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1

Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

1982-09-01

2

Site matching of wind turbine generators: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site matching of wind turbine generators is investigated based on the appropriate selection of statistical models and means of wind speed data. The wind speed means are computed using arithmetic mean, root mean square and cubic mean cuberoot. Wind speed frequency distributions are modelled using Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. Wind speed data of an existing wind power station,

S. H. Jangamshetti; V. G. Rau

1999-01-01

3

Case study of wind turbine generator siting in complex terrain  

SciTech Connect

A cost-effective wind turbine generator siting method is described, along with the results of a preliminary application of the method in the complex terrain of the New Hampshire mountains. The approach followed stressed the use of advanced planning, map interpretation, candidate-site aerial examination, and on-site studies in which TALA (Tethered Aerodynamically Lifting Anemometer) kite measurements and the examination of wind-deformed vegetation were conducted. The study results in a condensed list of sites that are candidates for the installation of meteorological sensors and the recording of a minimum of one year of wind data before recommending a site for the installation of a wind turbine (WT) generator.

Vachon, W.A.; Downey, W.T.; Madio, F.R.

1980-01-01

4

Candidate wind turbine generator site, Culebra, Puerto Rico. Annual data summary, October 1978-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes wind speed and direction data collected on meteorological towers at 14 candidate and wind turbine generator installation sites from October 1978 through September 1979. The basic method of data collection is by digital data cassette recording systems. For the digital data reported, an instantaneous sample is recorded every 2 minutes. An explanation is provided for each data summary table as well as information on how specific values were computed. The rest of the report presents the annual summarized data for each site.

Not Available

1980-07-01

5

Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.

1982-07-01

6

Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1980 through December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for fourteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

1981-04-01

7

Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1979 through December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for fifteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

1981-03-01

8

Wake Studies at the Flowind Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Generator Site.  

SciTech Connect

In a continuing effort to study and characterize various types and sizes of wind turbine generator wakes a test program was conducted at the FloWind 170 kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) near Ellensburg, Washington. Oregon State University (OSU) scientists measured the wake behind the 90 ft. tall Darrieus VAWT using fixed place and portable kite anemometers. Downwind velocity deficits were measured from 3-9 diameters along the wake centerline at rotor midpoint (55 ft.) and perpendicular to the wake. Wake turbulence characteristics were also measured. The measured velocity deficits were compared to wake model calculations.

Baker, Robert W.; Walker, Stel Nathan; Katen, Paul C.

1984-03-01

9

Candidate wind-turbine generator site cumulative meteorological data summary and data for January 1982 through September 1982  

SciTech Connect

Summarized cumulative hourly meteorological data for 20 new sites selected in early 1980 as part of the expanded candidate site program are presented. The reporting period is July 1980 through September 1982. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and to provide data that could be considered representative of longer-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and in a topographic map showing the approximated location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of the information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for longer-term average wind energy production at each site. Two appendices of other data are provided. Appendix A contains summarized data collected at new and original sites during the period January 1982 through September 1982. Appendix B contains cumulative summarized data for those original sites selected in 1976 with data collection programs continuing into 1982.

Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.; Bradymire, S.L.; Gregory, J.L.

1983-08-01

10

Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

1981-01-01

11

MOD1 wind turbine generator program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a status of the MOD-1 wind turbine generator program for the first megawatt class machine WTG. The MOD-1 WTG is described with attention drawn to its rotor design, drive train, power generation\\/control system, nacelle structure, yaw drive, weight, and tower and ground equipment. WTG performance and economics are considered along with factory assembly and test, site preparation,

R. H. Poor

1979-01-01

12

Effective Lightning Protection For Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine generator is the most exposed of all types of generators connected to electric utility systems. Wind turbines are most often erected in hostile lightning environments. Lightning damage to wind turbines is costly in terms of repair and replacement of equipment. Lightning damage is the single largest cause of unplanned downtime in wind turbines, and that downtime is

Bruce Glushakow

2007-01-01

13

Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microprocessor based system was used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

1978-01-01

14

Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

1978-01-01

15

Dynamics and Stability of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the dynamic and stability properties of wind turbine generators connected to power systems. Both synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed

E. N. Hinrichsen; P. J. Nolan

1982-01-01

16

Economics of large wind turbine generators  

SciTech Connect

This study demonstrates that established utility system planning methods are applicable to studying wind turbine generators, with minor modifications. A total utility cost approach was used to evaluate the economics of wind turbine generators. The limitations of the busbar energy cost method rule out its use. Three analytic models are studied: the wind plant performance model, the generation system reliability model, and the generation system production cost model. The results of generation, transmission, and distribution studies are interpreted. The results are then integrated to give a single measure of the value of distributed wind turbines. These results demonstrate that the value of distributed wind turbines is dominated by the generation energy and capacity value. The quality and availability of the wind resource far outweighs credits achievable from an optimal electrical location.

Oplinger, J.L.

1982-06-01

17

Model 0A wind turbine generator FMEA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA.

Klein, William E.; Lalli, Vincent R.

1989-01-01

18

Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary results are summarized for a three-part study involving the effects of connecting a MOD-OA wind turbine generator to an isolated diesel power system. The MOD-OA installation considered was the third of four experimental nominal 200 kW wind turbines connected to various utilities under the Federal Wind Energy Program and was characterized by the highest wind energy penetration levels of four sites. The study analyses address: fuel displacement, dynamic interaction, and three modes of reactive power control. These analyses all have as their basis the results of the data acquisition program conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island.

Wilreker, V. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Kruse, V. J.; Smith, R. F.

1984-01-01

19

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discuss...

1984-01-01

20

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

21

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

22

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the second book of volume four. Some of the items it contains are specs for the emergency shutdown panel, specs for the simulator software, simulator hardware specs, site operator terminal requirements, control data system requirements, software project management plan, elastomeric teeter bearing requirement specs, specs for the controls electronic cabinet, and specs for bolt pretensioning.

1984-08-01

23

Normalized Power Curves as a Tool for Identification of Optimum Wind Turbine Generator Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method of matching wind turbine generators to a site using normalized power and capacity factor curves. The site matching is based on identifying optimum turbine speed parameters from the turbine performance index curve, which is obtained from the normalized curves, so as to yield higher energy production at a higher capacity factor. The wind speeds

V. G. Rau; S. H. Jangamshetti

2001-01-01

24

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

25

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator were considered. Systems considered for large wind turbine generators were: (1) dc generator with line commutated inverted bridge; (2) synchronous generator with thyristor rectifier and inverter; (3) doubly fed induction generator with dc current link rectifier and inverter; (4) doubly fed induction generator with dc voltage link rectifier and inverter; and (5) doubly fed induction generator and cycloconverter. Those systems considered for smaller wind turbine generators were: (1) dc generator with copper based dc voltage link; (2) induction generator with dc voltage link; (3) induction generator with cycloconverter; (4) induction generator with high frequency link converter; and (5) permanent magnet generator configuration. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified.

Lipo, T. A.

1984-06-01

26

Short circuit current contribution for different wind turbine generator types  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper presents simulation

Eduard Muljadi; Nader A. Samaan; Vahan Gevorgian; Jun Li; Subbaiah Pasupulati

2010-01-01

27

Review of failures and condition monitoring in wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing wind power generation quantity in power systems needs obviously reliable operation. Therefore, accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis are almost mandatory. This paper aims to report recent works on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for wind turbine generators. Wind turbines are subjected to different sort of failures, thus before stating condition monitoring and fault diagnosis methods it is necessary

Z. Daneshi-Far; G. A. Capolino; H. Henao

2010-01-01

28

Wind turbine generators with active radar signature control blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, however the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators and

Alan Tennant; Barry Chambers

2004-01-01

29

Dynamics of Type3 Wind Turbine Generator Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of wind turbine generators (WTGs) on power system dynamic performance is becoming increasingly important as wind generation grows. The dynamic behavior of WTGs should therefore be thoroughly understood. The paper analyzes dynamic models of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behavior of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state

Ian A. Hiskens

2012-01-01

30

Understanding the unbalanced-voltage problem in wind turbine generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wind turbines are equipped with line-connected induction generators. Induction generators are very attractive as wind turbine generators due to their low cost, ruggedness, and the need for little or no maintenance. At constant frequency, the induction generator operates in a small range of speeds and, therefore, it operates with a small range of slips with respect to synchronous speed.

E. Muljadi; D. Yildirim; T. Batan; C. P. Butterfield

1999-01-01

31

Towards Quantification of Condition Monitoring Benefit for Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition monitoring systems are increasingly installed in wind turbine generators with the goal of providing component-specific information to the wind farm operator and hence increase equipment availability through maintenance and operating actions based on this information. In some cases, however, the economic benefits of such systems are unclear. A quantitative measure of these benefits may therefore be of value to

David McMillan; Graham Ault

32

Signature management of radar returns from wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, but the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG blades are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators

A. Tennant; B. Chambers

2006-01-01

33

Short circuit signatures from different wind turbine generator types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in the network, subjected to the fault clearance and following grid code demands. Beside voltage support during faults, the wind turbine fault current contribution is important to establish the correct settings for the relay of the protections. The following wind turbine generator during faults have been studied: (i)

Jorge Martinez; Philip C. Kjar; Pedro Rodriguez; Remus Teodorescu

2011-01-01

34

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

2010-02-01

35

Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Generation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid increase of wind power plants and enlargement of capacity makes the lightning problem of the wind power plants including blades serious. This report summarizes the result of the comprehensive surveillance study carried out for these several years. The contents lightning outages, the lightning phenomena and the result of the electric discharge experiment in connection with the measure against lightning of a windmill blades. Furthermore, the state of the present condition of the protective measures in the blades of windmill, mechanical parts, connecting power lines and communication lines was also considered. Especially grounding methods for wind power plants are considered.

Yokoyama, Shigeru; Sekioka, Shozo

36

Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Schenectady, NY) [Schenectady, NY; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee (Alplaus, NY) [Alplaus, NY; Carl, Jr., Ralph James (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-10-28

37

Control of large wind turbine generators connected to utility networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an investigation of the control requirements for variable pitch wind turbine generators connected to electric power systems. The requirements include operation in very small as well as very large power systems. Control systems are developed for wind turbines with synchronous, induction, and doubly fed generators. Simulation results are presented. It is shown how wind turbines and power system controls can be integrated. A clear distinction is made between fast control of turbine torque, which is a peculiarity of wind turbines, and slow control of electric power, which is a traditional power system requirement.

Hinrichsen, E. N.

1983-01-01

38

The 100 kW experimental wind turbine generator project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energy Research and Development Administration and the NASA Lewis Research Center engaged jointly in a Wind Energy Program which included the design and erection of a 100 kW wind turbine generator. This test machine consists of a rotor turbine, transmission, shaft, alternator, and tower. The rotor, measuring 125 feet in diameter and consisting of two variable pitch blades, operates at 40 rpm and generates 100 kW of electrical power at a wind velocity of 18 mph. The entire assembly is placed on top of a tower 100 feet above ground level. The machine was scheduled to be ready for operation in August, 1975.

Puthoff, R. L.; Sirocky, P.

1975-01-01

39

ERCOT's Dynamic Model of Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

By the end of 2003, the total installed wind farm capacity in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system was approximately 1 gigawatt (GW) and the total in the United States was about 5 GW. As the number of wind turbines installed throughout the United States increases, there is a greater need for dynamic wind turbine generator models that can properly model entire power systems for different types of analysis. This paper describes the ERCOT dynamic models and simulations of a simple network with different types of wind turbine models currently available.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Conto, J.; Donoho, K.

2005-08-01

40

Power fluctuations smoothing and regulations in wind turbine generator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is one of the most popular renewable energy sources and it has the potential to become the biggest energy source in future. Since the wind does not always blow constantly, the output wind power is not constant which may make some problem for the power grid. According to the grid code which is set by independent system operator, ISO, wind turbine generator systems need to follow some standards such as the predetermined acceptable power fluctuations. In order to smooth the output powers, the energy storage system and some power electronics modules are employed. The utilized power electronics modules in the wind turbine system can pursue many different goals, such as maintaining the voltage stability, frequency stability, providing the available and predetermined output active and reactive power. On the other side, the energy storage system can help achieving some of these goals but its main job is to store the extra energy when not needed and release the stored energy when needed. The energy storage system can be designed in different sizes, material and also combination of different energy storage systems (hybrid designs). Combination of power electronics devises and also energy storage system helps the wind turbine systems to smooth the output power according to the provided standards. In addition prediction of wind speed may improve the performance of wind turbine generator systems. In this research study all these three topics are studied and the obtained results are written in 10 papers which 7 of them are published and three of them are under process.

Babazadehrokni, Hamed

41

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator...

1984-01-01

42

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator....

1984-01-01

43

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five ...

1984-01-01

44

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator....

1984-01-01

45

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

1984-08-01

46

A novel approach for modeling wind turbine generators for reliability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel algorithm to model wind turbine generators for reliability evaluation. The model is based on dividing the speed power curve into four states. The range of each state is determined based on the ratio between the output power and the rated power of the wind turbine generator. The mean time to fail and mean time to

Eman Beshr; Yasser Hegazy; Yasser Galal; M. A. Badr

2008-01-01

47

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

1984-01-01

48

Large Current Lightning Mimic Test for FRP Blades of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, lightning damage to FRP blades of wind turbine generators has been increasing in parallel with the recent increase in the installation of wind turbine generators. Therefore, we established a test method, while clarifying the destructive climate of lightning, and examined a method of preventing destruction. A high-voltage test clearly showed that lightning easily penetrates FRP that is not

Masahiro Hanai; Hisatoshi Ikeda; Masumi Nakadate; Haruo Sakamoto

2007-01-01

49

Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

Muljadi, E.

1998-08-25

50

Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO

1998-01-01

51

Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO

1998-08-26

52

Sound measurements of the MOD-2 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sound measurements were made for the MOD-2 wind turbine generator for wind conditions of 7.6 to 13.4 m/sec and for output power ratings of about 1 to 2 NW. Both broad band and narrow band data wre obtained for a range of distances and azimuth angles from the machine. The rotor sound spectra are random in character and peak in the frequency ranges 30 to 50 Hz and 800 to 1300 Hz. Both peaks are predictable from experience with helicopter rotors and propellers. Results suggest that the lower frequency peak is due to the effects of inflow turbulence and the higher frequency peak is due to the interactions of the turbulent boundary layers with the trailing edges of the blades. The boundary layer related sound is the dominant component in the audible frequency range and determines the detectability of the machine. It could be detected at a distance of 1350 m in the upwind direction where the background noise was 30 dB (A) and at distances in excess of 2100 m in the downwind direction. Discrete frequency sound components associated with the power generation equipment are measurable in the direction normal to the axis of rotation but are not believed to be significant for detection or community response.

Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F. W.

1981-01-01

53

Stabilization of Wind Turbine Generator System by STATCOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently voltage-source or current-source inverter based various FACTS devices have been used for flexible power flow control, secure loading, damping of power system oscillation and even for the stabilization of wind energy generation. In this paper, we propose the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based on voltage source converter (VSC) PWM technique to stabilize grid connected wind generator system. A simple control strategy of STATCOM is adopted where only measurement of rms voltage at the wind generator terminal is needed. Fuzzy logic controller rather than conventional PI controller is proposed as the control methodology of STATCOM. Multi-mass shaft model of wind turbine generator system (WTGS) is also considered as shaft modeling has a big influence on the transient performance of WTGS. Transient performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is compared also with that of pitch controlled WTGS. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed. Moreover, the steady state performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is analyzed. It is reported that STATCOM can reduce the voltage fluctuation significantly. Finally STATCOM is applied to a wind park model with multiple wind generators. Comprehensive results are presented to assess the performance of STATCOM connected WTGS, where the simulations have been done by PSCAD/EMTDC.

Muyeen, S. M.; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Ali, Mohd. Hasan; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji

54

Options for variable speed operation of horizontal axis wind turbine generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of variable speed operation of horizontal axis wind turbine generators are quantified where possible. Among the attributes considered are increased energy capture, reduction in gearbox cost, noise, increased losses due to ...

1989-01-01

55

Pitch-control for wind turbine generator based on Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch-control is a main method to maintain the output power stable when wind speed above the rated in Large and medium-sized variable pitch wind turbine generator. Because wind turbine generator is a complex nonlinear system of multi-interference and strong coupling, traditional pitch controller can not satisfactorily solve the problems of low convergence speed and large steady-state error. A new type

Lianyou An; Bilian Liao; Shaojian Song; Xiaofeng Lin

2011-01-01

56

MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.

1984-08-01

57

Development of Trouble Diagnosis Technology of 50W Grade Small Wind Turbine Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishment of an early trouble diagnosis system is demanded to prevent damage of wind turbine generator. Therefore, AE signal occurring by the damage of a wind blade was detected with the AE sensor which installed to the body of wind turbine generator and a pole. In this study, length of a blade of a small wind turbine generator was changed as simulated trouble in the constant wind velocity. The AE signal which occurred at this time was measured with an AE sensor. The signal was processed by FFT analysis, and a change of spectrum strength was examined. Then, trouble diagnosis technology of 50W grade small wind turbine generator was developed. As the results, a method to count the number of times more than threshold of AE signals was suggested by a wave pattern of an AE signal. It was understood that the number of the count was decided as standard to judge normality or abnormality of 50W grade small wind turbine generator.

Takaoka, Masashige; Inohata, Kazuki; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Otsubo, Masahisa; Bouno, Toshio

58

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.

1984-08-01

59

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five books of volume four. It contains structural design criteria, generator step-up transformer specs, specs for design, fabrication and testing of the system, specs for the ground control enclosure, systems specs, slip ring specs, and control system specs.

1984-08-01

60

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.

1984-01-01

61

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 3. Final Design and System Description, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, dri...

1984-01-01

62

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 3: Final design and system description, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation is described in detail.

1984-08-01

63

Variable speed generator application on the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of a Scherbiustat type variable speed subsystem in the MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator. As designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, the MOD-5A utilizes the subsystem for both starting assistance in a motoring mode and generation in a controlled airgap torque mode. Reactive power control is also provided. The Scherbiustat type arrangement of a wound rotor machine with a cycloconverter in the rotor circuit was selected after an evaluation of variable speed technologies that followed a system evaluation of drivetrain cost and risk. The paper describes the evaluation factors considered, the results of the evaluations and summarizes operating strategy and performance simulations.

Barton, Robert S.

1995-01-01

64

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing...

1984-01-01

65

Variable Speed Generator Application on the MOD-5A 7.3 Mw Wind Turbine Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of a Scherbiustat type variable speed subsystem in the MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator. As designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Cente...

R. S. Barton

1995-01-01

66

Probabilistic reliability criterion for expansion planning of grids including wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alternative method, derived from a simulation model, for expansion planning for grids considering wind turbine generators in a composite power system. The proposed model includes capacity limitations and uncertainties of the generators and transmission lines. It proposes to handle the uncertainties of system elements (generators, lines, transformers and wind resources of WTG, etc.) by a Composite

Kyeonghee Cho; Taegon Oh; Jaeseok Choi; A. A. El-Keib; Mohammad Shahidehpour

2011-01-01

67

Mod-0A 200 kw Wind Turbine Generator Design and Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirem...

T. S. Anderson C. A. Bodenschatz A. G. Eggers P. S. Hughes R. F. Lampe

1980-01-01

68

Dunlite-model 81\\/002550 wind turbine generator. Failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and Scanning Electron Microscope examinations of a failed blade from a Dunlite Wind Turbine Generator were made to determine the mode of failure. The failure was a fatigue failure which began on the flat or upwind side of the blade. The mode of loading this area was reversed bending about an axis perpendicular to the long axis of the

K. K. Higashi; M. J. Carr; V. K. Grotzky

1979-01-01

69

Connecting two wind turbine generators to the grid using only one three level NPC inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibility of connecting two Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) to the grid using a single three level inverter. In the proposed system the rectified output of one WTG is connected across the upper dc-link capacitor of a standard diode clamped three level inverter. Similarly the rectified output of the other WTG is connected across the lower capacitor.

S. D. G. Jayasinghe; D. M. Vilathgamuwa; U. K. Madawala

2010-01-01

70

Variable speed of the wind turbine generator with DFIG connected to electric grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable speed wind turbine generator with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is today widely used concept. This paper presents a control system of the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine with focus on the control strategies and on active power reference value choice. The present control method is designed for super- synchronous, subsynchronous and synchronous working modes. In order to investigate

M. Zellagui

2008-01-01

71

Status of the Southern California Edison Company 3 MW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) demonstration project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the concept of utility scale electricity production from a high wind energy resource, a program was initiated to construct and test a 3 megawatt (3,000 kW) Schachle wind turbine generator near Palm Springs, California. The background and current status of this program are presented along with a summary of future planned program activities.

Scheffler, R. L.

1979-01-01

72

Control Design and Performance Analysis of a 6 MW Wind Turbine-Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an approach to the modeling and performance for the preliminary design phase of a large (6.2 MW) horizontal axis wind turbine generator (WTG). Two control philosophies are presented, both of which are based on linearized models of the WT mechanical and electrical systems. The control designs are compared by showing the performance through detailed non-linear time simulation.

A. Murdoch; J. R. Winkelman; S. H. Javid; R. S. Barton

1983-01-01

73

Output power leveling of wind turbine Generator for all operating regions by pitch angle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which causes the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuation, different methods are available to control the pitch angle of blades of windmill. In a previous work, we proposed the pitch angle control using minimum variance control,

Tomonobu Senjyu; Ryosei Sakamoto; Naomitsu Urasaki; Toshihisa Funabashi; Hideki Fujita; Hideomi Sekine

2006-01-01

74

A Dynamic Wind Turbine Simulator of the Wind Turbine Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study dynamic performances of wind turbine generator system (WTGS), and to determine the control structures in laboratory. The dynamic torque generated by wind turbine (WT) must be simulated. In there paper, a dynamic wind turbine emulator (WTE) is designed, which consider wind shear and tower shadow effect, and a dynamic torque compensation scheme is also developed to compensate the

Lei Lu; Zhen Xie; Xing Zhang; Shuying Yang; Renxian Cao

2012-01-01

75

Executive summary: Mod-1 wind turbine generator analysis and design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities leading to the detail design of a wind turbine generator having a nominal rating of 1.8 megawatts are reported. Topics covered include (1) system description; (2) structural dynamics; (3) stability analysis; (4) mechanical subassemblies design; (5) power generation subsystem; and (6) control and instrumentation subsystem.

1979-01-01

76

Synchronization of the DOE/NASA 100-kilowatt wind turbine generator with a large utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE/NASA 100 kilowatt wind turbine generator system was synchronized with a large utility network. The system equipments and procedures associated with the synchronization process were described. Time history traces of typical synchronizations were presented indicating that power and current transients resulting from the synchronizing procedure are limited to acceptable magnitudes.

Gilbert, L. J.

1977-01-01

77

Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype 3kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic

Baku M. Nagai; Kazumasa Ameku; Jitendro Nath Roy

2009-01-01

78

ADVANCED CONTROLS FOR MITIGATION OF FLICKER USING DOUBLY-FED ASYNCHRONOUS WIND TURBINE-GENERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interconnection of wind generation with power distribution systems may result in rapid voltage variations, or flicker, much more readily than for HV transmission interconnections. Wind turbine generators employing doubly- fed asynchronous generators provide a means to rapidly control reactive power, as well as to smooth variations in real power. This capability is exploited to minimize flicker, despite rapid variations of

R. A. Walling; K. Clark; N. W. Miller; J. J. Sanchez-Gasca

2005-01-01

79

Pitch angle control of wind turbine generator using less conservative robust control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pitch angle control design problem of wind turbine generator is considered. Dynamic characteristics of wind turbine system vary according to the wind speed and also the generator speed. But it is required to maintain the generator speed at the optimal one in spite of such variations. For this purpose, the pitch angle control of wind turbine

Hitoshi Takaai; Yuichi Chida; Kimi Sakurai; Takashi Isobe

2009-01-01

80

Design of adaptive PID for pitch control of large wind turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch control system plays an important role in large wind turbine generator (LWTG) because of the direction and intensity of wind is changing every moment. Therefore, the system of pitch control is difficult to be set up the tuning parameters of controller. Conventional PID controller is not suit for all operating point. Because, tuning parameters of conventional PID controller are

Jin-Sung Kim; Jonghyun Jeon; Hoon Heo

2011-01-01

81

Conceptual Design of a Fixed-Pitch Wind Turbine Generator System Rated at 400 Kilowatts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The s...

A. Pintz J. Spring R. Kasuba

1984-01-01

82

Kinetic Energy of Wind-Turbine Generators for System Frequency Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wind power penetration increases and fossil plants are retired, it is feared that there will be insufficient kinetic energy (KE) from the plants to support the system frequency. This paper shows the fear is groundless because the high inertias (H cong 4 seconds) of wind turbine-generators (WTGs) can be integrated to provide frequency support during generation outage.

Ping-Kwan Keung; Pei Li; Hadi Banakar; Boon Teck Ooi

2009-01-01

83

Wind turbine generator low voltage ride through requirements and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilities have responded to the significant increase in the number of installed and proposed wind farms by developing specific grid codes derived from those used for conventional generators. The presentation summarizes the main grid code requirements, related to reactive power and voltage control, low voltage ride through (LVRT), and other issues such as control of real power. It provides a

G. Joos

2008-01-01

84

Analyzing the requirements for mass production of small wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass producibility of small wind turbine generators to give manufacturers design and cost data for profitable production operations is discussed. A 15 kW wind turbine generator for production in annual volumes from 1,000 to 50,000 units is discussed. Methodology to cost the systems effectively is explained. The process estimate sequence followed is outlined with emphasis on the process estimate sheets compiled for each component and subsystem. These data enabled analysts to develop cost breakdown profiles crucial in manufacturing decision-making. The appraisal also led to various design recommendations including replacement of aluminum towers with cost effective carbon steel towers. Extensive cost information is supplied in tables covering subassemblies, capital requirements, and levelized energy costs. The physical layout of the plant is depicted to guide manufacturers in taking advantage of the growing business opportunity now offered in conjunction with the national need for energy development.

Anuskiewicz, T.; Asmussen, J.; Frankenfield, O.

85

Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

1979-01-01

86

Large Current Lightning Mimic Test for FRP Blades of Wind Turbine Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, lightning damage to FRP blades of wind turbine generators has been increasing in parallel with the recent increase in the installation of wind turbine generators. Therefore, we established a test method, while clarifying the destructive climate of lightning, and examined a method of preventing destruction. A high-voltage test clearly showed that lightning easily penetrates FRP that is not processed to be conductive. Moreover, after developing a test method, an examination with a large current successfully reproduced blade damage, and revealed the failure mechanism, which explains breakdowns of actual machines. If lightning penetrates a FRP blade, the air temperature inside the blade rises. As a result, pressure increases and the blade is damaged. Moreover, the breakdown of positive polarity (winter) lightning can be examined with a large current that is generated by a short circuit generator.

Hanai, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Nakadate, Masumi; Sakamoto, Haruo

87

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.

1984-08-01

88

EMTP Simulation Model of a Wind Turbine Generator using Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an EMTP simulation model for the wind turbine generator using induction generator. This model was developed to add the model of a wind turbine portion to the precision model using the standard specification data and operation data of induction generator. It verified that the inrush current at starting and the residual voltage at islanding state were analyzed, and measured data could be reproduced by this model.

Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Iio, Naotaka; Tanomura, Kenichi; Shinohara, Hirofumi

89

Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

1989-01-01

90

Control design and performance analysis of a 6 MW wind turbine-generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses an approach to the modeling and performance for the preliminary design phase of a large (6.2 MW) horizontal axis wind turbine generator (WTG). Two control philosophies are presented, both of which are based on linearized models of the WT mechanical and electrical systems. The control designs are compared by showing the performance through detailed non-linear time simulation. The disturbances considered are wind gusts, and electrical faults near the WT terminals.

Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.; Javid, S. H.; Barton, R. S.

1983-01-01

91

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.

1984-01-01

92

Simulation studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential electrical problems that may be inherent in the inertia of clusters of wind turbine generators and an electric utility network were investigated. Preliminary and limited results of an analog simulation of two MOD-2 wind generators tied to an infinite bus indicate little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus. The system demonstrated transient stability for the conditions considered.

Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

1979-01-01

93

Synchronization of wind turbine generators against an infinite bus under gusting wind conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of synchronizing a wind turbine generator against an infinite bus are performed on a digital computer. In the digital simulation, wind gusts of different magnitudes and durations are hypothesized. Prior to the synchronization, differences of the frequency and phase position between voltages of the alternator and the bus are also included in the simulation. Solutions for rotor speed, generator power angle, electromagnetic torque, wind turbine torque, wind turbine blade pitch angle, and armature current are simulated and presented graphically. The ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine is used as a case study. The results so obtained will thus have immediate applications.

Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

1978-01-01

94

Output Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control Using H? Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause fluctuating power of wind turbine generator (WTG). In order to reduce the fluctuating power of WTG, this paper presents a output power leveling technique of WTG by pitch angle control using H? control. H? control is required to consider the measurement deviation and modeling error. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for WTG show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sakamoto, Ryosei; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Takagi, Teruo; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki

95

Model-OA wind turbine generator - Failure modes and effects analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) conducted for wind-turbine generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems, which are also reflected in this FMEA.

Klein, William E.; Lali, Vincent R.

1990-01-01

96

Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

1978-01-01

97

An Experimental Study of Lightning Overvoltages in Wind Turbine Generation Systems Using a Reduced-Size Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine generation systems are built at locations where few tall structures are found nearby so as to obtain good wind conditions, and thus, they are often struck by lightning. To promote wind power generation, lightning-protection methodologies for such wind turbine generation systems have to be established. This paper presents the result of an experimental study of lightning overvoltages in wind turbine generation systems using a reduced-size wind turbine model. Overvoltages observed at wavefronts of lightning surges are focused on in this study. In the experiments, lightning strokes to one of the blades and to the nacelle were considered, and voltages and currents at various positions of the wind turbine model were measured. The following points have been deduced from the results: (i) The voltage rise due to the tower footing resistance can cause a significant voltage difference between the tower foot and an incoming conductor led from a distant point. Also, a voltage difference between the bottom of down conductors installed inside the tower and an incoming conductor can be of significance. (ii) The lightning current flowing through the tower body induces voltages in main and control circuits which form loops, and the induced voltages can cause overvoltages and malfunctions. (iii) Traveling-wave phenomena in a wind turbine generation system for a lightning strike to the tip of a blade and to the nacelle have been made clear from the measured waveforms. This information can be used for developing an EMTP simulation model of wind turbine generation systems.

Yamamoto, Kazuo; Noda, Taku; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Ametani, Akihiro

98

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline configuration and determined the weights, costs and sizes of each subsystem, are described. The development and optimization of the wind turbine generator are presented through the description of the ten intermediate configurations between the conceptual and final designs. Analyses of the system's load and dynamics are presented.

1984-08-01

99

Development of Intelligent Wind Turbine Generator with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the superior wind turbine generator, which is composed of the tandem wind rotors and the double rotational armature type generator without the conventional stator. The large-sized front wind rotor and the small-sized rear wind rotor drive respectively the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, in keeping the rotational torque counter-balanced. Such operating conditions enable to make the output higher than the conventional wind turbine and to keep the output constant in the rated operating mode without using the brake and/or the pitch control mechanisms. Such wonderful advantages in the generating mode are discussed and verified experimentally with the model turbine generator.

Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Galal, Ahmed Mohamed

100

Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.

1984-01-01

101

Background and system description of the Mod 1 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mod-1 wind turbine considered is a large utility-class machine, operating in the high wind regime, which has the potential for generation of utility grade power at costs competitive with other alternative energy sources. A Mod-1 wind turbine generator (WTG) description is presented, taking into account the two variable-pitch steel blades of the rotor, the drive train, power generation/control, the Nacelle structure, and the yaw drive. The major surface elements of the WTG are the ground enclosure, the back-up battery system, the step-up transformer, elements of the data system, cabling, area lighting, and tower foundation. The final system weight (rotor, Nacelle, and tower) is expected to be about 650,000 pounds. The WTG will be capable of delivering 1800 kW to the utility grid in a wind-speed above 25 mph.

Ernst, E. H.

1978-01-01

102

Conceptual design of the 7 megawatt Mod-5B wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Similar to MOD-2, the MOD-5B wind turbine generator system is designed for the sole purpose of providing electrical power for distribution by a major utility network. The objectives of the MOD-2 and MOD-5B programs are essentially identical with one important exception; the cost-of-electricity (COE) target is reduced from 4 cent/Kwhr on MOD-2 to 3 cent/Kwhr on MOD-5B, based on mid 1977 dollars and large quantity production. The MOD-5B concept studies and eventual concept selection confirmed that the program COE targets could not only be achieved but substantially bettered. Starting from the established MOD-2 technology as a base, this achievement resulted from a combination of concept changes, size changes, and design refinements. The result of this effort is a wind turbine system that can compete with conventional power generation over significant geographical areas, increasing commercial market potential by an order of magnitude.

Douglas, R. R.

1982-01-01

103

Model OA Wind Turbine Generator FEMA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at Level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Klein, W.E. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Sandusky, OH (USA). Plum Brook Station); Lalli, V.R. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center)

1989-10-01

104

Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

1995-01-01

105

The MOD-OA 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator design and analysis report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the MOD-OA 200 kw wind turbine generator are discussed. The components, the rotor, driven train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electrical system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control and Dynamic loads and fatigue are analyzed.

Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

1980-08-01

106

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 2. Conceptual and Preliminary Design, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline...

1984-01-01

107

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized many of the materials and components of the wind turbine generator, are described.

1984-08-01

108

Dynamic modeling of GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW wind turbine-generators for stability simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

GE power systems has an ongoing effort dedicated to development of models of GE wind turbine generators (WTG) suitable for use in system impact studies. This paper documents the present recommendations for dynamic modeling of the GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW WTG for use in system impact studies. The paper includes recommended model structure and data, as well the assumptions,

N. W. Miller; J. J. Sanchez-Gasca; W. W. Price; R. W. Delmerico

2003-01-01

109

Wind turbine generator interaction with diesel generators on an isolated power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a dynamic interaction investigation to characterize any disturbances caused by interfacing the Mod 0A wind turbine (150 kW configuration) with the Block Island utility diesel generator grid are reported. The tests were run when only two diesel generators were on line, and attention was given to power, frequency, and voltage time profiles. The interconnected system was examined in the start-up and synchronization phase, normal shutdown and cut-out of the wind turbine, during fixed pitch generation, and during variable pitch operation. Governors were installed on the diesel generators to accommodate the presence of wind-derived electricity. The blade pitch control was set to maintain power at 150 kW or below. Power and voltage transients were insignificant during start-up and shutdown, and frequency aberrations were within the range caused by load fluctuations. It is concluded that wind turbine generation can be successfully implemented by an isolated utility, even with a significant penetration to the total grid output.

Scott, G. W.; Wilreker, V. F.; Shaltens, R. K.

1983-01-01

110

Conceptual design of a fixed-pitch wind turbine generator system rated at 400 kilowatts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The specifications for this WTG concept were as follows: (1) A fixed pitch, continuous wooden rotor was to be provided by the Gougeon Bros. Co. (2) An 8 leg hyperboloid tower that showed promise as a low cost structure was to be used. (3) Only commercially available components and parts that could be easily fabricated were to be considered. (4) Design features deemed desirable based on recent NASA research efforts were to be incorporated. Detailed costs and weight estimates were prepared for the second machine and a wind farm of 12 WTG's. The calculated cost of energy for the fixed pitch, twelve unit windfarm is 11.5 cents/kW hr not including the cost of land and access roads. The study shows feasibility of fixed pitch, intermediate power WTG operation.

Pintz, A.; Kasuba, R.; Spring, J.

1984-01-01

111

Measured effects of wind turbine generation at the Block Island Power Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data measurements made on the NASA MOD-OA 200-kw wind-turbine generator (WTG) installed on a utility grid form the basis for an overall performance analysis. Fuel displacement/-savings, dynamic interactions, and WTG excitation (reactive-power) control effects are studied. Continuous recording of a large number of electrical and mechanical variables on FM magnetic tape permit evaluation and correlation of phenomena over a bandwidth of at least 20 Hz. Because the wind-power penetration reached peaks of 60 percent, the impact of wind fluctuation and wind-turbine/diesel-utility interaction is evaluated in a worst-case scenario. The speed-governor dynamics of the diesel units exhibited an underdamped response, and the utility operation procedures were not altered to optimize overall WTG/utility performance. Primary findings over the data collection period are: a calculated 6.7-percent reduction in fuel consumption while generating 11 percent of the total electrical energy; acceptable system voltage and frequency fluctuations with WTG connected; and applicability of WTG excitation schemes using voltage, power, or VARS as the controlled variable.

Wilreker, V. F.; Smith, R. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scot, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

1984-04-01

112

MOD-0A 200 kW wind turbine generator design and analysis report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation, safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the wind turbine are discussed. The design and analysis of the rotor, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electricl system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub, and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control are discussed. Systems analyses on dynamic loads and fatigue are presented.

Anderson, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

1980-08-01

113

Optimal Operation Planning of Wind Farm Installed BESS Using Wind Power Forecast Data of Wind Turbine Generators Considering Forecast Error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to solve the problems of global warming and depletion of energy resource, renewable energy systems such as wind generation are getting attention. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed, and it is difficult to perfectly forecast wind power. This paper describes a method to use power forecast data of wind turbine generators considering wind power forecast error for optimal operation. The purpose in this paper is to smooth the output power fluctuation of a wind farm and to obtain more beneficial electrical power for selling.

Ogimi, Kazuki; Kamiyama, Shota; Palmer, Michael; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

2013-06-01

114

Estimating of a nonlinear power curve for a Wind Turbine Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output power from a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) is an intermittent resource, due to the high variability of the atmospheric wind at all spatial or temporal scales ranging from large scale variations to very short variations. Generally, a function transfer or a power curve of WTG is estimated with the IEC standard 61400 - 12 giving a relation of coupling between the measured wind speed and the output power for the considered WTG. However, this relation is a statistical representation and not takes into account the dynamics of the power output, more precisely on small time scales. The goal is to provide a method to estimate and to model the function transfer of a WTG, in order to synthesize the output power mimicking the statistical and the dynamical properties of the real output power. For that, we study the statistics of power curve in the multifractal framework motivated by the presence of spectral scaling for the wind speed and the output power data from a WTG. The first step consists to quantify the power curve or the transfer function of two intermittent stochastic processes such as the wind speed u(t) and the output power p(t) at all temporal scales and at all intensities. In this study, firstly, we define the time increment of the wind speed measurement u'(t) = u(t + ?) - u(t) and the time increment of the output power measurement p'(t) = p(t + ?) - p(t) characterized by mth and nth order structure functions to estimate the exponent functions ?u'(m) and ?p'(n) that characterize respectively the multifractal properties of the wind speed fluctuations u'(t) and the output power fluctuations p'(t) from the WTG. The exponent function ? defines the types of scaling behavior of a process: if ? is linear the statistical behavior is monoscaling corresponding to a monofractal process. If ? is nonlinear and concave, the statistical behavior is multiscaling corresponding to a multifractal process. The concavity of this function is a characteristic of the intermittency, the more the curve is concave, the more the process is intermittent [1,2]. Secondly, we apply a technique given in Seuront & Schmitt 2005 [3], to estimate the power curve of joint fluctuations < u'(t)mp'(t)n > at all scales and at all intensities, by the function Su'p'(m,n): Su'p'(m,n ) = ?u'(m )+ ?p'(n)- r(m,n) (1) where r(n,m) is estimated as the slope of the power law of c(n,m) versus ? in a log-log plot, that is defined as [3]: -- -r(m,n) c(m, n) = < u'm >< p'n > ~ ? (2) the brackets < . > defines the statistical average. The analysis presented in this work, is performed with simultaneous time series of wind speed u(t) and output power p(t) for two types of WTGs, loaded from the Database of Wind Characteristics of the Technical University of Denmark [4]: i) a 300 kW Nordtank wind turbine located in the North Jutland, on the south bank of the Limfjord, about 36 km west of Alborg and 8 km north east of Loegstoer, Denmark. The wind speed and the output power are measured with a sampling rate at 20 Hz during 746 hours. The measurement are obtained at 31 m above the ground. ii) a 2 MW wind turbine at Tjaereborg, Esbjerg, Denmark. The wind speed and the output power are measured with a sampling rate at 25 Hz during 64 hours. The measurement are obtained at 90 m above the ground.

Calif, R.; Schmitt, F. G.

2012-04-01

115

FDTD Analysis of the Current Distribution within the Grounding System for a Wind Turbine Generation Tower Struck by Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient current distribution within the grounding system for a wind-turbine-generation tower of height 61m struck by lightning has been calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The grounding grid for the lightning-struck tower considered in this paper is connected electrically via an insulated wire to one neighboring-tower grounding grid located 50m away from it. High-frequency components of a lightning current tend to flow in ground through the grounding grid of the lightning-struck tower, and they become larger with increasing the ground conductivity. Relatively-lower-frequency components of the lightning current flow in ground through each of the two grounding grids roughly in inverse proportion to the grounding resistance of each grid. For example, when two identical grounding grids for the lightning-struck tower and the neighboring tower are buried in the same ground, about 50% of the lightning current flows in the grounding grid for the neighboring tower via the insulated wire connecting these two grounding grids. When the grounding resistance of the neighboring tower is about 1/4 of that for the lightning-struck tower, about 4/5 of the lightning current flows in the neighboring-tower grounding grid. This agrees well with the trend shown by Nagaoka et al. from their measurement in the grounding system for an actual wind-turbine-generation tower struck by natural lightning.

Nagao, Mitsuhiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Baba, Yoshihiro; Ametani, Akihiro

116

Wind shear for large wind turbine generators at selected tall tower sites  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study described in this report is to examine the nature of wind shear profiles and their variability over the height of large horizontal-axis wind turbines and to provide information on wind shear relevant to the design and opertion of large wind turbines. Wind turbine fatigue life and power quality are related through the forcing functions on the blade to the shapes of the wind shear profiles and their fluctuations over the disk of rotation.

Elliott, D.L.

1984-04-01

117

Output Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generators using Pitch Angle Control for All Operating Regions in Wind Farm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce output power fluctuation of wind farm, this paper presents a output power leveling control strategy of wind farm based on both average wind farm output power and standard deviation of wind farm output power, cooperative control strategy for WTGs, and pitch angle control using a generalized predictive controller (GPC) in all operating regions for WTG. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind farm systems show effectiveness of the proposed method.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Funabashi, Toshihisa; Fujita, Hideki; Sekine, Hideomi

118

Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

1984-01-01

119

Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

1995-01-01

120

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01

121

A 200-kW wind turbine generator conceptual design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study was conducted to define a 200 kW wind turbine power system configuration for remote applications. The goal was to attain an energy cost of 1 to 2 cents per kilowatt-hour at a 14-mph site (mean average wind velocity at an altitude of 30 ft.) The costs of the Clayton, New Mexico, Mod-OA (200-kW) were used to identify the components, subsystems, and other factors that were high in cost and thus candidates for cost reduction. Efforts devoted to developing component and subsystem concepts and ideas resulted in a machine concept that is considerably simpler, lighter in weight, and lower in cost than the present Mod-OA wind turbines. In this report are described the various innovations that contributed to the lower cost and lighter weight design as well as the method used to calculate the cost of energy.

1979-01-01

122

Superconducting wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

2010-03-01

123

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2010-09-01

124

Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Generation System Reliability Analysis on Site and Size Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the study results about the effect of site and size factors on reliability of wind-diesel-battery power system to provide some helpful information for hybrid power system planning and optimization. All the studies were based on a new coefficient, equivalent forced outage rate (EFOR) of wind turbine generator (WTG), which provides comprehensive information of all WTG operation states,

Xu Liu; Syed Islam

2006-01-01

125

Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on the rotor shaft to orient the blades in a vertical position during periods when the unit is upwind when the wind commences. A pendulum pitch control mechanism is improved by orienting the pivot axis for the pendulum arm at an angle to the longitudinal axis of its support arm, and excessive creep is of the synthetic resin flexible beam support for the blades is prevented by a restraining cable which limits the extent of pivoting of the pendulum during normal operation but which will permit further pivoting under abnormal conditions to cause the rotor to stall.

Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (24 Stonepost Rd., Glastonbury, CT 06033)

1985-01-01

126

Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on

Cheney Jr

1985-01-01

127

Radar signature control of wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the prime locations for wind farms in the UK are on exposed landscapes close to regional airports. However, planning permission for such installations is often being denied because the moving blades of the wind turbines interfere with the operation of airport radar systems. Airport surveillance radars track the position and speed of aircraft in their surrounding airspace using

A. Tennant; B. Chambers

2005-01-01

128

Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

1981-01-01

129

Design evolution of large wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

Spera, D. A.

1979-01-01

130

Discourse oriented summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of text appears to be tightly related to intentions and circumstances. Context sensitivity of meaning is addressed by theories of discourse structure. Few attempts have been made to exploit text organization in summarization. This thesis is an exploration of what knowledge of discourse structure can do for content selection as a subtask of automatic summarization, and query-based summarization

Wauter Eduard Bosma

2008-01-01

131

Summarizing Email Threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizing threads of email is different from summarizing other types of written communi- cation as it has an inherent dialog structure. We present initial research which shows that sen- tence extraction techniques can work for email threads as well, but profit from email-specific features. In addition, the presentation of the summary should take into account the dialogic structure of email

Owen Rambow; Lokesh Shrestha; John Chen; Chirsty Lauridsen

132

Summarizing Expository Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

2010-01-01

133

Webpage classification through summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-page classification is much more difficult than pure-text classification due to a large variety of noisy information embedded in Web pages. In this paper, we propose a new Web-page classification algorithm based on Web summarization for improving the accuracy. We first give empirical evidence that ideal Web-page summaries generated by human editors can indeed improve the performance of Web-page classification

Dou Shen; Zheng Chen; Qiang Yang; Hua-Jun Zeng; Benyu Zhang; Yuchang Lu; Wei-Ying Ma

2004-01-01

134

Mod 1 wind turbine generator failure modes and effects analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was directed primarily at identifying those critical failure modes that would be hazardous to life or would result in major damage to the system. Each subsystem was approached from the top down, and broken down to successive lower levels where it appeared that the criticality of the failure mode warranted more detail analysis. The results were reviewed by specialists from outside the Mod 1 program, and corrective action taken wherever recommended.

1979-01-01

135

Wind turbine generators using superconducting coils and bulks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind power generation has been expected as a promising clean energy source in the world. Recently, generation capacity produced by wind power generators has been growing with increasing size of windmills. However, huge nacelles result in extreme load for towers supporting them. We have focused on a wind power generator using superconducting wires and superconducting bulks to solve the problem. Large currents may flow through superconducting wires with zero DC resistance. Superconducting bulks are magnetic shielding materials. These enable reduction of size and weight of nacelles. In addition, large generators using these materials can generate an output power of 10 MW with very large power densities. This paper describes calculation of generated magnetic field and power generation characteristics using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis of the generators using high temperature superconducting coils and bulks.

Ohsaki, H.; Terao, Y.; Sekino, M.

2010-06-01

136

Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator  

DOEpatents

A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY

2008-04-22

137

Control systems of wind turbine generators: an Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system of a wind turbine plays a crucial role in determining its dynamic performances in all the possible operating conditions, along the generator start-up and shut-down maneuvers, as well as during the production phase. In particular the regulation of blade pitch and nacelle alignment to the wind direction permit to maximize the power production or to limit the

S. Corsi; M. Pozzi

2003-01-01

138

The development of a 10 meter wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 kW, 10 m-diameter horizontal axis wind system whose prototype has been recently tested is described. The wind turbine is suitable for use in dispersed, interconnected applications. After prototype development, the design was refined and re-engineered for volume production. Power is generated by means of a direct-drive, permanent magnet alternator which operates over a variable speed range. This feature allows fixed turbine blade pitch operation up to rated wind speed, while maintaining optimum aerodynamic characteristics. Attention is given to the helicopter-like flapping rotor design, generator configuration, and tower erection method.

Meyer, H.

1982-03-01

139

Grid integration of offshore superconducting wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent technological trend for offshore wind power generation is toward multi-MW direct-drive units. Because conventional direct-drive generators tend to be large and heavy, high power density superconducting synchronous machines have been proposed. However such machines have unique requirements that must be satisfied for their correct operation and optimal grid integration. This paper investigates power electronic systems for superconducting wind

L. Queval; H. Ohsaki

2012-01-01

140

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to

H. H. Hwang; H. V. Mozeico; L. J. Gilbert

1978-01-01

141

Combination wind turbine generator and solar hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This demonstration combined two renewable sources of energy, wind and solar, to meet the needs for a hot water system and electrical generation. A new and unique wind blade design called a Helical Wind Turbine was used. The solar hot water system used was commercially produced. The project has demonstrated that wind generators are feasible in Harford County, Maryland.

J. L. Jr

1983-01-01

142

Altos-Model 8B Wind Turbine Generator. Performance Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report is designed to provide preliminary data on the performance of the Altos, Model 8B, under conditions to which it is likely to be subjected while in normal use. All instruments used during the testing of the Altos were maintained in cali...

K. K. Higashi

1979-01-01

143

Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the operation of variable-speed wind turbines with pitch control. The system the authors considered is controlled to generate maximum energy while minimizing loads. The maximization of energy was only carried out on a static basis and only drive train loads were considered as a constraint. In low to medium wind speeds, the generator and the power converter

Eduard Muljadi; C. P. Butterfield

2001-01-01

144

Wind Turbine Generator Physics: Gear Boxes and Blades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, introduces students to the gear boxes and blades of wind turbines. The module consists of four lessons: gear box solids and liquids, blades- force analysis, gear box heat transfer and gearbox force and stress analysis. The lessons include audio and animated visuals as well as interactive simulations. Each lesson includes a PDF document with the lesson's text and images. Skill check activities are also included.

2012-10-24

145

Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

1977-01-01

146

Wind shear climatology for large wind turbine generators  

SciTech Connect

Climatological wind shear analyses relevant to the design and operation of multimegawatt wind turbines are provided. Insight is provided for relating the wind experienced by a rotating blade in a shear flow to the analysis results. A simple analysis of the wind experienced by a rotating blade for three types of wind shear profiles under steady-state conditions is presented in graphical form. Comparisons of the magnitude and frequency of the variations in 1) the wind sensed by a single blade element, 2) the sum, and 3) the difference of the winds sensed by opposite blade elements show strong sensitivity to profile shape. These three items represent forcing functions that can be related to 1) flatwise bending moment, 2) torque on the shaft, and 3) teeter angle. A computer model was constructed to simulate rotational sampling of 10-s sampled winds from a tall tower for three different types of large wind turbines. Time series produced by the model indicated that the forcing functions on a rotating blade vary according to the shear profile encountered during each revolution as opposed to a profile derived from average wind conditions, e.g., hourly average winds. An analysis scheme was developed to establish a climatology of wind shear profiles derived from 10-s sampled winds and hourly average winds measured over a one-year period at several levels on a tall tower. Because of the sensitivity of the forcing function variability to profile shape, the analyses performed and presented are in the form of joint frequency distributions of velocity differences of the the top-to-hub versus the hub-to-bottom portion of disks of rotation for the three turbine configurations.

Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Heflick, S.K.

1982-10-01

147

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to the problems of synchronization and dynamic stability are provided. It is shown that the speed and output of a wind turbine can be satisfactorily controlled within reasonable limits by employing the existing blade pitch control system under specified conditions. For power control, an additional excitation control is required so that the terminal voltage, output power factor, and armature current can be held within narrow limits. As a result, the variation of torque angle is limited even if speed control is not implemented simultaneously with power control. Design features of the ERDA/NASA 100-kW Mode-O wind turbine are included.

Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Gilbert, L. J.

1978-01-01

148

Materials, Processes, and Testing Laboratory, final report summarizing module performance at MIT Lincoln Laboratory experimental photovoltaic test sites, 1977-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the years 1977 to 1982 over 11,000 photovoltaic (PV) modules were placed at experimental PV power-generating systems in a number of field test sites in the United States. Prominent among these are a 100-kW system at Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah, a 25-kW system at Mead, Nebraska, and a 15-kW system at Bryan, Ohio. Through a program of

S. E. Forman; M. P. Themelis

1982-01-01

149

Materials, Processes, and Testing Laboratory, final report summarizing module performance at MIT Lincoln Laboratory experimental photovoltaic test sites, 1977-1982  

SciTech Connect

During the years 1977 to 1982 over 11,000 photovoltaic (PV) modules were placed at experimental PV power-generating systems in a number of field test sites in the United States. Prominent among these are a 100-kW system at Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah, a 25-kW system at Mead, Nebraska, and a 15-kW system at Bryan, Ohio. Through a program of periodic surveillance, measurements and inspections at the aforementioned sites, 470 electrically failed modules were located, removed and analyzed during this six-year period. The principal causes of failure were: (1) cells cracked due to weathering or internal module stresses; (2) failed solder joints: (3) interconnects not soldered to rear sides of cells at assembly; (4) cells or interconnects electrically shorted to metallic substrates; and (5) broken or split interconnects. Details and photographs of many of the different types of failures are presented. In addition, some of the analysis techniques used to locate the failures are described.

Forman, S.E.; Themelis, M.P.

1982-06-01

150

Learning Summarization by Using Similarities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a research project aimed at designing a computer-based system to help students learn to summarize French texts by using a method called Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). Such a system uses previous, similar situations to make a new summary by reusing and adapting the same summarization rules. The rationale underlying the learning of text…

Capus, Laurence; Tourigny, Nicole

1998-01-01

151

Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1997-01-01

152

Near-lossless video summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daunting yet increasing volume of videos on the Internet brings the challenges of storage and indexing to existing online video services. Current techniques like video compression and summarization are still struggling to achieve the two often conflicting goals of low storage and high visual and semantic fidelity. In this work, we develop a new system for video summarization, called

Lin-xie Tang; Tao Mei; Xian-sheng Hua

2009-01-01

153

Webpage summarization using clickthrough data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous Web-page summarization methods treat a Web page as plain text. However, such methods fail to uncover the full knowledge associated with a Web page needed in building a high-quality summary, because many of these methods do not consider the hidden relationships in the Web. Uncovering the hidden knowledge is important in building good Web-page summarizers. In this paper,

Jian-Tao Sun; Dou Shen; Hua-Jun Zeng; Qiang Yang; Yuchang Lu; Zheng Chen

2005-01-01

154

Video summarization: methods and landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to summarize and abstract information will be an essential part of intelligent behavior in consumer devices. Various summarization methods have been the topic of intensive research in the content-based video analysis community. Summarization in traditional information retrieval is a well understood problem. While there has been a lot of research in the multimedia community there is no agreed upon terminology and classification of the problems in this domain. Although the problem has been researched from different aspects there is usually no distinction between the various dimensions of summarization. The goal of the paper is to provide the basic definitions of widely used terms such as skimming, summarization, and highlighting. The different levels of summarization: local, global, and meta-level are made explicit. We distinguish among the dimensions of task, content, and method and provide an extensive classification model for the same. We map the existing summary extraction approaches in the literature into this model and we classify the aspects of proposed systems in the literature. In addition, we outline the evaluation methods and provide a brief survey. Finally we propose future research directions based on the white spots that we identified by analysis of existing systems in the literature.

Barbieri, Mauro; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2003-11-01

155

Blog Summarization for Blog Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dimension reduction techniques for text documents can be used for preprocessing of blogs, these techniques will be\\u000a more effective if they deal with the nature of the blogs properly. In this paper we propose a shallow summarization method\\u000a for blogs as a preprocessing step for blog mining which benefits from specific characteristics of the blogs including blog\\u000a themes, time

Mohsen Jafari Asbagh; Mohsen Sayyadi; Hassan Abolhassani

2009-01-01

156

Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms, the author of this article reviews the reading comprehension strategies known as Summarizing and Synthesizing. She provides links to web sites and to a book that will provide more background information and lessons. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the seven essential principles of climate science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2012-02-01

157

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

158

Automatic Performance Evaluation for Video Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for automated performance evaluation of video summarization algorithms. We call it SUPERSIEV (System for Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Ranked Summarization in Extended Videos). It is primarily designed for evaluating video summarization algorithms that perform frame ranking. The task of summarization is viewed as a kind of database retrieval, and we adopt some of the concepts

Mei Huang; Ayesh B. Mahajan; Daniel F. DeMenthon

159

Using Text Messaging to Summarize Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing is an academic task that students are expected to have mastered by the time they enter college. However, experience has revealed quite the contrary. Summarization is often difficult to master as well as teach, but instructors in higher education can benefit greatly from the rapid advancement in mobile wireless technology devices, by…

Williams, Angela Ruffin

2012-01-01

160

Summarization Instruction: Effects on Foreign Language Comprehension and Summarization of Expository Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the effects of metacognitive strategy training in summarization on the ability of foreign language learners to comprehend and summarize expository texts. Notes that the improved summary performance was maintained three weeks after instruction ended. Suggests that explicit instruction in the rules of summarization is an effective tool for…

Cordero-Ponce, Wanda L.

2000-01-01

161

Sociometry Based Multiparty Audio Recordings Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how Social Network Analysis, the study of relational data in specic social environments, can be used to summarize multiparty radio news recordings. A social network is extracted from each recording and it is analyzed in order to detect the role of each speaker (e.g. anchorman, guest, etc.). The role is then used as a criterion to select

Alessandro Vinciarelli

2006-01-01

162

A Survey on Automatic Text Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of online information has necessitated intensive research in the area of automatic text summarization within the Natural Lan- guage Processing (NLP) community. Over the past half a century, the prob- lem has been addressed from many dierent perspectives, in varying domains and using various paradigms. This survey intends to investigate some of the most relevant approaches both

Dipanjan Das Andr; F. T. Martins

2008-01-01

163

Multi-Document Summarization: Methodologies and Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for the summarization of multiple documents. The system produces multi-document summaries using clustering techniques to ident ify common themes across the set of documents. For each theme, the system identif ies representative passages that are included in the final summary. We also describe a methodol ogy for evaluation of our system which is based upon

Gees C. Stein; Amit Bagga; G. Bowden Wise

2000-01-01

164

SAT-Based Summarization for Boolean Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean programs are frequently used to model abstractions of software programs. They have the advantage that reachability prop- erties are decidable, despite the fact that their stack is not bounded. The enabling technique is summarization of procedure calls. Most model checking tools for Boolean programs use BDDs to represent these sum- maries, allowing for an ecient fix-point detection. However, BDDs

Gérard Basler; Daniel Kroening; Georg Weissenbacher

2007-01-01

165

Task-Driven Dynamic Text Summarization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this work is to examine the efficacy of natural language processing (NLP) in summarizing bibliographic text for multiple purposes. Researchers have noted the accelerating growth of bibliographic databases. Information seekers using traditional information retrieval techniques when searching large bibliographic databases are often…

Workman, Terri Elizabeth

2011-01-01

166

Multi-Document Summarization of Evaluative Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and compare two approaches to the task of summarizing evaluative ar- guments. The first is a sentence extraction- based approach while the second is a lan- guage generation-based approach. We evaluate these approaches in a user study and find that they quantitatively perform equally well. Qualitatively, however, we find that they perform well for different but complementary reasons.

Giuseppe Carenini; Raymond T. Ng; Adam Pauls

2006-01-01

167

Using Word Sequences for Text Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches for extractive summarization score\\/classify sentences based on features such as position in the text, word frequency and cue phrases. These features tend to produce satisfactory summaries, but have the inconvenience of being domain dependent. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem representing the sentences by word sequences (n-grams), a widely used representation in text categorization. The

Esaú Villatoro-tello; Luis Villaseñor Pineda; Manuel Montes-y-gómez

2006-01-01

168

Summarization - Compressing Data into an Informative Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we formulate the problem of summariza- tion of a dataset of transactions with categorical attribut es as an optimization problem involving two objective func- tions - compaction gain and information loss. We propose metrics to characterize the output of any summarization al- gorithm. We investigate two approaches to address this problem. The first approach is an adaptation

Varun Chandola; Vipin Kumar

2005-01-01

169

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-09-01

170

Conceptual design of the 6 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOD-5A wind turbine system must generate electricity for 3.75 c/KWH (1980) or less. During the conceptual design phase, the MOD-5A WTC system size and features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy (COE). This led to a 400' rotor diameter size. The MCD-5A system which resulted is defined along with the operational and environmental factors that drive various portions of the design. Development of weight and cost estimating relationships and their use in optimizing the MOD-5A are discussed. The results of major tradeoff studies are also presented. Subsystem COE contributions for the 100th unit are shown along with the method of computation. The major subsystems are described in order that the results of the various trade and optimization studies can be more readily visualized.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

171

Development of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind-turbine generator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Electric Company Advanced Energy Programs Department is designing, under DOE/NASA sponsorship through Contract DEN 3-153, the MOD-5A wind-turbine system, which must generate electricity for less than 3.75 cents/kWh (1980 dollars). During the conceptual and preliminary design phases, the basic features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy. During the past year, the program has been in the final design phase, and a reassessment to minimize risk has received strong emphasis in the design process. The program has progressed to the point that an agreement of sale has been reached for the first unit.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

1983-12-01

172

Conceptual design of the 6 MW Mod-5A wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, is designing under DOE/NASA sponsorship the MOD-5A wind turbine system which must generate electricity for 3.75 cent/KWH (1980) or less. During the Conceptual Design Phase, completed in March, 1981, the MOD-5A WTG system size and features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy (COE). This led to a 400' rotor diameter size. The MOD-5A system which resulted is defined in this paper along with the operational and environmental factors that drive various portions of the design. Development of weight and cost estimating relationships (WCER's) and their use in optimizing the MOD-5A are discussed. The results of major tradeoff studies are also presented. Subsystem COE contributions for the 100th unit are shown along with the method of computation. Detailed descriptions of the major subsystems are given, in order that the results of the various trade and optimization studies can be more readily visualized.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

173

Constant frequency-unified power quality conditioner for wind turbine generator connected with micro grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes the application of constant frequency unified power quality conditioner to overcome the power quality issues in fixed speed wind mill connected with the micro grid. The power circuit of a constant frequency unified power quality conditioner (CF-UPQC) is based on a combination of UPQC, and frequency regulator (matrix converter). This equipment incorporates compensation functions like voltage sag,

P. JenoPaul; I. Jacob Raglend; T. Ruban Deva Prakash

2011-01-01

174

Detection of low frequency impulsive noise from large wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thresholds of detection of low frequency, impulsive wind turbine sounds in the presence of background noise were examined. Seven wind turbine sounds, six of which were synthesized, were used in conjunction with three background noise conditions; quiet, 35, and 45 dB(A). The results indicate that thresholds of detection are predictable based on assumed characteristics of the auditory system. The synthesized wind turbine sounds were found to adequately represent a real recording.

Shepherd, K. P.

1985-01-01

175

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques.

E. Muljadi; B. McNiff

1997-01-01

176

Opportunities for ice storage to provide ancillary services to power grids incorporating wind turbine generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation using wind turbines increases the electrical system balancing, regulation and ramp rate requirements due to the minute to minute variability in wind speed and the difficulty in accurately forecasting wind speeds. The addition of thermal energy storage, such as ice storage, to a building's space cooling equipment increases the operational flexibility of the equipment by allowing the owner to choose when the chiller is run. The ability of the building owner to increase the power demand from the chiller (e.g. make ice) or to decrease the power demand (e.g. melt ice) to provide electrical system ancillary services was evaluated.

Finley, Christopher

177

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY) [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA) [Cambridge, MA

2008-09-23

178

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

Onufreiczuk, S.

1978-01-01

179

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis

S. Onufreiczuk

1978-01-01

180

MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering drawings and the detailed mechanical and electrical design of a horizontal-axis wind turbine designed for DOE at the NASA Lewis Research Center and installed in Clayton, New Mexico are discussed. The drawings show the hub, pitch change mechanism, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive system, tower, foundation, electrical power systems, and the control and safety systems.

Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.

1980-08-01

181

Design Study of Coated Conductor Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generator for Small Scale Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting ?eld windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 68 meters of tape. The active mass of the generators has been investigated as function of the number of poles and a 4 pole generator is suggested as a feasible starting point of an in-?eld demonstration of the system reliability. An active mass of m = 421 kg and a usage of 3.45 km of tape will be needed to realize such a generator with a peak ?ux density in the airgap of B0 = 1.5 T.

Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Jensen, Bogi B.

182

Noise radiation characteristics of the Westinghouse WWG-0600 (600kW) wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic data are presented from five different WWG-0600 machines for the wind speed range 6.7 to 13.4 m/s, for a power output range of 51 to 600 kW and for upwind, downwind and crosswind locations. Both broadband and narrowband data are presented and are compared with calculations and with similar data from other machines. Predicted broadband spectra are in good agreement with measurements at high power and underestimate them at low power. Discrete frequency rotational noise components are present in all measurements and are believed due to terrain induced wind gradients. Predictions are in general agreement with measurements upwind and downwind but underestimate them in the crosswind direction.

Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

1989-01-01

183

Cogging Torque Reduction in a Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate three design options to minimize cogging torque: uniformity of air gap, pole width, and skewing. Although the design improvement is intended for small wind turbines, it is also applicable to larger wind turbines.

Muljadi, E.; Green, J.

2002-01-01

184

Wind turbine generator application places unique demands on tower design and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most relevant contractual tower design requirements and goal for the Mod-1 tower are related to steel truss tower construction, cost-effective state-of-the-art design, a design life of 30 years, and maximum wind conditions of 120 mph at 30 feet elevation. The Mod-1 tower design approach was an iterative process. Static design loads were calculated and member sizes and overall geometry

J. P. Kita

1978-01-01

185

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the freque...

E. Muljadi, B. McNiff

1997-01-01

186

Environmental noise characteristics of the MOD5-B (3.2 MW) wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both narrow band and broad band acoustic data were obtained for the MOD5-B wind turbine for a range of wind speeds from 5.8 to 14.3 m/s; for a range of power outputs from 300 to 3100 kW; and for various azimuth angles and distances. Comparisons are made with those of other large machines and with predictions by available methods. The highest levels occur at the lower frequencies and generally decrease as the frequency increases. Low frequency rotational noise components were more intense than expected for an upwind machine and are believed to result from localized wind gradients across the rotor disk due to upwind terrain features. Predicted broad band spectra follow the general trends of the data but tend to underestimate the levels in the frequency range where the turbulent boundary layer-trailing edge interaction noise is expected to be significant.

Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

1989-01-01

187

Development of a New Procedure for Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the impact of wind generation on system reliability is developed. This method combines the effects of wind turbine forced outage rates and varying power output due to wind speed variations. Since individual wind turbines on a windfarm all have an output related to wind speed, each turbine's output cannot be assumed to be independent random variables.

Paul Giorsetto; Kent F. Utsurogi

1983-01-01

188

Wind turbine generator application places unique demands on tower design and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most relevant contractual tower design requirements and goal for the Mod-1 tower are related to steel truss tower construction, cost-effective state-of-the-art design, a design life of 30 years, and maximum wind conditions of 120 mph at 30 feet elevation. The Mod-1 tower design approach was an iterative process. Static design loads were calculated and member sizes and overall geometry chosen with the use of finite element computer techniques. Initial tower dynamic characteristics were then combined with the dynamic properties of the other wind turbine components, and a series of complex dynamic computer programs were run to establish a dynamic load set and then a second tower design.

Kita, J. P.

1978-01-01

189

Control design for a wind turbine-generator using output feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modeling and approach to control design for a large horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) generator are presented. The control design is based on a suboptimal output regulator which allows coordinated control of WT blade pitch angle and field voltage for the purposes of regulating electrical power and terminal voltage. Results of detailed non-linear simulation tests of this controller are shown.

Javid, S. H.; Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.

1981-01-01

190

Condition Monitoring of the Power Output of Wind Turbine Generators Using Wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasing number of wind turbines being erected offshore, there is a need for cost-effective, predictive, and proactive maintenance. A large fraction of wind turbine downtime is due to bearing failures, particularly in the generator and gearbox. One way of assessing impending problems is to install vibration sensors in key positions on these subassemblies. Such equipment can be costly

Simon Jonathan Watson; Beth J. Xiang; Wenxian Yang; Peter J. Tavner; Christopher J. Crabtree

2010-01-01

191

Application of Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (MERS) to Improve Output Power of Wind Turbine Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of an innovative power conversion technology using magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS) in a wind turbine system with a synchronous generator to improve the output power and the efficiency are presented. The MERS can compensate for the reactance voltage of the generator. The output voltage of the system increases and the excitation power of the generator can be significantly reduced. The data indicate a great potential of the new power conversion technology to make the actual wind turbine system compact and to improve the efficiency.

Takaku, Taku; Homma, Gen; Isobe, Takanori; Kato, Shuhei; Igarashi, Seiki; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Ryuichi

192

Effect of Generalized Wind Characteristics on Annual Power Estimates from Wind Turbine Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is presented for estimating the average power output of a wind turbine using, as the wind characteristic input, only the mean annual wind magnitude. Hourly wind speeds are assumed to have a Rayleigh frequency distribution which requires a sing...

W. C. Cliff

1977-01-01

193

Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

Batesole, W. R.

1982-01-01

194

Self-excited induction generator for variable-speed wind turbine generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When an induction generator is connected to a utility bus, the voltage and frequency at the terminal of the generator are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility...

E. Muljadi B. Gregory D. Broad

1996-01-01

195

Automatic summarization of MP3 music objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to summarize MP3 music objects automatically. The MP3 music summary is constructed in three steps. First, coefficients extracted from the output of polyphase filters are used to compute the MP3 features. Based on these features, an MP3 music object can be automatically segmented into a sequence of MP3 phrases. Then, the phrase clustering technique is applied

Chih-Chin Liu; Pang-Chia Yao

2004-01-01

196

Effective replays and summarization of virtual experiences.  

PubMed

Direct replay of the experience of a user in a virtual environment is difficult for others to watch due to unnatural camera motions. We present methods for replaying and summarizing these egocentric experiences that effectively communicate the user's observations while reducing unwanted camera movements. Our approach summarizes the viewpoint path as a concise sequence of viewpoints that cover the same parts of the scene. The core of our approach is a novel content-dependent metric that can be used to identify similarities between viewpoints. This enables viewpoints to be grouped by similar contextual view information and provides a means to generate novel viewpoints that can encapsulate a series of views. These resulting encapsulated viewpoints are used to synthesize new camera paths that convey the content of the original viewer's experience. Projecting the initial movement of the user back on the scene can be used to convey the details of their observations, and the extracted viewpoints can serve as bookmarks for control or analysis. Finally we present performance analysis along with two forms of validation to test whether the extracted viewpoints are representative of the viewer's original observations and to test for the overall effectiveness of the presented replay methods. PMID:22402688

Ponto, Kevin; Kohlmann, Joe; Gleicher, Michael

2012-04-01

197

Summarizing cellular responses as biological process networks  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray experiments can simultaneously identify thousands of genes that show significant perturbation in expression between two experimental conditions. Response networks, computed through the integration of gene interaction networks with expression perturbation data, may themselves contain tens of thousands of interactions. Gene set enrichment has become standard for summarizing the results of these analyses in terms functionally coherent collections of genes such as biological processes. However, even these methods can yield hundreds of enriched functions that may overlap considerably. Results We describe a new technique called Markov chain Monte Carlo Biological Process Networks (MCMC-BPN) capable of reporting a highly non-redundant set of links between processes that describe the molecular interactions that are perturbed under a specific biological context. Each link in the BPN represents the perturbed interactions that serve as the interfaces between the two processes connected by the link. We apply MCMC-BPN to publicly available liver-related datasets to demonstrate that the networks formed by the most probable inter-process links reported by MCMC-BPN show high relevance to each biological condition. We show that MCMC-BPN’s ability to discern the few key links from in a very large solution space by comparing results from two other methods for detecting inter-process links. Conclusions MCMC-BPN is successful in using few inter-process links to explain as many of the perturbed gene-gene interactions as possible. Thereby, BPNs summarize the important biological trends within a response network by reporting a digestible number of inter-process links that can be explored in greater detail.

2013-01-01

198

Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of bronchoscopy video recordings.

2011-01-01

199

Automatic Summarization with Sloth (Summarizes Lengthy Documents and Outputs The Highlights).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SLOTH is an object-oriented, modular, text summarization tool written in the JAVA language. It uses the concept relationship information provided from textual analysis by the eQuery software developed at Syracuse University to create a summary of a text f...

D. B. Kaplin

2002-01-01

200

NewsBytes: Tagalog Text Summarization Using Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an automatic Tagalog text summarizer that uses abstraction instead of the traditional extraction method of summarization. It employs Natural Language Processing and Generation to produce the summary. Summarization works by determining the subject of the sentence and then building phrases for that subject. A prototype was tested and evaluated based on the following matrices: sentence

Ervin G. Batang; Regina L. Cruz; Don Erick; J. Bonus; Ria A. Sagum; Mark Angelo; T. Miano; Rubeleen Ann; C. Yu

201

MEAD - a platform for multidocument multilingual text summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza- tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a search engine and to novelty detection.

Dragomir Radev; Timothy Allison; Sasha Blair-Goldensohn; John Blitzer; Arda Celebi; Stanko Dimitrov; Elliott Drabek; Ali Hakim; Wai Lam; Danyu Liu; Jahna Otterbacher; Hong Qi; Horacio Saggion; Simone Teufel; Michael Topper; Adam Winkel; Zhu Zhang

202

Summarization evaluation for text and speech: issues and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current text and speech summarization evaluation approaches. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of these, with the goal of identifying summarization techniques most suitable to speech summarization. Precision\\/recall schemes, as well as summary accuracy measures which incorporate weight- ings based on multiple human decisions, are suggested as particu- larly suitable in evaluating speech summaries. Index Terms: evaluation, text

Ani Nenkova

2006-01-01

203

A comprehensive comparative evaluation of RST-based summarization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by governmental, commercial and academic interests, and due to the growing amount of information, mainly online, automatic text summarization area has experienced an increasing number of researches and products, which led to a countless number of summarization methods. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the main automatic text summarization methods based on Rhetorical Structure Theory

Vinícius Rodrigues Uzêda; Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria das Graças Volpe Nunes

2010-01-01

204

Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12...

I. Mendoza J. Hur

2012-01-01

205

Personalized video summarization with human in the loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automatic video summarization, visual summary is constructed typically based on the analysis of low-level features with little consideration of video semantics. However, the contextual and semantic information of a video is marginally related to low-level features in practice although they are useful to compute visual similarity between frames. Therefore, we propose a novel video summarization technique, where the semantically

Bohyung Han; Jihun Hamm; Jack Sim

2011-01-01

206

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 2. Conceptual and Preliminary Design, Book 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized...

1984-01-01

207

Impact of Increased Penetration of DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Generators on Transient and Small Signal Stability of Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The targeted and current development of wind energy in various countries around the world reveals that wind power is the fastest growing power generation technology. Among the several wind generation technologies, variable speed wind turbines utilizing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are gaining momentum in the power industry. With the increase in penetration of these wind turbines, the power system

Durga Gautam; Vijay Vittal; Terry Harbour

2009-01-01

208

Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 2: Data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessing the performance of a MOD-OA horizontal axis wind turbine connected to an isolated diesel utility, a comprehensive data measurement program was conducted on the Block Island Power Company installation on Block Island, Rhode Island. The detailed results of that program focusing on three principal areas of (1) fuel displacement (savings), (2) dynamic interaction between the diesel utility and the wind turbine, (3) effects of three models of wind turbine reactive power control are presented. The approximate two month duration of the data acquisition program conducted in the winter months (February into April 1982) revealed performance during periods of highest wind energy penetration and hence severity of operation. Even under such conditions fuel savings were significant resulting in a fuel reduction of 6.7% while the MOD-OA was generating 10.7% of the total electrical energy. Also, electrical disturbance and interactive effects were of an acceptable level.

Wilreker, V. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Kruse, V. J.; Smith, R. F.

1984-01-01

209

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. It is a power performance test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW small wind turbine.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2009-12-01

210

The effects of blade mounted vortex generators on the noise from a MOD-2 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison noise measurements were made for a standard MOD-2 machine and for one modified to include an array of vortex generators on the suction sides of the blades near maximum thickness. Data were obtained for comparable azimuth angles and distances for a range of wind velocities of 7.6 to 10.3 m/s and for power outputs of 1.4 MW. Since the observed differences are small it is concluded that the inclusion of vortex generators on this machine will result in no significant increase in environmental impact due to noise.

Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

1984-01-01

211

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

2011-07-01

212

Strategies for Refining IEC 61400-2: Wind Turbine Generator Systems - Part 2: Safety of Small Wind Turbines: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a status of the changes currently being made by IEC Maintenance Team 02 (MT02) to the existing IEC 61400-2 ''Safety of small wind turbines.'' In relation to the work done by IEC MT02, work has been done by NREL and Windward Engineering under the DOE\\/NREL Small Wind Turbine (SWT) Project. Aeroelastic models were built and measurements taken

J. J. D. van Dam; T. L. Forsyth; A. C. Hansen

2001-01-01

213

NIDA Review Summarizes Research on Marijuana's Negative Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... p.m. EDT NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects Comprehensive review published in the ... of science on the adverse health effects of marijuana use links the drug to several significant adverse ...

214

Evaluation Challenges in Large-Scale Document Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200 Million automatic document and summary

Dragomir R. Radev; Simone Teufel; Horacio Saggion; Wai Lam; John Blitzer; Hong Qi; Arda Çelebi; Danyu Liu; Elliott Drábek

2003-01-01

215

Extractive Summarization of Broadcast News: Comparing Strategies for European Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the comparison between three methods for extractive summarization of Portuguese broadcast news: feature-based,\\u000a Maximal Marginal Relevance, and Latent Semantic Analysis. The main goal is to understand the level of agreement among the\\u000a automatic summaries and how they compare to summaries produced by non-professional human summarizers. Results were evaluated\\u000a using the ROUGE-L metric. Maximal Marginal Relevance performed close

Ricardo Ribeiro; David Martins De Matos

2007-01-01

216

Extractive summarization using complex networks and syntactic dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that statistical physics methods can be applied to analyze written texts represented as complex networks has led to several developments in natural language processing, including automatic summarization and evaluation of machine translation. Most importantly, so far only a few metrics of complex networks have been used and therefore there is ample opportunity to enhance the statistics-based methods as new measures of network topology and dynamics are created. In this paper, we employ for the first time the metrics betweenness, vulnerability and diversity to analyze written texts in Brazilian Portuguese. Using strategies based on diversity metrics, a better performance in automatic summarization is achieved in comparison to previous work employing complex networks. With an optimized method the Rouge score (an automatic evaluation method used in summarization) was 0.5089, which is the best value ever achieved for an extractive summarizer with statistical methods based on complex networks for Brazilian Portuguese. Furthermore, the diversity metric can detect keywords with high precision, which is why we believe it is suitable to produce good summaries. It is also shown that incorporating linguistic knowledge through a syntactic parser does enhance the performance of the automatic summarizers, as expected, but the increase in the Rouge score is only minor. These results reinforce the suitability of complex network methods for improving automatic summarizers in particular, and treating text in general.

Amancio, Diego R.; Nunes, Maria G. V.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

2012-02-01

217

Executive summary. Wind-energy assessment studies in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco areas. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

Work performed in FY81 on Wind Energy Assessment Studies in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco Areas is summarized. The research centers on defining the extent of the wind resource at site specific locations that have been documented earlier as having good wind power potential. The work consists of spatial wind surveys in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco area, wind turbine generator wake measurements at the Goodnoe Hills site, and developing a methodology for sampling the wind flow using a kite anemometer. (LEW)

Baker, R.W.; Wade, J.E.; Persson, P.O.G.; Katz, R.W.

1981-12-01

218

A seriation method for summarizing vegetation-environment relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program is described for producing site-species tables termed seriation arrays. Sites can be ordered according to sequences in direct habitat gradients, indirect site ordination axes, and trends oblique to the axes of an indirect site ordination. A ?2 technique is used to filter species for restriction to segments of each site sequence, retaining only accepted species in the

T. C. D. Dargie

1986-01-01

219

Summarization of Text Document Using Query Dependent Parsing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World Wide Web is the largest source of information. Huge amount of data is present on the Web. There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem. In this paper a method to create query specific summaries by identifying the most query-relevant fragments and combining them using the semantic associations within the document is discussed. In particular, first a structure is added to the documents in the preprocessing stage and converts them to document graphs. The present research work focuses on analytical study of different document clustering and summarization techniques currently the most research is focused on Query-Independent summarization. The main aim of this research work is to combine the both approaches of document clustering and query dependent summarization. This mainly includes applying different clustering algorithms on a text document. Create a weighted document graph of the resulting graph based on the keywords. And obtain the document graph to get the summary of the document. The performance of the summary using different clustering techniques will be analyzed and the optimal approach will be suggested.

Rokade, P. P.; Mrunal, Bewoor; Patil, S. H.

2010-11-01

220

Analysis and summarization of correlations in data cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel mechanism to analyze and summarize the statistical correlations among the attributes of a data cube. To perform the analysis and summarization, this paper proposes a new measure of statistical significance. The main reason for proposing the new measure of statistical significance is to have an essential closure property, which is exploited in the summarization stage of the data mining process. In addition to the closure property, the proposed measure of statistical significance has two other important properties. First, the proposed measure of statistical significance is more conservative than the well-known chi-square test in classical statistics and, therefore, inherits its statistical robustness. This paper does not simply employ the chi-square test due to lack of the desired closure property, which may lead to a precision problem in the summarization process. The second additional property is that, though the proposed measure of statistical significance is more conservative than the chi-square test, for most cases, the proposed measure yields a value that is almost equal to a conventional measurement of statistical significance based on the normal distribution. Based on the closure property addressed above, this paper develops an algorithm to summarize the results from performing statistical analysis in the data cube. Though the proposed measure of statistical significance avoids the precision problem due to having the closure property, its conservative nature may lead to a recall rate problem in the data mining process. On the other hand, if the chi-square test, which does not have the closure property, was employed, then the summarization process may suffer a precision problem.

Chen, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shien-Ching; Oyang, Yen-Jen

2002-03-01

221

A Summarization System for Chinese News from Multiple Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a summarization system for multiple documents that employs named entities and other signatures to cluster news from different sources, as well as punctuation marks, linking elements, and topic chains to identify the meaningful units (MUs). Using nouns and verbs to identify similar MUs, focusing and browsing models are applied to represent…

Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Kuo, June-Jei; Huang, Sheng-Jie; Lin, Chuan-Jie; Wung, Hung-Chia

2003-01-01

222

Summarizing Change in Test Scores: Shortcomings of Three Common Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three commonly used methods for summarizing change in test scores: (1) change in percentile rank; (2) scale or raw score change; and (3) percent change. In general, these methods are insensitive to the measurement scale on which scores are expressed and perform mathematical operations that are…

Russell, Michael

2000-01-01

223

Investigation of Learners' Perceptions for Video Summarization and Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, multimedia-based learning is widespread in educational settings. A number of studies investigate how to develop effective techniques to manage a huge volume of video sources, such as summarization and recommendation. However, few studies examine how these techniques affect learners' perceptions in multimedia learning systems. This…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

2012-01-01

224

Summarizing Scientific Articles: Experiments with Relevance and Rhetorical Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we propose a strategy for the summarization of scientific articles that concentrates on the rhetorical status of statements in an article: Material for summaries is selected in such a way that summaries can highlight the new contribution of the source article and situate it with respect to earlier work.We provide a gold standard for summaries of this

Simone Teufel; Marc Moens

2002-01-01

225

Information Extraction and Text Summarization Using Linguistic Knowledge Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes SCISOR (System for Conceptual Information Summarization, Organization and Retrieval), a prototype intelligent information retrieval system that extracts useful information from large bodies of text. It overcomes limitations of linguistic coverage by applying a text processing strategy that is tolerant of unknown words and gaps in…

Rau, Lisa F.; And Others

1989-01-01

226

News to go: hierarchical text summarization for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evaluation of a novel hierarchical text sum- marization method that allows users to view summaries of Web documents from small, mobile devices. Unlike previ- ous approaches, ours does not require the documents to be in HTML since it infers a hierarchical structure automat- ically. Currently, the method is used to summarize news articles sent to a Web

Jahna Otterbacher; Dragomir R. Radev; Omer Kareem

2006-01-01

227

Methodological Challenges Encountered in Summarizing Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the challenges encountered by authors summarizing evidence from a primary study to describe a treatment's effectiveness using an effect size (ES) estimate. Dilemmas that are encountered, including how to calculate and interpret the pertinent standardized mean difference ES for results from studies of various research designs,…

Beretvas, S. Natasha

2005-01-01

228

Automatically estimating number of scenes for rushes summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our video summarization system using a model selection technique to estimate the optimal number of scenes for a summary. It uses a minimum description length as a model selection criterion and carries out two- stage estimation. First, we estimate the number of scenes in each shot, and then we estimate the number of scenes in a whole

Koji Yamasaki; Koichi Shinoda; Sadaoki Furui

2008-01-01

229

Human subject-based video browsing and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acquire digital videos is much easier than before, since we can get videos captured from DV camcorder. More video archives make searching the targeted content more difficult. In the past decade, efficient video indexing, browsing and summarization techniques thus have become an important research issue in the field of content-based video retrieval. In this work, a novel mechanism of

Duan-Yu Chen; Kuei-Cheng Chu; Yu-Chien Liu; Yung-Sheng Chen

2010-01-01

230

Upper-Intermediate-Level ESL Students' Summarizing in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative instrumental case study explores various factors that might influence upper-intermediate-level English as a second language (ESL) students' summarizing from a sociocultural perspective. The study was conducted in a formal classroom setting, during a reading and writing class in the English Language Institute at a university in the…

Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

2011-01-01

231

QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2006-08-01

232

QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.  

SciTech Connect

Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the value of this particular combination of modules.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Conroy, John M. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD)

2006-10-01

233

Medical textbook summarization and guided navigation using statistical sentence extraction.  

PubMed

We present a method for automated medical textbook and encyclopedia summarization. Using statistical sentence extraction and semantic relationships, we extract sentences from text returned as part of an existing textbook search (similar to a book index). Our system guides users to the information they desire by summarizing the content of each relevant chapter or section returned in the search. The summary is tailored to contain sentences that specifically address the user's search terms. Our clustering method selects sentences that contain concepts specifically addressing the context of the query term in each of the returned sections. Our method examines conceptual relationships from the UMLS and selects clusters of concepts using Expectation Maximization (EM). Sentences associated with the concept clusters are shown to the user. We evaluated whether our extracted summary provides a suitable answer to the user's question. PMID:16779153

Whalen, Gregory

2005-01-01

234

Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

2008-01-01

235

Personal photo album summarization for global and local photo annotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although content-based media retrieval tools are continuously improving, personalized image annotation is still one of the most reliable ways to index large image archives. Unfortunately, it is also a time consuming and repetitive operation. Using content to facilitate the user in media annotation may lead to reduced effort and more accurate results. In this paper we propose a content-based interactive tool that supports a user in annotating his personal photo albums. The system provides two main functionalities: to summarize a photo collection in salient moments, and to annotate pictures in a semi-supervised way based on their global and local content. The summarization is based on a bottom-up unsupervised hierarchical clustering that exploits two different matrices of visual distances, while the local tagging uses an object retrieval method based on local image features. Experiments on personal photo collections show that the proposed technique produces good results in terms of organization and access to data.

Broilo, M.; de Natale, Francesco G. B.

2011-02-01

236

Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We

Yue Shang; Yanpeng Li; Hongfei Lin; Zhihao Yang; Ying Xu

2011-01-01

237

Comparative Evaluation of Term-Weighting Methods for Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Term-based summarization assumes that it is possible to determine the importance of a sentence on the basis of the words it contains. To achieve this, words are weighted using term-weighting measures which in turn are used to weight the sentences. This article presents a comparative evaluation of summaries produced using different term-weighting measures and different combinations of parameters which are

Constantin Orasan

2009-01-01

238

Astro-Venture Geology Unit Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this concluding lesson, learners review astronomy and atmosphere systems and draw connections to geological processes and structures. They then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson eight in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

239

Capturing User Reading Behaviors for Personalized Document Summarization  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new personalized document summarization method that observes a user's personal reading preferences. These preferences are inferred from the user's reading behaviors, including facial expressions, gaze positions, and reading durations that were captured during the user's past reading activities. We compare the performance of our algorithm with that of a few peer algorithms and software packages. The results of our comparative study show that our algorithm can produce more superior personalized document summaries than all the other methods in that the summaries generated by our algorithm can better satisfy a user's personal preferences.

Xu, Songhua [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [University of Hong Kong, The; Lau, Francis [University of Hong Kong, The

2011-01-01

240

Astro-Venture Atmosphere Unit - Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this concluding lesson to the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Unit, students review and summarize their learning in a final project. Learners will draw and explain concept maps that show how the gases in the atmosphere interact with many different systems to support human habitability. They also write a superhero comic book explaining how superheroes representing elements combine their powers to protect the Earth's habitability. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is the eighth lesson in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

241

Summarizing and Visualizing Uncertainty in Non-Rigid Registration  

PubMed Central

Registration uncertainty may be important information to convey to a surgeon when surgical decisions are taken based on registered image data. However, conventional non-rigid registration methods only provide the most likely deformation. In this paper we show how to determine the registration uncertainty, as well as the most likely deformation, by using an elastic Bayesian registration framework that generates a dense posterior distribution on deformations. We model both the likelihood and the elastic prior on deformations with Boltzmann distributions and characterize the posterior with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We introduce methods that summarize the high-dimensional uncertainty information and show how these summaries can be visualized in a meaningful way. Based on a clinical neurosurgical dataset, we demonstrate the importance that uncertainty information could have on neurosurgical decision making.

Risholm, Petter; Pieper, Steve; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William M.

2010-01-01

242

Summarizing with Drawings: A Reading-Comprehension Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of literacy skills is essential for student success. According to the National Science Education Standards , "Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of conclusions" (NRC 1996). Teachers can help students develop these skills by finding methods that not only motivate but also engage students in the reading process. One such method is described in this article wherein students draw after reading science content. When students summarize by drawing they must form a visual representation of the information they're trying to convey. This provides an opportunity for students to elaborate and encode the information in a personally meaningful way. In addition, drawing after reading encourages students to reflect on what they have read and allows time to process the information.

Elliott, Janine

2007-01-01

243

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

244

An improved sub-optimal video summarization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years the amount of digital video content has been increasing exponentially as a result of the proliferation of media sources like digital TV, streaming video internet sites like YouTube and wider availability of digital video cameras. The video data volume is so large that the only way a user can browse these libraries is through the

Luís Coelho; L. A. Da Silva Cruz; L. Ferreira; P. A. Assuncao

2010-01-01

245

A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment  

PubMed Central

Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and describe the built environment at those scales. Our collaboration with community partners at all stages of the tool development, data collection, and dissemination of results provides a model for engaging the community in an active research program.

2012-01-01

246

Applying Semantics in Dataset Summarization for Solar Data Ingest Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal in studying phenomena of the solar corona (e.g., flares, coronal mass ejections) is to create and refine predictive models of space weather - which have broad implications for terrestrial activity (e.g., communication grid reliability). The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) [1] presently maintains an infrastructure for generating time-series visualizations of the solar corona. Through raw data gathered at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in Hawaii, HAO performs follow-up processing and quality control steps to derive visualization sets consumable by scientists. Individual visualizations will acquire several properties during their derivation, including: (i) the source instrument at MLSO used to obtain the raw data, (ii) the time the data was gathered, (iii) processing steps applied by HAO to generate the visualization, and (iv) quality metrics applied over both the raw and processed data. In parallel to MLSO's standard data gathering, time stamped observation logs are maintained by MLSO staff, which covers content of potential relevance to data gathered (such as local weather and instrument conditions). In this setting, while a significant amount of solar data is gathered, only small sections will typically be of interest to consuming parties. Additionally, direct presentation of solar data collections could overwhelm consumers (particularly those with limited background in the data structuring). This work explores how multidimensional analysis based navigation can be used to generate summary views of data collections, based on two operations: (i) grouping visualization entries based on similarity metrics (e.g., data gathered between 23:15-23:30 6-21-2012), or (ii) filtering entries (e.g., data with a quality score of UGLY, on a scale of GOOD, BAD, or UGLY). Here, semantic encodings of solar visualization collections (based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Datacube vocabulary [2]) are being utilized, based on the flexibility of the RDF model for supporting the following use cases: (i) Temporal alignment of time-stamped MLSO observations with raw data gathered at MLSO. (ii) Linking of multiple visualization entries to common (and structurally complex) workflow structures - designed to capture the visualization generation process. To provide real-world use cases for the described approach, a semantic summarization system is being developed for data gathered from HAO's Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and Chromospheric Helium-I Imaging Photometer (CHIP) pipelines. Web Links: [1] http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu/ [2] http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/

Michaelis, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

247

Wake Velocity Deficit Measurements at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 Site : A Summary of the 1982 and 1984 Findings.  

SciTech Connect

The wake velocity deficits and turbulence levels measured behind the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 2500 kW wind turbine generators using portable kite anemometers are described in this report. The measured deficits are compared to those calculated from two different wake models as well as to those measured by other research scientists at the Goodnoe Hills test facility.

Baker, Robert W.; Walker, Stel N.

1985-08-01

248

Evaluation of Automatic Text Summarization Methods Based on Rhetorical Structure Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by governmental, commercial and academic interests, automatic text summarization area has experienced an increasing number of researches and products, which led to a countless number of summarization methods. In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the main automatic text summarization methods based on rhetorical structure theory (RST), claimed to be among the best ones. We also

Vinícius Rodrigues Uzêda; Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Nunes

2008-01-01

249

Environmental Assessment: Installation and Field Testing of a Large Experimental Wind Turbine Generator System Near Kahuka Point on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed MOD-0A wind turbine field test and evaluation near Kahuka Point on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Based on the findings of the EA, which is available to the public o...

1979-01-01

250

Modeling and analysis of power system operation connected with wind turbine generation system and HVDC in Jeju island using PSCAD\\/EMTDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modeling and analysis of Jeju power system operation connected with wind farm and HVDC system using PSCAD\\/EMTDC program. It is for indicating the influence of wind farm operation in Jeju power system. For the computer simulation, there are three main models, which are 100(MW) wind farm, 300(MW) HVDC system and Jeju power load. To verify the

Eel-Hwan Kim; Se-Ho Kim; Seong-Bo Oh; Keong-Bin Song; Seung-Ho Song

2007-01-01

251

An Extrinsic Evaluation for Question-Biased Text Summarization on QA tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a Question-Biased Text Sum- marization (QBTS) approach that is useful for question-answering systems. QBTS is an extension of Query-Biased Text Summarization in the sense that summarization is biased not only by the ques- tion, which corresponds to the query, but also by the prospective answers to the question. We conducted text summarization experiments based on QA tasks

Tsutomu HIRAO; Yutaka SASAKI; Hideki ISOZAKI

2001-01-01

252

Multi-document Summarization Using Informative Words and Its Evaluation with a QA System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce both the text size and the information loss during summarization, a multi-document summarization system using informative words is proposed. The procedure to extract informative words from multiple documents and generate summaries is described in this paper. At first, a small- scale experiment with 12 events and 60 questions was made. The results are evaluated by human assessors and

June-jei Kuo; Hung-chia Wung; Chuan-jie Lin; Hsin-hsi Chen

2002-01-01

253

PERSIVAL, a System for Personalized Search and Summarization over Multimedia Healthcare Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the ongoing development of PERSIVAL (Personalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video, and Language), a system designed to provide personalized access to a distributed digital library of medical literature and consumer health information. The goal for PERSIVAL is to tailor search, presentation, and summarization of…

McKeown, Kathleen R.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Cimino, James; Feiner, Steven K.; Friedman, Carol; Gravano, Luis; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Johnson, Steven; Jordan, Desmond A.; Klavans, Judith L.; Kushniruk, Andre; Patel, Vimla; Teufel, Simone

254

Linguistic summarization of video for fall detection using voxel person and fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel per- son. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection.

Derek Anderson; Robert H. Luke III; James M. Keller; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz; Myra Aud

2009-01-01

255

The Night I Followed the Dog: Sequencing, Summarizing and Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lessons, students will listen to The Night I Followed the Dog by Nina Laden and work to summarize the story by writing a sequence of events from the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Then, with teacher guidance, students will summarize the text through determining the main idea and key details of the text.

Wikispaces

2012-08-02

256

Wilderness Ecology: A Method of Sampling and Summarizing Data for Plant Community Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a flexible sampling scheme that researchers and land managers may use in surveying and classifying plant communities of forest lands. It includes methods, data sheets, and computer summarization printouts.

L. F. Ohmann R. R. Ream

1971-01-01

257

Evaluation of Text Summarization in a Cross-lingual Information Retrieval Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We report on research in multi-document summarization and on evaluation of summarization in the frameworkof cross-lingual information retrieval. This work was carried out during a summer workshop on Language Engineeringheld at Johns Hopkins University by a team of nine researchers from seven universities. The goals ofthe research were as follows: (1) to develop a toolkit for evaluation of single-document

Dragomir Radev; Simone Teufel; Horacio Saggion; Wai Lam; John Blitzer; Arda Celebi; Hong Qi; Elliott Drabek; Danyu Liu

2002-01-01

258

Wind and turbine characteristics needed for integration of wind turbine arrays into a utility system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind data and wind turbine generator (WTG) performance characteristics are often available in a form inconvenient for use by utility planners and engineers. The steps used by utility planners are summarized and the type of wind and WTG data needed for integration of WTG arrays suggested. These included long term yearly velocity averages for preliminary site feasibility, hourly velocities on a 'wind season' basis for more detailed economic analysis and for reliability studies, worst-case velocity profiles for gusts, and various minute-to-hourly velocity profiles for estimating the effect of longer-term wind fluctuations on utility operations. wind turbine data needed includes electrical properties of the generator, startup and shutdown characteristics, protection characteristics, pitch control response and control strategy, and electro-mechanical model for stability analysis.

Park, G. L.

259

Person-based video summarization and retrieval by tracking and clustering temporal face sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People are often the most important subjects in videos. It is highly desired to automatically summarize the occurrences of different people in a large collection of video and quickly find the video clips containing a particular person among them. In this paper, we present a person-based video summarization and retrieval system named VideoWho which extracts temporal face sequences in videos and groups them into clusters, with each cluster containing video clips of the same person. This is accomplished based on advanced face detection and tracking algorithms, together with a semisupervised face clustering approach. The system achieved good clustering accuracy when tested on a hybrid video set including home video, TV plays and movies. On top of this technology, a number of applications can be built, such as automatic summarization of major characters in videos, person-related video search on the Internet and personalized UI systems etc.

Zhang, Tong; Wen, Di; Ding, Xiaoqing

2013-03-01

260

Linguistic Summarization of Video for Fall Detection Using Voxel Person and Fuzzy Logic  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a method for recognizing human activity from linguistic summarizations of temporal fuzzy inference curves representing the states of a three-dimensional object called voxel person. A hierarchy of fuzzy logic is used, where the output from each level is summarized and fed into the next level. We present a two level model for fall detection. The first level infers the states of the person at each image. The second level operates on linguistic summarizations of voxel person’s states and inference regarding activity is performed. The rules used for fall detection were designed under the supervision of nurses to ensure that they reflect the manner in which elders perform these activities. The proposed framework is extremely flexible. Rules can be modified, added, or removed, allowing for per-resident customization based on knowledge about their cognitive and physical ability.

Anderson, Derek; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Aud, Myra

2009-01-01

261

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence-Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05).

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

262

iBIOMES Lite: Summarizing Biomolecular Simulation Data in Limited Settings.  

PubMed

As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes . PMID:24830957

Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

2014-06-23

263

Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

2001-01-01

264

Accordion summarization for end-game browsing on PDAs and cellular phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a new browsing technique for devices with small displays such as PDAs or cellular phones. We concentrate on end-game browsing, where the user is close to or on the target page. We make browsing more efficient and easier by Accordion Summarization. In this technique the Web page is first represented as a short summary. The user can then

Orkut Buyukkokten; Hector Garcia-Molina; Andreas Paepcke

2001-01-01

265

ERIC Annual Report, 2000: Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2000 annual report, summarizing the accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system in 1999, begins with a section that highlights progress towards meeting goals, as well as selected statistics. The second section, comprising the bulk of the report, provides an overview of ERIC, including the ERIC database, user…

Smarte, Lynn

266

Summarized proceedings of a conference on solid state physics - Melbourne, August 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Branch of The Institute of Physics held a conference on solid state physics in Melbourne from 17-21 August, 1959. This conference was the first of its kind to be held in Australia and attracted an attendance of about one hundred and thirty. In all, 46 papers, ranging over a wide field, were presented and these are summarized; they

J F Nicholas

1960-01-01

267

The Effects of Summarization Instruction on Text Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, with 30 students with learning disabilities (grades 6-9) and 15 nondisabled students, found that instruction in a 5-rule summarization strategy significantly increased reading comprehension of expository prose. Strategy use was maintained over time, and students were reported to generalize its use. (Author/DB)

Gajria, Meenakshi; Salvia, John

1992-01-01

268

Scalable Clustering for Large High-Dimensional Data Based on Data Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering large data sets with high dimensionality is a challenging data-mining task. This paper presents a framework to perform such a task efficiently. It is based on the notion of data space reduction, which finds high density areas, or dense cells, in the given feature space. The dense cells store summarized information of the data. A designated partitioning or hierarchical

Ying Lai; Ratko Orlandic; Wai Gen Yee; Sachin Kulkarni

2007-01-01

269

Science Text Comprehension: Drawing, Main Idea Selection, and Summarizing as Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of two experiments was to contrast instructions to generate drawings with two text-focused strategies--main idea selection (Exp. 1) and summarization (Exp. 2)--and to examine whether these strategies could help students learn from a chemistry science text. Both experiments followed a 2 x 2 design, with drawing strategy instructions…

Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

2012-01-01

270

DynaMMo: mining and summarization of coevolving sequences with missing values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given multiple time sequences with missing values, we pro- pose DynaMMo which summarizes, compresses, and finds latent variables. The idea is to discover hidden variables and learn their dynamics, making our algorithm able to function even when there are missing values. We performed experiments on both real and synthetic datasets spanning several megabytes, including motion cap- ture sequences and chlorine

Lei Li; James Mccann; Nancy S. Pollard; Christos Faloutsos

2009-01-01

271

Editing by Viewing: Automatic Home Video Summarization by Viewing Behavior Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the Interest Meter (IM), a system making the computer conscious of user's reactions to mea- sure user's interest and thus use it to conduct video summarization. The IM takes account of users' spontaneous reactions when they view videos. To estimate user's viewing interest, quantitative in- terest measures are devised based on the perspectives of attention

Wei-Ting Peng; Wei-Ta Chu; Chia-Han Chang; Chien-Nan Chou; Wei-Jia Huang; Wen-Yan Chang; Yi-Ping Hung

2011-01-01

272

Multi-document Summarization of Dissertation Abstracts Using a Variable-Based Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a variable-based framework for multi-document summarization of dissertation abstracts in the fields of sociology and psychology that makes use of the macro- and micro-level discourse structure of dissertation abstracts as well as cross-document structure. Provides a list of indicator phrases that denote different aspects of the problem…

Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Goh, Dion H.

2003-01-01

273

Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports provides an overview of the findings and software that have evolved from the Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization project over the last six months. We present the major goals that have been achieved a...

B. J. Dorr C. Monz N. Y. Habash R. Schwartz

2004-01-01

274

AlphaSum: size-constrained table summarization using value lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a scientist who wants to explore multiple data sets to select the relevant ones for further analysis. Since the vi- sualization real estate may put a stringent constraint on how much detail can be presented to this user in a single page, ef- fective table summarization techniques are needed to create summaries that are both sufficiently small and effective

K. Selçuk Candan; Huiping Cao; Yan Qi; Maria Luisa Sapino

2009-01-01

275

Algebraic reduction in automatic text summarization – the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of information that is available on a topic electronically has abundantly increased over the past years. It has led the information highway to a situation called “information overload” problem. Automatic text summarization technique mainly addresses this issue by the extraction of a shortened version of information from texts written about the same topic. Several algebraic reduction methods are

N. K. Batcha; A. M. Zaki

2010-01-01

276

An audio-video summarization scheme based on audio and video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of video files in the Internet is growing at an exceptional speed and in the near future video browsing will be a common activity. To facilitate such activity it will be necessary to have a small clip for any given video. Currently, video skimming and video summarization techniques can reduce the temporal representation of a given video. However,

Marco Furini; Vittorio Ghini

2006-01-01

277

Topical summarization of web videos by visual-text time-dependent alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines are used to return a long list of hundreds or even thousands of videos in response to a query topic. Efficient navigation of videos becomes difficult and users often need to painstakingly explore the search list for a gist of the search result. This paper addresses the challenge of topical summarization by providing a timeline-based visualization of videos

Song Tan; Hung-Khoon Tan; Chong-Wah Ngo

2010-01-01

278

A Qualitative Study on the Use of Summarizing Strategies in Elementary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an "Evaluation…

Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin

2011-01-01

279

Multi-document Summarization Based on Cluster Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new summarization method, which uses non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and K-means clustering, is introduced to extract meaningful sentences from multi-documents. The proposed method can improve the\\u000a quality of document summaries because the inherent semantics of the documents are well reflected by using the semantic features\\u000a calculated by NMF and the sentences most relevant to the given

Sun Park; Ju-hong Lee; Deok-hwan Kim; Chan-min Ahn

2007-01-01

280

An R&D knowledge management method for patent document summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In an era of rapidly expanding digital content, the number of e-documents and the amount of knowledge frequently overwhelm the R&D teams and often impede intellectual property management. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic patent summarization method for accurate knowledge abstraction and effective R&D knowledge management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops an integrated approach

Amy J. C. Trappey; Charles V. Trappey

2008-01-01

281

Scalable Model-Based Clustering for Large Databases Based on Data Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The scalability problem,in data mining,involves the development,of methods,for handling large databases with limited computational resources such as memory and computation time. In this paper, two scalable clustering algorithms, bEMADS and gEMADS, are presented based on the Gaussian mixture model. Both summarize,data into subclusters and then generate Gaussian mixtures from their data summaries. Their core algorithm EMADS is defined on

Huidong Jin; Man-Leung Wong; Kwong-sak Leung

2005-01-01

282

Statistical summarization of content features for fast near-duplicate video detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a system for detecting near-duplicate videos based on a novel summarization of content features for each clip. It captures the dominating content and content changing trends of a video, so this representation is very compact and effective. Unlike traditional frame-to-frame comparisons that involve quadratic computational complexity, the similarity measure of our method is only linear in dimensionality

Heng Tao Shen; Xiaofang Zhou; Zi Huang; Jie Shao

2007-01-01

283

Comparison of two methods for summarizing hydraulic conductivities of a layered soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic conductivity data are frequently summarized using mathematical functions that quantify the relationship between water content (?) and hydraulic conductivity (K(?)). This study was done to determine the effects of the choice of the K(?) function and to determine if field data from layered profiles could be summarized using only one parameter per depth. Three K(?) functions together with a matching factor were fitted to hydraulic conductivity data from a field plot. The functions were Km(?/?m)1/?, Km[(?m-?c)/(?-?c)]1/n,and Km exp {?(?-?m)}, where ?, ?, n, Km, ?c, and ?m, are parameters to be estimated. For each function, two methods were considered. Method 1 fitted a different value to ?, ?, n, and Km for each depth while maintaining ?c at a fixed value. All hydraulic conductivity functions fit data from a Muir silt loam equally well, as evidenced by the coefficient of linearity (r2) values greater than 0.72, mean square error (MSE) values less than 0.97, and coefficient of variation (CV) values less than 50%. The fitting was accomplished using ln {K} as the dependent variable. Method 2 fitted values by depth only to Km, and all other parameters were held constant. The hydraulic conductivity functions performed equally well, with r2 values greater than 0.60, MSE values less than 1.2, and CV values of 50% or less. When some loss of precision can be tolerated, the number of parameters required to summarize data from a layered soil can be reduced.

Sisson, J. B.; Klittich, W. M.; Salem, S. B.

1988-08-01

284

Summarizing the motion of self-propelled cells: applications to sperm motility.  

PubMed

Proper characterization of the motion of spermatozoa is an important prerequisite for interpreting differences in sperm motility that might arise from exposure to toxicants. Patterns of sperm movement can be extremely complex. On the basis of an exponential model that relates the discretely approximated curvilinear velocity to the tracking rate, we develop a statistic that indexes the predictability of the path for individual sperm. We summarize the path of each sperm using this and two other statistics: (1) the path displacement velocity and (2) linearity of movement. We apply the method to a set of rat sperm tracks representative of both normal and abnormal motion characteristics. PMID:11318211

Dunson, D B; Weinberg, C R; Perreault, S D; Chapin, R E

1999-06-01

285

How to Summarize a 6,000-Word Paper in a Six-Minute Video Clip  

PubMed Central

As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format.

Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

2013-01-01

286

Heterogeneity image patch index and its application to consumer video summarization.  

PubMed

Automatic video summarization is indispensable for fast browsing and efficient management of large video libraries. In this paper, we introduce an image feature that we refer to as heterogeneity image patch (HIP) index. The proposed HIP index provides a new entropy-based measure of the heterogeneity of patches within any picture. By evaluating this index for every frame in a video sequence, we generate a HIP curve for that sequence. We exploit the HIP curve in solving two categories of video summarization applications: key frame extraction and dynamic video skimming. Under the key frame extraction frame-work, a set of candidate key frames is selected from abundant video frames based on the HIP curve. Then, a proposed patch-based image dissimilarity measure is used to create affinity matrix of these candidates. Finally, a set of key frames is extracted from the affinity matrix using a min–max based algorithm. Under video skimming, we propose a method to measure the distance between a video and its skimmed representation. The video skimming problem is then mapped into an optimization framework and solved by minimizing a HIP-based distance for a set of extracted excerpts. The HIP framework is pixel-based and does not require semantic information or complex camera motion estimation. Our simulation results are based on experiments performed on consumer videos and are compared with state-of-the-art methods. It is shown that the HIP approach outperforms other leading methods, while maintaining low complexity. PMID:24801112

Dang, Chinh T; Radha, Hayder

2014-06-01

287

MARION PRESSURE TREATING SUPERFUND SITE, LA, RECORD OF DECISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Record of Decision summarizes the extent and magnitude and risk from hazardous substances found at the site. Thr ROD also summarizes several alternatives evaluated for the site and the rationale for selecting one alternative over the other alternatives developed....

288

Wind-energy assessment studies in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco areas. Report No. BPA 81-7. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

Spatial wind surveys are reported in the Cape Blanco, Juniper Point, and Goodnoe Hills areas of Washington and Oregon. Wind turbine generator wake measurements have been taken at the Goodnoe Hills site, and a methodology for sampling the wind flow using a kite anemometer has been developed. (LEW)

Baker, R.W.; Wade, J.E.; Persson, O.G.; Katz, R.W.

1981-12-01

289

Long-term high resolution wear studies of high current density electrical brushes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With renewed interest in sliding electrical contacts for application in doubly-fed asynchronous induction wind turbine generators, focus on optimizing the wear life of high current density electrical brushes has re-emerged. This is due to the service and maintenance costs associated with some wind turbine sites, especially offshore. An automated test apparatus has been built and tests conducted to study the

M. V. R. S. Jensen

2005-01-01

290

Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1990-01-01

291

Video summarization based tele-endoscopy: a service to efficiently manage visual data generated during wireless capsule endoscopy procedure.  

PubMed

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use. More importantly, WCE combined with mobile computing ensures rapid transmission of diagnostic data to hospitals and enables off-site senior gastroenterologists to offer timely decision making support. However, during this WCE process, video data are produced in huge amounts, but only a limited amount of data is actually useful for diagnosis. The sharing and analysis of this video data becomes a challenging task due the constraints such as limited memory, energy, and communication capability. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing tasks, we present a video summarization-based tele-endoscopy service that estimates the semantically relevant video frames from the perspective of gastroenterologists. For this purpose, image moments, curvature, and multi-scale contrast are computed and are fused to obtain the saliency map of each frame. This saliency map is used to select keyframes. The proposed tele-endoscopy service selects keyframes based on their relevance to the disease diagnosis. This ensures the sending of diagnostically relevant frames to the gastroenterologist instead of sending all the data, thus saving transmission costs and bandwidth. The proposed framework also saves storage costs as well as the precious time of doctors in browsing patient's information. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed service provides video keyframes to the gastroenterologists without discarding important information. PMID:25037715

Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2014-09-01

292

ACNE: a summarization method to estimate allele-specific copy numbers for Affymetrix SNP arrays  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Current algorithms for estimating DNA copy numbers (CNs) borrow concepts from gene expression analysis methods. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have special characteristics that, if taken into account, can improve the overall performance. For example, cross hybridization between alleles occurs in SNP probe pairs. In addition, most of the current CN methods are focused on total CNs, while it has been shown that allele-specific CNs are of paramount importance for some studies. Therefore, we have developed a summarization method that estimates high-quality allele-specific CNs. Results: The proposed method estimates the allele-specific DNA CNs for all Affymetrix SNP arrays dealing directly with the cross hybridization between probes within SNP probesets. This algorithm outperforms (or at least it performs as well as) other state-of-the-art algorithms for computing DNA CNs. It better discerns an aberration from a normal state and it also gives more precise allele-specific CNs. Availability: The method is available in the open-source R package ACNE, which also includes an add on to the aroma.affymetrix framework (http://www.aroma-project.org/). Contact: arubio@ceit.es Supplementaruy information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Ortiz-Estevez, Maria; Bengtsson, Henrik; Rubio, Angel

2010-01-01

293

The Summarization of Pyro-shock Testing Data and SRS Level Prediction Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical separation through pyrotechnic shock is widely employed in space vehicle separation. These kinds of pyrotechnic shock devices produce transient loads with high levels of acceleration at different location of satellite. The prediction of acceleration level is significant for the definition of payload shock environment in the earlier design phase and selection of proper accelerometers in the test. This paper summarizes the shock response spectrum (SRS) from the pyrotechnical testing data of several typical satellites from the view points of distance from the source, complex equipment mount structure, etc. The empirical curve for the prediction possibility of pyrotechnic shock level is discussed. At first, the SRS distribution maps at the measure points were compared to understand the shock response environment which may differ from the distance attenuation from the shock source, effects of material and size of structural components, effects of joints and inserts of structural components, etc. Then, the paper discusses the prediction methodologies related to the empirical and extrapolation model presented by NASA-HDBK-7005 is compared to the testing data distribution of several satellites.

Shi, Qinzhong; Ando, Shigemasa; Seko, Hiromi; Nagahama, Kenta; Saegusa, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

294

A Task-oriented Study on the Influencing Effects of Query-biased Summarization in Web Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A task-oriented, comparative evaluation between four Web retrieval systems was performed; two using query-biased summarization, and two using the standard ranked titles/abstracts approach. Results indicate that query-biased summarization techniques appear to be more useful and effective in helping users gauge document relevance than the…

White, Ryen W.; Jose, Joemon M.; Ruthven, Ian

2003-01-01

295

MeSH: a window into full text for document summarization  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Previous research in the biomedical text-mining domain has historically been limited to titles, abstracts and metadata available in MEDLINE records. Recent research initiatives such as TREC Genomics and BioCreAtIvE strongly point to the merits of moving beyond abstracts and into the realm of full texts. Full texts are, however, more expensive to process not only in terms of resources needed but also in terms of accuracy. Since full texts contain embellishments that elaborate, contextualize, contrast, supplement, etc., there is greater risk for false positives. Motivated by this, we explore an approach that offers a compromise between the extremes of abstracts and full texts. Specifically, we create reduced versions of full text documents that contain only important portions. In the long-term, our goal is to explore the use of such summaries for functions such as document retrieval and information extraction. Here, we focus on designing summarization strategies. In particular, we explore the use of MeSH terms, manually assigned to documents by trained annotators, as clues to select important text segments from the full text documents. Results: Our experiments confirm the ability of our approach to pick the important text portions. Using the ROUGE measures for evaluation, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2 and ROUGE-SU4 F-scores of 0.4150, 0.1435 and 0.1782, respectively, for our MeSH term-based method versus the maximum baseline scores of 0.3815, 0.1353 and 0.1428, respectively. Using a MeSH profile-based strategy, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE F-scores of 0.4320, 0.1497 and 0.1887, respectively. Human evaluation of the baselines and our proposed strategies further corroborates the ability of our method to select important sentences from the full texts. Contact: sanmitra-bhattacharya@uiowa.edu; padmini-srinivasan@uiowa.edu

Bhattacharya, Sanmitra; Ha-Thuc, Viet; Srinivasan, Padmini

2011-01-01

296

Cherenkov Telescope Array Site Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be built on two sites, one placed in the Southern Hemisphere and another in the Northern Hemisphere, in order to achieve full sky coverage. The sites in the Northern Hemisphere under consideration include San Pedro Martir in Mexico (Baja California), a site near Izana on the island of Tenerife in Spain (Canary Islands), and two sites in the USA (Northern Arizona). In the South, negotiations are under way with Namibia (a site on the farm Aar near Aus) and Chile (a site near Paranal), while Argentina is considered as a third option. The data collection efforts for site evaluation and the key site specifications will be summarized.

Humensky, Brian; Grube, Jeff

2014-08-01

297

Retroviral Integration Site Selection  

PubMed Central

The stable insertion of a copy of their genome into the host cell genome is an essential step of the life cycle of retroviruses. The site of viral DNA integration, mediated by the viral-encoded integrase enzyme, has important consequences for both the virus and the host cell. The analysis of retroviral integration site distribution was facilitated by the availability of the human genome sequence, revealing the non-random feature of integration site selection and identifying different favored and disfavored genomic locations for individual retroviruses. This review will summarize the current knowledge about retroviral differences in their integration site preferences as well as the mechanisms involved in this process.

Desfarges, Sebastien; Ciuffi, Angela

2010-01-01

298

Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

None

2012-01-01

299

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

300

A Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) Meteorite Compendium: Summarizing Samples of Asteroid 4 Vesta in Preparation for the Dawn Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite of meteorites, thought to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, has been summarized into a compendium; it will be made available prior to the planned arrival of the Dawn Mission at Vesta in August 2011.

Garber, J. M.; Righter, K.

2011-03-01

301

Biomedical text summarization to support genetic database curation: using Semantic MEDLINE to create a secondary database of genetic information  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper examines the development and evaluation of an automatic summarization system in the domain of molecular genetics. The system is a potential component of an advanced biomedical information management application called Semantic MEDLINE and could assist librarians in developing secondary databases of genetic information extracted from the primary literature. Methods: An existing summarization system was modified for identifying biomedical text relevant to the genetic etiology of disease. The summarization system was evaluated on the task of identifying data describing genes associated with bladder cancer in MEDLINE citations. A gold standard was produced using records from Genetics Home Reference and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Genes in text found by the system were compared to the gold standard. Recall, precision, and F-measure were calculated. Results: The system achieved recall of 46%, and precision of 88% (F-measure?=?0.61) by taking Gene References into Function (GeneRIFs) into account. Conclusion: The new summarization schema for genetic etiology has potential as a component in Semantic MEDLINE to support the work of data curators.

Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F; Rindflesch, Thomas C

2010-01-01

302

Relationship between summarizing chemical parameters like AOX, TOC, TN b , and toxicity tests for effluents from the chemical production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therefore this study was undertaken to investigate, whether there are correlations between summarizing parameters, which potentially indicate hazardous water components, like AOX (adsorbable organic halogen), TOC (total organic carbon) and TN b (total bound nitrogen) and biological effects, observed from different bioassays conducted in the laboratory. The toxic effects were investigated on luminescent bacteria, microcrustaceans and algae in accordance with

G. Gellert

2000-01-01

303

The Effect of a Summarization-Based Cumulative Retelling Strategy on Listening Comprehension of College Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because students with visual impairments need auditory materials in order to access information, listening comprehension skills are important to their academic success. The present study investigated the effectiveness of summarization-based cumulative retelling strategy on the listening comprehension of four visually impaired college students. An…

Tuncer, A. Tuba; Altunay, Banu

2006-01-01

304

Public participation in IRP process: A short note paper summarizing a panel session at the July 1994 summer power meeting  

SciTech Connect

Times are changing in the utility industry and public groups are taking a more active role in the Integrated Resource Planning Process by presenting their advice and consultation on matters of public concerns as evidenced by the following abstracts that summarize the panel session held during the 1994 Summer Power Meeting in San Francisco, California. Carol Fisher, ABB Systems Control, Automated Distribution Division, chaired the session; while Nancy Esteb of Pacificorp, Earl Greene, Jr. of Florida Power Corporation and Benjamin Hobbs of Case Western Reserve University were the panelists. Each panelist presented a different perspective on public participation in the IRP process with examples of how their companies developed and implemented this process. The papers summarize the individual presentations and discussions.

Fisher, C. [ABB, Cary, NC (United States)] [ABB, Cary, NC (United States); Esteb, N. [PacifiCorp., Portland, OR (United States)] [PacifiCorp., Portland, OR (United States); Greene, E.R. Jr. [Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Hobbs, B.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

305

Hanford Site comprehensive site compliance evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the second annual submittal by WHC, ICF/KH, PNL and BHI and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1993a) as required by General Permit No. WA-R-00- 000F (WA-R-00-A17F): This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation, as required in Part IV, Section D. $. C. of the General Permit, summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation, and documents significant leaks and spills.

Tollefson, K.S.

1995-09-01

306

Different effects of the probe summarization algorithms PLIER and RMA on high-level analysis of Affymetrix exon arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that increases protein diversity and functionality in higher eukaryotes. Affymetrix exon arrays are a commercialized platform used to detect alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Two probe summarization algorithms, PLIER (Probe Logarithmic Intensity Error) and RMA (Robust Multichip Average), are commonly used to compute gene-level and exon-level expression values. However, a systematic comparison of these two algorithms on their effects on high-level analysis of the arrays has not yet been reported. Results In this study, we showed that PLIER summarization led to over-estimation of gene-level expression changes, relative to exon-level expression changes, in two-group comparisons. Consequently, it led to detection of substantially more skipped exons on up-regulated genes, as well as substantially more included (i.e., non-skipped) exons on down-regulated genes. In contrast, this bias was not observed for RMA-summarized data. By using a published human tissue dataset, we compared the tissue-specific expression and splicing detected by Affymetrix exon arrays with those detected based on expressed sequence databases. We found the tendency of PLIER was not supported by the expressed sequence data. Conclusion We showed that the tendency of PLIER in detection of alternative splicing is likely caused by a technical bias in the approach, rather than a biological bias. Moreover, we observed abnormal summarization results when using the PLIER algorithm, indicating that mathematical problems, such as numerical instability, may affect PLIER performance.

2010-01-01

307

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to;\\u000athe Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a).;\\u000aIncluded are subsections that summarize the sites geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting.;\\u000aThe cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the

Cathy A. Wills

2009-01-01

308

Beyond Description: Converting Web Site Usage Statistics into Concrete Site Improvement Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web site usage statistics are a widely used tool for Web site development, but libraries are still learning how to use them successfully. This case study summarizes how Morris Library at Southern Illinois University Carbondale implemented Google Analytics on its Web site and used the reports to inform a site redesign. As the main campus library at…

Arendt, Julie; Wagner, Cassie

2010-01-01

309

Geotechnical investigations of the PEP site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the general nature of the geology and rock and soil formations of the PEP site as they relate to the design and construction of the project; to describe site investigation programs and to catalog the geotechnical information presently available about the site. The recently-completed investigation of subterranean conditions around the PEP ring

1976-01-01

310

Health Care Transformation Through Collaboration on Open-Source Informatics Projects: Integrating a Medical Applications Platform, Research Data Repository, and Patient Summarization  

PubMed Central

Background The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) program seeks to conquer well-understood challenges in medical informatics through breakthrough research. Two SHARP centers have found alignment in their methodological needs: (1) members of the National Center for Cognitive Informatics and Decision-making (NCCD) have developed knowledge bases to support problem-oriented summarizations of patient data, and (2) Substitutable Medical Apps, Reusable Technologies (SMART), which is a platform for reusable medical apps that can run on participating platforms connected to various electronic health records (EHR). Combining the work of these two centers will ensure wide dissemination of new methods for synthesized views of patient data. Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is an NIH-funded clinical research data repository platform in use at over 100 sites worldwide. By also working with a co-occurring initiative to SMART-enabling i2b2, we can confidently write one app that can be used extremely broadly. Objective Our goal was to facilitate development of intuitive, problem-oriented views of the patient record using NCCD knowledge bases that would run in any EHR. To do this, we developed a collaboration between the two SHARPs and an NIH center, i2b2. Methods First, we implemented collaborative tools to connect researchers at three institutions. Next, we developed a patient summarization app using the SMART platform and a previously validated NCCD problem-medication linkage knowledge base derived from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Finally, to SMART-enable i2b2, we implemented two new Web service “cells” that expose the SMART application programming interface (API), and we made changes to the Web interface of i2b2 to host a “carousel” of SMART apps. Results We deployed our SMART-based, NDF-RT-derived patient summarization app in this SMART-i2b2 container. It displays a problem-oriented view of medications and presents a line-graph display of laboratory results. Conclusions This summarization app can be run in any EHR environment that either supports SMART or runs SMART-enabled i2b2. This i2b2 “clinical bridge” demonstrates a pathway for reusable app development that does not require EHR vendors to immediately adopt the SMART API. Apps can be developed in SMART and run by clinicians in the i2b2 repository, reusing clinical data extracted from EHRs. This may encourage the adoption of SMART by supporting SMART app development until EHRs adopt the platform. It also allows a new variety of clinical SMART apps, fueled by the broad aggregation of data types available in research repositories. The app (including its knowledge base) and SMART-i2b2 are open-source and freely available for download.

McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Wattanasin, Nich; Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Shawn N

2013-01-01

311

A Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) Meteorite Compendium: Summarizing Samples of ASteroid 4 Vesta in Preparation for the Dawn Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) suite of achondritic meteorites, thought to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, has recently been summarized into a meteorite compendium. This compendium will serve as a guide for researchers interested in further analysis of HEDs, and we expect that interest in these samples will greatly increase with the planned arrival of the Dawn Mission at Vesta in August 2011. The focus of this abstract/poster is to (1) introduce and describe HED samples from both historical falls and Antarctic finds, and (2) provide information on unique HED samples available for study from the Antarctic Meteorite Collection at JSC, including the vesicular eucrite PCA91007, the olivine diogenite EETA79002, and the paired ALH polymict eucrites.

Garber, J. M.; Righter, K.

2011-01-01

312

Traffic Operational Evaluation of Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) Case Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes traffic operational evaluation of six select traffic impact analysis (TIA) case sites and the effectiveness of forecasting methods used in TIA studies. Six TIA case sites comprising 15 signalized intersections and 2 unsignalized int...

S. S. Pulugurtha

2010-01-01

313

Site Design and Pedestrian Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings are summarized regarding the relationship between site design and pedestrian travel in mixed-use, medium-density environ- ments, and recommendations are set forth for improving pedestrian facil- ities in suburban neighborhoods. A quasi-experimental method is used to study pedestrian volumes into 12 neighborhood commercial centers in the central Puget Sound region. Sites were matched for population den- sity, land use

PAUL M. HESS; ANNE VERNEZ MOUDON; MARY CATHERINE SNYDER; Kiril Stanilov

1999-01-01

314

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

315

Closure report for Corrective Action Unit 211, Area 15 EPA Farm waste sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 211 Area 15 Farm Waste Sties at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms.

NONE

1998-04-01

316

1994 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

NONE

1995-05-01

317

Ghost Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is much on the Net that is living and vibrant, but there is also much that is dead, stuffed, or embalmed, as Steve Baldwin, former Pathfinder (discussed in the November 14, 1997 ScoutReport) writer likes to say. At this site Baldwin tracks notable embalmed, dead, or dying web sites. Each issue of Ghost Sites reviews five to ten such sites. Sites discussed include the latest Pathfinder out-of-date update on the Unibomber, the stillborn MecklerWeb, and Electric Minds (discussed in the November 22, 1996 Scout Report), abandoned by Howard Rheingold. Sites are rated from Dying in I.C.U. to Site is Stuffed, Embalmed and Ready for Internet Museum. Ironically, several of the sites discussed have been resurrected or metamorphosed since they were discussed, proving, if nothing else, that anything is possible in cyberspace. Note that clicking on discussed sites opens a new browser window.

318

Field Validation of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased penetration of wind power it is important to carefully asses the impact of grid integration of wind turbine generators. Accurate wind turbine generator models are required for this purpose. Variable speed wind turbine generators are widely being interconnected to the grid to ensure optimum power capture from the wind energy. In this paper, an attempt is made

Soubhik Auddy; R. K. Varma; M. Dang

2007-01-01

319

Summary of tank waste physical properties at the Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the physical parameters measured from Hanford Site tank wastes. Physical parameters were measured to determine the physical nature of the tank wastes to develop simulants and design in-tank equipment. The physical parameters were me...

Q. H. Nguyen

1994-01-01

320

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

321

State Programs for Hazardous Waste Site Assessments and Remedial Actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents information supplied by 45 States and one territory and summarizes data obtained through a survey examining State programs for hazardous waste site assessment and remedial actions. The survey assessed and contrasted State programs, the...

J. Macy B. Goggin J. Colman

1987-01-01

322

A Summarization of Technical and Scientific Reports Issued by the Ionosphere Research Laboratory - Papers Presented and Published - Subsequent to Scientific Report No. 200.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a sequel to Scientific Report No. 200 and, as such, is a continuation of the summarization of the scientific report output and paper presentation and publication by the Laboratory staff to date. The report is divided into three major section...

A. H. Waynick

1967-01-01

323

The Robustness of the Standard Error of Summarized, Corrected Validity Coefficients to Non-Independence and Non-Normality of Primary Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validity generalization meta-analysis (VG) examines the extent to which the validity of an instrument can be transported across settings. VG offers correction and summarization procedures designed in part to remove the effects of statistical artifacts on estimates of association between criterion and predictor. By employing a random effects model,…

Lambert, Richard G.; Curlette, William L.

324

NEST-SITE BIOLOGY OF THE CALIFORNIA CONDOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A study of 12 historical and recent nests of the California Condor (Gymnogyps cal- ifornianus) has revealed considerable variability in nest-site characteristics. This paper primarily summarizes the data on nest elevations and dimensions, entrance orientations, nest longevity and reuse, vulnerability of sites to natural enemies, and use of sites by other species. Although all known nests have been natural

Noel F. R. Snyder; Rob R. Ramey; Fred C. Sibley

325

60 Great Internet Sites for Math, Reading, and Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book rates 60 selected Web sites that focus on three core K-12 content areas--math, reading, and language arts. The introduction summarizes the quality criteria for the site ratings and selection, lists recommended software and plug-ins for viewing Web sites, provides tips on Internet navigation, and offers guidelines for Internet safety. The…

Treadwell, Mark

326

Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

1995-12-01

327

Summary of the Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 420-page Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996. The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The summary is designed to briefly: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1996 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1996 Hanford Site activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including groundwater protection and monitoring; and discuss activities to ensure quality.

Hanf, R.W.; O`Connor, G.P.; Dirkes, R.L. [eds.] [comps.

1997-08-01

328

Summary of the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary booklet summarizes the 'Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009.' The Hanford Site environmental report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary data that provide an overview of activities at the U.S. ...

J. P. Duncan R. L. Dirkes T. M. Poston

2010-01-01

329

RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

Palmer, E.

1998-10-02

330

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM, CF SYSTEMS ORGANICS EXTRACTION SYSTEM, NEW BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS (VOL I)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the CF Systems critical fluid organics extraction system at the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts Superfund site. he technology depends on the ability of organic pollutants ...

331

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM, CF SYSTEMS ORGANICS EXTRACTION SYSTEM, NEW BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS (VOL II)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the CF Systems critical fluid organics extraction system at the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts Superfund site. he technology depends on the ability of organic pollutants ...

332

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description  

SciTech Connect

This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

Cathy A. Wills

2009-09-01

333

Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

Montgomery, James M.

1992-04-01

334

Summarizing my DHS Internship Experience  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the author addresses four main topics: (1) A description of the topic of his internship at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security; (2) A description of his contributions to the project; (3) A discussion of research directions beneficial to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS); and (4) A discussion of the impact the internship experience had on his career aspirations. He feels the first three points can best be addressed using the contents of a paper his mentor, Dr. Tina Eliassi-Rad, and he have published based on their work this summer [Roberts and Eliassi-Rad, 2006]. Sections 2 - 5 are intended for this purpose and have been excerpted from that paper. He concludes this paper in Section 6 with a discussion of the fourth point.

Roberts, D L

2006-09-06

335

Summarize to Get the Gist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools prepare for the common core state standards in literacy, they'll be confronted with two challenges: first, helping students comprehend complex texts, and, second, training students to write arguments supported by factual evidence. A teacher's response to these challenges might be to lead class discussions about complex reading or assign…

Collins, John

2012-01-01

336

Mining and summarizing customer reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merchants selling products on the Web often ask their customers to review the products that they have purchased and the associated services. As e-commerce is becoming more and more popular, the number of customer reviews that a product receives grows rapidly. For a popular product, the number of reviews can be in hundreds or even thousands. This makes it difficult

Minqing Hu; Bing Liu

2004-01-01

337

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

338

Loop Summarization Using Abstract Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing program analysis tools that implement abstraction rely on saturating procedures to compute over-approximations of\\u000a fixpoints. As an alternative, we propose a new algorithm to compute an over-approximation of the set of reachable states of\\u000a a program by replacing loops in the control flow graph by their abstract transformer. Our technique is able to generate diagnostic\\u000a information in case of

Daniel Kroening; Natasha Sharygina; Stefano Tonetta; Aliaksei Tsitovich; Christoph M. Wintersteiger

2008-01-01

339

Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster summarizes the analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities.

Baring-Gould, E. I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

2005-05-01

340

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description  

SciTech Connect

This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

Cathy A. Wills

2006-10-01

341

2009 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

Ratel, K.M.; Brookhaven National Laboratory

2010-09-30

342

Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, the University of California (UC), as the managing and operating contractor of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepares an integrated report regarding its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2009 summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents

Regina

2010-01-01

343

The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

Not Available

1991-10-18

344

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

Not Available

1992-08-03

345

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1993 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

This annual Site Environmental Report summarizes Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL`s) environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1993. The purpose of this report is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Its format and content are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

Not Available

1994-05-01

346

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description  

SciTech Connect

This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

Cathy Wills

2008-09-01

347

Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report summary  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 1995 Site Environmental Report for the Fernald site. It describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. An overview is presented of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment.

NONE

1996-06-01

348

Site Map  

Cancer.gov

Search:  Site Map Whats New NBIA Application Collaborators NCI Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) Division of Cancer Prevention(DCP) QUICK LINKS National Cancer Institute cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) NCI

349

Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I  

SciTech Connect

The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

2008-09-15

350

Closure report for housekeeping category, Corrective Action Unit 349, Area 12, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 349 Area 12 at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms.

NONE

1998-01-01

351

Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its new mission; summarize the status in 1990 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; present information on environmental surveillance and the ground-water protection and monitoring program; and discuss activities to ensure quality.

Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Hefty, M.G.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.) [eds.

1991-12-20

352

Hanford Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations at the Hanford Site. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1992 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss public dose estimates from 1992 Hanford activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, and discuss activities to ensure quality.

Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E. [eds.

1993-06-01

353

Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.113  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results for Version 4.113 of the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site performance assessment model are summarized. Version 4.113 includes the Fiscal Year 2011 inventory estimate.

Shott, G. J.

2012-04-15

354

Savannah River Site dose control  

SciTech Connect

Health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) visited the Savannah River Site (SRS) as one of 12 facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractors with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). Their charter was to review, evaluate and summarize as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) techniques, methods and practices as implemented. This presentation gives an overview of the two selected ALARA practices implemented at the SRS: Administrative Exposure Limits and Goal Setting. These dose control methods are used to assure that individual and collective occupational doses are ALARA and within regulatory limits.

Smith, L.S.

1992-06-01

355

Savannah River Site dose control  

SciTech Connect

Health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) visited the Savannah River Site (SRS) as one of 12 facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractors with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). Their charter was to review, evaluate and summarize as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) techniques, methods and practices as implemented. This presentation gives an overview of the two selected ALARA practices implemented at the SRS: Administrative Exposure Limits and Goal Setting. These dose control methods are used to assure that individual and collective occupational doses are ALARA and within regulatory limits.

Smith, L.S.

1992-01-01

356

Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance

NSTec Radioactive Waste

2010-01-01

357

The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-22

358

The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

Not Available

1992-08-03

359

The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

Not Available

1991-10-18

360

The Hanford Site focus, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion.

Peterson, J.M.

1994-03-01

361

Site Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authors Clayton, Matthews and Simon offer their work, titled "Site Investigation," for free download. The text is broken up into chapters, and can be accessed together or separately. Additionally, users can also access a free copy of "Critical State Soil Mechanics" by authors Schofield and Wroth.

Clayton, C. R.; Matthews, M. C.; Simons, N. E.

2008-10-15

362

Characterization Report for the 92Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste

2006-01-01

363

2007 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the-length report.

Ratel,K.

2008-10-01

364

Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with regulatory requirements. The report provides an overview of activities at the Hanford Site; demonstrates the status of the site’s compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights significant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2010 information is included where appropriate.

Poston, Ted M.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2010-09-01

365

Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with regulatory requirements. The report provides an overview of activities at the site; demonstrates the status of the site’s compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights signifi cant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2008 information is included where appropriate.

Poston, Ted M.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2008-06-05

366

Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with regulatory requirements. The report provides an overview of activities at the Hanford Site; demonstrates the status of the site’s compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights significant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2009 information is included where appropriate.

Poston, Ted M.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2009-09-15

367

Site environmental report for calendar year 1996: Yucca Mountain site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The environmental program established by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) has been designed and implemented to protect, maintain, and restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to the environment and the public, and comply with environmental policies and US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE, 1990a), to be superseded by DOE Order 231.1 (under review), the status of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) environmental program has been summarized in this annual Site Environmental Report (SER) to characterize performance, document compliance with environmental requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts during calendar year 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

368

Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1998 (January through March 1998).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River Site during first quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a recor...

J. B. Hutchison

1999-01-01

369

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

370

Summary of Some Feasibility Studies for Site-Specific Solar Industrial Process Heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Cu...

1981-01-01

371

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2005-09-30

372

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

Cathy A. Wills

2006-10-01

373

Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Department of Defense Military Bases and Department of Energy Facilities for Siting a Small Modular Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of US Department of Defense (DOD) military base sites and DOE sites for possible powering with an SMR; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial res...

G. T. Mays O. A. Omitaomu R. J. Belles W. P. Poore

2013-01-01

374

PCDq: human protein complex database with quality index which summarizes different levels of evidences of protein complexes predicted from H-Invitational protein-protein interactions integrative dataset  

PubMed Central

Background Proteins interact with other proteins or biomolecules in complexes to perform cellular functions. Existing protein-protein interaction (PPI) databases and protein complex databases for human proteins are not organized to provide protein complex information or facilitate the discovery of novel subunits. Data integration of PPIs focused specifically on protein complexes, subunits, and their functions. Predicted candidate complexes or subunits are also important for experimental biologists. Description Based on integrated PPI data and literature, we have developed a human protein complex database with a complex quality index (PCDq), which includes both known and predicted complexes and subunits. We integrated six PPI data (BIND, DIP, MINT, HPRD, IntAct, and GNP_Y2H), and predicted human protein complexes by finding densely connected regions in the PPI networks. They were curated with the literature so that missing proteins were complemented and some complexes were merged, resulting in 1,264 complexes comprising 9,268 proteins with 32,198 PPIs. The evidence level of each subunit was assigned as a categorical variable. This indicated whether it was a known subunit, and a specific function was inferable from sequence or network analysis. To summarize the categories of all the subunits in a complex, we devised a complex quality index (CQI) and assigned it to each complex. We examined the proportion of consistency of Gene Ontology (GO) terms among protein subunits of a complex. Next, we compared the expression profiles of the corresponding genes and found that many proteins in larger complexes tend to be expressed cooperatively at the transcript level. The proportion of duplicated genes in a complex was evaluated. Finally, we identified 78 hypothetical proteins that were annotated as subunits of 82 complexes, which included known complexes. Of these hypothetical proteins, after our prediction had been made, four were reported to be actual subunits of the assigned protein complexes. Conclusions We constructed a new protein complex database PCDq including both predicted and curated human protein complexes. CQI is a useful source of experimentally confirmed information about protein complexes and subunits. The predicted protein complexes can provide functional clues about hypothetical proteins. PCDq is freely available at http://h-invitational.jp/hinv/pcdq/.

2012-01-01

375

Ecosystem studies at the Los Medanos site, Eddy County, New Mexico. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of biological studies conducted during 1980 at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico. The studies include: (1) densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos site; (2) aquatic ecosystems of the lower Pecos drainage; (3) floristic studies at the Los Medanos site; (4) plant successional, grazing, trampling, and salt studies on the Los Medanos site; (5) soil and vegetation studies at the Los Medanos site; (6) arthropod and decomposition studies at the WIPP site; (7) amphibians, reptiles and mammals at the Los Medanos site; (8) vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site; and (9) statistical analysis and data management. 7 refs. (ACR)

Hart, J.S. (ed.)

1981-05-01

376

Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with regulatory requirements. The report provides an overview of activities at the Hanford Site; demonstrates the status of the site's compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights significant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2011 information is included where appropriate.

Poston, Ted M.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2011-07-12

377

The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-08-01

378

Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1990: Summary pamphlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SRS publishes the Environmental Report each year to communicate the endings of the environmental monitoring and research programs to the public and government agencies. This pamphlet is intended to summarize important environmental activities at the Savannah River Site in 1990. Highlights include: In 1990, over 40,000 samples of environmental material were collected for radiological and nonradiological analyses. The largest

C. L. Cummings; D. K. Martin; J. L. Todd

1991-01-01

379

CHEMICAL MIXTURES AND HEALTH EFFECTS AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Between 1991 and 1993, EPA's Office of Research and Development conducted a small health effects research program dedicated to the problem of chemical mixtures at Superfund sites. This paper summarizes key findings from the program. The studies covered a wide range of endpoints, ...

380

Bioterrorism Web Site Resources for Infectious Disease Clinicians and Epidemiologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding bioterrorism-related information on the World Wide Web can be laborious. We hope to help readers find such information more easily by summarizing essential information in a consistent framework. A panel of 7 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reviewers identified Web sites and evaluated them for sponsorship, mission, content usefulness, online ease of use, and adherence to commonly accepted

Natalie E. Ferguson; Lynn Steele; Carol Y. Crawford; Nathan L. Huebner; Jamila C. Fonseka; Jason C. Bonander; Matthew J. Kuehnert

2003-01-01

381

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1995 site environmental report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the 1995 calendar year. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the environmental management programs. The report also discusses significant highlights and plans of these programs. Topics discussed include: environmental monitoring,

D. Balgobin; I. Javandel; G. Lackner; C. Smith; P. Thorson; H. Tran

1996-01-01

382

Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

1977-01-01

383

Ames Laboratory site environmental report, calendar year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1995. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

NONE

1997-01-01

384

Summary of the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

This summary booklet summarizes the "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009." The Hanford Site environmental report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary data that provide an overview of activities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site environmental report provides an overview of activities at the site; demonstrates the status of the site’s compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights significant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2010 information is included where appropriate.

Duncan, Joanne P.; Poston, Ted M.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2010-09-30

385

Summary of the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

This summary booklet summarizes the "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008." The Hanford Site environmental report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary data that provide an overview of activities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site environmental report provides an overview of activities at the site; demonstrates the status of the site’s compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies and directives; and summarizes environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The report also highlights significant environmental and public protection programs and efforts. Some historical and early 2009 information is included where appropriate.

Duncan, Joanne P.; Poston, Ted M.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2009-09-15

386

Environmental Monitoring at Major U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contractor Sites: Calendar Year 1973. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this compendium is to compile in a central reference document the 1973 annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Atomic Energy Commission sites which have a potential for enviro...

1973-01-01

387

Environmental Monitoring at Major U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contractor Sites: Calendar Year 1973. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this compendium is to compile in a central reference document the 1973 annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Atomic Energy Commission sites which have a potential for enviro...

1973-01-01

388

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Ecosystem studies at the Los Medanos Site Eddy County, New Mexico. Volume I of III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the results of biological studies conducted at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico during 1981. Complete study reports prepared by the principal investigators are included as an appendix to this document. Biological studies have been underway at the Los Medanos site since 1975; this work constitutes a portion of the site characterization effort the US

J. Braswell; J. S. Hart

1982-01-01

389

Annual Site Environmental Report: 2002  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information about environmental programs during 2002 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded, research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. The most noteworthy information in this report is summarized in this section. This summary demonstrates the effective application of SLAC environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety management system (ISMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that worker safety and health are protected; the environment is protected; and compliance is ensured. Throughout 2002, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. SLAC did not receive any notices of violation during 2002. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2002, in decreasing air emission rates, the storm drain system, groundwater restoration, and planning for a chemical management system to manage chemical use better.

Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

2006-04-19

390

Annual Site Environmental Report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, calendar year 1991  

SciTech Connect

This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes LBL environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1991. The purpose of this Report is to present summary environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts.

Pauer, R.O.; Schleimer, G.E.; Javendel, I. (eds.)

1992-05-01

391

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: SITE PROGRAM, CF SYSTEMS ORGANICS EXTRACTION SYSTEM, NEW BEDFORD, MA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the CF Systems critical fluid organics extraction system at the New Bedford Harbor, Mass., Superfund site. t also provides a review of those conditions which this technology...

392

Annual Report - FY 1998, Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes waste shipments to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Sites at Area 3 and Area 5 during fiscal year 1998. In addition this report provides a summary evaluation of each shipping campaign by source (waste generator) which identifies observable incidents, if any, associated with the actual waste shipments.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

1999-02-01

393

2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

2003-02-20

394

Animal investigation program for the Nevada Test Site: 1957-1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the findings of the Animal Investigation Program from its initiation in 1957 to termination in 1981. The Program investigated the effects of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site on domestic and wild animals residing on, and in the vicinity of the Test Site. Claims of injury to animals were investigated and a routine program of collecting

D. D. Smith; S. C. Black

1984-01-01

395

2010 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection, of this volume. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the full report. BNL is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), a partnership formed by Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. For more than 60 years, the Laboratory has played a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission and continues to contribute to the DOE missions in energy resources, environmental quality, and national security. BNL manages its world-class scientific research with particular sensitivity to environmental issues and community concerns. The Laboratory's motto, 'Exploring Life's Mysteries...Protecting its Future,' and its Environmental, Safety, Security and Health Policy reflect the commitment of BNL's management to fully integrate environmental stewardship into all facets of its mission and operations.

Ratel, K.; Lee, R; Remien, J; Hooda, B; Green, T; Williams, J; Pohlot, P; Dorsch, W; Paquette, D; Burke, J

2011-10-01

396

Description of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program  

SciTech Connect

The background and the results to date of the Department of Energy program to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly utilized by the Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are summarized. The sites of concern were federally, privately, and institutionally owned and were used primarily for research, processing, and storage of uranium and thorium ores, concentrates, or residues. Some sites were subsequently released for other purposes without radiological restriction. Surveys have been conducted since 1974 to document radiological conditions at such sites. Based on radiological surveys, sites are identified in this document that require, or are projected to require, remedial action to remove potential restrictions on the use of the property due to the presence of residual low-level radioactive contamination. Specific recommendations for each site will result from more detailed environmental and engineering surveys to be conducted at those sites and, if necessary, an environmental impact assessment or environmental impact statement will be prepared. Section 3.0 describes the current standards and guidelines now being used to conduct remedial actions. Current authority of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to proceed with remedial actions and the new authority required are summarized. A plan to implement the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in accordance with the new authority is presented, including the objectives, scope, general approach, and a summary schedule. Key issues affecting schedule and cost are discussed.

Not Available

1980-09-01

397

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1994 site environmental report  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

NONE

1995-05-01

398

Hanford Site Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

399

Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

None

2012-03-01

400

NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints to be addressed in design and licensing processes; assure the HTGR technology can be deployed at variety of sites for a range of applications; evaluate potential sites for potential hazards and describe some of the actions necessary to mitigate impacts of hazards; and, provide key insights that can inform the plant design process. The report presents a summary of the process methodology and the results of an assessment of hazards typical of a class of candidate sites for the potential deployment of HTGR reactor technology. The assessment considered health and safety, and other important siting characteristics to determine the potential impact of identified hazards and potential challenges presented by the location for this technology. A four reactor module nuclear plant (2000 to 2400 MW thermal), that co-generates steam, electricity for general use in the plant, and hot gas for use in a nearby chemical processing facility, to provide the requisite performance and reliability was assumed for the assessment.

Wayne Moe

2011-10-01

401

Benchmark calculations from summarized data: an example  

SciTech Connect

Benchmark calculations often are made from data extracted from publications. Such datamay not be in a formmost appropriate for benchmark analysis, and, as a result, suboptimal and/or non-standard benchmark analyses are often applied. This problem can be mitigated in some cases using Monte Carlo computational methods that allow the likelihood of the published data to be calculated while still using an appropriate benchmark dose (BMD) definition. Such an approach is illustrated herein using data from a study of workers exposed to styrene, in which a hybrid BMD calculation is implemented from dose response data reported only as means and standard deviations of ratios of scores on neuropsychological tests from exposed subjects to corresponding scores from matched controls. The likelihood of the data is computed using a combination of analytic and Monte Carlo integration methods.

Crump, K. S.; Teeguarden, Justin G.

2009-03-01

402

Task-focused Summarization of Email  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SmartMail, a prototype system for automatically identifying action items (tasks) in email messages. SmartMail presents the user with a task-focused summary of a message. The summary consists of a list of action items extracted from the message. The user can add these action items to their \\

Simon Corston-Oliver; Eric Ringger; Michael Gamon; Richard Campbell

2004-01-01

403

Summarizing craniofacial genetics and developmental biology (SCGDB).  

PubMed

This overview article highlights active areas of research in craniofacial genetics and developmental biology as reflected in presentations given at the 34th annual meeting of the Society of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology (SCGDB) in Montreal, Quebec on October 11, 2011. This 1-day meeting provided a stimulating occasion that demonstrated the present status of research in craniofacial genetics and developmental biology and where the field is heading. To accompany the abstracts published in this issue I have selected several themes that emerged from the meeting. After discussing the basis on which craniofacial defects/syndromes are classified and investigated, I address the multi-gene basis of craniofacial syndromes with an examination of the roles of Sox9 and FGF receptors in normal and abnormal craniofacial development. I then turn to the knowledge being gained from population-wide and longitudinal cohort studies and from the discovery of new signaling centers that regulate craniofacial development. PMID:24482307

Hall, Brian K

2014-04-01

404

Diagnostic Hysteroscopy Video Summarization and Browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic hysteroscopy videos are continuous (non-interrupted) video sequences, usually recorded in full. However, only a few segments of the recorded videos are relevant from the diagnosis\\/prognosis point of view, and need to be evaluated and referenced later. This paper proposes statistical techniques to identify clinically relevant segments in diagnostic hysteroscopy videos, and their associated key-frames, to create a rich video

Jacob Scharcanski

2005-01-01

405

Summarization of an Online Medical Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summa- rization and apply it to multiple documents from an online med- ical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately gener- ating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation

Marcelo Fiszman; Thomas C. Rindflesch; Halil Kilicoglu

2004-01-01

406

A Web Page Summarization for Mobile Phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, web pages for mobile devices are widely spread on the Internet and a lot of people can access web pages through search engines by mobile devices as well as personal computers. A summary of a retrieved web page is important because the people judge whether or not the page would be relevant to their information need according to the summary. In particular, the summary must be not only compact but also grammatical and meaningful when the users retrieve information using a mobile phone with a small screen. Most search engines seem to produce a snippet based on the keyword-in-context (KWIC) method. However, this simple method could not generate a refined summary suitable for mobile phones because of low grammaticality and content overlap with the page title. We propose a more suitable method to generate a snippet for mobile devices using sentence extraction and sentence compression methods. First, sentences are biased based on whether they include the query terms from the users or words that are relevant to the queries, as well as whether they do not overlap with the page title based on maximal marginal relevance (MMR). Second, the selected sentences are compressed based on their phrase coverage, which is measured by the scores of words, and their phrase connection probability measured based on the language model, according to the dependency structure converted from the sentence. The experimental results reveal the proposed method outperformed the KWIC method in terms of relevance judgment, grammaticality, non-redundancy and content coverage.

Hasegawa, Takaaki; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Imamura, Kenji; Kikui, Gen'ichiro; Okumur, Manabu

407

Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by four major US Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and Savannah River Site (SRS). This document describes the TFA`s process of collecting site needs, analyzing them, and creating technical responses to the sites. It also summarizes the information contained within the TFA needs database, portraying information provided by four major DOE sites with tank waste problems. The overall TFA program objective is to deliver a tank technology program that reduces the current cost, and the operational and safety risks of tank remediation. The TFA`s continues to enjoy close, cooperative relationships with each site. During the past year, the TFA has fostered exchanges of technical information between sites. These exchanges have proven to be healthy for all concerned. The TFA recognizes that site technology needs often change, and the TFA must be prepared not only to amend its program in response, but to help the sites arrive at the best technical approach to solve revised site needs.

NONE

1998-03-01

408

Improving Web Site Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

lead to lost productivity and rev-enue. The question of how to improve the design of informational Web sites is thus of critical importance. Although most prominent Web sites are created by professional design firms, many smaller sites are built by people with little design experience or training. As a consequence, Web sites with local reach, such as those belonging to

Melody Y. Ivory; Marti A. Hearst

2002-01-01

409

LSST site evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project for the proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) performed more than two years of data collection, site evaluation, and analysis to support the selection of its prime site. LSST assessment was based on using an existing site with existing infrastructure and historical performance information. A large and diverse set of comparative information was compiled for potential sites using

Jacques Sebag; Victor Krabbendam; Chuck Claver; Jeff Barr; Joshua Barr; Jeff Kantor; Abhijt Saha; D. André Erasmus

2006-01-01

410

Hanford Site Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

1993-05-01

411

Paducah Site annual environmental report for 1994  

SciTech Connect

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located in McCracken County, Kentucky, has been producing enriched uranium since 1952. In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) leased the production areas of the site to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). A new subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation (formerly Martin Marietta Corporation), Lockheed Martin Utility Services, manages the leased facilities for USEC. DOE maintains responsibility for the environmental restoration and waste management activities at the plant through its management contractor, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The purpose of this document is to summarize calendar year 1994 environmental monitoring activities for DOE activities at the Paducah site. DOE requires all of its facilities to conduct and document such activities annually. This report does not include USEC environmental activities.

Horak, C.M. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-02-01

412

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

Not Available

1991-06-18

413

Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2002'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterizes environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlights significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2002. Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab,'' ''the Laboratory,'' ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,'' and ''LBNL.'' The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from the monitoring programs. This year, the ''Site Environmental Report'' was distributed on a CD in PDF format that includes Volume I, Volume II, and related documents. The report is also available on the Web at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are additionally reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

Pauer, Ron

2003-07-01

414

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

Cathy Wills

2008-09-01

415

Hanford Site Strategic Facilities Plan: Site planning  

SciTech Connect

This plan revises the Hanford Site Strategic Facilities Plan submitted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988. It separates the Hanford Site facilities into two categories: ''strategically required'' facilities and ''marginal'' facilities. It provides a comparison of future facility requirements against existing capacities and proposed projects to eliminate or consolidate marginal facilities (i.e., those facilities that are not fully utilized or are no longer required to accomplish programmatic missions). The objective is to enhance the operating efficiency of the Hanford Site by maximizing facility use and minimizing unnecessary facility operating and maintenance costs. 11 refs.

Not Available

1989-03-01

416

Site environmental report for calendar year 1994, Yucca Mountain Site, Nye County, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization office has established an environmental program to ensure that facilities are operated in order to protect, maintain, and restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to the environment and the public, and comply with environmental policies and US DOE orders. The status of the environmental program has been summarized in this annual report to characterize performance, confirm compliance with environmental requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts during CY 1994. Monitoring, archaeology, groundwater, ecosystems, tortoise conservation, waste minimization, etc., are covered.

NONE

1995-06-01

417

Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations.

Prignano, A.L.

1995-02-21

418

Wind speed statistics for Goldstone, California, anemometer sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory wind survey at an antenna complex was summarized statistically for application to future windmill designs. Data were collected at six locations from a total of 10 anemometers. Statistics include means, standard deviations, cubes, pattern factors, correlation coefficients, and exponents for power law profile of wind speed. Curves presented include: mean monthly wind speeds, moving averages, and diurnal variation patterns. It is concluded that three of the locations have sufficiently strong winds to justify consideration for windmill sites.

Berg, M.; Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.; Strain, D.

1981-01-01

419

218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site clean closure soil evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a soil sampling and analyses study performed for the 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site (218 E-8 Demolition Site). The 218 E-8 Demolition Site is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. The site was used for the thermal treatment of discarded explosive chemical products. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the soil by 218 E-8 Demolition Site activities.

Korematsu-Olund, D.M.

1995-06-12

420

SMARTE'S SITE CHARACTERIZATION TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Site Characterization involves collecting environmental data to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination. Environmental data could consist of chemical analyses of soil, sediment, water or air samples. Typically site characterization data are statistically evaluated for thr...

421

Inventory Control Related Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inventory Control Related Sites is a straightforward index of Websites dealing with inventory control, created by Kyle Thill, a 20-year veteran of inventory control. The sites are fully annotated and cover Census Bureau information, articles, and other metasites.

422

Site Characteristics. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Revegetation success on disturbed sites is closely aligned to abiotic characteristics. Site-specific, microenvironmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation, effect revegetative success. Slope angle and aspect control radiation loads and thus...

C. Moore

1983-01-01

423

Field site selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several general guidelines should be kept in mind when considering the selection of field sites for teaching remote sensing fundamentals. Proximity and vantage point are two very practical considerations. Only through viewing a broad enough area to place the site in context can one make efficient use of a site. The effects of inclement weather when selecting sites should be considered. If field work is to be an effective tool to illustrate remote sensing principles, the following criteria are critical: (1) the site must represent the range of class interest; (2) the site must have a theme or add something no other site offers; (3) there should be intrasite variation within the theme; (4) ground resolution and spectral signature distinction should be illustrated; and (5) the sites should not be ordered sequentially.

Schwarz, D. E.; Ellefsen, R. E.

1981-01-01

424

DNAPL Site Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAP...

J. W. Mercer R. M. Cohen

1993-01-01

425

Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

NONE

1997-04-01

426

The Django Administration Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For a certain class of Web sites, an admin interface is an essential part of the infrastructure. This is a Web-based interface, limited to trusted site administrators, that enables\\u000a the addition, editing, and deletion of site content. The interface you use to post to your blog, the back-end site managers\\u000a use to moderate reader-generated comments, the tool your clients use

Adrian Holovaty; Jacob Kaplan-Moss

427

Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

Hulstrom, L.

2011-02-07

428

Restructuring Multilingual Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice of Web site development does not ad- dress explicitly the problems related to multilingual sites. Thesame information, as well as thesame navigation paths, page formatting and organization, are expected to be pro- vided by the site independently from the chosen language. This is typically ensured by adopting personal conventions on the way pages are named and on their

Paolo Tonella; Filippo Ricca; Emanuele Pianta; Christian Girardi

2002-01-01

429

Apollo Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacherâs guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

430

DNAPL SITE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including: (a) th...

431

Using Multiple Unmanned Systems for a Site Security Task  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned systems are often used to augment the ability of humans to perform challenging tasks. While the value of individual unmanned vehicles have been proven for a variety of tasks, it is less understood how multiple unmanned systems should be used together to accomplish larger missions such as site security. The purpose of this paper is to discuss efforts by researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to explore the utility and practicality of operating multiple unmanned systems for a site security mission. This paper reviews the technology developed for a multi-agent mission and summarizes the lessons-learned from a technology demonstration.

Matthew O. Anderson; Curtis W. Nielsen; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth; Ryan C. Hruska; John A. Koudelka

2009-04-01

432

Tomography finds waste sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

Bush, Susan M.

433

Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1988-01-01

434

2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation  

SciTech Connect

The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

2003-02-01

435

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

436

Nevada Site Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada includes an area larger than the state of Rhode Island, and for decades, it was where the United States government conducted its nuclear weapons tests. This website, created and maintained by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) provides materials for the general public about the activities on the site over the past five decades. The materials on the site are divided into five primary sections, including "National Security", "Library", and "Environmental Programs". The "Environmental Programs" area provides reports and documents related to the environmental legacy of historic nuclear weapons related activities and the natural wildlife on the site. The "Library" area contains fact sheets, news releases, and historical documents that talk about the containment of underground nuclear explosions and the origins of the Nevada Test Site. The site is rounded out by a selection of fascinating films that depict historical controlled nuclear tests from the site.

437

Australian SunSITE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian National University and Sun Microsystems recently launched Australian SunSITE. The site provides a wealth of pointers to Australian an Oceanian resources of all types, and is particularly strong with respect to Australian government information sites. It also provides Questacon, -- the Australian National Science and Technology Center -- "Australia's premier hands-on science and technology centre," which features a number of children's hands-on science activities, as well as a virtual tour of the Questacon galleries. Australian SunSITE also provides a South Pacific Information Network (SPIN), with further information and links to South Pacific Resources, as well as a developing "Women's Network for the Vocational Education and Training Sector in the Asia Pacific Region (WINVET)." Questacon and WINVET can be found under "Education" on the home page. SPIN can be found under "What's on this SunSITE." Australian SunSITE also provides pointers to 25 other worldwide SunSITEs.

438

Smoothing control of wind generator output fluctuation by using electric double layer capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a wind power generation system composed of a wind turbine generator, a hydrogen generation device, and an energy capacitor system (ECS), which are controlled cooperatively. It can supply the electric power with low fluctuation to the electric power system as well as generates hydrogen constantly. The output of wind turbine generators, in general, fluctuate greatly due to

Kodai Ushiwata; Seiji Shishido; Rion Takahashi; Toshiaki Murata; Junji Tamura

2007-01-01

439

Transient grounding characteristics of wind turbine with counterpoise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installations of wind turbine generator systems are noteworthy examples of eco-friendly energy generation. Because larger-scale facilities and increased electrical capacity can be realized by increasing the number of turbines, wind energy can be utilized more efficiently than other clean energy sources. However, the number of lightning strikes has increased with the popularization of wind turbine generator systems because of their

Junichi Niihara; Akihiro Ametani; Kazuo Yamamoto

2012-01-01

440

76 FR 66064 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of a foreign manufactured 50 kW wind turbine generator that meets the Borough's...no domestic manufactured 50 kW wind turbines available in sufficient and reasonable...of a foreign manufactured 50 kW wind turbine generator by the Borough, as...

2011-10-25

441

Design of direct-driven permanent-magnet generators for wind turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an investigation of how a direct-driven wind turbine generator should be designed and how small and efficient such a generator will be. Advantages and disadvantages of various types of direct-driven wind turbine generators are discuss...

A. Grauers

1996-01-01

442

A hybrid power system using alternative energy facilities in isolated island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid power system uses many wind turbine generators in isolated small islands. The output power of wind turbine generators is mostly fluctuating and has an effect on system frequency. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new power system using renewable energy in small, isolated islands. The system can supply high-quality power using an aqua electrolyzer, fuel

Tomonobu Senjyu; Toshiaki Nakaji; Katsumi Uezato; Toshihisa Funabashi

2005-01-01

443

Summary of atmospheric wind design criteria for wind energy conversion system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic design values are presented of significant wind criteria, in graphical format, for use in the design and development of wind turbine generators for energy research. It is a condensed version of portions of the Engineering Handbook on the Atmospheric Environmental Guidelines for Use in Wind Turbine Generator Development.

Frost, W.; Turner, R. E.

1979-01-01

444

Application of Neural Network Technology in the Individual Pitch Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the lower energy density, the randomness and the instability of the wind energy, it is difficult to control the large-scale wind turbine generators. Based on the domestic megawatt wind turbine generator system, the pitch control techniques for large scale wind turbine are deeply analyzed in this thesis. The basic law of pitch control is analyzed on the basis

Shouyi Wang; Gang Xing

2011-01-01

445

The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

Not Available

1991-06-18

446

Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Conceptual Design Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

Montgomery, James M.

1992-03-01

447

Sitewide risk perspectives for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently finalized a closure plan (originally called the Ten Year Plan) for closure and environmental cleanup of previous nuclear weapons facilities. The DOE Rocky Flats Field Office has established priorities for risk reduction work to Support closure activities, as well as addressing those hazards associated with storage and management of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. To provide information for future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) or other regulatory assessments of specific risk reduction projects identified in the Closure Plan, a risk assessment of normal operations and potential accidents was recently prepared to provide an updated baseline of the cumulative impacts to the worker, public and environment due to the Site`s operations, activities, and environmental conditions in light of the Site`s change in mission, and of future closure projects. This paper summarizes the risk assessment approach, results, and conclusions.

Olinger, S.J. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Field Office; Foppe, T.L. [M.H. Chew and Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-05-01

448

TWRS privatization phase I site development engineering study  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to develop the selected site for the privatization facilities. This study addresses the pertinent issues related to the development of the site and specific parcels to be assigned to each of two private contractors. It also summarizes other studies that address provisions for utilities and other site services.

Shord, A.L.

1996-09-30

449

Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

2001-09-28

450

Viking landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

Panagakos, N.

1973-01-01

451

The Slug Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one-stop nudibranch site features a Nudibranch of the Week, complete with pictures and description. Site also includes links to many additional internal and external nudibranch resources. Be sure to check out Dr. Hans Bertsch's page on everything you ever wanted to know about nudibranchs, but were afraid to ask. Plentiful amounts of information and photographs. Site also includes downloadable film of nudibranchs from across the globe.

Miller, Michael D.

2010-11-18

452

Marte Valles site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This site is located at 16 deg N, 177 deg W on the flood plains of Marte Valles, which is perhaps the youngest channel system on Mars. The young age of this channel warrants investigation because of climatic implications for fluvial activities in recent geologic time. The paucity of craters makes this an excellent site in terms of safety requirements. Some of the objectives stated previously for the Maja Valles region would also apply to this site (grab bag of rock types, etc.).

Rice, Jim W.

1994-01-01

453

1994 Site environmental report  

SciTech Connect

The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

NONE

1995-07-01

454

US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process  

SciTech Connect

Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

1982-06-01

455

Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

Ruggieri, M.

2000-08-01

456

Common contaminants found at Superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created this booklet to help you understand more about some of the most common contaminants found at Superfund sites. This booklet consists of contaminant fact sheets and public health statements prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and are based on information in ATSDR`s technical toxicological profiles. The fact sheets discuss the contaminants` known effects on human health, while acknowledging that in some instances only limited information exists about long-term health effects. For those chemicals for which fact sheets are not available at the time of this document`s publication, ATSDR`s public health statements are included. The fact sheets summarize potential adverse health effects associated with exposure to hazardous substances. The fact sheets are derived from the first chapter of the ATSDR toxicological profiles, the public health statement, and are written in an easy-to-read format.

NONE

1998-03-01

457

Alternating current electrocoagulation for superfund site remediation  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) was evaluated for a 2-year period. ACE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous media for the removal of suspended solids, oil droplets, and soluble ionic pollutants. ACE can break stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of up to 10% total solids and stable emulsions containing up to 5% oil. Major operating parameters have been defined for different classes of effluents based on experimental results using complex synthetic soil slurries and metals. Test results indicate that ACE produces aqueous and solid separations comparable to those produced by chemical flocculent additions, but with reduced filtration times and sludge volumes. The technology has application where removal of soluble and suspended pollutants from effluents is required, and in the recovery of fine-grained products from process streams. The technology however, has not yet been demonstrated at full-scale for Superfund site remediation. Summarized are the principal results of the SITE research program and results of ACE treatment on some different classes of industrial effluents, not part of the SITE Program.

Barkley, N.P.; Farrell, C.W.; Gardner-Clayson, T.W.

1993-01-01

458

Summary of the Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 390-page Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1994. The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to review and document environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts and is written to meet both the reporting requirements and guidelines of the US Department of energy (DOE) and the needs of the public. This report includes information on important Hanford Site compliance issues, environmental monitoring programs and results, and general information on the Site and the surrounding area.

Hanf, R.W.; Schrempf, R.E.; Dirkes, R.L. [eds.] [comps.

1996-01-01

459

FORMERLY USED DEFENSE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data layer represents point locations for Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) located in California, Arizona and Nevada. The original data was extracted from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineer's FUDSIS database. Each site has information about it's inventory status and...

460

Bacterial start site prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing number of completely sequenced bacterial genes, accurate gene prediction in bacterial genomes remains an important problem. Although the existing tools predict genes in bacterial genomes with high overall accuracy, their ability to pinpoint the translation start site remains unsatisfactory. In this paper, we present a novel approach to bacterial start site prediction that takes into account multiple

Sridhar S. Hannenhalli; William S. Hayes; Artemis G. Hatzigeorgiou; James W. Fickett

1999-01-01

461

A-3 Cleared Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work to clear the site for the A-3 Test Stand progresses quickly, as seen in this photo taken June 18 from atop the A-1 Test Stand. The next step in construction at 19-acre site will be the arrival of fill dirt in mid-July, followed by pilings and piling caps.

2007-01-01

462

Plugged-in SITE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines form, color, and technology at the University of Ottawa's School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE) building, focusing on systems (e.g., SITE is a data wired building, but with no expensive raised floors or cheap dropped ceilings); assembly rather than construction (replacing standard notions of construction with the process…

Phillips, Rhys

2003-01-01

463

WWW: Neuroscience Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human brain contains an estimated 100 billion neurons, and browsing the Web, one might be led to believe that there's a Web site for every one of those cells. It's no surprise that there are lots of Web sites concerning the nervous system. After all, the human brain is toward the top of nearly everyone's list of favorite organs and of…

Liu, Dennis

2006-01-01

464

Fossil Dig Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 5 of PDF), learners work in groups to create dig sites for display. Learners arrange dry, uncooked pasta "bones" to resemble dinosaur fossils on a foam tray of wet soil. Use this activity to introduce learners to dinosaur anatomy, dig sites, fossils, and paleontology in general.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

465

Creating a Django Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Now that we have some idea about how our site is supposed to look and function fresh in our minds from the last chapter, we’re\\u000a going to get started by creating the basic skeleton for the site.

Jim McGaw

466

Sites of the Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a map of Europe identifying the location of major concentration camps, extermination camps, and massacre sites during World War II. Maintains that only a few of the over 400 sites in the former Soviet Union where entire Jewish villages were exterminated are shown. (CFR)

McCleary, George F., Jr.

1995-01-01

467

Site Planning and Layout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines five issues related to child care facility design: (1) siting the building, outdoor play, and service areas; (2) creating favorable microclimates; (3) developmentally appropriate play yards; (4) pedestrian access and site circulation; and (5) vehicular access and parking away from pedestrians and play. (KB)

Moore, Gary T.

1998-01-01

468

Bubble Chamber Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This substantial site features a large number of photos of bubble chamber (BC) tracks, many with a discussion of the physics. There is a description of how the BC works and also useful tutorial on reading BC pictures. The high quality of the images and the explanations of the events that are shown make this site especially valuable.

2006-06-19

469

ANIMAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM 1980 ANNUAL REPORT: NEVADA TEST SITE AND VICINITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the data collected through the Animal Investigation Program during 1980. A major goal of the Program is to assess the radionuclide burden in the tissues of wild and domesticaded animals around the Nevada Test Site and to detect pathological effects resultin...

470

Water quality impacts from on-site waste disposal systems to coastal areas through groundwater discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes research studies linking on-site waste disposal systems (OSDS) to pathogen and nutrient concentrations in groundwater with the potential to impact coastal embayments. Few studies connect OSDS to coastal water quality. Most studies examined pathogen and nutrient impacts to groundwater and omitted estimations of contaminants discharged to surface water. The majority of studies focused on nitrogen, with little

P. J. Harris

1995-01-01

471

Disposal site-selection technical appendix. Phase 2. (North and South Puget Sound)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a technical appendix to both the Proposed Management Plan Report and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Phase II study covering north and south Puget Sound. Results of disposal-site-selection studies for Phase II of PSDDA, are summarized herein. Phase II includes the southern portion of Puget Sound south of the

D. Kendall; D. Jamison; J. Malek; P. Ehlers

1989-01-01

472

Utility Investment in on-Site Solar: Risk and Return Analysis for Capitalization and Financing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of financial strategies designed to accelerate the penetration of on-site solar heating and cooling systems are studied. The approach of portfolio theory or the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is used. The major features of the CAPM are summarize...

E. Kahn S. Schutz

1978-01-01

473

ON-SITE METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS TO CHARACTERIZE DIFFUSION FROM POINT SOURCES: WORKSHOP REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of a workshop entitled 'On-Site Meteorological Instrumentation Requirements to Characterize Diffusion from Point Sources' are summarized and reported. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Raleigh, North Carolina, on January 15-17, 1980...

474

A Five-Year School Building and Future Sites Program 1966-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…

1965

475

2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

Teresa R. Meachum

2004-02-01

476

SULFUR RETENTION AT INTENSIVELY STUDIED SITES IN THE U.S. AND CANADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers compiled and summarized current literature on sulfur (S) input/output budgets for intensively studied sites and soil plots in the U.S. and Canada and found S retention to be related to both soil order and extent of the last glaciation (Wisconsin). Zero net retention i...

477

Maclay On-Site Training Project (MOST): A Project in Compensatory Education. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essential goal of the Maclay On-Site Training Project is "to develop a method for training teachers who will be effective with the educationally disadvantaged." Although this final report summarizes the objectives and design of the overall project and its five components, its emphasis is on research developments related to ways of evaluating…

San Fernando Valley State Coll., Northridge, CA.

478

The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:Alimentary canalThe most anterior part of the alimentary canal is the food canal which is firmly interlocked by the maxillary stylets. From the stylets it passes into the

M. B. Ponsen

1972-01-01

479

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1999 (January through March 1999)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

Hutchison, J.B.

1999-12-08

480

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Third Quarter 1999 (July through September 1999)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program during the third quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

Hutchison, J.B.

2000-09-05

481

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Fourth Quarter 1999 (October through December 1999)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River site during fourth quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official records of the analytical results.

Hutchison, J.B.

2000-10-12

482

The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1998 (January through March 1998)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River Site during first quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

Hutchison, J.B.

1999-05-26

483

Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

2001-10-31

484

Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

2001-12-10

485

ANIMAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE: 1957-1981  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings of the Animal Investigation Program from its initiation in 1957 to termination in 1981. The Program investigated the effects of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site on domestic and wild animals residing on, and in the vicinity of the Test Si...

486

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2007-09-27

487

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2008-12-17

488

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005  

SciTech Connect

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2006-09-21

489

Site directed recombination  

DOEpatents

Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

Jurka, Jerzy W. (Los Altos, CA)

1997-01-01

490

Site decommissioning management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

1993-10-01

491

Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7  

SciTech Connect

This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

Cushing, C.E. [ed.] ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others] and others

1995-09-01

492

2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

2002-02-01

493

2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

2002-02-15

494

Annual Site Environmental Report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes LBL environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1992. The purpose of this Report is to present summary environmental information in order to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Its format and content are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.``

Balgobin, D.A.; Javandel, I.; Pauer, R.O.; Schleimer, G.E.; Thorson, P.A. [eds.

1993-05-01

495

Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

NONE

1997-07-23

496

Site-dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure has been developed which can be used to determine the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling systems. This procedure has been used in a study to investigate the influence of the site-dependent parameters on the economic feasibility of solar absorption cooling. The purpose of this study was to make preliminary site selections for solar powered absorption cooling systems. This paper summarizes the results of that study.

Bartlett, J. C.

1977-01-01

497

Apollo 16 landing site: Summary of earth based remote sensing data, part W  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared and radar studies of the Apollo 16 landing site are summarized. Correlations and comparisons between earth based remote sensing data, IR observations, and other data are discussed in detail. Remote sensing studies were devoted to solving two problems: (1) determining the physical difference between Cayley and Descartes geologic units near the landing site; and (2) determining the nature of the bright unit of Descartes mountain material.

Zisk, S. H.; Masursky, H.; Milton, D. J.; Schaber, G. G.; Shorthill, R. W.; Thompson, T. W.

1972-01-01

498

Annual Site Environmental Report, 2004  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information about environmental programs during 2004 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded, research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. The most noteworthy information in this report is summarized in this section. This summary demonstrates the effective application of SLAC environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety management system (ISMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that worker safety and health are protected; the environment is protected; and compliance is ensured. Throughout 2004, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. There were no reportable releases to the environment from SLAC operations during 2004. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2004, in waste minimization, recycling, decreasing air emission rates, stormwater drain system, groundwater restoration, and planning for a chemical management system to manage chemical use better. Program-specific details discussed are: (1) Air Quality--SLAC operates its air quality management program in compliance with its established permit conditions: 2004 was the seventh consecutive year the air quality management program operated without receiving any notices of violation (NOVs) from regulators. (2) Hazardous Waste--The Environmental Health Division of the San Mateo County Health Services Agency is the California certified unified permitting agency (CUPA) responsible for overseeing hazardous materials and waste management at SLAC. The CUPA made no facility inspections of SLAC during 2004. (3) Stormwater and Industrial Wastewater--SLAC operates its industrial and sanitary wastewater management program in compliance with established permit conditions: 2004 was the eighth consecutive year the program operated without receiving any NOVs from program regulators. During 2004 the last 32 unauthorized discharge connections to the stormwater system were eliminated. (4) Hazardous Materials Program--Although SLAC has been successful in meeting the regulatory requirements for managing hazardous materials, it has decided to pursue a more active strategy in reducing its use of such materials. The cornerstone of this effort is the implementation of a chemical management system (CMS). (5) Environmental Radiological Program--In 2004, no radiological incidents occurred that increased radiation levels or released radioactivity to the environment. In addition to managing its radioactive wastes safely and responsibly, SLAC worked to reduce the amount of waste generated. As detailed in Chapter 5, SLAC has implemented programs and systems to ensure compliance with all radiological requirements related to the environment. (6) Groundwater Protection and Environmental Restoration--In general, environmental concerns at SLAC are limited in number, small in scale and are actively being managed or eliminated. The Environmental Restoration Program continued work on site characterization and evaluation of remedial alternatives at four sites with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater and several areas with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead in soil.

Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

2006-04-19

499

1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

1999-09-01

500

Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)  

SciTech Connect

During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

NONE

1996-11-01