nonlinear solitary vortex structures due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbation's front. Depending on the features of the velocity profiles of the shear flows the nonlinear vortex structures can be either monopole vortices, or dipole vortex, or vortex streets and vortex chains. From analytical calculation and plots we note that the formation of stationary nonlinear vortex structure requires some threshold value of translation velocity for both non-dissipation and dissipation complex ionospheric plasma. The space and time attenuation specification of the vortices is studied. The characteristic time of vortex longevity in dissipative ionosphere is estimated. The long-lived vortices transfer the trapped medium particles, energy and heat. Thus they represent structural elements of turbulence in the ionosphere.

  13. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded again by six years, from October 1996 to April 2002, by interpolating 1000-ft sounding data to 100-ft increments. The Phase II developmental data set included observations for the cool season months of October 1996 to February 2007. The AMU calculated 68 candidate predictors from the XMR soundings, to include 19 stability parameters, 48 wind speed parameters and one wind shear parameter. Each day in the data set was stratified by synoptic weather pattern, low-level wind direction, precipitation and Richardson Number, for a total of 60 stratification methods. Linear regression equations, using the 68 predictors and 60 stratification methods, were created for the tool's three forecast parameters: the highest peak wind speed of the day (PWSD), 5-minute average speed at the same time (A WSD), and timing of the PWSD. For PWSD and A WSD, 30 Phase II methods were selected for evaluation in the verification data set. For timing of the PWSD, 12 Phase\\I methods were selected for evaluation. The verification data set contained observations for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The data set was used to compare the Phase I and II forecast methods to climatology, model forecast winds and wind advisories issued by the 45 WS. The model forecast winds were derived from the 0000 and 1200 UTC runs of the 12-km North American Mesoscale (MesoNAM) model. The forecast methods that performed the best in the verification data set were selected for the Phase II version of the tool. For PWSD and A WSD, linear regression equations based on MesoNAM forecasts performed significantly better than the Phase I and II methods. For timing of the PWSD, none of the methods performed significantly bener than climatology. The AMU then developed the Microsoft Excel and MIDDS GUls. The GUIs display the forecasts for PWSD, AWSD and the probability the PWSD will meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. Since none of the prediction methods for timing of the PWSD performed significantly better thanlimatology, the tool no longer displays this predictand. The Excel and MIDDS GUIs display forecas

  14. Accuracy of shear properties of wood obtained by simplified Iosipescu shear test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Kubojima; Hiroshi Yoshihara; Hisashi Ohsaki; Masamitsu Ohta

    2000-01-01

    We examined the accuracy of the shear properties of wood by the Iosipescu shear test using specimens whose shape was simplified.\\u000a Quartersawn boards of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr.) and shioji (Japanese ash,Fraxinus spaethiana Lingelsh.) were used. Two types of specimen for the Iosipescu shear test were compared: a “standard specimen” whose notch\\u000a angle is 90° and a “keyhole type

  15. Dynamic shearing resistance of molten metal films under high pressures and extremely high shearing rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Okada; Nai-Shang Liou; Vikas Prakash

    2002-01-01

    In the present study plate-impact pressureshear experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic shearing resistance of\\u000a molten metal films at shearing rates of approximately 107 s?1. These molten films are generated by pressure-shear impact of relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 Al alloy with\\u000a high hardness and high flow-strength tool-steel plates. By employing high impact speeds and relatively

  16. The effect of shear on neurodegeneration 

    E-print Network

    Triyoso, Dina Handayani

    1998-01-01

    induced neurodegeneration was established in order to elucidate the mechanism of neurodegeneration in glaucomas hydrocephalus and head injury. The model consisted of a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, which was exposed to shear...

  17. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  18. Periodic Exponential Shear of Complex Fluids

    E-print Network

    Chirag Kalelkar; Gareth McKinley

    2012-05-31

    We define a class of flows with exponential kinematics termed Periodic Exponential Shear (PES) flow which involve periodic exponential stretching of fluid elements along with their rotation. We exhibit analytical and numerical results for PES flow by using the Oldroyd-B model for viscoelastic fluids. We calculate the growth in the shear and the normal stresses analytically as well as demonstrate that repeated application of the flow leads to stable oscillatory shear and normal stresses. We define a material function applicable to a periodic, unsteady shear flow and show numerically that this material function exhibits deformation-rate thickening behavior for viscoelastic fluids subject to PES flow. We demonstrate the feasibility of PES flow by presenting preliminary experimental results from a controlled-strain rate rheometer, using a Newtonian mineral oil.

  19. Particle acceleration in astrophysical shear flows

    E-print Network

    Frank M. Rieger; Peter Duffy

    2005-01-10

    We consider the acceleration of particles due to a velocity shear in relativistic astrophysical flows. The basic physical picture and the formation of power law momentum spectra is discussed for a non-relativistic velocity field using a microscopic approach. We identify possible sites for shear acceleration in relativistic astrophysical jets and analyze their associated acceleration timescales. It is shown in particular that for a mean scattering time $\\tau$ scaling with the gyro-radius, the acceleration timescale for gradual shear scales in the same manner as the synchrotron cooling timescale, so that losses may no longer be able to stop the acceleration once it has started to work efficiently. Finally, the possible role of shear acceleration is discussed with reference to the relativistic jet in the quasar 3C~273.

  20. Recent progress in shear punch testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys.

  1. Shear-Joint Capability Versus Bolt Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Technical Memorandum presents theoretical study of relationships between load-bearing capabilities of shear joints that comprise plates clamped together by multiple bolts and clearances between bolts and boltholes in those joints.

  2. Shear wave instability for electrified falling films.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Arghya

    2013-11-01

    The effect of an electric field on the shear wave instability pertaining to a gravity driven conducting liquid film is studied based on the Chebyshev-Tau method. The shear wave appears at very large values of the Reynolds number when the inclination angle is sufficiently small. The presence of an electric field shows peculiar behavior on the critical Reynolds number corresponding to the shear mode. It suppresses shear wave instability through the amplification of the critical Reynolds number and leads to a nontrivial stabilizing effect when inclination angle B?3'. On the other hand, the reduction of the critical Reynolds number is found if the inclination angle is further lowered in magnitude. PMID:24329346

  3. Immiscible blend morphology after shear and elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batch, Gibson L.; Trifkovic, Milana; Hedegaard, Aaron; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the role of shear and extensional strain on immiscible blend morphology, namely domain size, orientation, and co-continuity. The domain size reduces with surface tension similar to what is observed with isolated droplets. The domain size is shown to increase with shear strain due to coalescence. Hence the best mixing is found with low shear strains, i.e. low rates of shear and short durations of time. Extensional strain (extrusion draw ratio DR) reduces phase width and thickness with a DR-0.5 dependence, suggesting the transformation to a fibrilar morphology. The critical draw ratio for morphology transformation is approximately 7, in agreement with observations by Grace for droplet breakup in elongation. Fibrilar morphology is also consistent with a large increase in strain-to-break in the drawn film and with observed creep and optical scattering behavior.

  4. Experimental assessment of Owen's second hypothesis on surface shear stress induced by a fluid during sediment saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B.; Horender, S.; Voegeli, C.; Lehning, M.

    2014-09-01

    A widely used, yet thus far unproven, fluid dynamical hypothesis originally presented by P. R. Owen 50 years ago, states that the surface shear stress induced by a fluid on the ground during equilibrium sediment saltation is constant and independent of the magnitude of the fluid velocity and consequently the particle mass flux. This hypothesis is one of the key elements in almost all current model descriptions of sediment erosion. We measured the surface shear stress in a drifting-sand wind tunnel and found Owen's hypothesis being merely an approximation of the real situation. A significant decrease of the fluid stress with increasing wind velocities was measured for low to intermediate particle mass fluxes. For high particle mass fluxes, Owen's hypothesis essentially holds, although a slight increase of the fluid stress was measured.

  5. Linear shear properties of spruce softwood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian B. Dahl; K. A. Malo

    2009-01-01

    The shear test described by Arcan was used to investigate orthotropic shear properties of clear softwood from Norway spruce.\\u000a The test was chosen on the basis of a thorough literature study, although the experimental setup was somewhat modified compared\\u000a to the original. A total number of 85 specimens were tested for loading and unloading in 6 different configurations. Manufacturing\\u000a and

  6. 4-D ultrafast shear-wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Provost, Jean; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Imbault, Marion; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-06-01

    Over the last ten years, shear wave elastography (SWE) has seen considerable development and is now routinely used in clinics to provide mechanical characterization of tissues to improve diagnosis. The most advanced technique relies on the use of an ultrafast scanner to generate and image shear waves in real time in a 2-D plane at several thousands of frames per second. We have recently introduced 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging to acquire with matrix probes the 3-D propagation of shear waves generated by a dedicated radiation pressure transducer in a single acquisition. In this study, we demonstrate 3-D SWE based on ultrafast volumetric imaging in a clinically applicable configuration. A 32 × 32 matrix phased array driven by a customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 4-D shear-wave imaging. A matrix phased array was used to generate and control in 3-D the shear waves inside the medium using the acoustic radiation force. The same matrix array was used with 3-D coherent plane wave compounding to perform high-quality ultrafast imaging of the shear wave propagation. Volumetric ultrafast acquisitions were then beamformed in 3-D using a delay-and-sum algorithm. 3-D volumetric maps of the shear modulus were reconstructed using a time-of-flight algorithm based on local multiscale cross-correlation of shear wave profiles in the three main directions using directional filters. Results are first presented in an isotropic homogeneous and elastic breast phantom. Then, a full 3-D stiffness reconstruction of the breast was performed in vivo on healthy volunteers. This new full 3-D ultrafast ultrasound system paves the way toward real-time 3-D SWE. PMID:26067040

  7. Measurement of shear impedances of viscoelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    Shear-wave reflection coefficients from a solid/fluid interface are derived for non-Newtonian fluids that can be described by Maxwell, Voigt, and power-law fluid models. Based on model calculations, we have identified the measurable effects on the reflection coefficients due to fluid non-Newtonian behavior. The models are used to interpret the viscosity data obtained by a technique based on shear impedance measurement.

  8. Shear viscosity of degenerate electron matter

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin

    2008-03-27

    We calculate the partial electron shear viscosity $\\eta_{ee}$ limited by electron-electron collisions in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly suppresses $\\eta_{ee}$ in the domain of ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and modifies its %asymptotic temperature behavior. The efficiency of the electron shear viscosity in the cores of white dwarfs and envelopes of neutron stars is analyzed.

  9. Shear building representations of seismically isolated buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cenk Alhan; Melih Sürmeli

    Seismic isolation, with its capability of reducing floor accelerations and interstory drifts simultaneously, is recognized\\u000a as an earthquake resistant design method that protects contents of a building along with the building itself. In research\\u000a studies, superstructures of seismically isolated buildings are commonly modeled as idealized shear buildings. Shear building\\u000a representation corresponds to an idealized structure where the beams are infinitely

  10. Liquid migration in sheared unsaturated granular media

    E-print Network

    Roman Mani; Dirk Kadau; Hans J. Herrmann

    2012-06-25

    We show how liquid migrates in sheared unsaturated granular media using a grain scale model for capillary bridges. Liquid is redistributed to neighboring contacts after rupture of individual capillary bridges leading to redistribution of liquid on large scales. The liquid profile evolution coincides with a recently developed continuum description for liquid migration in shear bands. The velocity profiles which are linked to the migration of liquid as well as the density profiles of wet and dry granular media are studied.

  11. Poloidal Rotation in TFTR Reversed Shear Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Levinton, F. M.; Batha, S. H.; Synakowski, E. J.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    1998-08-01

    A bifurcation in the core poloidal rotation of carbon impurity ions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been observed prior to the transport bifurcation associated with enhanced reverse shear plasmas. In a narrow radial region of the plasma, the impurity ion poloidal rotation reverses direction. This poloidal flow is associated with the establishment of a large negative radial electric field with strong shear. The measured poloidal velocities before, during, and after this precursor differ from neoclassical predictions.

  12. Cosmic Shear with Keck: Systematic Effects

    E-print Network

    Richard Massey; David Bacon; Alexandre Refregier; Richard Ellis

    2001-12-17

    Cosmic shear probes the distribution of dark matter via gravitational lensing of distant, background galaxies. We describe our cosmic shear survey consisting of deep blank fields observed with the Keck II telescope. We have found biases in the standard weak lensing analysis, which are enhanced by the elongated geometry of the Keck fields. We show how these biases can be diagnosed and corrected by masking edges and chip defects.

  13. Microstructural Evolution in Adiabatic Shear Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Meyers; M. T. Perez-Prado; T. R. McNelley; Q. Xue; Y. Xu

    2001-01-01

    Shear bands were generated under prescribed and controlled conditions in stainless steel( Fe-18Hat-shaped specimens, deformed in a Hopkinson bar were used, yielding strain rates of approximately 104s-1 and shear strains that could be varied between 1 and 100.Specimens recovered from the collapse of thick-walled cylinders were also investigated. Microstructural characterization was performed by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) with orientation imaging

  14. Pre-convective environmental conditions indicative of non-tornadic severe thunderstorm winds over Southeast Florida 

    E-print Network

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey Michael

    1987-01-01

    d. Evaluation of Directional Wind Shear and Mean Wind Direction e. Adiabatic Sub-Cloud Layer f. Surface Moisture Convergence g. Establishing and Testing the Model 4. INDEPENDENT TEST AND DEVELOPMENT OF A RELAXED MODEL a. Factors in the Relaxed... thunderstorm winds, all of the stability indices are presented for comparison. Lower values of the LI, SSI, NJLI, and dQ , and higher values of the e' CT, VT, and KI are usually indicative of a more unstable environment, while relatively greater magnitudes...

  15. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbines require methods to predict the power produced as inflow conditions change. We compare the standard method of binning with a turbulence renormalization method and a machine learning approach using a data set derived from simulations. The method of binning is unable to cope with changes in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could be modified to include additional inflow variables such as veer or yaw error.

  16. Rapid injection of near-inertial shear into the stratified upper ocean at an Antarctic Circumpolar Current front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Polzin, Kurt L.; Waterman, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The impact on the upper ocean of the passage of a short, intense storm over a Southern Ocean site, in proximity to an Antarctic Circumpolar Current front, is characterized. The storm causes a wind-induced deepening of the mixed layer and generates an inertial current. Immediate poststorm observations indicate a mixed layer extending to approximately 50 m depth. Subsequent measurements show the upper ocean to have restratified, injecting near-inertial shear in stratified waters within 1 day of the storm's passage. This time scale for the development of near-inertial shear is 1 order of magnitude shorter than that predicted by the ? dispersion paradigm. The observed rapid changes in upper ocean stratification point to the existence of an as yet undocumented, efficient mechanism for injection of near-inertial shear into the stratified ocean that is in turn associated with enhanced turbulence and mixing.

  17. A shearing technique measuring resistance properties of plant stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Iwaasa; K. A. Beauchemin; J. G. Buchanan-Smith; S. N. Acharya

    1996-01-01

    A shearing technique was developed to measure fracturing properties of plant stems. Shearing force measurements assess the amount of energy required to fragment plant tissue as an indication of resistance to particle breakdown during mastication. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive method of accurately measuring the shearing properties of forage stems. Shearing properties of

  18. Analysis of shear banding in metallic glasses under bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guruswami Ravichandran; Alain Molinari

    2005-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for studying the formation of shear bands in metallic glasses over a wide range of size scales when subjected to plane strain bending. The model is based on elasto-plastic beam bending and the evolution of shear offset in shear bands. The spacing of shear bands is assumed to be governed by a scaling law depending

  19. Horizontal Connections for Precast Concrete Shear Wall Panels Under

    E-print Network

    in practice. The influence of mild steel reinforcement, post- tensioning and shear keys was investigated, both shear and vertical forces must be transferred. Vertical continuity is normally achieved using post-tensioningHorizontal Connections for Precast Concrete Shear Wall Panels Under Cyclic Shear Loading Khaled A

  20. Forced vibrations of a body supported by viscohyperelastic shear mountings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Zúñiga; M. F. Beatty

    2001-01-01

    The damped, finite-amplitude forced vibration of a rigid body supported symmetrically by simple shear springs and by a smooth inclined bearing surface is studied. The spring material is characterized as a compressible or incompressible, homogeneous and isotropic viscohyperelastic material for which the shear response function in a simple shear deformation is a quadratic function of the amount of shear. The

  1. Large Deformation of Nitinol Under Shear Dominant Loading

    E-print Network

    Daly, Samantha

    Large Deformation of Nitinol Under Shear Dominant Loading S. Daly & D. Rittel & K. Bhattacharya & G in Nitinol under large shear- dominated deformation are presented. To achieve a shear- dominated deformation transformation that is seen in uniaxial testing. The shear-dominant deformation of Nitinol in the plastic regime

  2. Evolution of shear zones in granular materials

    E-print Network

    Balazs Szabo; Janos Torok; Ellak Somfai; Sandra Wegner; Ralf Stannarius; Axel Bose; Georg Rose; Frank Angenstein; Tamas Borzsonyi

    2014-08-07

    The evolution of wide shear zones (or shear bands) was investigated experimentally and numerically for quasistatic dry granular flows in split bottom shear cells. We compare the behavior of materials consisting of beads, irregular grains (e.g. sand) and elongated particles. Shearing an initially random sample, the zone width was found to significantly decrease in the first stage of the process. The characteristic shear strain associated with this decrease is about unity and it is systematically increasing with shape anisotropy, i.e. when the grain shape changes from spherical to irregular (e.g. sand) and becomes elongated (pegs). The strongly decreasing tendency of the zone width is followed by a slight increase which is more pronounced for rod like particles than for grains with smaller shape anisotropy (beads or irregular particles). The evolution of the zone width is connected to shear induced density change and for nonspherical particles it also involves grain reorientation effects. The final zone width is significantly smaller for irregular grains than for spherical beads.

  3. Shear banding in soft glassy materials

    E-print Network

    Suzanne M. Fielding

    2014-08-20

    Many soft materials, including foams, dense emulsions, micro gel bead suspensions, star polymers, dense packing of surfactant onion micelles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic "glassy" features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

  4. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Luo, Wentao; Foucaud, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  5. Statistics of polymer adsorption under shear flow

    E-print Network

    Gui-Li He; René Messina; Hartmut Löwen

    2009-10-09

    Using non-equilibrium Brownian dynamics computer simulations, we have investigated the steady state statistics of a polymer chain under three different shear environments: i) linear shear flow in the bulk (no walls), ii) shear vorticity normal to the adsorbing wall, iii) shear gradient normal to the adsorbing wall. The statistical distribution of the chain end-to-end distance and its orientational angles are calculated within our monomer-resolved computer simulations. Over a wide range of shear rates, this distribution can be mapped onto a simple theoretical finite-extensible-nonlinear-elastic dumbbell model with fitted anisotropic effective spring constants. The tails of the angular distribution functions are consistent with scaling predictions borrowed from the bulk dumbbell model. Finally, the frequency of the characteristic periodic tumbling motion has been investigated by simulation as well and was found to be sublinear with the shear rate for the three set-ups, which extends earlier results done in experiments and simulations for free and tethered polymer molecules without adsorption.

  6. The effect of thin turbulent shear layers on the optical quality of imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    A modified C141 transport was outfitted with a 91.5-cm reflector telescope designed to view objects radiating outside the visible window in the infrared range from 1 micron to 1000 microns. The telescope is situated in a cavity which is operated open port. Spoilers were designed which reduce turbulence-induced excitation of the cavity. The aircraft was designed to operate at altitudes up to 15 km to significantly reduce the effect of the H2O and CO2. Furthermore, the optically degrading influence of the large-scale atmospheric turbulence on land-based telescopes is replaced by the effect of the turbulent shear layer resulting from the spoiler upstream of the cavity. A mathematical model was established to describe the effect of turbulent shear layers on imaging systems and to examine the parameters of interest relevant to potential wind-tunnel experimentation.

  7. Wind resource in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, K.; Bjornsson, H.; Birgisson, T.; Blondal, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iceland has considerable renewable energy resources. While hydropower and geothermal power have been exploited on a significant scale, less attention has been paid to wind power. In preparation for the Nordic IceWind project, this study aims to build up a quality controlled data base of wind observations, and make a preliminary map of the wind resource. The data used come from 130 automatic weather stations distributed around Iceland, and consists of wind measurements every ten minutes in the period 1999 - 2010. The operational period for the stations varies from 5 to 10 years, and in total there were 55 million observations to quality check (QC). In 80 stations more than 99% of the data passed QC. Most problems occurred during winter, especially in harsh climate mountain stations. These problems involved anemometer freezing and faults and electrostatic spikes. The wind speeds were transferred to 90 m agl using a standard power law profile. The resulting data was then averaged for extended winter (Sep-Apr) and summer (May - Aug) seasons. Furthermore, a generic production curve for wind turbines was used to estimate the annual energy production (AEP) per installed megawatt for each season at each station. These results have been interpolated to intra-station locations, thus producing a preliminary wind atlas of for Iceland, which will aid in the selection of sites for potential wind farms. Although the data base has been completed, the analysis of of the data and the production of the wind atlas is ongoing. The inclusion of topographic effects, wind profile measurements and more detailed power production modeling will be further studied within the IceWind project, as well as incorporation of wind from a reanalysis downscaled with a numerical weather prediction model (NWP).

  8. Dispersion of aircraft emissions due to wake vortices in stratified shear flows: a two-dimensional numerical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schilling; S. Siano; D. Etling

    1996-01-01

    The development of the wake vortex system behind an airplane (B-747) at cruising altitude (8-15 km) and the dispersion of the aircraft emissions due to this vortex system have been studied by means of a two-dimensional numerical model. Simulation experiments are presented which examine the influence of atmospheric stratification and vertical wind shear on the combined vortex-emission system. Although the

  9. Computational studies of horizontal axis wind turbines in high wind speed condition using advanced turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjanirat, Sarun

    Next generation horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) will operate at very high wind speeds. Existing engineering approaches for modeling the flow phenomena are based on blade element theory, and cannot adequately account for 3-D separated, unsteady flow effects. Therefore, researchers around the world are beginning to model these flows using first principles-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches. In this study, an existing first principles-based Navier-Stokes approach is being enhanced to model HAWTs at high wind speeds. The enhancements include improved grid topology, implicit time-marching algorithms, and advanced turbulence models. The advanced turbulence models include the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, k-epsilon, k-o and Shear Stress Transport (k-o-SST) models. These models are also integrated with detached eddy simulation (DES) models. Results are presented for a range of wind speeds, for a configuration termed National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI rotor, tested at NASA Ames Research Center. Grid sensitivity studies are also presented. Additionally, effects of existing transition models on the predictions are assessed. Data presented include power/torque production, radial distribution of normal and tangential pressure forces, root bending moments, and surface pressure fields. Good agreement was obtained between the predictions and experiments for most of the conditions, particularly with the Spalart-Allmaras-DES model.

  10. Reference wind farm selection for regional wind power prediction models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Reference wind farm selection for regional wind power prediction models Nils Siebert George.siebert@ensmp.fr, georges.kariniotakis@ensmp.fr Abstract Short-term wind power forecasting is recognized today as a major with the case of regional forecasting of wind power with a large number of wind farms involved. Due to the large

  11. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy

    E-print Network

    Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy Mark Z. Jacobsona,1 to determine the maximum theo- retical wind power potential on Earth, based on the concept of "saturation". The saturation wind power potential (SWPP) is the maximum wind power that can be extracted upon increasing

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Shear Moduli for Coulomb Crystals

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz; J. Hughto

    2008-12-15

    Torsional (shear) oscillations of neutron stars may have been observed in quasiperiodic oscillations of Magnetar Giant Flares. The frequencies of these modes depend on the shear modulus of neutron star crust. We calculate the shear modulus of Coulomb crystals from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that electron screening reduces the shear modulus by about 10% compared to previous Ogata et al. results. Our MD simulations can be extended to calculate the effects of impurities and or polycrystalline structures on the shear modulus.

  13. The Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment: Ten Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Michael; Dutta-Roy, Robin; Dzierma, Yvonne; Atkinson, David; Allison, Michael; Asmar, Sami; Folkner, William; Preston, Robert; Plettemeier, Dirk; Tyler, Len; Edenhofer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) achieved its primary scientific goal: the derivation of Titan's vertical wind profile from the start of Probe descent to the surface. The carrier frequency of the ultra-stable Huygens radio signal at 2040 MHz was recorded using special narrow-band receivers at two large radio telescopes on Earth: the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia. Huygens drifted predominantly eastward during the parachute descent, providing the first in situ confirmation of Titan's prograde super-rotational zonal winds. A region of surprisingly weak wind with associated strong vertical shear reversal was discovered within the range of altitudes from 65 to 100 km. Below this level, the zonal wind subsided monotonically from 35 m/s to about 7 km, at which point it reversed direction. The vertical profile of the near-surface winds implies the existence of a planetary boundary layer. Recent results on Titan atmospheric circulation within the context of the DWE will be reviewed.

  14. The Martian slope winds and the nocturnal PBL jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savijarvi, H.; Siili, T.

    1993-01-01

    The summertime Martian PBL diurnal wind variation, slope winds, and the nocturnal low-level jets were studied using Prandtl's theory, a mesoscale numerical model, and Viking lander observations. During moderate prevailing large-scale flow, nocturnal jets were simulated that were rather similar to those on Earth. They were mainly caused by inertial oscillation after sunset with some contribution from the slope wind effects over sloping regions (which are very common in Mars). During weak large-scale flow, shallow nocturnal drainage flows with strong vertical shear developed over the cold Martian slopes. At middle and high latitudes, these katabatic winds tended to turn to flow along the slope by dawn (due to the Coriolis force). For sufficiently steep slopes, near-surface drainage winds could reach considerable speeds. In contrast, the typical afternoon upslope winds were vertically homogeneous up to 2-3 km and weak (only 1-3 m/s in magnitude), even over relatively steep large-scale slopes.

  15. Medicine Bow wind project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, L. L.

    1982-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

  16. Kansas wind energy handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    After a brief history of Kansas wind machines and definitions, wind machines are described and wind analysis and site evaluation are presented. This information is then related to energy output. Machine selection, economic evaluation, installation and operation are covered. Appended are an annotated bibliography, lists of wind machine suppliers and Kansas dealers, information about tax incentives, and worksheets. The wind information and analysis presented is of broad interest; the wind machine information is limited to those devices whose output is electricity. Only relatively small machines are covered. Calculations are presented in a non-technical manner, and in some cases, two methods of making calculations are given, one less technical than the other. (LEW)

  17. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  18. The Solar Wind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Hathaway

    This site describes the nature of the solar winds and the relationships between its speed and solar features. The effect of the variations in the speed of the solar wind on the magnetosphere of the Earth is also discussed, along with the research results of the Ulysses spacecraft and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. The site also provides links to solar wind conditions for the last seven days and the last 24 hours.

  19. Turning to the wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sorensen

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given the economic and technological aspects of both free-stream (horizontal-axis) and cross-wind (vertical-axis) wind energy conversion systems, with attention to operational devices ranging in rotor diameter from 10 to 40 m and in output from 22 to 630 kW. After a historical survey of wind turbine design and applications development, the near-term technical feasibility and economic attractiveness of

  20. The Santa Ana Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page demonstrates the development of a Santa Ana wind event in the Los Angeles basin. It includes a brief description of these, hot, dry offshore winds, some legends surrounding them, and some of their potentially damaging effects. A series of images shows how a simulated Santa Ana event develops and evolves, depicting temperature, wind speed, and humidity. The images are also available as animations, and there are links to other sites with related information.

  1. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Biegel; Morten Juelsgaard; Matt Kraning; Stephen Boyd; Jakob Stoustrup

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind tur- bine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of find- ing blade pitch profiles for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this pa- per, we show how

  2. October 11, 2011 Wind Generation

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    (CC) Power Plant #12;Wind Investors Face These Costs #12;Fixed Costs #12;Variable Costs #12;BottomESRP 285 October 11, 2011 Wind Generation · Videos · Power Point Lecture #12;Wind Videos Wind;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;RPS: Renewable Portfolio Standard · Renewable: solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro, wind · 75% expected

  3. Wind Energy and Spatial Technology

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    2/3/2011 1 Wind Energy and Spatial Technology Lori Pelech Why Wind Energy? A clean, renewable 2,600 tons of carbon emissions annually ­ The economy · Approximately 85,000 wind energy workers to Construct a Wind Farm... Geo-Spatial Components of Wind Farm Development Process Selecting a Project Site

  4. Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation For more than 45 years, Western University has been internationally recognized as the leading university for wind engineering and wind- related research. Its of environmental disaster mitigation, with specific strengths in wind and earthquake research. Boundary Layer Wind

  5. Proceedings Nordic Wind Power Conference

    E-print Network

    voltage measuring system Building Confidence in Computer Models of Wind Turbine Generators from a Utility Estimation of Possible Power for Wind Plant Control Power Fluctuations from Offshore Wind Farms; Model systems of wind turbines and wind farms. NWPC presents the newest research results related to technical

  6. Stability of MHD shear flows: Application to space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, Michael S.; Belov, Nikolai A.

    2010-03-01

    Shear slows of magnetised plasmas are routinely observed in the solar atmosphere, in planetary magnetospheres, and in interplanetary space. They are also ubiquitous elements of models of remote astrophysical objects like the interacting stellar winds in binary stellar systems. Studying stability of such flows is paramount for understanding physical processes in space. The simplest shear flow is a tangential magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuity. We start our review from considering the instability of tangential MHD discontinuity (called the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability) first in incompressible plasmas, and then taking the compressibility into account. We introduce the notion of the absolute and convective instabilities. The physical behaviour of absolutely unstable flows is qualitatively different from that of convectively unstable flows. Studying the absolute and convective instabilities is based on the analysis of asymptotic behaviour (for large time) of the solution of the initial value problem. The initial value problem for a tangential discontinuity is ill-posed: the instability increment is unbounded. This implies that the absolute and convective instabilities of tangential discontinuities cannot be studied. To obtain a well-posed problem we have either to take dissipation into account, or to consider a continuous velocity profile. In both cases we obtain a surprising result: the account of either of these two effects decreases the threshold value of the velocity jump needed for instability. This phenomenon is related to negative energy waves. We show that, in both cases, the instability is the so-called negative energy instability rather than the KH instability. Finally we consider two examples of the theory application: the heliopause stability and the stability of the Earth's magnetopause.

  7. Direct shear loading leads to failure of generator bolts, rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, P.J.; Knittel, D. (California Department of Water Resources, Santa Nella (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Direct shear loading can result in the failure of bolts clamping the rotor flange to the shaft flange of a hydroelectric generator. Such was the case at the California Department of Water Resources 440-MW Gianelli Pumping-Generating Plant. The incident occurred July 5, 1991, when operators were bringing Unit 1 into service for generation. Tremendous forces on one of the unit's two rotors sheared ten 3 1/2-inch-diameter spider flange assembly bolts (ASTM A193-B16 steel) on the rotor, deforming bolt holes in both the spider flange and the shaft flange. The flanges, which allow the generator to transmit power through friction, rubbed and galled before the unit came to rest. The sudden shock load also slightly twisted the spider of the rotor, which during normal operation turns at 120 revolutions per minute at head of 190 to 245 feet. During normal operation, operators open a butterfly valve, allowing water to rush from a penstock to turn an impeller, which is connected to the generator rotor. Each of the plant's eight units is equipped with two rotors mounted on the same shaft. As the butterfly valve is gradually opened, speed of the unit increases. When the generator rotor is spinning at 90 percent of synchronous speed, the main unit breaker closes, energizing the stator windings with 13,800 volts. This rapidly accelerates the generator to approximately 98 percent of synchronous speed. The field breaker then closes, energizing the rotor poles with DC current. The rotor current reaches full strength in 2 to 5 seconds. During this time, the poles on the rotor are attempting to fall into step with the stator's rotating magnetic field.

  8. Shear strength properties of wet granular materials.

    PubMed

    Richefeu, Vincent; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Radjaï, Farhang

    2006-05-01

    We investigate shear strength properties of wet granular materials in the pendular state (i.e., the state where the liquid phase is discontinuous) as a function of water content. Sand and glass beads were wetted and tested in a direct shear cell and under various confining pressures. In parallel, we carried out three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations by using an explicit equation expressing capillary force as a function of interparticle distance, water bridge volume, and surface tension. We show that, due to the peculiar features of capillary interactions, the major influence of water content over the shear strength stems from the distribution of liquid bonds. This property results in shear strength saturation as a function of water content. We arrive at the same conclusion by a microscopic analysis of the shear strength. We propose a model that accounts for the capillary force, the granular texture, and particle size polydispersity. We find fairly good agreement of the theoretical estimate of the shear strength with both experimental data and simulations. From numerical data, we analyze the connectivity and anisotropy of different classes of liquid bonds according to the sign and level of the normal force as well as the bond direction. We find that weak compressive bonds are almost isotropically distributed whereas strong compressive and tensile bonds have a pronounced anisotropy. The probability distribution function of normal forces is exponentially decreasing for strong compressive bonds, a decreasing power-law function over nearly one decade for weak compressive bonds, and an increasing linear function in the range of tensile bonds. These features suggest that different bond classes do not play the same role with respect to the shear strength. PMID:16802930

  9. Wind Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curto, Paul A. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald E. (Inventor); Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a two-part wind advisory system comprising a ground station at an airfield and an airborne unit placed inside an aircraft. The ground station monitors wind conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at the airfield and transmits the wind conditions and an airfield ID to the airborne unit. The airborne unit identifies the airfield by comparing the received airfield ID with airfield IDs stored in a database. The airborne unit also calculates the headwind and crosswind for each runway in both directions at the airfield using the received wind conditions and runway information stored in the database. The airborne unit then determines a recommended runway for takeoff and landing operations of the aircraft based on th runway having the greatest headwind value and displays the airfield ID, wind conditions, and recommended runway to the pilot. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a wireless internet based airborne unit in which the airborne unit can receive the wind conditions from the ground station over the internet.

  10. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  11. Wind Tunnel Construction 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    about $375. Advantages and disadvantages of solar and wind energy Some advantages and disadvantages for using solar or wind energy are presented in Table 1. The main advantage of using renewable energy is that there is no energy cost to pump the wa t e r... tall; otherwise, the towers become very expensive. A windmil?s pumping output is affected by thre factors: wind speed, wheel or blade diame- t e r, and the diameter of the cylinder (Table 3). Wind speed has an important effect on the pumping output...

  12. Wind Tunnel Building - 3 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    - 05 Sep- 05 Oct- 05 Nov- 05 Dec- 05 Month Ca pa cit y F ac to r 0 3 6 9 12 15 Av er ag e D ail y W ind Sp ee d P er M on th (m ph ) M easured CF NOAA-ABI Daily M odel CF NOAA-ABI Wind Speed OSP Capacity Factors Using NOAA Daily Model (SWEETWND 37... available Hourly Wind Power Generation Data 15-minute data obtained from ERCOT for each wind farm since 2001 Modeling Procedure NOAA hourly wind speed and measured power for the base year and study year (i.e. 1999 and 2005) converted to daily data Daily...

  13. US Wind Farmers Network

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Daniels; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-04-15

    Through this program Windustry representatives have produced, widely used, and distributed new materials and have participated in a wide variety of wind energy events, meetings, and conferences. In this work Windustry representatives have sought to reach a broad audience and grow interest and enthusiasm for wind energy. At the same time, Windustry representatives have sought to provide tools, detailed case studies, and other technical resources that deepen Windustry constituency's knowledge of wind energy options. All of this has served to facilitate development of many actual wind energy projects, particularly projects that emphasize local and community benefits.

  14. Influence of cyclic pre-shearing on undrained behaviour of carbonate sand in simple shear tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Porcino; Vincenzo Marcianò; Vito Nicola Ghionna

    2009-01-01

    The paper will offer insights regarding the effects of cyclic prestrain history on the undrained behaviour of an uncemented carbonate sand (Quiou sand) through a modified NGI simple shear (SS) apparatus. Tests were carried out on specimens reconstituted at two void ratios (loose and dense) by using the water sedimentation method. The influence of cyclic undrained pre-shearing was investigated by

  15. SHEAR RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS CONNECTIONS USED FOR PRECAST CONCRETE LOAD-BEARING SHEAR WALL PANELS

    E-print Network

    to the joint. Each specimen was aligned vertically in the testing machine, as shown in Fig.3. A post-tensioning. An independent post- tensioning scheme was also used at the end of the panels to prevent premature failure-, I SHEAR RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS CONNECTIONS USED FOR PRECAST CONCRETE LOAD-BEARING SHEAR WALL

  16. Transverse tension, transverse compression, and inplane shear JANNAF round robin test methods standardization results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucinell, Ron B.; Moy, D.; Vandiver, Terry

    1992-02-01

    The uniqueness of the filament winding process has led to the development of hoop wound tube test methods for transverse tension, transverse compression, and inplane shear properties. A round robin testing program is being used to evaluate the precision of these test methods. At this time, only five of the six test sites have reported data. Preliminary evaluations of the reported data indicate that the material response appears indistinguishable between test sites. This suggests that the precision of the test methods are adequate for standardization. The test methods are currently being considered for both Military and ASTM standardization.

  17. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  18. Characterization of surface wind and stress in tropical cyclone with scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, W.; Xie, X.

    2014-12-01

    Wind is air in motion and stress is the momentum exchange between ocean and atmosphere. While the strong wind of a tropical cyclone (TC) causes destruction at landfall, it is the surface stress that drags down the TC. The relations that were established to retrieve moderate wind speeds from the normalized radar cross-section, or backscatter power, measured by Ku-band and C-band scatterometers do not apply well to TC-scale winds. It has been difficult to establish new relations at strong winds because credible strong winds coincident with scatterometer measurements are not sufficient. We will give credence to our hypothesis that there is no distinct physics of radar backscatter from ocean surface for weather phenomenon like the TC. The relation between backscatter and surface roughness or stress does not change under TC, and the same retrieval algorithm can be extended to the TC. The need for changes in wind retrieval algorithm is explained through the change of the drag coefficient that relates wind to stress in TC. We aspire to separate the sensor parameters that affect backscatter, such as, incident angle, azimuth angle, polarization and backscatter frequencies, from the secondary factors related to the physics of the air-sea interface and turbulent transport, such as air stability (shear and buoyance), air density, sea states, and sea sprays, so that we can establish a simple approximation of surface stress from the backscatter averaged over the relevant spatial and temporal scales. We established a relation between backscatter and surface stress over a moderate range of wind speed, where wind measurements coincident with satellite observations are abundant, and the drag coefficient is well established to convert wind measurements to stress. This relation is applied to retrieve stress from the scatterometer measurement in the high wind range of TC. The characteristic of the drag coefficient in TC-scale winds will be discussed. The difference between wind and stress in a TC will be demonstrated.

  19. Atmospheric Impacts on Power Curves of Multi-Megawatt Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörenkämper, M.; Tambke, J.; Steinfeld, G.; Heinemann, D.; Kühn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Power curves for offshore wind turbines within the German offshore wind farm alpha ventus were derived based on the IEC standard. Binning in groups of shear and turbulence intensity as measures of atmospheric stability were performed. The derived power curves show a strong dependency on these two parameters. Differences of up to 15% in power output between unstable and stable stratification in the non-wake case occur. For wind turbines within the wake of others the effects are even more pronounced. Here, the differences in power production between the stability classes approach 20%. This dependency of the power curves on stability can cause significant miscalculations of instantaneous power production, long-term energy yield and loads. Parameters other than the hub height wind speed are often not taken into account in state-of-the-art wind power forecasts. This can lead to substantial over- or underestimation of the resulting power.

  20. Studies of instability and transport in sheared-slab plasmas with very weak magnetic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Mahajan, S. M.

    1997-09-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG or ?i) driven microinstabilities are studied, using kinetic theory, for tokamak plasmas with very weak (positive or negative) magnetic shear (VWS). The gradient of magnetic shear as well as the effects of parallel and perpendicular velocity shear (v?' and vE') are included in the defining equations. Two eigenmodes: the double (D) and the global (G) are found to coexist. Parametric dependence of these instabilities, and of the corresponding quasilinear transport is systematically analyzed. It is shown that, in VWS plasmas, a parallel velocity shear (PVS) may stabilize or destabilize the modes, depending on the individual as well as the relative signs of PVS and of the gradient of magnetic shear. The quasilinear transport induced by the instabilities may be significantly reduced with PVS in VWS plasmas. The vE' values required to completely suppress the instabilities are much lower in VWS plasmas than they are in normal plasmas. Possible correlations with tokamak experiments are discussed.