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1

Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

2003-04-01

2

Cold Fronts in CDM clusters  

E-print Network

Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters (Vikhlinin et. al., 2001). These features, called ``cold fronts'', are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >2 over 10-50 kpc, accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter (CDM) models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging sub-cluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are non-equilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the intracluster medium in the vicinity of the front.

Daisuke Nagai; Andrey V. Kravtsov

2002-06-26

3

Cold Fronts in CDM clusters  

E-print Network

Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters (Vikhlinin et. al., 2001). These features, called ``cold fronts'', are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >2 over 10-50 kpc, accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter (CDM) models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging sub-cluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the ...

Nagai, D; Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

2003-01-01

4

Compare and contrast warm and cold fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of Earth science animations show students what happens at cold and warm fronts as clouds are formed by the interaction of warm air and cool air. The cool front animation depicts cumulonimbus clouds forming as a cold front moves into a region of warm air and forces the warm air to rise. In contrast, the warm front animation shows how warm air, moving over cold air, causes a progression of nimbostratus to cirrus clouds to form. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animations, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

5

SCHOOLCHILDREN'S ADAPTATION TO WINTER IN COLD CLIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter climates, it is required to understand schoolchildren's adaptation to winter in order to implement sustainable winter communities. The questionnaires dealing with adaptation and perceptions regarding winter in cold-climates form an initial component of a lengthier study of a cross-national comparative nature. The focus is on how to encourage children to participate in winter-based outdoor activities and to cultivate

Masamichi Enai; Norman Pressman; Annie L黷tgen; Mao Yu Zheng; Jorma Heikkinen

6

Sequence of surface meteorological variables with the passage of winter cold fronts in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains  

E-print Network

. (iii) Wind. (iv) Humidity. 2) Preparation for Statistical Analysis. 10 13 16 23 24 25 27 32 33 34 34 37 40 43 45 Page 3. RESULTS. . a. The Seven Cities of Cibola. I) Bismarck, North Dakota (BIS). . . (i) The climate of Bismarck.... . . . . . . . . . . . . (iii) Numerical data. (iv) Initial statistical output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3) Chicago, Illinois (ORD). (i) The climate of Chicago. (ii) Characteristics o f fronts near Chicago. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . (iii...

Huckaby, Daniel Dale

2012-06-07

7

Winter cascading of cold water in Lake Geneva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the winters of 1998 and 1999, observations were made of the cascading of cold water from the nearshore, shallow ``shelf'' zones and down the sloping sides of Lake Geneva. Cascading starts on the average 10 hours after the onset of surface cooling. The draining cold water descends like a gravity current, and the downslope speed of the head of these slugs of cold water, U, has a mean value of 5.2 cm s-1, with slugs persisting, on the average, for 8 hours. When the Monin-Obukov length scale at the water surface, L, is negative, implying convection occurs, and $\\bar d$/|L|> 1,where $\\bar d$ is the mean shelf depth, the nondimensionalized speed of the front of ``slugs,'' U/b1/3 is found to be 1.3 +/- 0.4, where b is the surface buoyancy flux integrated over the time period from one slug to the next. Each slug is unsteady, the head being followed by several fronts in which the temperature of the current decreases and its thickness increases. These fronts travel faster than the mean flow by a factor of r = 1.38 +/- 0.3. Dynamical similarities are found with roll waves observed in turbulent open channel flows. The circulation induced by the cascade is found to give a positive skewness to the time derivatives of near-surface temperature in shallow waters, in contrast with negative values close to the slope. The volume of cold water carried by a slug increases with downslope distance as a consequence of turbulent entrainment and the contribution of convectively unstable plumes from the surface. The average volume carried by the slug across the 21 m depth contour is about 1.9 times the volume of water in shallower water (i.e., that on the shelf between shore and a depth of 21 m), implying that cascading is an efficient means of flushing shelf water. Integrated around the lake the mean total volume flux amounts to 11.5 the average winter river inflow.

Fer, Ilker; Lemmin, Ulrich; Thorpe, S. A.

2002-06-01

8

The Microphysics of Cold Fronts measured during DIAMET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the autumn and early winter of 2011 a number of combined airborne, radar and radiosonde studies of frontal systems crossing the UK were undertaken as part of the DIAbatic influence on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms (or DIAMET ) project. The main aim of DIAMET is to improve our ability to predict the mesoscale structure of severe storms over the UK for forecast times ranging from several hours to several days. Extratropical cyclones are the major cause of damaging weather in north-western Europe, mainly through the effects of high winds and flooding. Although many such storms are well forecasted on the synoptic scale, the precise timing, location, and evolution of mesoscale and convective-scale structures such as the strong winds and intense precipitation within these cyclones remain uncertain. This project uses the unique measurements of these smaller-scale structures to guide a programme of research into the dynamics and prediction of storms. In this paper we focus on detailed measurements of the microphysics and dynamics of cold fronts crossing the UK associated with vigorous storm systems during periods with a very strong zonal jet stream. The FAAM BAe 146 research aircraft was used to drop sondes into the systems when out to the west of the UK, and to make insitu measurements in the systems when closer to and over the UK. The aircraft made a number of horizontal passes over and through the frontal cloud at decreasing levels to make detailed measurements of the cloud physics (ice and liquid), dynamics and atmospheric aerosol. The aim was to; measure the cloud microphysics close to cloud top in order to examine the initiation of the ice phase through heterogeneous (or homogeneous if cold enough) nucleation; measure at temperature levels around -7oC to study the freezing of water due to the production of ice by a secondary Ice-particle Production (SIP) mechanism known as the Hallett-Mossop process; to investigate the properties of the solid precipitation just above the freezing level; to quantify the diabatic effects of melting and evaporation below the freezing level. When in range, simultaneous detailed measurements of the structure of the fronts were also made using the scanning radar facility at Chilbolton. The observational study was supported by detailed modelling using a variety of models including the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model. This presentation focuses on the role of the microphysics and dynamics in generating zones of intense convergence, and the changes introduced (e.g. as aerosol properties changed) as the front transitioned from over the ocean to land.

Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Crosier, J.; Lloyd, G.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Connolly, P.; Dearden, C.; Vaughan, G.

2012-04-01

9

Cold Fronts in Clusters of Galaxies: Observations and Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mergers of galaxy clusters -- some of the most energetic events in the Universe -- produce disturbances in hot intracluster medium, such as shocks and cold fronts, that can be used as tools to study the physics of galaxy clusters. Cold fronts may constrain viscosity and the structure and strength of the cluster magnetic fields. Combined with radio data, these observations also shed light on the production of ultrarelativistic particles that are known to coexist with the cluster thermal plasma. This talk will summarize the current X-ray observations of cluster mergers, as well as some recent radio data and high resolution hydrodynamic simulations.

Markevitch, Maxim

2012-01-01

10

ALMA Front-End Verification Using a Dry Cold Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several techniques for measuring the radiometric temperature (brightness) of a refrigerated dry calibration load for ALMA front-end verification are presented. The brightness of the load including the effects of the cryostat window is estimated using different techniques and compared at frequencies up to 1 THz. The measured results are compared with those obtained by a conventional calibration technique using the ALMA front-end. The estimated brightness shows a good agreement at lower ALMA bands (below 400 GHz) with increased deviation at higher frequencies. Measured noise temperatures of the ALMA front-end using a wet LN2 load and the dry cold load are also presented.

Lee, Y.; Ellison, B.; Huggard, P.; Harman, M.; Boughriet, A.; Bartynowski, W.; Oldfield, M.; Morris, N.; Hekman, P.; Tan, G. H.

2010-03-01

11

Cloud Vertical Distribution across Warm and Cold Fronts in CloudSatCALIPSO Data and a General Circulation Model  

E-print Network

extratropical warm and cold fronts are obtained using two consecutive winters of CloudSat颅Cloud颅Aerosol Lidar Prediction reanalysis atmospheric state parameters over the Northern and Southern Hemisphere oceans (308颅708N the Southern Oceans and consequently produce an implau- sible negative cloud feedback that artificially limits

12

Liquid detrainment in convection embedded in a cold front  

E-print Network

-west of Iceland 路 Long trailing active cold front 路 Model: 路 Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) version 7.3 路 North of the theoretical basis for bulk mass flux convective parameterization, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3529--3544. 路 Yanai

Plant, Robert

13

Effects of cold fronts on MODIS-derived sensible and latent heat fluxes in Itumbiara reservoir (Central Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigate the cold front passage effects on sensible and latent heat flux in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir. The study area, Itumbiara reservoir (Goi醩 State/Brazil) at the beginning of the austral winter, is characterized by the presence of a weak thermal stratification and the passage of several cold fronts from higher latitudes of South America. Sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated considering the atmospheric boundary layer stability. In situ and MODIS water surface temperature data were used to adjust the coefficients for momentum and heat exchanges between water and atmosphere and spatialize the sensible and latent heat fluxes. The results showed that during a cold front event the sensible heat flux can be up to five times greater than the flux observed before. The latent heat flux tends to decrease during the cold front but increase again after the passage. The highest values of heat loss were observed at littoral zone and some Reservoir's embayment. The heat loss intensification can be separated in two moments: first, during the cold front passage, when the wind speed increases and the air temperature decreases; second, after the cold front passage, with air humidity decreasing. This can be considered a key process to understanding the heat loss in the Itumbiara reservoir.

Curtarelli, Marcelo; Alc鈔tara, Enner; Renn, Camilo; Stech, Jos

2013-11-01

14

Fast Simulations of Gas Sloshing and Cold Front Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a simplified and fast method for simulating minor mergers between galaxy clusters. Instead of following the evolution of the dark matter halos directly by the N-body method, we employ a rigid potential approximation for both clusters. The simulations are run in the rest frame of the more massive cluster and account for the resulting inertial accelerations in an optimised way. We test the reliability of this method for studies of minor merger induced gas sloshing by performing a one-to-one comparison between our simulations and hydro+N-body ones. We find that the rigid potential approximation reproduces the sloshing-related features well except for two artefacts: the temperature just outside the cold fronts is slightly over-predicted, and the outward motion of the cold fronts is delayed by typically 200 Myr. We discuss reasons for both artefacts.

Roediger, E.; ZuHone, J. A.

2011-01-01

15

Fast Simulations of Gas Sloshing and Cold Front Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a simplified and fast method for simulating minor mergers between galaxy clusters. Instead of following the evolution of the dark matter halos directly by the N-body method, we employ a rigid potential approximation for both clusters. The simulations are run in the rest frame of the more massive cluster and account for the resulting inertial accelerations in an optimised way. We test the reliability of this method for studies of minor merger induced gas sloshing by performing a one-to-one comparison between our simulations and hydro+N-body ones. We find that the rigid potential approximation reproduces the sloshing-related features well except for two artifacts: the temperature just outside the cold fronts is slightly over-predicted, and the outward motion of the cold fronts is delayed by typically 200 Myr. We discuss reasons for both artifacts.

Roediger, E.; ZuHone, J. A.

2012-01-01

16

CLUSTER MERGERS, CORE OSCILLATIONS, AND COLD FRONTS Eric R. Tittley1  

E-print Network

CLUSTER MERGERS, CORE OSCILLATIONS, AND COLD FRONTS Eric R. Tittley1 and Mark Henriksen Joint use numerical simulations with hydrodynamics to demonstrate that a class of cold fronts in galaxy of six clusters reported in the literature have cold front morphologies consistent with the presence

Tittley, Eric

17

The Life Cycle of an Undular Bore and Its Interaction with a Shallow, Intense Cold Front  

E-print Network

The Life Cycle of an Undular Bore and Its Interaction with a Shallow, Intense Cold Front DANIEL C of an undular bore and its associated wind shift, spawned by the passage of a shallow surface cold front over the wind shift and thermodynamic properties of the front was induced by the formation of a bore over south

Williams, Justin

18

SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS VERSUS METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF SNOW AND WINTER ALONG THE FRONT RANGE  

E-print Network

meteorological data. The survey also investigated how individual characteristics influence perceptions of snow that perceptions of previous winters do not necessarily align with observed meteorological data. The meanTHESIS SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS VERSUS METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF SNOW AND WINTER ALONG THE FRONT

MacDonald, Lee

19

Habitat suitability index models: greater white-fronted goose (wintering). [Anser albifrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review and synthesis of available information were used to develop models for indexing the potential suitability of agricultural and natural wetland habitats for wintering white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons). The model is scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability from 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) primarily for wintering habitat in southwest Louisiana and southwest Texas. Habitat suitability indices

Kaminski

1986-01-01

20

Changes in structure and character of an intense cold front as it moves across the Kuroshio  

E-print Network

cold front moved down from the Yellow Sea and cold air completely covered the AMTEX area by the 25th. This cold air outbreak is investigated using 120 125 130 35 KEIFU ISHIGAKI RYOFU MARU Q NAZE(P 0 MARU . . ~&:NAHAg F ~8' MIYAKO NOJIMA 0... cold front moved down from the Yellow Sea and cold air completely covered the AMTEX area by the 25th. This cold air outbreak is investigated using 120 125 130 35 KEIFU ISHIGAKI RYOFU MARU Q NAZE(P 0 MARU . . ~&:NAHAg F ~8' MIYAKO NOJIMA 0...

McCormack, Joseph Patrick

2012-06-07

21

The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations  

E-print Network

in Inn and Wipp Valley Temperature slope profile Doppler wind lidar in Wipp Valley #12;6 of 13 Case study west-east (Feldkirch-Kufstein): uf 17 m/s #12;10 of 13 Case study Doppler wind lidar lidar site foehn in valleys Interaction with local winds (e.g., foehn) foehn cold front Cold front in complex terrain ? ? #12

Gohm, Alexander

22

Atmospheric Cold Fronts Affecting Cold-Water Corals in the Deep Straits of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Straits of Florida (SoF) are considered an ideal habitat for cold-water corals with the north flowing Florida Current (FC) providing a continuous supply of food. The FC does, however, not fill the entire Straits and deep, opposing undercurrents and coastal countercurrents occur off Florida and the Bahamas. New observational and model data document that, in addition to the well-known perturbation of upper ocean currents by atmospheric cold front passages, the near-bottom current field in the SoF is also repeatedly perturbed by atmospheric cold fronts none of which is reflected in the cold-water mound morphology. Measurements of the near-bottom flow field by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), cruising 40 m above sea floor at five coral mound fields ranging from 14-48 km2 in 590-875 m water in December 2005, record a complicated current pattern in space and time. Near-bottom currents are bi-directional, dominated by semi- diurnal tides, on the lower slopes of the Bahamas where mounds form kilometer long ridges as high as 120 m. Near-bottom currents flow north in the middle of Straits but generally south along the Miami Terrace. The mound morphology varies widely between sites and no obvious (i.e., direct, linear) correlation exists between current strength and mound height. The 12 to 48 h AUV observational data at each site compare well with results of the quasi-operational 3D ocean circulation model EFSIS (East Florida Shelf Information System). The Model enables the analysis of the bottom currents over extended periods and confirms that the near-bottom flow field in the SoF is highly variable on time scales ranging from 6 hours to several days, with magnitudes of +/- 0.2 to 0.6 m/s, depending upon location. During the observation period of December 2005, a recurring current variability is due to a sequence of deep cyclonic eddies that originate approximately every ten days near Cay Sal Bank and move northward on the eastern side of the FC. Offshore Bimini, where the SoF narrows and shoals, and the FC accelerates, the near-bottom eddies intensify and start to move westward. When reaching the Miami Terrace the eddies occupy the entire water column. The timing of the eddies correlate remarkably well with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. During cold front passages the FC axis is displaced offshore the Florida Keys. A probable mechanism for the generation of the near bottom cyclones is the interaction of FC meanders with Cay Sal Bank. The impact of these "cold-front" perturbations on the deep-water coral communities remains to be quantitatively assessed.

Eberli, G. P.; Grasmueck, M.; Bang, I.; Mooers, C. N.; Viggiano, D.

2007-12-01

23

Habitat suitability index models: greater white-fronted goose (wintering). [Anser albifrons  

SciTech Connect

A review and synthesis of available information were used to develop models for indexing the potential suitability of agricultural and natural wetland habitats for wintering white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons). The model is scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability from 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) primarily for wintering habitat in southwest Louisiana and southwest Texas. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluations Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Kaminski, R.M.

1986-07-01

24

Social perceptions versus meteorological observations of snow and winter along the Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to increase understanding of Front Range residents' perceptions of snow, winter and hydrologic events. This study also investigates how an individual's characteristics may shape perceptions of winter weather and climate. A survey was administered to determine if perceptions of previous winters align with observed meteorological data. The survey also investigated how individual characteristics influence perceptions of snow and winter weather. The survey was conducted primarily along the Front Range area of the state of Colorado in the United States of America. This is a highly populated semi-arid region that acts as an interface between the agricultural plains to the east that extend to the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains to the west. The climate is continental, and while many people recreate in the snowy areas of the mountains, most live where annual snowfall amounts are low. Precipitation, temperature, and wind speed datasets from selected weather stations were analyzed to determine correct survey responses. Survey analysis revealed that perceptions of previous winters do not necessarily align with observed meteorological data. The mean percentage of correct responses to all survey questions was 36.8%. Further analysis revealed that some individual characteristics (e.g. winter recreation, source of winter weather information) did influence correct responses to survey questions.

Milligan, William James, IV

25

Kinematic and Moisture Characteristics of a Nonprecipitating Cold Front Observed during IHOP. Part I: Across-Front Structures  

E-print Network

, the cold front separated cool air with a northerly component flow of 2颅4 m s 1 from a 10-km-wide band of hot, dry air with 5 m s 1 winds out of the south-southwest. The average updraft at the frontal of the front, separating the hot, dry air mass from a warm, moist air mass composed of 10 m s 1 southerly winds

26

THE PROPERTIES OF X-RAY COLD FRONTS IN A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We examine the incidence of cold fronts in a large sample of galaxy clusters extracted from a (512 h {sup -1} Mpc) hydrodynamic/N-body cosmological simulation with adiabatic gas physics computed with the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code. This simulation contains a sample of roughly 4000 galaxy clusters with M {>=}10{sup 14} M{sub sun} at z = 0. For each simulated galaxy cluster, we have created mock 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray observations and spectroscopic-like temperature maps. We have searched these maps with a new automated algorithm to identify the presence of cold fronts in projection. Using a threshold of a minimum of 10 cold front pixels in our images, corresponding to a total comoving length L{sub cf}>156 h {sup -1} kpc, we find that roughly 10%-12% of all projections in a mass-limited sample would be classified as cold front clusters. Interestingly, the fraction of clusters with extended cold front features in our synthetic maps of a mass-limited sample trends only weakly with redshift out to z = 1.0. However, when using different selection functions, including a simulated flux limit, the trending with redshift changes significantly. The likelihood of finding cold fronts in the simulated clusters in our sample is a strong function of cluster mass. In clusters with M>7.5 x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun} the cold front fraction is 40%-50%. We also show that the presence of cold fronts is strongly correlated with disturbed morphology as measured by quantitative structure measures. Finally, we find that the incidence of cold fronts in the simulated cluster images is strongly dependent on baryonic physics.

Hallman, Eric J.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Smith, Britton D.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O'Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Lyman Briggs College, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: ehallman@cfa.harvard.ed [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

2010-12-10

27

Wintering site interchange amongst Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris captured at Wexford Slobs, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum count of Greenland White-fronted Geese wintering at Wexford, south-east Ireland (where over a third of the population winters) increased from 7910 in 1984\\/85 to 9530 in 1989\\/90. Although the population tends to be highly site-loyal on the wintering grounds, 14% of 700 marked geese seen in two consecutive winters changed site. Counts elsewhere in the wintering range and

S. M. Warren; A. J. Walsh; O. J. Merne; H. J. Wilson; A. D. Fox

1992-01-01

28

Winter Habitat Preferences for Florida Manatees and Vulnerability to Cold  

PubMed Central

To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down. PMID:23527063

Laist, David W.; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E.

2013-01-01

29

Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.  

PubMed

To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down. PMID:23527063

Laist, David W; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E

2013-01-01

30

Cold winter temperatures condition the egg-hatching dynamics of a grape disease vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of a major phytoplasma grapevine disease, Flavescence dor閑. The vector抯 distribution is in Eastern and Northern Europe, and its population dynamics varies as a function of vineyard latitude. We tested the hypothesis that hatching dynamics are cued by cold temperatures observed in winter. We exposed eggs from a natural population to simulated cold and 搈ild winters and varied the exposure time at 5 癈 from 0 to 63 days. We show that temperature cooling mainly affected the onset of hatching and is negatively correlated to the cold time exposure. The majority of hatchings occurred more quickly in cold rather than in mild winter simulated conditions, but there was no significant difference between the duration of hatching of eggs whatever the cold time exposure. In agreement with the Northern American origin of the vector, the diapause termination and thus the timing regulation of egg hatching require cold winters.

Chuche, Julien; Thi閞y, Denis

2009-07-01

31

The discharge front structure in coastal zone of the Laptev Sea in winter season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Arctic region the discharge front is poor studied phenomenon, especially in cold season. We investigated thermohaline structure in the south-eastern part of the Laptev Sea (the Buor-Khaya Bay) where front has been forming under the ice cover. It is identified by strong horizontal temperature and salinity gradients. Front location and its dimension are under the influence of the Lena River discharge. The front dynamics resulted in specifics of vertical thermohaline structure, which is characterized by baroclinic and thermoclinic constituents. In a short distance from the river mouth the front is baroclinic (isotherms and isohalines remain parallel to each other). Another type of front (thermoclinic) is formed at the periphery of the front (isohalines intersect isotherms at an angle of up to 90). The first mechanism of thermoclinicity is isopycnic convergence of river water in lower horizons because of its cooling near the ice. The second mechanism works at the periphery of the front, where horizontal stratification is weaken, and frontal convergence is resulted in isopycnic intrusions of cold water under the relatively warm fresh water. The intrusion's cross section in the Bay made about 50-85 km and thickness varied from 3-5 up to 15m depending on the Lena River discharge. The temperature of intrusions is lower than at bottom water. The interleaving cold and warm freshened water inside the intrusion is a result of double diffusion process. Water of the intrusion is enriched with dissolved oxygen and facilitates to ventilation of water in the coastal zone under the ice. The calculated heat content of bottom water testifies about its origin from the outer shelf of the Laptev Sea while the T-S characteristics of intrusion is close connected to the inner shelf.

Savelieva, Nina; Salyuk, Anatoly

2010-05-01

32

Know before you go. Don't get left out in the cold. Prepare your vehicle for winter weather.  

E-print Network

Know before you go. Don't get left out in the cold. Prepare your vehicle for winter weather. Do you drive during winter? Winter weather is hard on your vehicle and its engine. Here are some tips to help tire air pressure frequently, as it decreases in cold weather. 2. Get your car winter ready

Kavanagh, Karen L.

33

Physical changes within a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir induced by wintertime cold front activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the influence of wintertime cold front activity on the physical processes within a large tropical reservoir located in Brazil. The period chosen for this study consisted of 49 days between 28 April 2010 and 15 July 2010. This period was defined based on information from the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), data collected in situ and the interpretation of remotely sensed images. To better understand the governing processes that drive changes in the heat balance, differential cooling and mixing dynamics, a simulation was performed that utilized a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model enforced with in situ and remote sensing data. The results showed that during a cold front passage over the reservoir, the sensible and latent heat fluxes were enhanced by approximately 77 and 16%, respectively. The reservoir's daily averaged heat loss was up to 167% higher on the days with cold front activity than on the days without activity. The cold front passage also intensified the differential cooling process; in some cases the difference between the water temperature of the littoral and pelagic zones reached up to 8 癈. The occurrence of cold front passages impacted the diurnal mixed layer (DML), by increasing the turbulent energy input (∼54%) and the DML depth (∼41%). Our results indicate that the cold front events are one of the main meteorological disturbances driving the physical processes within hydroelectric reservoirs located in tropical South America during the wintertime. Hence, cold front activity over these aquatic systems has several implications for water quality and reservoir management in Brazil.

Curtarelli, M. P.; Alc鈔tara, E. H.; Renn, C. D.; Stech, J. L.

2014-08-01

34

Humidity Control Systems for Civil Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China  

E-print Network

In the hot summer and cold winter zone, moisture-laden outside air poses real problems for proper ventilation, air-conditioner sizing, and strategies to overcome the reduced dehumidification capacity of more energy-efficient air-conditioning (AC...

Yu, X.

2006-01-01

35

Cold front induced changes on the Florida panhandle shelf during October 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant step transition between seasonally stratified and destratified hydrographic conditions occurred during an October 2008 cruise to the Florida Panhandle Shelf along a cross-shelf transect that was sampled before and after a cold front passed through the area. Meteorological measurements from nearby ocean and land-based stations characterized the event. Cross-shelf continuous Acrobat profiles and discrete CTD stations characterized water column hydrographic patterns, while mid-shelf multicorer and box corer samples characterized sediment texture and nutrients. Water samples collected from selected depths biased toward the sediment interface were analyzed for nutrient content and phytoplankton community composition. Pre-front, the cross-shelf water column exhibited vertical stratification with complex temperature and salinity patterns. A prominent near-bottom chlorophyll a maximum of 1.5 ?g L-1 between the 25-35 m isobaths occurred with the 1% light level at 18 m depth and a near-bottom nitrate+nitrite (NO3-+NO2-) maximum >3 ?M between the 30-40 m isobaths. HPLC-determined phytoplankton community composition in the near-bottom chlorophyll a maximum consisted of gyroxanthin-containing dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis) and less abundant diatoms, both verified by FlowCAM analysis, mixed with detectable cryptophytes and chlorophytes. Sediment trends based on limited core replicates suggested the sediments were a potential source of nutrients to near-bottom populations of K. brevis and that shell hash could provide abundant pore space for K. brevis incursions. Between the 40-50 m isobaths, diatoms, cryptophytes and chlorophytes dominated near-bottom, gyroxanthin-containing dinoflagellates and prasinophytes occurred throughout the water column, and cyanophytes dominated near-surface. Post-front, the cross-shelf water column exhibited destratification with temperature and salinity increasing offshore. A chlorophyll a maximum of 0.75 ?g Chl a L-1 left the sediment between 25-35 m isobaths and extended offshore especially in the lower water column with the 1% light level at 15 m depth and NO3-+NO2- concentrations 2 ?M to the 60 m isobath. HPLC-determined phytoplankton community composition of the offshore plume retained the signature of gyroxanthin-containing dinoflagellates and chlorophytes. Between the 30-50 m isobaths, prasinophytes increased in the lower water column, while cyanophytes increased at all depths across the shelf. The observed step transition from stratification to destratification on the Florida Panhandle Shelf contributed to altered phytoplankton community patterns in response to predominant downwelling favorable winds. Pre-front, K. brevis cells were broadly distributed cross-shelf, but concentrated near-bottom between the 25-35 m isobaths and staged for prolific bloom seeding in response to the upwelling favorable west winds more typical of spring-summer. Post-front, K. brevis cells were mixed throughout the mid-shelf water column and were staged for diffuse bloom seeding in response to either the downwelling or upwelling favorable winds occurring fall-winter. Cyanophytes located predominantly near-surface offshore pre-front, were ubiquitous cross-shelf and more closely associated with K. brevis post-front.

Kamykowski, D.; Pridgen, K. Grabowski; Morrison, J. M.; McCulloch, A. A.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Sinclair, G. A.

2013-02-01

36

ALMA front-end verification using dry cold load  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and characterisation of a cryogenic millimetre\\/sub-millimetre wave calibration load, cooled by use of a closed cycle refrigerator that is used to test the performance of the ALMA receiver front-end system. Use of the refrigerator removes the need for liquid cryogen (nitrogen) cooling and allows for long duration, and unattended operation independent of orientation angle. Key requirements

Yoonjae Lee; Brian Ellison; Peter Huggard; Mark Harman; Abdelhakim Boughriet; Wojciech Bartynowski; Matthew Oldfield; Nigel Morris; Peter Hekman; Gie Han Tan

2010-01-01

37

The Effect of Anisotropic Viscosity on Cold Fronts in Galaxy Clusters  

E-print Network

Cold fronts--contact discontinuities in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters--should be disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities due to the associated shear velocity. However, many observed cold fronts appear stable. This opens the possibility to place constraints on microphysical mechanisms that stabilize them, such as the ICM viscosity and/or magnetic fields. We performed exploratory high-resolution simulations of cold fronts arising from subsonic gas sloshing in cluster cores using the grid-based Athena MHD code, comparing the effects of isotropic Spitzer and anisotropic Braginskii viscosity (expected in a magnetized plasma). Magnetized simulations with full Braginskii viscosity or isotropic Spitzer viscosity reduced by a factor f ~ 0.1 are both in qualitative agreement with observations in terms of suppressing K-H instabilities. The RMS velocity and turbulence within the sloshing region is only modestly reduced by Braginskii viscosity. We also performed unmagnetized simulations with a...

ZuHone, J A; Markevitch, M; Stone, J M; Biffi, V

2014-01-01

38

Modeling the effects of cold front passages on the heat fluxes and thermal structure of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of cold fronts on the heat fluxes and thermal structure of a tropical reservoir located in Brazil. The period chosen for this study consisted of 49 days between 28 April 2010 and 15 July 2010 and was defined based on information from the Brazilian Centre for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), data collected in situ and the interpretation of remotely sensed images. During the selected time period, five cold front passages were identified, allowing us to analyze the cumulative effect of cold fronts and the reservoir's resilience on the days that elapsed between the passages. To better understand the physical processes that drive changes in heat fluxes and thermal structure, a simulation was performed that utilized a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The results showed that during the cold front days, the sensible and latent heat fluxes were enhanced by approximately 24% and 19%, respectively. The daily average heat loss was up to 167% higher on the cold front days than on the non-cold front days. The high heat loss and the increased wind intensity that occurred during the cold front passages destabilized the water column and provided partial or complete mixing. The colder waters of the Parana韇a River contributed to reestablish the thermal stratification following the passages of the cold fronts. These results suggest that cold front passages play an important role in the stratification and mixing regimes of Brazilian reservoirs located in southern and southeastern regions.

Curtarelli, M. P.; Alc鈔tara, E. H.; Renn, C. D.; Stech, J. L.

2013-07-01

39

Increase in Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase Activity of Winter Wheat by Cold Treatment and Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activity of indoleacetic acid oxidase increased 10-fold during 40 days of cold treatment of winter wheat seedlings. Puromycin and 6-methyl purine inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development in the cold. Addition of gibberellic acid stimulated indoleacetic acid oxidase development during germination at room temperature and during cold treatment. Amo-1618 inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development before and during cold treatment. Indoleacetic acid treatment increased indoleacetic acid oxidase activity during germination at room temperature while no significant effect on activity was observed during cold treatment. PMID:16657327

Bolduc, Reginald J.; Cherry, Joe H.; Blair, Byron O.

1970-01-01

40

Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) and cold on freezing tolerance (freezing injury and ice nucleation activity) were investigated in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogu-88) grown under control (20\\/18 癈 for 15, 30 and 45-day) and cold (15\\/10 癈 for 15-day, 10\\/5 癈 for 30-day and 5\\/3 癈 for 45-day) conditions. Cold acclimatisation caused

Esen Ta?g韓; 謐ke? At韈; Barbaros Nalbanto?lu

2003-01-01

41

Chitinase Genes Responsive to Cold Encode Antifreeze Proteins in Winter Cereals1  

PubMed Central

Antifreeze proteins similar to two different chitinases accumulate during cold acclimation in winter rye (Secale cereale). To determine whether these cold-responsive chitinases require post-translational modification to bind to ice, cDNAs coding for two different full-length chitinases were isolated from a cDNA library produced from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves. CHT9 is a 1,193-bp clone that encodes a 31.7-kD class I chitinase and CHT46 is a 998-bp clone that codes for a 24.8-kD class II chitinase. Chitinase-antifreeze proteins purified from the plant were similar in mass to the predicted mature products of CHT9 and CHT46, thus indicating that there was little chemical modification of the amino acid sequences in planta. To confirm these results, the mature sequences of CHT9 and CHT46 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the products of both cDNAs modified the growth of ice. Transcripts of both genes accumulated late in cold acclimation in winter rye. Southern analysis of winter rye genomic DNA indicated the presence of a small gene family homologous to CHT46. In hexaploid wheat, CHT46 homologs mapped to the homeologous group 1 chromosomes and were expressed in response to cold and drought. We conclude that two novel cold-responsive genes encoding chitinases with ice-binding activity may have arisen in winter rye and other cereals through gene duplication. PMID:11080301

Yeh, Sansun; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Griffith, Marilyn; Xiong, Fei; Yang, Daniel S.C.; Wiseman, Steven B.; Sarhan, Fathey; Danyluk, Jean; Xue, Yi Qi; Hew, Choy L.; Doherty-Kirby, Amanda; Lajoie, Gilles

2000-01-01

42

Meso and microscale features of the lower portion of cold fronts  

E-print Network

sections of a seahreeze front and cold fronts (After Clarke, 1960). Figure 27. The time-vertical cross section of a cool change (After Berson, 1958), The distributions in a vertical plane of temperature and air motion were determined in the vicinity... for comparison with the frontal orientation and speed indicated by the small-toper data of Case I. RAOB cross sections were also analyzed for each case along linea approximately normal to the fronts and lying one to the north and the other to the south...

Beniura, Hideo

2012-06-07

43

Effects of cold front passage on turbulent fluxes over a large inland water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a large inland water in southern USA were measured using the eddy covariance method through the year of 2008. In addition, net radiation, air temperatures and relative humidity, and water temperature in different depths were also measured. The specific objective of this study is to examine effects of a cold front passage on the surface energy fluxes. For the typical cold front event selected from April 11 to 14, air temperature decreased by 16癈, while surface temperature only dropped 6癈. Atmospheric vapor pressure decreased by 1.6 kPa, while that in the water-air interface dropped 0.7 kPa. The behavior difference in the water-air interface was caused by the passage of cold, dry air masses immediately behind the cold front. During the cold front event, sensible heat and latent heat flux increased by 171 W m-2 and 284 W m-2, respectively. Linear aggression analysis showed that the sensible heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and the temperature gradient of water-air interface, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Latent heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and vapor pressure difference between the water surface and overlaying atmosphere, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. Also, the correlations between both fluxes and the wind speed were weak. This result indicated that the strong wind associated with the cold front event contributed to the turbulent mixing, which indirectly enhanced surface energy exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. The relationship between the water heat storage energy and turbulent fluxes was also examined.

Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

2011-12-01

44

ALMA front-end verification using dry cold load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and characterisation of a cryogenic millimetre/sub-millimetre wave calibration load, cooled by use of a closed cycle refrigerator that is used to test the performance of the ALMA receiver front-end system. Use of the refrigerator removes the need for liquid cryogen (nitrogen) cooling and allows for long duration, and unattended operation independent of orientation angle. Key requirements of the load include provision of a well-characterised and constant brightness temperature over a wide frequency range (from ~100 GHz to ~1 THz) polarisation insensitivity, high emissivity and mechanical stability. Test and verification of the load performance characteristics is achieved by using several measurement techniques; these are presented and compared with measurements made using a liquid cryogen load (cooled reference).

Lee, Yoonjae; Ellison, Brian; Huggard, Peter; Harman, Mark; Boughriet, Abdelhakim; Bartynowski, Wojciech; Oldfield, Matthew; Morris, Nigel; Hekman, Peter; Tan, Gie Han

2010-07-01

45

The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.  

PubMed

Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI=0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

Vasconcelos, Jo鉶; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

2013-12-01

46

Effect of a Simulated Cold-Front on Hatching Success of Yellow Perch Eggs  

E-print Network

Effect of a Simulated Cold-Front on Hatching Success of Yellow Perch Eggs Andrew C. Jansena, Brian University Brookings, South Dakota 57007 USA ABSTRACT Gradually warming water temperature during yellow perch or missing year classes, presumably because of egg or larvae mortality. We subjected yellow perch eggs

47

Export of Asian pollution during two cold front episodes of the TRACE-P experiment  

E-print Network

Export of Asian pollution during two cold front episodes of the TRACE-P experiment C. Mari how these cyclonic systems have impacted the export of pollution out of the Asian continent. We of pollution are met during flight 13 (i.e., the occurrences of the warm conveyor belt near the source regions

Palmer, Paul

48

Ready.Gov for Kids: Winter Storms/Extreme Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Cold Blackouts Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Home Fires Hurricanes Landslides/Debris Flow Space Weather Thunderstorms and ... Disaster Types Hurricanes Floods Earthquakes Wildfires Tornadoes Home Fires Blackouts Biological Threats Ready.gov Checkmark

49

Energy-saving Renovation Technology Studies of Existing Residential Building in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Summer Zone  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Existing Residential Building, Outside Environment, Energy-saving Renovation 1.OUTSIDE HOT ENVIROMENT OF HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER ZONE AND ITS INFLUENCE CONDITION TO HEAT LOSS OF EXITING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING The Hot Summer and Cold.... Keywords: Existing Residential Building, Outside Environment, Energy-saving Renovation 1.OUTSIDE HOT ENVIROMENT OF HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER ZONE AND ITS INFLUENCE CONDITION TO HEAT LOSS OF EXITING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING The Hot Summer and Cold...

Dong, M.; Li, J.

2006-01-01

50

Recent Cold Winters over Central Eurasia and Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in AGCM Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early 21st century was marked by several persistent winter cold spells over Eurasia after a prolonged period of anomalously mild winters during the late 20th century. The negative temperature anomalies were linked to a blocking anti-cyclone centered south of the Barents Sea, which weakened the westerly flow and caused advection of cold Arctic air masses to the continent. The period with an increased occurrence of such cold spells coincided with a strong reduction of winter Arctic sea ice extent which was most pronounced in the Barents Sea, suggesting a possible connection. We performed simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ECHAM5 forced by multi-year sea ice anomalies observed during the last decades. The regional circulation response to the reduced sea ice extent observed in 2005-2012 exhibits a statistically significant anti-cyclonic surface pressure anomaly, with a surface temperature response similar to that observed. In contrast, Arctic sea ice anomalies during the preceding periods drive different response patterns. The results suggest that the step-like winter sea ice reduction in the Barents Sea in 2005 could have been responsible for the more frequent occurrences of cold winters in Eurasia. Furthermore, a non-linear atmospheric circulation response to the Arctic sea ice reduction during the last 40 years is suggested by the model, where the response depends on the overall sea ice extent.

Semenov, Vladimir; Latif, Mojib

2014-05-01

51

Complex phytohormone responses during the cold acclimation of two wheat cultivars differing in cold tolerance, winter Samanta and spring Sandra.  

PubMed

Hormonal changes accompanying the cold stress (4癈) response that are related to the level of frost tolerance (FT; measured as LT50) and the content of the most abundant dehydrin, WCS120, were compared in the leaves and crowns of the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Samanta and the spring wheat cv. Sandra. The characteristic feature of the alarm phase (1 day) response was a rapid elevation of abscisic acid (ABA) and an increase of protective proteins (dehydrin WCS120). This response was faster and stronger in winter wheat, where it coincided with the downregulation of bioactive cytokinins and auxin as well as enhanced deactivation of gibberellins, indicating rapid suppression of growth. Next, the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid was quickly upregulated. After 3-7 days of cold exposure, plant adaptation to the low temperature was correlated with a decrease in ABA and elevation of growth-promoting hormones (cytokinins, auxin and gibberellins). The content of other stress hormones, i.e., salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, also began to increase. After prolonged cold exposure (21 days), a resistance phase occurred. The winter cultivar exhibited substantially enhanced FT, which was associated with a decline in bioactive cytokinins and auxin. The inability of the spring cultivar to further increase its FT was correlated with maintenance of a relatively higher cytokinin and auxin content, which was achieved during the acclimation period. PMID:22304971

Kosov, Kl醨a; Pr釟il, Ilja Tom; V韙醡v醩, Pavel; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, V醕lav; Flokov, Krist齨a; Nov醟, Ond?ej; Ture?kov, Veronika; Rol?ik, Jakub; Pe歟k, Bed?ich; Tr醰ni?kov, Alena; Gaudinov, Alena; Galiba, Gabor; Janda, Tibor; Vlas醟ov, Eva; Pr釟ilov, Pavla; Vankov, Radom韗a

2012-04-15

52

The Study on Thermal Performance and Applicability of Energy-saving Wall Materials in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zones  

E-print Network

The hot summer and cold winter zone is a transition zone between the cold zone and hot zone, sweltering in summer and chilly in winter, of which climate is worse. In recent years, with people's raised requirements on indoor living environments...

Ren, W.; Lan, M.; Hao, Y.

2006-01-01

53

Feasibility of Using Composite Ground Source Heat Pump in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using assistant cooling composite ground source heat pump system can reduce the initial investment and enhance the efficient of energy-savings. This paper introduces the climate and the overview of building energy consumption of hot summer and cold winter region; also analyses the feasibility of ground source heat pump system using assistant cooling equipment in this region. Taking a building in

Jinggang Wang; Jie Liu; Ligai Kang

2009-01-01

54

The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses  

SciTech Connect

The East Asian winter monsoon, which is associated with the Siberian high and active cold surges, is one of the most energetic monsoon circulation systems. The dramatic shift of northeasterlies and the outbreak of cold surges dominate the winter weather and local climate in the East Asian region, and may exert a strong impact on the extratropical and tropical planetary-scale circulations and influence the SSTs in the tropical western Pacific. General characteristics of the winter monsoon and cold surges and their possible link with tropical disturbances are revealed in many observational studies. Little attention has been given to the climatological aspects of the winter monsoon and cold surges. The purpose of this study is to compile and document the East Asian mean winter circulation, and present the climatology of cold surges and the Siberian high based on the 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of winter monsoon circulation and cold surge events. Given that the cold surge activity and the Indonesian convection are much reduced during the 1982--83 period, one of the goals is to determine whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between ENSO and the interannual variation of winter monsoon and cold surges.

Yi Zhang; Sperber, K.; Boyle, J.

1996-04-01

55

Summer and winter drought in a cold desert ecosystem (Colorado Plateau) part II: effects on plant carbon assimilation and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of winter and summer drought on a shrub\\/grass community of the Colorado Plateau in western North America, a winter-cold, summer-hot desert that receives both winter and summer precipitation. Summer, winter and yearlong drought treatments were imposed for 2 consecutive years using rainout shelters. We chose three perennial species for this study, representing different rooting patterns and

S. Schwinning; B. I. Starr; J. R. Ehleringer

2005-01-01

56

Ecological Technologies of a Chinese Traditional Folk House in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Zone  

E-print Network

on placement, plane and construction and so on with the climate variety. 2.1 The Climate Characters in Hot-summer and Cold-winter Zone Middle and lower reaches Yangtze River area is a typical hot-summer and cold-winter zone. This area includes... is reduced rapidly from east to west. Cold and humid are the climate characters in winter. Despite of the bad climate in Middle and lower reaches Yangtze River area, many technologies with zone characters, from site selection to details construction...

Xie, M.; Zhang, G.; Xu, F.

2006-01-01

57

Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub.  

SciTech Connect

Kwit, C., D. J. Levey; C. H. Greenberg, S. F. Pearson, J.P. McCarty, and S. Sargent. Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub. Oecologia. 139:30-34. Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that winter removal rates of fruits of wax myrtle, Myrica cerifera, are higher in colder winters. Over a 9-year period, we monitored M. cerifera fruit crops in 13 0.1-ha study plots in South Carolina, U.S.A. Peak ripeness occurred in November, whereas peak removal occurred in the coldest months, December and January. Mean time to fruit removal within study plots was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures, thereby supporting our hypothesis. This result, combined with the generally low availability of winter arthropods, suggests that fruit abundance may play a role in determining winter survivorship and distribution of permanent resident and short-distance migrant birds. From the plant's perspective, it demonstrates inter-annual variation in the temporal component of seed dispersal, with possible consequences for post-dispersal seed and seedling ecology.

Charles Kwit; Douglas J. Levey; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott F. Pearson; John P. McCarty; Sarah Sargent

2004-01-10

58

Heat production in cold and long scotophase acclimated and winter acclimatized rodents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat production by means of oxygen consumptionVo2 (at Ta = 6 C, 25 C, 30 C, and 32 C) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) were studied in individuals of a diurnal rodent ( Rhabdomys pumilio) and a nocturnal rodent ( Praomys natalensis). The studied mice were acclimated to cold at Ta=8癈 with a photoperiod of LD 12:12. On the otherhand specimens of these two species were acclimated at Ta=25癈 with a long scotophase LD8:16. The results were compared with a control group (Ta=25 C, LD 12:12) and winter acclimatized individuals of both species.Vo2 in cold acclimated mice of both species was significantly increased when compared to the control group and was even higher than the winter acclimatized group when measured below the lower critical temperature. Long scotophase acclimated mice of both species also increased their oxygen consumption significantly when compared to the control group. NST was significantly increased in long scotophase acclimated mice from both species when compared to the control group. The results of this study indicate that the effects of acclimation to long scotophase are similar to those of cold acclimation. As changes in photoperiod are regular, it may be assumed that heat production mechanisms in acclimatization to winter will respond to changes in photoperiodicity.

Haim, A.; Fourie, F. Le R.

1980-09-01

59

Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions  

E-print Network

Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

2006-01-01

60

Medieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431-1649 CE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanism resulting in stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol is a major driver of regional to global climatic variability on interannual and longer timescales. However, much of our knowledge of the climatic impact of volcanism derives from the limited number of eruptions that have occurred in the modern period during which meteorological instrumental records are available. We present a uniquely long historical record of severe short-term cold events from Irish chronicles, 431-1649 CE, and test the association between cold event occurrence and explosive volcanism. Thirty eight (79%) of 48 volcanic events identified in the sulfate deposition record of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-core correspond to 37 (54%) of 69 cold events in this 1219 year period. We show this association to be statistically significant at the 99.7% confidence level, revealing both the consistency of response to explosive volcanism for Ireland抯 climatically sensitive Northeast Atlantic location and the large proportional contribution of volcanism to historic cold event frequencies here. Our results expose, moreover, the extent to which volcanism has impacted winter-season climate for the region, and can help to further resolve the complex spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere winter-season cooling versus warming after major eruptions.

Ludlow, Francis; Stine, Alexander R.; Leahy, Paul; Murphy, Enda; Mayewski, Paul A.; Taylor, David; Killen, James; Baillie, Michael G. L.; Hennessy, Mark; Kiely, Gerard

2013-06-01

61

Spatial Use by Wintering Greater White-Fronted Geese Relative to a Decade of Habitat Change in California's Central Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We investigated,the effect of recent,habitat changes,in California抯 Central Valley on,wintering,Pacific greater,white-fronted,geese,(Anser albifrons frontalis) by comparing roost-to-feed distances, distributions, population range sizes, and habitat use during 19871990 and 1998 2000. These habitat changes included wetland restoration and agricultural land enhancement,due to the 1990 implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture, increased land area used for rice (Oryza sativa) production, and

JOSHUA T. ACKERMAN; JOHN Y. TAKEKAWA; DENNIS L. ORTHMEYER; JOSEPH P. FLESKES; JULIE L. YEE; KAMMIE L. KRUSE

2006-01-01

62

Spatial Use by Wintering Greater White-Fronted Geese Relative to a Decade of Habitat Change in California's  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of recent habitat changes in California's Central Valley on wintering Pacific greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) by comparing roost-to-feed distances, distributions, population range sizes, and habitat use during 1987-1990 and 1998- 2000. These habitat changes included wetland restoration and agricultural land enhancement due to the 1990 implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture, increased land

JOSHUA T. ACKERMAN; JOHN Y. TAKEKAWA; DENNIS L. ORTHMEYER; JOSEPH P. FLESKES; JULIE L. YEE; KAMMIE L. KRUSE

63

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture-resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are related to AI virus prevalence and whether there are ecological consequences associated with AI virus infection in staging white-fronted geese. Mean seasonal (low pathogenic) AI virus prevalence ranged between 2.5 and 10.7 per cent, among the highest reported values for non-duck species, and occurred in distinct peaks with near-zero prevalence before and after. Throat samples had a 2.4 times higher detection frequency than cloacal samples. AI virus infection was significantly related to age and body mass in some but not other winters. AI virus infection was not related to resighting probability, nor to maximum distance travelled, which was at least 191 km during the short infectious lifespan of an AI virus. Our results suggest that transmission via the respiratory route could be an important transmission route of AI virus in this species. Near-zero prevalence upon arrival on their wintering grounds, in combination with the epidemic nature of AI virus infections in white-fronted geese, suggests that white-fronted geese are not likely to disperse Asian AI viruses from their Siberian breeding grounds to their European wintering areas. PMID:20200028

Kleijn, D; Munster, V J; Ebbinge, B S; Jonkers, D A; M黶kens, G J D M; Van Randen, Y; Fouchier, R A M

2010-07-01

64

Cold-induced bradycardia in man during sleep in Arctic winter nights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two young male Caucasians volunteered for a study on the effects of cold exposure during night sleep in winter in the Arctic. The 14-day experiment was divided in three consecutive periods, baseline (2 nights), cold exposure (10 night) and recovery (2 nights). Both baseline and recovery data were obtained in neutral thermal conditions in a laboratory. The subjects slept in a sleeping bag under an unheated tent during the cold exposure. Apart from polysomnographic and body temperature recordings, electrocardiograms were taken through a telemetric system for safety purposes. Heart rates were noted at 5-min intervals and averaged hourly. In both environmental conditions, heart rate decreased within the first two hours of sleep. Comparison of the data obtained during cold exposure vs. thermal neutrality revealed lower values of heart rate in the cold, while body temperatures remained within normal range. This cold-induced bradycardia supervening during night sleep is discussed in terms of the occurrence of a vagal reflex preventing central blood pressure to rise.

Buguet, A. G. C.

1987-03-01

65

Links between solar wind variations, the global electric circuit, and winter cyclone vorticity, and possibly to cold winters in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of inputs to the atmosphere and the climate system that are modulated by solar activity that have their only common feature the modulation of the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, and to which it has now been shown there are small atmospheric responses in winter storm vorticity, surface pressure, and cloud cover. Similar responses are found to internal atmospheric inputs that modulate Jz. An inductive mechanism for initial storm electrification is described that responds to Jz and provides space charge for aerosol particles and droplets throughout the updraft region. The charge on droplets and aerosol particles, by the process of charge modulation of aerosol scavenging (CMAS), increases condensation nuclei concentrations and shifts their distributions to smaller average sizes. This produces smaller and more numerous droplets, and as shown by Rosenfeld et al (2008), delays initial precipitation and increases ice production and the vigor of the storm updraft. For baroclinic storms the additional latent heat release and updraft velocity increases storm vorticity. The result depends on both aerosol characteristics and the Jz variation. The cumulative effect of winter storm intensification, for example in the Icelandic Low cyclogenesis region, responding to Jz changes, is to increase blocking in the Atlantic Ocean. Such blocking reduces the flow of relatively warm moist ocean air onto Europe, while increasing the incidence of outbreaks of cold, dry, Arctic air. The possibility is examined that increases in cosmic ray flux and in Jz, at times of decadal and longer minima in solar activity, contributes to the changes in atmospheric circulation and the resulting unusually severe winters in the UK and Europe such as have occurred during extended solar minima in the late 17th century and early 21st century.

Tinsley, B. A.

2011-12-01

66

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1997), 123,pp. 2349-2375 Mesoscale analysis of the activation of a cold front during cyclogenesis  

E-print Network

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1997), 123,pp. 2349-2375 Mesoscale analysis of the activation of a cold front during cyclogenesis By K. A. BROWNING*,N. M. ROBERTS and A. J. ILLINGWORTH Joint Centrefor The archetypal mesoscale structure of an ana-cold front comprises a narrow cold-frontal rainband (NCFR

Reading, University of

67

慜nly old ladies would do that: Age stigma and older people抯 strategies for dealing with winter cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over the welfare of older people in winter have led to interventions and advice campaigns meant to improve their ability to keep warm, but older people themselves are not always willing to follow these recommendations. In this paper we draw on an in-depth study that followed twenty one older person households in the UK over a cold winter and

Rosie Day; Russell Hitchings

2011-01-01

68

Carbon dioxide variability during cold front passages and fair weather days at a forested mountaintop site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes temporal carbon dioxide (CO 2) changes at a new meteorological site on a mountaintop in the Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains during the first year of measurements. Continental mountaintop locations are increasingly being used for CO 2 monitoring, and investigations are needed to better understand measurements made at these locations. We focus on CO 2 mixing ratio changes on days with cold front passages and on fair weather days. Changes in CO 2 mixing ratios are largest during cold front passages outside the growing season and on clear, fair weather days in the growing season. 67% (60%) of the frontal passages during the non-growing (growing) season have larger postfrontal than prefrontal CO 2 mixing ratios. The increase in CO 2 mixing ratio around the frontal passage is short-lived and coincides with changes in CO and O 3. The CO 2 increase can therefore be used as an additional criterion to determine the timing of frontal passages at the mountaintop station. The CO 2 increase can be explained by an accumulation of trace gases along frontal boundaries. The magnitude and duration of the CO 2 increase is affected by the wind speed and direction that determine the source region of the postfrontal air. Southward-moving fronts result in the largest prolonged period of elevated CO 2, consistent with the postfrontal advection of air from the Northeastern United States where anthropogenic contributions are relatively large compared to other areas in the footprint of the mountaintop station. These anthropogenic contributions to the CO 2 changes are confirmed through concurrent CO measurements and output from NOAA's CarbonTracker model.

Lee, Temple R.; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kofler, Jonathan; Williams, Jonathan

2012-01-01

69

Abell 1201: The Anatomy of a Cold Front Cluster from Combined Optical and X-Ray Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of the cold front cluster Abell 1201 using archival Chandra data and multi-object spectroscopy taken with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian and 6.5 m Multiple Mirror Telescopes. This paper represents the first in a series presenting a study of a sample of cold front clusters selected from the Chandra archives with the aim of relating cold fronts to merger activity, understanding the dynamics of mergers and their effect on the cluster constituents. The Chandra X-ray imagery of Abell 1201 reveals two conspicuous surface brightness discontinuities that are shown to be cold fronts, and a remnant core structure. Temperature maps reveal a complex multiphase temperature structure with regions of hot gas interspersed with fingers of cold gas. Our optical analysis is based on a sample of 321 confirmed members, whose mean redshift is z = 0.1673 0.0002 and velocity dispersion is 778 36 km s-1. We search for dynamical substructure and find clear evidence for multiple localized velocity substructures coincident with overdensities in the galaxy surface density. Most notably, we find the structure coincident with the remnant X-ray core. Despite the clear evidence for dynamical activity, we find the peculiar velocity distribution does not deviate significantly from Gaussian. We apply two-body dynamical analyses in order to assess which of the substructures are bound, and thus dynamically important in terms of the cluster merger history. We propose that the cold fronts in Abell 1201 are a consequence of its merger with a smaller subunit, which has induced gas motions that gave rise to "sloshing" cold fronts. Abell 1201 illustrates the value of combining multiwavelength data and multiple substructure detection techniques when attempting to ascertain the dynamical state of a cluster.

Owers, Matt S.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Couch, Warrick J.; Markevitch, Maxim; Poole, Gregory B.

2009-02-01

70

Adaptive Changes in ATPase Activity in the Cells of Winter Wheat Seedlings during Cold Hardening  

PubMed Central

A cytochemical study of ATPase activity in the cells of cold hardened and nonhardened winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Nongke No. 1) seedlings was carried out by electron microscopic observation of lead phosphate precipitation. ATPase activity associated with various cellular organelles was altered during cold hardening. (a) At 22癈, high plasmalemma ATPase activity was observed in both cold hardened and nonhardened tissues; at 5癈, high activity of plasmalemma ATPase was observed in hardened tissues, but not in unhardened tissues. (b) In nonhardened tissues, tonoplast and vacuoles did not exhibit high ATPase activity at either 22 or 5癈, while in hardened tissues high activity was observed at both temperatures. (c) At 5癈, ATPase activity of nucleoli and chromatin was decreased in hardened tissues, but not in nonhardened tissues. It is suggested that adaptive changes in ATPase activity associated with a particular cellular organelle or membrane may be associated with the development of frost resistance of winter wheat seedlings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16662432

Jian, Ling-Cheng; Sun, Long-Hua; Dong, He-Zhu

1982-01-01

71

Evaluation and response of winter cold spells over Western Europe in CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is dedicated to the analysis of winter cold spells over Western Europe in the simulations of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Both model biases and responses in a warming climate are discussed using historical simulations and the 8.5 W/m2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5) scenario, respectively on the 1979-2008 and 2070-2099 periods. A percentile-based index (10th percentile of daily minimum temperature, Q10) with duration and spatial extent criteria is used to define cold spells. Related diagnostics (intensity, duration, extent, and severity as a combination of the former three statistics) of 13 models are compared to observations and suggest that models biases on severity are mainly due to the intensity parameter rather than to duration and extent. Some hypotheses are proposed to explain these biases, that involve large-scale dynamics and/or radiative fluxes related to clouds. Evolution of cold spells characteristics by the end of the century is then discussed by comparing RCP8.5 and historical simulations. In line with the projected rise of mean temperature, "present-climate" cold spells (computed with the 1979-2008 10th percentile, Q10P) are projected to be much less frequent and, except in one model, less severe. When cold spells are defined from the future 10th percentile threshold ("future-climate" cold spells, Q10F), all models simulate a decrease of their intensity linearly related to the seasonal mean warming. Some insights are given to explain the inter-model diversity in the magnitude of the cold spells response. In particular, the snow-albedo feedback is suggested to play an important role, while for some models changes in large-scale dynamics are also not negligible.

Peings, Y.; Cattiaux, J.; Douville, H.

2013-12-01

72

Winter variability of aeolian sediment transport threshold on a cold-climate dune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in surface conditions on cold-climate aeolian dunes are pronounced; during winter dunes are wet, snow covered, and/or frozen for extended periods of time. It is unknown how the critical wind speed for sediment transport (搕hreshold) varies and how threshold may influence sediment transport predictions. Although the impact of surface conditions on threshold has been examined in synthetic experiments (wind tunnels), complicated feedbacks between threshold, sand transport, and surface conditions that occur in natural environments suggest that a ground-based empirical approach may provide enhanced insight. In this study we investigate threshold variability for 73 days during fall-winter-spring surface conditions from 18 November 2008 to 30 May 2009 in the Bigstick Sand Hills of Saskatchewan, Canada. Simultaneous measurements of threshold and atmospheric variables (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction) were used to examine the extent to which surface erodibility was regulated by meteorology. Time-lapse images of the surface from a co-located camera were used for quality control and interpreting changes in the surface affecting threshold. Results reveal that threshold varied throughout the deployment (25-75% quartiles: 6.92-8.28 m s- 1; mean: 7.79 m s- 1). Threshold variability was especially evident at two scales: (i) event timescale and (ii) seasonal timescale. Event-scale variability peaked during mid-winter; in one event the threshold varied by 6 m s- 1 in 2 h with freezing and re-freezing of the surface and relatively constant atmospheric conditions. The causes of event-scale variability are complex though qualitatively related to changes of wind direction, antecedent meteorological conditions, and vertical variations of grain-scale bonding agents such as pore ice and moisture. Seasonal-scale changes manifested as an increase in threshold during fall, peaking in mid-winter, and decreasing in spring. Increased threshold in mid-winter was linked to lower insolation and air temperature, suggesting low erodibility due to the presence of pore ice. Correlation coefficients of threshold versus atmospheric variables yielded relatively weak correlations (air temperature: r = - 0.322; relative humidity: r = 0.388; solar radiation: r = - 0.309) that also varied according to wind direction, suggesting that the link between atmospheric conditions and surface erodibility on cold-climate dunes is complex. This contrasts with results from field-based studies in warmer climates and controlled wind tunnel experiments, which show a more direct link between atmospheric variables (temperature and humidity) and surface erodibility. Nevertheless, our results do show a seasonal pattern of threshold that could be important for modeling cold-climate aeolian sediment transport.

Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

2012-12-01

73

Experimental study of the cold front propagation in the plasma shut-down experiment in the J-TEXT tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of major disruptions is essential in achieving fusion energy as a commercial energy source. Many tokamaks are using massive gas injection (MGI) as the disruption mitigation method since it is the most prospective potential disruption mitigation technique at present. However, mitigation efficiency by gas jet is limited by the shallow penetration of the gas jet which results in low gas mixing efficiency. In order to improve the mixture efficiency, the propagation of the cold front induced by supersonic molecular beam injection and the interaction between the cold front and the q = 2 surface have been studied in the J-TEXT tokamak.

Huang, Yanhua; Tang, Yi; Luo, Yihui; Huang, Duwei; Jin, Wei; Xiao, Jinshui; Yang, Zhoujun; Chen, Zhongyong

2014-07-01

74

Persistent Volcanic Forcing of Severe Cold Winters in Ireland, 430-1650 CE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new record of the occurrence of severe cold events from 430 to 1650 CE derived from writings of medieval Irish scribes. These sources, collectively known as the Irish Annals, represent annual chronicles of important events occurring in the vicinity of major monasteries throughout Ireland. The Irish Annals represent a uniquely homogenous historical record for climate reconstruction because, unlike almost any other European historical archive of this era, records were maintained with great continuity for a common purpose and in a common format at effectively annual resolution for over 1000 years, including the period of the "Dark Ages" after the fall of Rome when comparable sources elsewhere in Europe are scarce. We analyzed over 36,000 individual written entries from 22 major chronicle sources (and several minor sources) and identified all references to cold events, amounting to a total of 70 such events, after exclusion of 13 events deemed historically unreliable (e.g. exaggerated or fabricated). The majority of cold events are reported in the sources as occurring during the winter season. A characteristic example of a written record of severe winter cold occurrence that is considered to be fully historically reliable is the following: Abnormal ice and much snow from the Epiphany [January 6th, Julian Calendar] to Shrovetide. The Boyne and other rivers were crossed dry-footed; lakes likewise (Source: Annals of Ulster for 818 CE). We find a strong correspondence between cold event occurrence and the record of explosive volcanism derived from sulphate deposition in the GISP2 ice core. We find that 37 of 69 or 53.6% of cold events (excluding 1 cold event at 586 CE for which no GISP2 data is available) correspond with one or more high-SO4 events in the GISP2, a correspondence which we find to be significant at the 99.7% confidence level. Explosive volcanic eruptions are generally understood to produce cooling in the northeastern Atlantic during the summer, but the effects on wintertime temperature in modelling studies are more sensitive to details of where aerosols are first injected. Our result indicates that the dominant effect of the explosive volcanism recorded in the GISP2 ice core on wintertime Irish climate is to produce cooling.

Ludlow, F.; Stine, A.

2012-12-01

75

Effects of simulated cold fronts on the survival and behaviour of yellow perch Perca flavescens yolk-sac fry  

E-print Network

Effects of simulated cold fronts on the survival and behaviour of yellow perch Perca flavescens was to quantify survivorship of yellow perch yolk-sac fry exposed to two different temperature declines (4 and 8掳C (ts = ?1.33; df = 7; P = 0.22). Observations of yellow perch eggs and fry behaviour following

76

Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

2009-01-01

77

Geographic variation in Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus: Connectivity of wintering areas and breeding grounds across a broad front  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

Takekawa, J.Y.; Heath, S.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Perry, W.M.; Javed, S.; Newman, S.H.; Suwal, R.N.; Rahmani, A.R.; Choudhury, B.C.; Prosser, D.J.; Yan, B.; Hou, Y.; Batbayar, N.; Natsagdorj, T.; Bishop, C.M.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Scott, G.R.; Hawkes, L.A.; Wikelski, M.

2009-01-01

78

CSCI 3060U/ENGR 3980U -Winter 2013 Course Project Assignment #1 -Front End Requirements  

E-print Network

and in true XP fashion represent those requirements as a set of requirements tests. Create and organize a complete set of requirements tests for the Front End of the Ticket Selling Service, to test for every required behaviour. Do not write any programs yet. Each test should be a complete test session input stream

Bradbury, Jeremy S.

79

Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.  

PubMed

This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated. PMID:24281673

French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

2014-08-01

80

Spatial use by wintering greater white-fronted geese relative to a decade of habitat change in California's Central Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effect of recent habitat changes in California's Central Valley on wintering Pacific greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) by comparing roost-to-feed distances, distributions, population range sizes, and habitat use during 1987-1990 and 1998-2000. These habitat changes included wetland restoration and agricultural land enhancement due to the 1990 implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture, increased land area used for rice (Oryza sativa) production, and the practice of flooding, rather than burning, rice straw residues for decomposition because of burning restrictions enacted in 1991. Using radiotelemetry, we tracked 192 female geese and recorded 4,516 locations. Geese traveled shorter distances between roosting and feeding sites during 1998-2000 (24.2 ?? 2.2 km) than during 1987-1990 (32.5 ?? 3.4 km); distance traveled tended to decline throughout winter during both decades and varied among watershed basins. Population range size was smaller during 1998-2000 (3,367 km2) than during 1987-1990 (5,145 km2), despite a 2.2-fold increase in the size of the Pacific Flyway population of white-fronted geese during the same time period. The population range size also tended to increase throughout winter during both decades. Feeding and roosting distributions of geese also differed between decades; geese shifted into basins that had the greatest increases in the amount of area in rice production (i.e., American Basin) and out of other basins (i.e., Delta Basin). The use of rice habitat for roosting (1987-1990: 40%, 1998-2000: 54%) and feeding (1987-1990: 57%, 1998-2000: 72%) increased between decades, whereas use of wetlands declined for roosting (1987-1990: 36%, 1998-2000: 31%) and feeding (1987-1990: 22%, 1998-2000: 12%). Within postharvested rice habitats, geese roosted and fed primarily in burned rice fields during 1987-1990 (roost: 43%, feed: 34%), whereas they used flooded rice fields during 1998-2000 (roost: 78%, feed: 64%). Our results suggest that white-fronted geese have altered their spatial use of California's Central Valley during the past decade in response to changing agricultural practices and the implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture.

Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Fleskes, J.P.; Yee, J.L.; Kruse, K.L.

2006-01-01

81

Influence of summer rainfall on root and shoot growth of a cold-winter desert shrub, Atriplex confertifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in early summer on root and shoot growth of Atriplex confertifolia, a C4 shrub species, was examined in a cold-winter desert community in northern Utah. Soil water and xylem pressure potentials were monitored during the summer period.

Ken C. Hodgkinson; Pat S. Johnson; Brien E. Norton

1978-01-01

82

Auslegung: a journal of philosophy, Volume 20, Number 1 (Winter, 1995): Front Matter  

E-print Network

is intended as a forum for the expression of any and all scholarly philosophical perspectives. The editors are primarily interested in publishing the work of new Ph.D's and advanced students pursuing a Ph.D. degree in Philosophy. However, all technically... Word Processing Lynn Porter Secretarial Assistance Janice Criss Printing Assistance Linda Weeks Cover Design Bill Martin Winter 1995 Volume 20, Number 1 CONTENTS ARTICLES: David W. Goldberg Nietzschean Recurrence: The Science and The Moment 1...

1995-01-01

83

Auslegung: a journal of philosophy, Volume 13, Number 1 (Winter, 1986): Front Matter  

E-print Network

Winter 1986 Volume 13, Number 1 CONTENTS PAPERS FROM THE SPRING 1985 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA/CHAMPAIGN GRADUATE STUDENT CONFERENCE: Linda Alcoff Charles Pelrce's Alternative to the Skeptical Dilemma 6 Response: Dennis Taylor 19 Caleb.... The Journal is intended as a fo rum for the expression of any and all philosophical perspectives. The editors are primarily interested in publishing the work of new Ph.D's and advanced students pursuing the Ph.D. degree, but all technically compe tent...

1986-12-01

84

Winter warming facilitates range expansion: cold tolerance of the butterfly Atalopedes campestris.  

PubMed

Our ability to predict ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change requires an understanding of the mechanistic links between climate and range limits. The warming trend over the past half-century has generated numerous opportunities to develop much-needed case studies of these links. Species that are only limited by climatic factors are likely to shift range quickly during periods of warming. Such species directly impact recipient communities and indicate trends that will become more widespread. Because minimum temperature (T (min)) is rising at twice the rate of maximum temperature, species with this range-limiting factor may be especially responsive to global warming. In this study, I test the hypothesis that rising T (min) has directly affected the range of a skipper butterfly. Atalopedes campestris has moved northward rapidly this century, recently colonizing eastern Washington where January T (min) has risen 3 degrees C in 50 years. The results show that: 1. A. campestris' range lies completely within the -4 degrees C January average minimum isotherm, and that recently colonized areas were below this threshold earlier this century. 2. In acute cold stress experiments, -4 to -7 degrees C proved to be a critical thermal limit: median supercooling point was -6.3 degrees C, and minimum lethal temperature (LT50 with 12-h exposure) was -5.7 degrees C. 3. In chronic cold stress experiments, survivorship declined sharply in diurnally fluctuating thermal regimes typical of the current range edge. High mortality occurred under constant 0 degrees C conditions as well as in fluctuating regimes, implying that thermal insulation from snow would not protect A. campestris. 4. There was no evidence of evolution in cold tolerance at the range margin, despite strong selection. Thus, winter warming was apparently a prerequisite for the range expansion. Characteristics of this species that seem to be associated with its rapid response are that it is an opportunistic species, it is not habitat or dispersal limited, and it is constrained by T (min). PMID:12684862

Crozier, Lisa

2003-05-01

85

Summer and winter drought in a cold desert ecosystem (Colorado Plateau) part I: effects on soil water and plant water uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of winter and summer drought on plants of the Colorado Plateau in western North America. This winter-cold, summer-hot desert region receives both winter and summer precipitation. Droughts were imposed for two consecutive years using rainout shelters. Here, we examine drought effects on the hydrologic interactions between plants and soil. We chose three perennial species for this

S. Schwinning; B. I. Starr; J. R. Ehleringer

2005-01-01

86

SLOSHING COLD FRONTS IN GALAXY GROUPS AND THEIR PERTURBING DISK GALAXIES: AN X-RAY, OPTICAL, AND RADIO CASE STUDY  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined X-ray, optical, and radio analysis of the galaxy group IC 1860 using the currently available Chandra and XMM data, multi-object spectroscopy data from the literature, and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data. The Chandra and XMM imaging and spectroscopy reveal two surface brightness discontinuities at 45 and 76 kpc shown to be consistent with a pair of cold fronts. These features are interpreted as due to sloshing of the central gas induced by an off-axis minor merger with a perturber. This scenario is further supported by the presence of a peculiar velocity of the central galaxy IC 1860 and the identification of a possible perturber in the optically disturbed spiral galaxy IC 1859. The identification of the perturber is consistent with the comparison with numerical simulations of sloshing. The GMRT observation at 325 MHz shows faint, extended radio emission contained within the inner cold front, as seen in some galaxy clusters hosting diffuse radio mini-halos. However, unlike mini-halos, no particle reacceleration is needed to explain the extended radio emission, which is consistent with aged radio plasma redistributed by the sloshing. There is a strong analogy between the X-ray and optical phenomenology of the IC 1860 group and that of two other groups, NGC 5044 and NGC 5846, showing cold fronts. The evidence presented in this paper is among the strongest supporting the currently favored model of cold-front formation in relaxed objects and establishes the group scale as a chief environment for studying this phenomenon.

Gastaldello, Fabio; Di Gesu, Laura; Ghizzardi, Simona; Rossetti, Mariachiara [IASF-Milano, INAF, via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Giacintucci, Simona [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Girardi, Marisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Sezione di Astronomia, via Tiepolo 11, I-34133 Trieste (Italy); Roediger, Elke [Jacobs University Bremen, P.O. Box 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Brighenti, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Buote, David A.; Humphrey, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Eckert, Dominique [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, Geneva Observatory, ch. d'Ecogia, 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Ettori, Stefano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Mathews, William G. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-06-10

87

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs  

E-print Network

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs. 2011. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs in sea surface temperature (SST) were observed, including cold fronts (colder inshore) during winter

Pineda, Jes煤s

88

The Central American cold surge: an observational analysis of the deep southward penetration of North American cold fronts  

E-print Network

(solid) and isotach (dashed) pauerns associated with a shear line over a tropical oceanic area. After Palmer et al. (1955) 12 ESSA 9 satellite image showing the squall line associated with a Tehuantepecer on February 3, 1970. After Parmenter (1970...) . . . Schematic movement of the Gulf of Tehuantepec squall line. After Parmenter (1970) 14 Number of fmnts analyzed by the NMC compared to the number of fronts indicated by Belize surface data from 1 November through 31 March. After Horvath and Henry (1980...

Reding, Philip John

2012-06-07

89

Requirement of a CCGAC cis-acting element for cold induction of the BN115 gene from winter Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutation of the core pentamer, CCGAC, of two putative low temperature responsive elements (LTREs) in the 5'-proximal region of the winter Brassica napus cold-induced gene BN115 was carried out. Analyses of transient expression of the resultant mutated BN115 promoter-GUS fusions revealed the loss of low-temperature regulation by the promoter. This indicates that the CCGAC sequence is critical to the low-temperature

Chao Jiang; Betty Iu; Jas Singh

1996-01-01

90

Cold, Northern Winters: The Importance of Temperature to Overwinter Mortality of Age0 White Crappies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival during the first winter of life can influence the recruitment of many fishes. We used field sampling and laboratory experiments to explore the mechanisms underlying first winter growth and survival of white crappie Pomoxis annularis, which exhibits variable recruitment. We sampled age-0 white crappies from four Ohio reservoirs before winter to evaluate whether large individuals had a greater energy

Arthur B. McCollum; David B. Bunnell; Roy A. Stein

2003-01-01

91

Evolution of cold-tolerant fungal symbionts permits winter fungiculture by leafcutter ants at the northern frontier of a tropical ant-fungus symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between leafcutter ants and their Attamyces fungi originated 8 to 12 million years ago in the tropics, but extends today also into temperate regions in South and North America. The northernmost leafcutter ant Atta texana sustains fungiculture during winter temperatures that would harm the cold-sensitive Attamyces cultivars of tropical leafcutter ants. Cold-tolerance of Attamyces cultivars increases with winter harshness along a south-to-north temperature gradient across the range of A. texana, indicating selection for cold-tolerant Attamyces variants along the temperature cline. Ecological niche modeling corroborates winter temperature as a key range-limiting factor impeding northward expansion of A. texana. The northernmost A. texana populations are able to sustain fungiculture throughout winter because of their cold-adapted fungi and because of seasonal, vertical garden relocation (maintaining gardens deep in the ground in winter to protect them from extreme cold, then moving gardens to warmer, shallow depths in spring). Although the origin of leafcutter fungiculture was an evolutionary breakthrough that revolutionized the food niche of tropical fungus-growing ants, the original adaptations of this host-microbe symbiosis to tropical temperatures and the dependence on cold-sensitive fungal symbionts eventually constrained expansion into temperate habitats. Evolution of cold-tolerant fungi within the symbiosis relaxed constraints on winter fungiculture at the northern frontier of the leafcutter ant distribution, thereby expanding the ecological niche of an obligate host杕icrobe symbiosis. PMID:21368106

Mueller, Ulrich G.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Hong, Eunki; Sen, Ruchira; Warren, Dan L.; Solomon, Scott E.; Ishak, Heather D.; Cooper, Mike; Miller, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Kimberly A.; Juenger, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

92

Creation and tidal advection of a cold salinity front in Storfjorden: 1. Polynya dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrographical measurements from the Storfjorden polynya document the presence of an abrupt front in near-freezing water dividing saline water recently created by a polynya event, from less saline water originating further south. This event occurred days before the survey with estimated heat flux 400 W m-2 over the polynya. Brine-enriched shelf water (BSW) is observed downslope toward deeper parts of Storfjorden, and BSW from earlier polynya events overflows the sill. Current measurements from a nearby sound, Freemansundet, document tidal currents exceeding 80 cm s-1 that displaced the front back and forth beneath the measurement site on fast ice 400 m from the polynya edge. Front displacement of 12 km is documented and mainly due to the M2 component superimposed on a mean residual current of 0.28 m s-1 into the sound induced by southerly wind during the survey. Complex topography imposes baroclinic tidal currents with strong vertical shear in the fast ice-covered sound, and with significant cross-channel flow. Supercooling events indicated in the hydrographical time series, and likely enhanced frazil ice production, are associated with double-diffusive turbulent mixing when the salinity front passes. In this way, these measurements indicate a novel ice production process along the edge of tidally induced latent heat polynyas where salinity fronts are generated. Turbulence increases (decreases) during flood (ebb) due to the destabilization (stabilization) of the water column when the salinity front passes the measurement site. Double-diffusive turbulent mixing related to tidal advection of salinity front below fast ice is pursued in a companion paper.

Skogseth, Ragnheid; McPhee, Miles G.; Nilsen, Frank; Smedsrud, Lars H.

2013-07-01

93

A Wild Ride for Abell 2443: A High Impact Velocity Merger with a Shock, Cold Front, and Relic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical state of galaxy clusters is revealed through X-ray features such as shocks and cold-fronts as well as radio features such as diffuse synchrotron emission. Abell 2443 is host to a shock edge, cold-front contact discontinuity, and ultra-steep spectrum radio relic. These features all point toward a cluster undergoing a significant merger but our recent deep Chandra data have revealed a more complex picture. We see a double-tailed X-ray tail reminiscent of that in 'El Gordo'. This structure appears to trace the trajectory of the merging subcomponent and suggests that it is highly inclined with respect to the line of sight. Separating the X-ray emission of the merging tailed component from that of its surroundings (the main cluster) suggests, through spectral fits, that the two components of Abell 2443 have a relative line of sight velocity difference of over 3000 km/s. Ahead of the merging component is where the ultra-steep spectrum radio relic appears co-spatial with the outgoing shock edge from this violent collision.

Clarke, T.; Mroczkowski, T.; Randall, S.; Sarazin, C.; Intema, H.; Giacintucci, S.; Blanton, E.

2014-07-01

94

Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1  

E-print Network

spells over Northern and Western Europe. This somehow unusual winter with respect to the most recent ones events and unusual snow accumulation in several Northern Hemisphere countries (see http://www. ncdc questioning about global warming. A global perspective nevertheless high- lights that winter 2010 was marked

Codron, Francis

95

'Only old ladies would do that': age stigma and older people's strategies for dealing with winter cold.  

PubMed

Concerns over the welfare of older people in winter have led to interventions and advice campaigns meant to improve their ability to keep warm, but older people themselves are not always willing to follow these recommendations. In this paper we draw on an in-depth study that followed twenty one older person households in the UK over a cold winter and examined various aspects of their routine warmth-related practices at home and the rationales underpinning them. We find that although certain aspects of ageing did lead participants to feel they had changing warmth needs, their practices were also shaped by the problematic task of negotiating identities in the context of a wider stigmatisation of older age and an evident resistance to ageist discourses. After outlining the various ways in which this was manifest in our study, we conclude by drawing out the implications for future policy and research. PMID:21606000

Day, Rosie; Hitchings, Russell

2011-07-01

96

Air and precipitation particle motions within a cold front measured by the MU VHF radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHF Doppler radar at Shigaraki, Japan, is shown to be capable of investigating mesoscale meteorological phenomena in the troposphere. Three dimensional velocities of air and precipitation particles in a cold frontal system are measured directly. The time and altitude resolution obtained with this system are unequalled by other conventional instruments. A strong and deep updraft associated with the frontal

Koichiro Wakasugi; Shoichiro Fukao; Susumu Kato; Akiyoshi Mizutani; Masaru Matsuo

1985-01-01

97

Shelf circulation prior to and post a cold front event measured from vessel-based acoustic Doppler current profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelf circulation impacted by a shift in wind regime during the passage of an atmospheric cold front system is studied with a field survey over the mid-shelf of the South Atlantic Bight between Oct 4 and 9, 2004. Weak southerly winds preceded the cold front for a few days, followed by a rapid shift in wind direction and strengthening of northeasterly winds over a few more days. More than 93 h of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data were obtained along an equilateral triangle of 105 km in perimeter, which was continuously occupied for 11 times. A harmonic analysis was applied to extract tidal and subtidal wind-driven flow components by collapsing the 93 hour data into one M2 tidal period. It was found that the cross-shelf flow was barely affected by the wind while the along-shelf flow responded with a spatially uniform and almost steadily increasing mean flow velocity, superimposed on an oscillatory tidal current. The wind induced along-shelf transport was estimated to be ~ 0.3 Sv over the inner and middle shelf. The net cross-shelf transport was negligible. Apparently, the northeasterly wind causes an along-shelf current which was subject to Coriolis force that sets up an increasing coastal sea level pressure gradient as the water kept piling up against the coast, which was confirmed by tide gauge data. The observations found that the flow field prior to the strong winds had more complicated structures including eddy-like features, while after the strong northeasterly winds, the flow became eddy free and uniform in space. A theoretical model solved by a Laplace Transform was used to examine the wind-driven flow mechanism and the results were compared with the observations of net along-shelf flow velocity.

Li, Chunyan; Chen, Changsheng

2014-11-01

98

IRREGULAR SLOSHING COLD FRONTS IN THE NEARBY MERGING GROUPS NGC 7618 AND UGC 12491: EVIDENCE FOR KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITIES  

SciTech Connect

We present results from two {approx}30 ks Chandra observations of the hot atmospheres of the merging galaxy groups centered around NGC 7618 and UGC 12491. Our images show the presence of arc-like sloshing cold fronts (CFs) wrapped around each group center and {approx}100 kpc long spiral tails in both groups. Most interestingly, the CFs are highly distorted in both groups, exhibiting 'wings' along the fronts. These features resemble the structures predicted from non-viscous hydrodynamic simulations of gas sloshing, where Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) distort the CFs. This is in contrast to the structure seen in many other sloshing and merger CFs, which are smooth and featureless at the current observational resolution. Both magnetic fields and viscosity have been invoked to explain the absence of KHIs in these smooth CFs, but the NGC 7618/UGC 12491 pair are two in a growing number of both sloshing and merger CFs that appear distorted. Magnetic fields and/or viscosity may be able to suppress the growth of KHIs at the CFs in some clusters and groups, but clearly not in all. We propose that the presence or absence of KHI distortions in CFs can be used as a measure of the effective viscosity and/or magnetic field strengths in the intracluster medium.

Roediger, E. [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Machacek, M. E.; Forman, W. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S., E-mail: e.roediger@jacobs-university.de [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-08-01

99

Use of ``Cold Spell'' indices to quantify excess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity during winter (November to March 2000-2007): case study in Porto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the occurrence of cold episodes and excess hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Porto, Portugal, in order to further understand the effects of cold weather on health in milder climates. Excess COPD winter morbidity was calculated from admissions for November to March (2000-2007) in the Greater Porto Metropolitan Area (GPMA). Cold spells were identified using several indices (D韆z, World Meteorological Organization, Cold Spell Duration Index, Australian Index and Ondas Project Index) for the same period. Excess admissions in the periods before and after the occurrence of cold spells were calculated and related to the cold spells identified. The COPD seasonal variation admission coefficient (CVSA) showed excess winter admissions of 59 %, relative to other months. The effect of cold spell on the aggravation of COPD occurs with a lag of at least 2 weeks and differs according to the index used. This study indicates the important role of the persistence of cold periods of at least 2 weeks duration in the increase in COPD admissions. The persistence of moderate temperatures (Tmin ?5 癈) for a week can be more significant for increasing COPD admissions than very low temperatures (Tmin ? 1.6 癈) for just a few days. The Ondas projects index provides the most accurate detection of the negative impacts of cold persistency on health, while the Diaz index is better at evaluating the consequences of short extreme cold events.

Monteiro, Ana; Carvalho, V鈔ia; G骾s, Joaquim; Sousa, Carlos

2013-11-01

100

Use of "Cold Spell" indices to quantify excess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity during winter (November to March 2000-2007): case study in Porto.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the occurrence of cold episodes and excess hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Porto, Portugal, in order to further understand the effects of cold weather on health in milder climates. Excess COPD winter morbidity was calculated from admissions for November to March (2000-2007) in the Greater Porto Metropolitan Area (GPMA). Cold spells were identified using several indices (D韆z, World Meteorological Organization, Cold Spell Duration Index, Australian Index and Ondas' Project Index) for the same period. Excess admissions in the periods before and after the occurrence of cold spells were calculated and related to the cold spells identified. The COPD seasonal variation admission coefficient (CVSA) showed excess winter admissions of 59%, relative to other months. The effect of cold spell on the aggravation of COPD occurs with a lag of at least 2爓eeks and differs according to the index used. This study indicates the important role of the persistence of cold periods of at least 2爓eeks duration in the increase in COPD admissions. The persistence of moderate temperatures (Tmin ?5牥C) for a week can be more significant for increasing COPD admissions than very low temperatures (Tmin???1.6牥C) for just a few days. The Ondas projects' index provides the most accurate detection of the negative impacts of cold persistency on health, while the Diaz index is better at evaluating the consequences of short extreme cold events. PMID:23274835

Monteiro, Ana; Carvalho, V鈔ia; G骾s, Joaquim; Sousa, Carlos

2013-11-01

101

The response of Carlos Botelho (Lobo, Broa) reservoir to the passage of cold fronts as reflected by physical, chemical, and biological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses the impacts of the passage of cold fronts on the vertical structure of the Carlos Botelho (Lobo-Broa) Reservoir as demonstrated by changes in physical, chemical, and biological variables. The data were obtained with a continuous system measuring 9 variables in verti- cal profiles in the deepest point of the reservoir (12 m) coupled with climatological

J. G. Tundisi; T. Matsumura-Tundisi; J. D. Arantes Junior; J. E. M. Tundisi; N. F. Manzini; R. Ducrot

2004-01-01

102

Lower Stratospheric Temperature Differences Between Meteorological Analyses in two cold Arctic Winters and their Impact on Polar Processing Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative intercomparison of six meteorological analyses is presented for the cold 1999-2000 and 1995-1996 Arctic winters. The impacts of using different analyzed temperatures in calculations of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation potential, and of different winds in idealized trajectory-based temperature histories, are substantial. The area with temperatures below a PSC formation threshold commonly varies by approximately 25% among the analyses, with differences of over 50% at some times/locations. Freie University at Berlin analyses are often colder than others at T is less than or approximately 205 K. Biases between analyses vary from year to year; in January 2000. U.K. Met Office analyses were coldest and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses warmest. while NCEP analyses were usually coldest in 1995-1996 and Met Office or NCEP[National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (REAN) warmest. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperatures agreed better with other analyses in 1999-2000, after improvements in the assimilation model. than in 1995-1996. Case-studies of temperature histories show substantial differences using Met Office, NCEP, REAN and NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) analyses. In January 2000 (when a large cold region was centered in the polar vortex), qualitatively similar results were obtained for all analyses. However, in February 2000 (a much warmer period) and in January and February 1996 (comparably cold to January 2000 but with large cold regions near the polar vortex edge), distributions of "potential PSC lifetimes" and total time spent below a PSC formation threshold varied significantly among the analyses. Largest peaks in "PSC lifetime" distributions in January 2000 were at 4-6 and 11-14 days. while in the 1996 periods, they were at 1-3 days. Thus different meteorological conditions in comparably cold winters had a large impact on expectations for PSC formation and on the discrepancies between different meteorological analyses. Met Office. NCEP, REAN, ECMWF and DAO analyses are commonly used for trajectory calculations and in chemical transport models; the choice of which analysis to use can strongly influence the results of such studies.

Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Santee, Michelle L.; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard; Gelman, Melvyn E.; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

103

The bow shock, cold fronts and disintegrating cool core in the merging galaxy group RX J0751.3+5012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new Chandra X-ray observation of the off-axis galaxy group merger RX J0751.3+5012. The hot atmospheres of the two colliding groups appear highly distorted by the merger. The images reveal arc-like cold fronts around each group core, produced by the motion through the ambient medium, and the first detection of a group merger shock front. We detect a clear density and temperature jump associated with a bow shock of Mach number M = 1.9 0.4 ahead of the northern group. Using galaxy redshifts and the shock velocity of 1100 300 km s-1, we estimate that the merger axis is only 10 from the plane of the sky. From the projected group separation of 90 kpc, this corresponds to a time since closest approach of 0.1 Gyr. The northern group hosts a dense, cool core with a ram pressure stripped tail of gas extending 100 kpc. The sheared sides of this tail appear distorted and broadened by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We use the presence of this substructure to place an upper limit on the magnetic field strength and, for Spitzer-like viscosity, show that the development of these structures is consistent with the critical perturbation length above which instabilities can grow in the intragroup medium. The northern group core also hosts a galaxy pair, UGC 4052, with a surrounding IR and near-UV ring 40 kpc in diameter. The ring may have been produced by tidal stripping of a smaller galaxy by UGC 4052 or it may be a collisional ring generated by a close encounter between the two large galaxies.

Russell, H. R.; Fabian, A. C.; McNamara, B. R.; Edge, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; O'Dea, C. P.

2014-10-01

104

Subtidal water flux through a multiple-inlet system: Observations before and during a cold front event and numerical experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the net transport through a multiple-inlet bay under a combined force of strong wind and tide, with observations and a model experiment. The observations were made in central Georgia in Sapelo and Altamaha Sounds between 13 and 17 September 2000. Wind was weak in the beginning of the survey. An air pressure trough (as a weak cold front) passed the area on 16 September, when the wind changed to the northeast and increased in magnitude. This front was associated with a midlatitude cyclone in the New England area. This weather event with an episode of strong northeasterly winds prompted a numerical model experiment on an idealized three-inlet bay, with a set of nonlinear 2-D shallow water equations on an f plane, which provides some insight to the wind-driven circulation under the presence of tidal forcing. It is found that tidally induced currents are small compared to wind-induced flows. When the wind direction is not perpendicular to the alignment of the three inlets, the net outward flow tends to occur at the inlet farther away in the downwind direction. This is associated with a net inward transport in the inlet opposite of the downwind direction. As a result, the middle inlet has the minimum of the net flow. When the wind is perpendicular to the barrier islands, and if the three inlets have different maximum depth values, the deeper inlet tends to have a net flow against the wind, while the shallower inlet tends to have a net flow in the direction of the wind. Offshore (onshore) currents may develop outside of the inlet with outward (inward) flow, as an effect of fluxes through the inlets on the coastal ocean.

Li, Chunyan

2013-04-01

105

Proteome analysis of cold response in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) crowns reveals similarities in stress adaptation and differences in regulatory processes between the growth habits.  

PubMed

A proteomic response to cold treatment (4 癈) has been studied in crowns of a frost-tolerant winter wheat cultivar Samanta and a frost-sensitive spring wheat cultivar Sandra after short-term (3 days) and long-term (21 days) cold treatments. Densitometric analysis of 2-D differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels has resulted in the detection of 386 differentially abundant protein spots, which reveal at least a two-fold change between experimental variants. Of these, 58 representative protein spots have been selected for MALDI-TOF/TOF identification, and 36 proteins have been identified. The identified proteins with an increased relative abundance upon cold in both growth habits include proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism (glycolysis enzymes), redox metabolism (thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase), chaperones, as well as defense-related proteins (protein revealing similarity to thaumatin). Proteins exhibiting a cold-induced increase in the winter cultivar include proteins involved in regulation of stress response and development (germin E, lectin VER2), while proteins showing a cold-induced increase in the spring cultivar include proteins involved in restoration of cell division and plant growth (eIF5A2, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase). These results provide new insights into cold acclimation in spring and winter wheat at the proteome level and enrich our previous work aimed at phytohormone dynamics in the same plant material. PMID:24047233

Kosov, Kl醨a; V韙醡v醩, Pavel; Planchon, S閎astien; Renaut, Jenny; Vankov, Radom韗a; Pr釟il, Ilja Tom

2013-11-01

106

Synoptic climatological study on precipitation in the Hokuriku District of Central Japan associated with the cold air outbreak in early winter (With Comparison to that in midwinter for the 1983/1984 winter)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In midwinter, heavy snowfall events are often brought in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands by the organized convective snowfall systems in the cold air outbreak situations. However, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher from November to early December ("early winter"), the "wintertime pressure pattern" often appears due to the considerable development of the Siberian high already in that season. Since the seasonal cycle in East Asia shows great variety with many rapid seasonal transitions influenced by the Asian monsoon system, detailed comparison of the daily precipitation climatology and the relating atmospheric processes in the cold air outbreak situations between early winter and midwinter would give us an interesting information for comprehending the overall aspects of such seasonal cycle there. Thus the present study firstly examined the daily precipitation climatology mainly at Takada, as an example for Hokuriku District, during the early to mid- winter of 1970/71 to 2009/10. Then the detailed analyses were made for the 1983/1984 winter (one of the coldest winters during that period) based on the operational meteorological data by JMA, including the ocean buoy data in the southern part of the Japan Sea for evaluating the sensible and the latent heat fluxes from the sea (referred to as SH and LH, respectively). The total precipitation at Takada in early winter was as large as in midwinter, although it was brought mainly not as snow but as rain. Such large climatological value was mainly reflected by the precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" with large contribution of the days with more than 30 mm/day. Interestingly, mean daily precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" in early winter was greater than in midwinter. It is noted that such features were generally found even in the latter half of the analysis period when the warmer winter years appeared more frequently than in the former half. According to the case study for 1983/84 winter, although the "wintertime pressure pattern" appeared rather frequently already from early November, each event of that pattern tended to persist only a several days. In addition, the organization of the shallow convective clouds in the cold air outbreak situation as often found in midwinter was not clearly observed. However, strong cold air advection in early winter as in midwinter over the warm underlying sea, at least in the mature stage of each "wintertime pressure situation", seems to enable the extremely huge amount of LH and the equivalently intense SH to that in midwinter, resulting in the large daily precipitation there through the enhancement of the air mass transformation process over the Japan Sea.

Kato, Kuranoshin; Nishimura, Nanako; Haga, Yuichi

2014-05-01

107

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor  

PubMed Central

Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and 揺nhanced disease susceptibility 1 in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley. PMID:23584021

Hlavackova, Iva; Vitamvas, Pavel; Santrucek, Jiri; Kosova, Klara; Zelenkova, Sylva; Prasil, Ilja Tom; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan

2013-01-01

108

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor.  

PubMed

Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600-700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and "enhanced disease susceptibility 1" in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley. PMID:23584021

Hlav?kov, Iva; V韙醡v醩, Pavel; Santr??ek, Ji?; Kosov, Kl醨a; Zelenkov, Sylva; Pr釟il, Ilja Tom; Ovesn, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kod?ek, Milan

2013-01-01

109

Evaluating the role of fronts in habitat overlaps between cold and warm water species in the western North Pacific: A proof of concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold- and warm-water species' fishing grounds show a spatial synchrony around fronts in the western North Pacific (WNP). However, it is not yet clear whether a front (thermal, salinity or chlorophyll) acts as an absolute barrier to fish migration on either side or its structure allows interaction of species with different physiological requirements. Our objective was to assess potential areas of overlap between cold- and warm-water species using probabilities of presence derived from fishery datasets and remotely sensed environment data in the Kuroshio-Oyashio region in the WNP. Fishery data comprised skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishing locations and proxy presences (derived from fishing night light images) for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartrami) and Pacific saury (Cololabis saira). Monthly (August-November) satellite remotely sensed sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and sea-surface height anomaly images were used as environment data. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models were used to determine probabilities of presence (PoP) for each set of fishery and environment data for the area 35-45癗 and 140-160癊. Maps of both sets of PoPs were compared and areas of overlap identified using a combined probability map. Results indicated that areas of spatial overlap existed among the species habitats, which gradually widened from September to November. The reasons for these overlaps include the presence of strong thermal/ocean-color gradients between cold Oyashio and warm Kuroshio waters, and also the presence of the sub-arctic front. Due to the high abundance of food along frontal zones, the species use the fronts as foraging grounds while confining within physiologically tolerable waters on either side of the front. The interaction zone around the front points to areas that might be accessible to both species for foraging, which suggests intense prey-predator interaction zones.

Mugo, Robinson M.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Takahashi, Fumihiro; Nihira, Akira; Kuroyama, Tadaaki

2014-09-01

110

Energy savings potential of a desiccant assisted hybrid air source heat pump system for residential building in hot summer and cold winter zone in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hot summer and cold winter zone in China, air conditioning system has four running modes yearly including cooling with dehumidification, cooling, dehumidification and heating in residential buildings. The conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) system is not designed to independently control temperature and humidity, and is not very suitable for the dehumidification mode in the view of building energy

Fenghua Ge; Xinglong Guo; Zicheng Hu; Yi Chu

2011-01-01

111

Dominant black-capped chickadees pay no maintenance energy costs for their wintering status and are not better at enduring cold than subordinate individuals.  

PubMed

Winter requires physiological adjustments in northern resident passerines. Cold acclimatization is generally associated with an increase in physiological maintenance costs, measured as basal metabolic rate (BMR), and cold endurance, reflected by summit metabolic rate (M(sum)). However, several northern species also form social groups in winter and a bird's hierarchical position may influence the size of its metabolically active organs as well as its BMR. Winter metabolic performance in these species may therefore reflect a complex set of adjustments to both seasonal climatic variations and social environment. We studied the effect of social status on parameters of cold acclimatization (body mass, size of fat reserves and pectoral muscles, BMR and M(sum)) in free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Birds that were structurally large and heavy for their body size, mostly dominant individuals, carried more fat reserves and had larger pectoral muscles. However, social status had little effect on metabolic performance in the cold. Indeed, M(sum) was independent of social rank while mass-corrected BMR was slightly lower in dominant individuals, likely due to a statistical dilution effect caused by large metabolically inactive fat reserves. BMR and M(sum), whether considered in terms of whole-animal values, corrected for body mass or body size were nevertheless correlated, suggesting a functional link between these metabolic components. Our results therefore indicate that the energy cost of social dominance is not a generalized phenomenon in small wintering birds. PMID:22037961

Lewden, Agn鑣; Petit, Magali; V閦ina, Fran鏾is

2012-04-01

112

How Much can we Learn from a Merging Cold Front Cluster? Insights from X-Ray Temperature and Radio Maps of A3667  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The galaxy cluster A3667 is an ideal laboratory to study the plasma processes in the intracluster medium. High-resolution Chandra X-ray observations show a cold front in A3667. At radio wavelengths, A3667 reveals a double radio-relic feature in the outskirts of the cluster. These suggest multiple merger events in this cluster. In this paper, we analyze the substantial archival X-ray observations of A3667 from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and compare these with existing radio observations as well as state-of-the-art adaptive mesh refinement MHD cosmological simulations using Enzo. We have used two temperature map making techniques, weighted Voronoi tessellation and adaptive circular binning, to produce the high-resolution and largest field-of-view temperature maps of A3667. These high-fidelity temperature maps allow us to study the X-ray shocks in the cluster using a new two-dimensional shock-finding algorithm. We have also estimated the Mach numbers from the shocks inferred from previous ATCA radio observations. The combined shock statistics from the X-ray and radio data are in agreement with the shock statistics in a simulated MHD cluster. We have also studied the profiles of the thermodynamic properties across the cold front using ~447 ks from the combined Chandra observations on A3667. Our results show that the stability of the cold front in A3667 can be attributed to the suppression of the thermal conduction across the cold front by a factor of ~100-700 compared to the classical Spitzer value.

Datta, Abhirup; Schenck, David E.; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.

2014-10-01

113

Coping with the cold: an ecological context for the abundance and distribution of rock sandpipers during winter in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shorebirds are conspicuous and abundant at high northern latitudes during spring and summer, but as seasonal conditions deteriorate, few remain during winter. To the best of our knowledge, Cook Inlet, Alaska (60.6? N, 151.6? W), is the world抯 coldest site that regularly supports wintering populations of shorebirds, and it is also the most northerly nonbreeding location for shorebirds in the Pacific Basin. During the winters of 19972012, we conducted aerial surveys of upper Cook Inlet to document the spatial and temporal distribution and number of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) using the inlet. The average survey total was 8191 6143 SD birds, and the average of each winter season抯 highest single-day count was 13 603 4948 SD birds. We detected only Rock Sandpipers during our surveys, essentially all of which were individuals of the nominate subspecies (C. p. ptilocnemis). Survey totals in some winters closely matched the population estimate for this subspecies, demonstrating the region抯 importance as a nonbreeding resource to the subspecies. Birds were most often found at only a handful of sites in upper Cook Inlet, but shifted their distribution to more southerly locations in the inlet during periods of extreme cold. Two environmental factors allow Rock Sandpipers to inhabit Cook Inlet during winter: 1) an abundant bivalve (Macoma balthica) food source and 2) current and tidal dynamics that keep foraging substrates accessible during all but extreme periods of cold and ice accretion. C. p. ptilocnemis is a subspecies of high conservation concern for which annual winter surveys may serve as a relatively inexpensive population-monitoring tool that will also provide insight into adaptations that allow these birds to exploit high-latitude environments in winter.

Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

2013-01-01

114

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture杛esighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture

D. Kleijn; V. J. Munster; B. S. Ebbinge; D. A. Jonkers; G. J. D. M. M黶kens; Y. Van Randen; R. A. M. Fouchier

2010-01-01

115

How does the European common lizard, Lacerta vivipara, survive the cold of winter?  

PubMed

Although the European common lizard, Lacerta vivipara, is among the most common Eurasian reptile species, we know little about how these lizards cope with very low temperatures. In this study we examined microenvironmental conditions, body temperature, behavior, and cold strategies to see whether strategies of freezing and supercooling, while normally considered to be mutually exclusive, may in fact be adopted simultaneously by the common lizard. Following up on an earlier study of a lowland population, this time we used a mountain population (850 m) to discover differences in overwintering strategies between the two populations. Differential scanning calorimetry conducted during the hibernation period (vs. the activity period) showed that the blood of highland lizards had an increased ability to resist ice formation, confirming an ecophysiological effect most likely mediated by physical properties of the blood. Mean blood glucose level of unfrozen L. vivipara in the field increased significantly (about fourfold) from 8.5+/-0.7 mmol l(-1) in September to 33.2+/-5.6 mmol l(-1) in March. The blood glucose level then experienced a significant decline as it fell to 6. 2+/-0.8 mmol l(-1) after hibernation in April. Glucose, in conclusion, seems to play a role of cryoprotectant rather than antifreeze. PMID:10996819

Grenot, C J; Garcin, L; Dao, J; H閞old, J; Fahys, B; Ts閞-Pag鑣, H

2000-09-01

116

2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For reference, the conventional AO index is shown by the gray line. (b) a 5-day running mean WP index, (c) area-averaged Surface Air Temperature anomalies in Japan, (d) Air Temperature anomalies, (e) heat flux anomalies, and (f) Sea Surface Temperature anomalies. The boxed area on the Sea of Japan indicates the area in which the (d)-(f) indexes were calculated.

Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

2013-12-01

117

Cold priming drives the sub-cellular antioxidant systems to protect photosynthetic electron transport against subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat.  

PubMed

Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2牥C lower temperature than the ambient temperature, viz., 10.0牥C) at the Zadoks growth stage 28 (i.e.爎e-greening stage, starting on 20th of March) for 7燿, and after 14燿 of recovery the plants were subsequently subjected to a 5燿 low temperature stress (8.4牥C lower than the ambient temperature, viz., 14.1牥C) at the Zadoks growth stage 31 (i.e.爅ointing stage, starting on 8th April). Compared to the non-primed plants, the cold-primed plants possessed more effective oxygen scavenging systems in chloroplasts and mitochondria as exemplified by the increased activities of SOD, APX and CAT, resulting in a better maintenance in homeostasis of ROS production. The trapped energy flux (TRO/CSO) and electron transport (ETO/CSO) in the photosynthetic apparatus were found functioning well in the cold-primed plants leading to higher photosynthetic rate during the subsequent low temperature stress. Collectively, the results indicate that cold priming activated the sub-cellular antioxidant systems, depressing the oxidative burst in photosynthetic apparatus, hereby enhanced the tolerance to subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat plants. PMID:24887010

Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

2014-09-01

118

Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer).  

PubMed

A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. PMID:23348601

Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

2013-04-01

119

Cold-front driven storm erosion and overwash in the central part of the Isles Dernieres, a Louisiana barrier-island arc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tropical and extratropical storms produce significant erosion on the barrier islands of Louisiana. Over the past 100 years, such storms have produced at least 2 km of northward beach-face retreat and the loss of 63% of the surface area of the Isles Dernieres, a low-lying barrier-island arc along the central Louisiana coast. Elevations on the islands within the arc are typically less than 2 m above mean sea level. The islands typically have a washover-flat topography with occasional, poorly developed, dune-terrace topography consisting of low-lying and broken dunes. The central part of the arc consists of salt-marsh deposits overlain by washover sands along the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. Sand thicknesses range from zero behind the beach, to less than 2 m under the berm crest, and back to zero in the first nearshore trough. The sand veneer is sufficiently thin that storms can strip all the sand from the beach face, exposing the underlying marsh deposits. The geomorphic changes produced by cold fronts, a type of extratropical storm that commonly affect the Isles Dernieres between late fall and early spring are described. Between August 1986 and September 1987, repeated surveys along eleven shore-normal transects that covered 400 m of shoreline revealed the timing and extent of cold-front-produced beach change along a typical section of the central Isles Dernieres. During the study period, the beach face retreated approximately 20 m during the cold-front season but did not rebuild during the subsequent summer. Because the volume of sand deposited on the backshore (5600 m3) was less than the volume of material lost from the beach face (19,200 m3), approximately 13,600 m3 of material disappeared. Assuming that underlying marsh deposits decrease in volume in direct proportion to the amount of beach-face retreat, an estimate of the mud loss during the study period is 14,000 m3. Thus, the decrease in volume along the profiles can be accounted for without removing any sand from the area, suggesting that a major effect of cold fronts is first to strip the sand from the beach face and then to erode the underlying marsh deposits. After being eroded, the mud is lost from the islands because currents transport it away from the islands. ?? 1990.

Dingler, J.R.; Reiss, T.E.

1990-01-01

120

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

121

Organic and inorganic aerosol compositions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, during the cold winter of 2007 to 2008: Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and ?-dicarbonyls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the distributions and sources of water-soluble organic acids in the Mongolian atmosphere, aerosol samples (PM2.5, n = 34) were collected at an urban site (47.92癗, 106.90癊, 1300 m above sea level) in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, during the cold winter. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and ?-dicarbonyls), as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble OC, and inorganic ions. Distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were characterized by a predominance of terephthalic acid (tPh; 130 51 ng m-3, 19% of total detected organic acids) followed by oxalic (107 28 ng m-3, 15%), succinic (63 20 ng m-3, 9%), glyoxylic (55 18 ng m-3, 8%), and phthalic (54 27 ng m-3, 8%) acids. Predominance of terephthalic acid, which has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols, was mainly due to uncontrolled burning of plastic bottles and bags in home stoves for heating and waste incineration during the cold winter. This study demonstrated that most of the air pollutants were directly emitted from local sources such as heat and power plants, home stoves, and automobiles. Development of an inversion layer (<700 m above ground level) over the basin of Ulaanbaatar accelerated the accumulation of pollutants, causing severe haze episodes during the winter season.

Jung, Jinsang; Tsatsral, Batmunkh; Kim, Young J.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

2010-11-01

122

Winter storm impacts on chenier plain coast of southwestern Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Stormy conditions associated with periodic winter cold front passages are closely related to transport of suspended sediment to the continental shelf, coastal erosion, and coastal progradation along shoreline sectors where abundant fine-grained sediments are stored on the inner shelf. Cold front passages occur between October and April on 3 to 5-day cycles. Their typical northwest to southeast direction of approach, large spatial scales, and numerous yearly occurrences (20-30 cycles/year) drive physical processes that cause significant coastal change. Acquisition of both remotely sensed multispectral and high-quality photographic data, collected from altitudes of 1,500, 9,000, and 21,000 m before and after cold front passages, forms a database for evaluating coastal change and suspended sediment transport pathways. Satellite imagery provide a longer term perspective on coastal change. Remotely sensed data sets are augmented with ground truth measurements of coastal configuration, sedimentological framework, and water quality.

Roberts, H.H.; Huh, O.K.; Hsue, S.A.; Rouse, L.J. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Rickman, D.A. (Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, MS (USA))

1989-09-01

123

Impacts of the North India Ocean SST on the extremely cold winters of 2011 and 2012 in the region of Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 癈) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 癈) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.

Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei

2014-08-01

124

Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression pattern of the CsDSP4 gene in cells of the chestnut stem was found to parallel starch catabolism. In this organ, DSP4 protein levels started to rise at the start of autumn and elevated levels persisted until the onset of spring. In addition, exposure of chestnut plantlets to 4 癈 induced the expression of the CsDSP4 gene. In dormant trees or cold-stressed plantlets, the CsDSP4 protein was immunolocalized both in the amyloplast stroma and nucleus of stem cells, whereas in the conditions of vegetative growth, immunofluorescence was only detected in the nucleus. The studies indicate a potential role for DSP4 in starch degradation and cold acclimation following low temperature exposure during activity-dormancy transition. PMID:21631532

Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Iba馿z, Cristian; Acebo, Paloma; Ramos, Alberto; Perez-Solis, Estefania; Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

2011-10-01

125

How Much Can We Learn From A Merging Cold Front Cluster? : Insights From X-ray Temperature and Radio Maps of Abell 3667  

E-print Network

The galaxy cluster Abell 3667 is an ideal laboratory to study the plasma processes in the intracluster medium (ICM). High resolution Chandra X-ray observations show a cold front in Abell 3667. At radio wavelengths, Abell 3667 reveals a double radio-relic feature in the outskirts of the cluster. These suggest multiple merger events in this cluster. In this paper, we analyze the substantial archival X-ray observations of Abell 3667 from ChandraX-ray Observatory and compare these with existing radio observations as well as state-of-the-art AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) MHD cosmological simulations using Enzo. We have used two temperature map making techniques, Weighted Voronoi Tessellation and Adaptive Circular Binning, to produce the high resolution and largest field-of-view temperature maps of Abell 3667. These high fidelity temperature maps allow us to study the X-ray shocks in the cluster using a new 2-dimensional shock-finding algorithm. We have also estimated the Mach numbers from the shocks inferred from...

Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O; Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J

2014-01-01

126

Progress of snow mould infection in crowns of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) is related to photosynthetic activity during cold acclimation.  

PubMed

Resistance to snow mould is a feature determined by multiple genes. Therefore, determining the phenotype of resistant plants is difficult as it requires an investigation over a long period of time from cold acclimation through pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine the characteristics of the resistant genotype and (ii) to clarify the connections between photosynthesis during cold acclimation and then pathogenesis caused by Microdochium nivale. Two inbred lines of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) differing in their susceptibility to snow mould were used in the study. After cold acclimation snow mould resistant (SMR) line was characterised by higher values of CO2 assimilation and electron transport efficiency but did not differ from snow mould susceptible (SMS) line in carboxylation rate of RuBisCO (Vcmax). Higher soluble carbohydrate accumulation, due to higher photosynthesis intensity, as well as an ABA increase at 5 days post infection (DPI) in leaves and crowns were found in SMR line during the pathogenesis period. Callose deposition was found around non-infected bundle sheets and in cortex cells at 5 DPI (at the same time point as ABA peak) only in SMR line, which probably prevented the infection of leaf initials. Early leaf initials infection in SMS line may be responsible for inhibiting leaf growth and plant regeneration after stress cessation. The results show different physiological and biochemical characteristics of the investigated lines, which can be applied in the selection of resistant genotypes and identifying genomic regions responsible for metabolic pathways increasing pathogen resistance. PMID:23820028

Pociecha, E; Janowiak, F; Dubas, E; ?ur, I; Tokarz, K; Kolasi?ska, I; P?a?ek, A

2013-09-01

127

Inheritance of Cold Tolerance, Plant Height, Maturity and Other Characters in a Spring-Winter Barley Cross.  

E-print Network

reaction by one, with modifying factors. Correlation analysis sllowed that ascorbic acid content of leaves was re- lated to cold tolerance and growth habit, but the correlations were small. Survival was correlated significantly with leaf damage... in barley likewise is greatly influenced environment. Heritability values reportecl for ma- rity were usually high. For example, Fiuzat and .kins (7) report values of 90 to 92 percent. They I C~JVI L U~IC IU~JU~ gt111c pair plus modifying lac to^ Neatby...

Abo-Elenein, Rashad Ahmed; Atkins, I. M.; Pawlisch, E.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Porter, K. B.

1967-01-01

128

Validation and analysis of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations of the cold Bora outbreak over the Northern Adriatic Sea in winter 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adriatic Sea is regularly affected by cold and strong Bora winds blowing from the north-east, especially during the winter season. These events are characterized by intense surface heat loss and air-sea exchange, thus producing strong effects on the circulation of the Adriatic, triggering dense water formation and driving basin-scale gyres. Turbulent surface (latent and sensible) heat fluxes and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are the two most important parameters that characterize intense air-sea interactions typical of Bora events, and their accurate simulation is required in order to properly describe and understand atmospheric and ocean circulation processes. This study deals mainly with the atmospheric component of the modelling system available in the framework of the flagship Project "RITMARE", and presents the results of an application focused on the exceptional Bora episode occurred in winter 2012 (25 January-15 February). A number of short-range high-resolution atmospheric simulations have been performed to cover the entire period. Model performances have been evaluated in terms of variables of interest for oceanographic applications. As far as meteorological variables, surface fluxes and SST are concerned, the validation has been undertaken trough a comparison with available surface data (buoys) and satellite-derived SST, while Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) products have been used to assess modelled wind fields. Two mesoscale operational-like modelling chains have been implemented, one based on BOLAM-MOLOCH models, the other on WRF. The use of different initial and boundary conditions provided by two global NWP systems, namely GFS (NCEP) and IFS (ECWMF), driving the high-resolution simulations turned out to have a remarkable impact on the results, mainly as a consequence of a different initialization of the SST field. Results suggest the importance of adopting full bi-directional coupling between atmospheric and ocean circulation models at least in this semi-enclosed basin during extreme events.

Stocchi, Paolo; Davolio, Silvio; Marcello Miglietta, Mario; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Li, Xiao-Ming; Bohm, Emanuele

2014-05-01

129

Bio-Optical Properties and Ocean Color Algorithms for Coastal Waters Influenced by the Mississippi River During a Cold Front Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the passage of a cold front in March 2002, bio-optical properties examined in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River indicated westward advective flows and increasing river discharge containing a larger nonalgal particle content contributed significantly to surface optical variability. A comparison of seasonal data from three cruises indicated spectral models of absorption and scattering to be generally consistent with other coastal environments, while their parameterization in terms of chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) showed seasonal variability. The exponential slope of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) averaged 0.0161 plus or minus 0.00054 per nanometer, and for nonalgal absorption it averaged 0.011 per nanometer with deviations from general trends observed due to anomalous water properties. Although the phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients varied over a wide range (0.02 to 0.1 square meters (mg Chl) sup -1)) being higher in offshore surface waters, values of phytoplankton absorption spectra at the SeaWiFS wavebands were highly correlated to modeled values. The normalized scattering spectral shapes and the mean spectrum were in agreement to observations in other coastal waters, while the backscattering ratios were on average lower in phytoplankton dominated surface waters (0.0101 plus or minus 0.002) and higher in near-bottom waters (0.0191 plus or minus 0.0045) with low Chl. Average percent differences in remote sensing reflectance R (sub rs) derived form modeled and in-eater radiometric measurements were highest in the blue wavebands (52%) and at sampling stations with a ore stratified water column. Estimates of Chl and CDOM absorption derived from SeaWiFS images generated using regional empirical algorithms were highly correlated to in situ data.

D'Sa Eurico J.; Miller, Richard L.; DelCastillo, Carlos

2006-01-01

130

Nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

The 13 speakers at the October 1983 Conference on the World After Nuclear War each contributed specialized knowledge to the climatic and biological effects of nuclear war. The author highlights the findings of the TTAPS (named for its authors) study and confirmation by Soviet scientists on the nuclear winter. Atmospheric consequences would come from debris blocking sunlight and creating conditions of cold and darkness that could preclude the continued existence of life. The biological consequences of cold and darkness would be reduced photosynthesis, devastating losses of food, damage and death from ionizing radiation, and a breakdown of ecosystems. Impacts on the human population would be intensified by a breakdown in social services. The author summarizes points of discussion during the conference. 4 references.

Ehrlich, A.

1984-04-01

131

Parental thunderclouds of sprites and elves in winter Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted the observation campaign of sprites/elves in winter since December 1998. We use two observation sites with distance of ~300 km to make triangulation: Optical instruments and VLF wave receivers have been installed both at two observation sites. During the campaigns we succeeded in measuring sprites and elves with image-intensified CCD cameras, photometers and VLF receivers. Totally, 21, 2, and 11 sprites were recorded in each campaign, respectively. The elves were detected more frequently than sprites. During 2000/2001 campaign 26 elves appeared on single night. This might be due to large emission extent of elves in horizontal and the fact that elves could be caused by not only positive discharge but also negative one. The number of event is strongly dependent on the parental thundercloud activity and weather conditions above the observation site. In 1998/1999 campaign, we observed the sprites when the cold front was approaching to and collided with the west coast of Japan. The location of sprites determined by triangulation is just above the cloud in the cold front. The height of the cloud top is estimated to be 4-6 km and the width of the cloud is only 30 km. On the other hand, in the 20002001 campaign, sprites were observed above the Pacific Ocean ~500 km apart from the coast. Some of them are also associated with clouds at the cold front while some events appeared over the clouds detached from the cold front by >400km. The height of the cloud top are 5-7 km. Differences in dimensions and structures of sprites between in summer and in winter will be discussed in the point of view of the relationship to the characteristics of the parental cloud and discharges.

Takahashi, Y.; Adachi, T.; Miyasato, R.; Hiraki, Y.; Fukunishi, H.

2001-12-01

132

Effects of molybdenum on expression of cold-responsive genes in abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent pathways in winter wheat under low-temperature stress  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for higher plants. It has been shown that application of Mo enhances the cold resistance of winter wheat. In order to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cold resistance arising from application of Mo in winter wheat, investigations were made regarding the transcription of cold-responsive (COR) genes in abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent pathways in winter wheat regulated by Mo application under low-temperature stress. Methods Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), Mo-efficient cultivar 97003 and Mo-inefficient cultivar 97014, were grown in control (?Mo) and Mo fertilizer (+Mo) treatments for 40 d at 15/12 癈 (day/night), and the temperature was then reduced to 5/2 癈 (day/night) to create low-temperature stress. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities, ABA contents, the transcripts of basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor (TF) genes, ABA-dependent COR genes, CBF/DREB transcription factor genes and ABA-independent COR genes were investigated at 0, 3, 6 and 48 h post cold stress. Key Results Mo application significantly increased AO activity, ABA levels, and expression of bZIP-type TF genes (Wlip19 and Wabi5) and ABA-dependent COR genes (Wrab15, Wrab17, Wrab18 and Wrab19). Mo application increased expression levels of CBF/DREB transcription factor genes (TaCBF and Wcbf2-1) and ABA-independent COR genes (Wcs120, Wcs19, Wcor14 and Wcor15) after 3 and 6 h exposure to low temperature. Conclusions Mo might regulate the expression of ABA-dependent COR genes through the pathway: Mo ? AO ? ABA ? bZIP ? ABA-dependent COR genes in winter wheat. The response of the ABA-dependent pathway to Mo was prior to that of the ABA-independent pathway. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient wheat cultivars in response to Mo under cold stress are discussed. PMID:19491090

Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qilin; Liu, Jinshan; Liu, Hongen

2009-01-01

133

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it抯 cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it抯 very windy or cold, exercise ...

134

Winter Storms and Extreme Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... products to melt ice on walkways. Visit the Environmental Protection Agency for a complete list of recommended ... structural ability of the roof to sustain unusually heavy weight from the accumulation of snow - or water, if drains on flat roofs do not work. ...

135

Implementation of Cold-Cloud Processes in a Source-Oriented WRF/Chem Model to Study a Winter Storm in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust particles commonly have a favorable arrangement of surface sites that allows them to serve as ice nuclei (IN). Secondary coatings that condense on mineral dust particles may reduce their ability to serve as IN. Both of these effects point to the importance of the particle mixing state when predicting cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) / IN concentrations. The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC) was modified to include cold cloud processes and applied to investigate how source-oriented aerosols influence cloud and ice formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks 6-dimensional chemical variables (X, Z, Y, Size Bins, Source Types, Species) through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Particle radius and number concentration are conserved for each source type and size bin. Simulations in this study use 38 chemical species from 6 emission sources (wood smokes, gasoline, diesel, meat cooking, dust, and other aerosol types) and 8 size bins, spanning the particle diameter range from 0.01 to 10 microns. A new source-oriented hydrometeors module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate microphysics processes with all source-oriented hydrometeors (cloud, ice, rain, snow and graupel) using the Morrison two-moment microphysics scheme. In our study, all aerosol source types can activate to form cloud droplets based on the K鰄ler theory, and dust is the only source of IN. We considered the impact of Asian dust on the ice formation in clouds over the Sierra Nevada mountain range during the CalWater field campaign (2011) and estimated dust contributions to total IN concentrations. Aerosols within hydrometeors alter the radiative properties of the cloud droplets. The Goddard shortwave and longwave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and hydrometeors so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. Geometric-optics approach in the radiation schemes considered the chemistry components and the physical shape of ice crystal to more accurately calculate the atmospheric optical thickness, signal scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. The enhanced SOWC model was implemented to study a winter storm event that occurred on February 16th, 2011, in California, and the results are compared to the measurements obtained during the CalWater field campaign.

Lee, H.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M.

2013-12-01

136

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Oct 28,2014 Th is winter season will bring cooler temperatures and ice ... for some. It抯 important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

137

Fronts and frontogenesis as revealed by high time resolution data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upper air sounding are used to examine a cold front of average intensity. Vertical cross sections of potential temperature and wind, and horizontal analyses were compared and adjusted for consistency. These analyses were then used to study the evolution of the front, found to consist of a complex system of fronts occurring at all levels of the troposphere. Low level fronts were strongest at the surface and rapidly weakened with height. Fronts in the midddle troposphere were much more intense. The warm air ahead of the fronts was nearly barotropic, while the cold air behind was baroclinic through deep layers. A deep mixed layer was observed to grow in this cold air.

Frank, A. E.; Barber, D. A.

1977-01-01

138

The Cold European Winter of 20052006 Assisted the Spread and Persistence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Wild Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2006, a major cold spell affected Europe, coinciding with an increase of H5N1 influenza virus detected in wild\\u000a birds, mostly dead mute swans, starting along the River Danube and the Mediterranean coast line. Subsequently H5N1 detections\\u000a in wild birds were concentrated in central and western parts of Europe, reaching a peak in mid February. We tested the hypothesis

Daniela Ottaviani; S. de la Rocque; S. Khomenko; M. Gilbert; S. H. Newman; B. Roche; K. Schwabenbauer; J. Pinto; T. P. Robinson; J. Slingenbergh

2010-01-01

139

Leap Day 2012 Severe Storm Front  

NASA Video Gallery

This movie was created using GOES-13 visible and infrared satellite imagery from Feb. 28 at 1245 UTC (7:45 a.m. EST) through March 1, and shows the progression of the cold front and associated low ...

140

Nutrition for winter sports.  

PubMed

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

141

Winter Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers general background about winter storms as well as interactive activities to teach visitors about these storms. It also offers a teacher's guide to using this site and links to other weather-related pages. There are four main topics: All About Winter Storms, Interactive Weather Maker, Interactive Winter Storm Timeline, and Ask Our Winter Storm Expert. All About Winter Storms gives general background information an a glossary of weather terms. The Weather Maker offers students a chance to control the weather through a simulation in which they affect the weather by changing variables such as humidity, equatorward temperature, and polarward temperature. The Storm Timeline offers students a chance to move up and down the timeline to learn about past winter storms. In Ask the Expert, students can email their questions to a winter storm expert and have them answered. This section also gives a brief biography of the expert.

1996-01-01

142

FRONT MATTER  

E-print Network

ISSN: 0732-913X Edited at the Department of Sociology, University of Kansas Supervising Editors SCOTT MCNALL ROBERT ANTONIO BARBARA RYAN DAVID J. PITTMAN Washington University Book Review Editor ROBERT JOHN JENA HILLIARD-LYSEN JEFFREY W. REIMER... STANLEY .- RACHAELJ. WARD ROBERT W. BILBY University ofWisconsin-La'Crosse Mid-American Review of Sociology WINTER, 1982 CONTENTS Contributors ARTICLES Human Sexuality, Ethical Issues and the Medical Profession Thorstein Veblen: A New Perspective Vol. VII...

1982-01-01

143

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate.

David L. Swanson

2001-01-01

144

Nuclear Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

Ehrlich, Anne

1984-01-01

145

Surviving Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students learn about the varied physical and behavioral adaptations that animals rely on to help them survive changing environmental conditions, such as the arrival of winter.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-13

146

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

147

`Thermohaline front' off the east coast of India and its generating mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical oceanography measurements reveal a strong salinity (0.18 psu km-1) and temperature (0.07 癈 km-1) front off the east coast of India in December 1997. T-S diagrams suggest lateral mixing between the fresh water at the coast and the ambient warmer, saltier water. This front seems to be the result of southward advection of fresh and cool water, formed in the northern Bay of Bengal during the monsoon, by the East Indian Coastal Current, as suggested by the large-scale salinity structure in the SODA re-analysis and the anti-cyclonic gyre in the northwestern Bay of Bengal during winter. The data further reveals an offshore front in January, which appears to be the result of a meso-scale re-circulation around an eddy, bringing cold and freshwater from the northern Bay of Bengal further away from the shore. Our cruise data hence illustrates that very strong salinity fronts can appear in the Bay of Bengal after the monsoon, as a result of intense coastal circulation and stirring by eddies.

Hareesh Kumar, Panangattu Viswanathan; Mathew, Basil; Ramesh Kumar, Madathiparambil Ranganatha; Raghunadha Rao, Akula; Jagadeesh, Puvvala Surya Venkata; Radhakrishnan, Kalarickal Gopalan; Shyni, Thiyyadi Nandakumar

2013-12-01

148

Winter Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A U.K. psychologist has developed a complex mathematical formula using seven variables to predict winter's emotional low point. The good news is the worst day of the year was last week; nonetheless, seasonal depression remains a problem for many. The first link (1) is to an article about the equation worked out by Dr. Cliff Arnall, who specializes in seasonal disorders at the University of Cardiff, Wales. The second link is to a WebMD page (2) about winter depression, often referred to as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The next link (3) is to a recent news story about the results of a five-year study that found, rather than antidepressant drug therapy or air ionizers, light box therapy is the best remedy for the seasonal condition. The fourth link is to a set of Frequently Asked Questions (4) about SAD offered by Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. The fifth link, to the Winter Depression Research Group at the University of Tromso in Norway(5), explains why Norway is a natural SAD research laboratory. The next link is to a international portal site (6) maintained by medical professionals and researchers in the field of light therapy and biological rhythms. The final webpage(7), from Psychology Today, compares the symptoms of winter depression with summer depression.

149

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

150

Winter's Tale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explores winter weather and frozen precipitation. Precipitation (in the form of snow, sleet and freezing rain) is explained, as are a variety of cloud types and generation, the nature and generation of the jet stream, and the aesthetic wonders of frozen water. A bibliography is also provided.

151

Evaluation of the Ration, Cold Weather, by Navy Seals, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cold weather field evaluations of the prototype Ration, Cold Weather (Arctic Ration) were conducted during 1984 winter warfare training using personnel from SEAL Team TWO, Naval Amphibious Base, Norfolk, Virginia. These evaluations assessed the acceptabil...

A. C. Mastromarino, V. A. Loveridge

1986-01-01

152

Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters warm. Recent UK government reports state that winter warming will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 癈), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters warm with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.

Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.

2014-03-01

153

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the ...

Schilling, Ashley

2010-05-26

154

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? ...

Smith, Miss

2010-09-27

155

Winter Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Sappa, Mr.

2010-05-26

156

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. Does increased humidity usually increase of decrease your chances for rain? 4. What happens when there is ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

157

Titan's Winter Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

2008-01-01

158

COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009\\/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based

H. Wells; J. Price; V. Horlacher; P. F. Sheridan; S. B. Vosper; A. R. Brown; S. D. Mobbs; A. N. Ross

2009-01-01

159

Winter snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. 1. What do you already know about the weather? 2. How does the weather effect you daily? Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Peterson, Lori

2009-09-28

160

A case study of strong winds at an Arctic front  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow arctic fronts frequently form at the edge of the arctic sea ice by differential heating and cooling between sea and ice surfaces. The cooling is due to a net radiative loss over the ice, while the heating is mainly sensible as cold air flows from the ice to the warmer sea. North of the surface fronts, there is normally

Sigbj鴕n Gr鴑as; Paul Skeie

1999-01-01

161

Modeling Experiment for winter circulation in Calcasieu Lake, LA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-front-induced water level oscillation and associated salinity distributions in Calcasieu Lake, southwestern Louisiana, were examined using a numerical model and field observations. The cold-front-induced flushing under the influence of Calcasieu River runoff, local wind stress, and tide determine the hydrodynamic features of Calcasieu Lake in winter. Based on observations carried out from Dec. 20, 2011 to Feb. 1, 2012, numerical model experiments with different conditions were conducted. The model predicts a depth-averaged flow pattern over the domain consisting of the shallow Calcasieu Lake and deep Ship Channel. A clockwise circulation in Calcasieu Lake coupled with the Ship Channel and a counterclockwise circulation in West Cove were demonstrated. It is through the shallow shoals, not the deep Ship Channel, that water from Calcasieu Lake flows into the ocean. This circulation pattern is typical of estuaries with shallow water influenced by river discharge and with weak tidally-induced motion. Both the observations and the model indicate saltwater intrusion along the Ship Channel into the northern lake. Salinity gradient induced baroclinic pressure gradient and Coriolis force also play relatively important roles in the circulation of Calcasieu Lake. Local wind stress played a negative role in the saltwater intrusion along the Ship Channel except under an east wind. The depth of the Ship Channel is a key factor influencing saltwater intrusion, the deeper the Channel, the more saltwater intrusion. Saltwater intrusion along the Ship Channel increases the magnitude of the Lake circulation and moderates salinity changes in adjacent wetlands caused by heavy rainfall. Circulation indicated by sum of water mass flux at transects Modeling experiment schedule

Lin, J.; Li, C.; Boswell, K.; Kimball, M.; Rozas, L.; Broussard, L.; Zhang, F.

2013-12-01

162

Introduction Small birds wintering in temperate regions generally show  

E-print Network

thermogenesis over prolonged periods (Marsh and Dawson, 1989). In birds showing marked winter improvement in summit metabolic rate (Msum=maximum cold-induced thermogenesis or thermogenic capacity) relative

Swanson, David L.

163

uring the winter, with shorter days and longer  

E-print Network

in winter? How and what should we eat for healthy and balanced nutrition? Here are some hints: One should snacks, foods rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber--for instance, dried fruits like figs and apricots Practices Good Nutrition Helps Banish Winter Weight Gain, Keep Colds at Bay Dhis year's Google Student

G眉rel, Levent

164

Printed on 100% recycled post consumer paper Winter Hike  

E-print Network

it's cold outside, winter is a wonderful time to explore nature. Here are a few things to discover bark? Do you notice any markings or signs of peeling or browsing by animals? Tracks & Scat You can look for animal tracks in the snow or mud. Many animals are active throughout the winter. By looking carefully

Shyy, Wei

165

Holocene polar front migrations over the Conrad Rise in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean has played a significant role in the global climate system during the geologic past. In order to understand the paleoceanographic variations with the polar front system and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), we conducted two cruises KH-07-4 and KH-10-7 in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Two piston cores were collected from the Conrad Rise. We examined centennial-scale changes of diatom assemblages and stable isotopic ratios in planktic foraminifera during the Holocene in a high-accumulation-rate sediment core from the Conrad Rise. Although abundances of dominant diatom taxa (Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassiothrix antarctica) are comparatively constant, relative abundances of secondary taxa fluctuate. Before ca 9900 cal. yr BP, winter sea-ice and cold water covered the Conrad Rise. Following deglaciation the sea-ice retreated from the Conrad Rise. The Polar Front moved southward during the early Holocene optimum and north Antarctic Zone waters covered the Conrad Rise for about 650 yr. After 9300 cal. yr BP, solar insolation strongly influenced sea surface temperature and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. In the high-latitude Indian Sector, productivity increased 1500 yr after the onset of late Holocene neoglaciation. Periodic ?18O and cold-water diatom taxa spikes (at intervals of 200 and 300-500 yr, respectively) occurred after 9300 cal. yr BP, probably associated with solar activity. Fluctuations in short-term sea surface temperature and cold-water taxa are synchronous with changes in dD observed in an east Antarctic ice core.

Ikehara, M.; Katsuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Yamane, M.; Khim, B.

2011-12-01

166

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

1999-01-01

167

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

168

Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin  

SciTech Connect

Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

2001-01-01

169

Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

1998-01-01

170

Newseum: Today's Front Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Newseum, housed in Washington D.C., has an online feature that involves the voluntary participation of hundreds of newspapers around the globe. Each morning, newspapers with the requisite technology, send the front page of their newspaper to the Newseum and get posted online. Many of these front pages are also displayed in the physical museum. Near the top of the "Today's Front Pages" link of the website the visitor can choose to view the front pages as a "gallery", "list", or "map". The gallery view is the default view. Viewing them as a list shows the papers alphabetically by state, and the list continues alphabetically by country. When the visitor rolls over the name of a paper, a small image of the front page appears on the right side of the screen. Clicking on the name of the paper brings the front page into a larger view. Clicking on "Readable PDF" at the top of the page, makes it readable, and "Print Page" allows you to print the front page out. Also at the top of the page is a "Web Site" link to the newspaper's website. Clicking on map view allows the visitor to see maps of nine regions of the world, which have orange dots on them indicating a paper is available. Rolling over the dot will show the front page for that city. Visitors should not miss checking out the "View Archived Pages" link near the top of the page, to see the front pages of events of historical significance. Some of the front pages offered here include those that deal with the presidential election of 2008, the Philadelphia Phillies recent World Series victory, and the 2008 Summer Olympics.

171

Cold Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways of preparing school-building roofs for the winter season by paying attention to common problem areas. Also highlights the use of white elastomeric roof coatings, their benefits, and considerations when applying them. (GR)

Dutton, Eileen; Salazar, Chris

1998-01-01

172

Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance  

SciTech Connect

Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

1995-07-01

173

Winter Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... media accounts and ask your followers to share. Twitter #Winter storm fire #safetytip: keep fire hydrants near ... and standards, research, training and education. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube More information on winter fire safety ...

174

Science of Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science of Winter is a collection of activities, lessons, interactives, images, or other content illustrating or demonstrating scientific aspects of winter weather, conditions, processes, or phenomena, appropriate for middle school, informal education, and general audiences.

2009-07-30

175

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

176

Sources of frontogenesis in the Equatorial Atlantic Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Equatorial Atlantic front is located along 1癗 in the eastern equatorial Atlantic basin, at the northern boundary of the cold tongue. It separates the cold waters of the southern cold tongue from the warmest, tropical waters circulating in the Gulf of Guinea. This seasonal front appears every year from May to August, and is characterized by meridional SST gradients up to 2 to 3癈/20 km. It is thought to play an important role for the circulation in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and influence the coastal precipitation and the western African monsoon onset. In this presentation the processes at the origin of the equatorial front were investigated. For that, diagnosis of the frontogenesis forcings were applied on a realistic high-resolution simulation of the equatorial Atlantic in 2006. It is found that the turbulent forcing term associated with the mixed layer turbulent heat fluxes is frontolitic (meaning a destruction of the front). However, a splitting of the turbulent forcing into its low and high-frequency (wavy) components, indicates that the low-frequency forcing may initiate the equatorial front, a forcing that is finally amplified and fully maintained by dynamical effects. Finally, the dynamic forcing has a leading frontogenetic role (meaning a reinforcement of the front) and is fully driven by the meridional convergence between the Guinea Current and the South Equatorial Current.

Giordani, Herv; Caniaux, Guy

2014-05-01

177

Cascading of water down the sloping sides of a deep lake in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During winter, the temperature of the water over-lying the shallow, typically 2-5 m deep, 憇helf region around the edge of the 310 m deep Lake Geneva falls more rapidly than that over deeper areas. This causes the spilling or 慶ascading of relatively dense water from the shallows down the sloping sides of the lake in the form of gravity currents, 2-15 m thick and typically 0.1 癈 cooler than the ambient. The flow is intermittent with 憇lugs of cold water lasting, on average, for 8 hrs with mean downslope speeds of 5.2 cms-1. The temperature and thickness of the slugs is however variable, with pulses of colder water lasting for 1-3 hrs, each preceded by a front in which thickness increases and temperature falls by about 0.01 癈 per min. The net volume flux carried by the 憇lugs is 18.5 times the mean winter flow into the lake from rivers.

Fer, Ilker; Lemmin, Ulrich; Thorpe, S. A.

178

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... and before eating and preparing food. Disinfect your environment. Clean commonly touched surfaces (such as sink handles, ... system work properly. Eat yogurt that contains "active cultures." These may help prevent colds. Probiotics may help ...

179

[Treatment of winter diseases in summer].  

PubMed

To explore the connotation and essence of treatment of winter diseases in summer with analysis and deduction. Treating winter diseases in summer is the concrete embodiment and application of taking advantage of "recuperating yang in spring and summer". Winter diseases are formed by compound factors with deficiency of yangqi as the prerequisite and yin as well as cold as the predominant pathogens. Its pathological characteristic rests with stagnation in meri-dians and collaterals. Aiming at curing chronic diseases, reinforcing yangqi and removing stagnation in meridians and collaterals, treatment in summer is a treating strategy focused on proper opportunity of treatment, which is expected to yield twice the result with half the effort. To select the suitable indications is taken as the core of this treating strategy. And at the same time, blind expansion without careful consideration is not suggested. PMID:24946652

Gao, Zhi-Ping

2014-04-01

180

Suppression of Na +K +ATPase activity by reversible phosphorylation over the winter in a freeze-tolerant insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, use the cold hardiness strategy of freeze tolerance as well as entry into a hypometabolic state (diapause) to survive the winter. Cold hardiness strategies have been extensively explored in this species, but the metabolic features of winter hypometabolism have received little attention. A primary consumer of energy in cells is the ATP-dependent sodium杙otassium

David C. McMullen; Kenneth B. Storey

2008-01-01

181

Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

2004-01-01

182

When hot water freezes before cold  

E-print Network

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

J. I. Katz

2006-04-27

183

Mitochondria of cold hardy insects: Responses to cold and hypoxia assessed at enzymatic, mRNA and DNA levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter survival for larvae of goldenrod gall insects, the freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana, and the freeze tolerant, Eurosta solidaginis, includes entry into diapause (a torpid state of arrested development) and expression of a variety of cryoprotective adaptations. Diapause and cold winter temperatures, as well as freezing in E. solidaginis, all strongly reduce the need for mitochondrial activity. To evaluate the responses

David C. McMullen; Kenneth B. Storey

2008-01-01

184

A late winter hydrographic section from Tasmania to Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrographic section between Tasmania and Antarctica was occupied in late winter 1991 as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The primary purpose of the WOCE repeat section SR3 is to measure the exchange between the Indian and Pacific Oceans south of Australia. This paper describes the fronts, water masses and transport observed on the first occupation of

Stephen R. Rintoul; John L. Bullister

1999-01-01

185

Winter Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Garage (home) fires Heating Holidays, candles and Christmas trees Hotels and motels Novelty lighters Smoke alarms Smoking Sprinklers (fire) Summer Winter Wildfire Educational programs Planning for public ...

186

Coarsening fronts Arnd Scheel  

E-print Network

of the positions is governed approximately by xi = G(xi+1 - xi) - G(xi - xi-1), i mod 2N (1.4) with G(y) e- 2y of the modulated fronts. We show that the minimal speed of propagation can be characterized by a dichotomy) - u卤 l (x) can determine the actual

Scheel, Arnd

187

Structural and functional characterization of a winter malting barley.  

PubMed

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between loci controlling winter hardiness and malt quality and to assess the potential for breeding winter malting barley varieties, we structurally and functionally characterized the six-row accession "88Ab536", a cold-tolerant line with superior malting quality characteristics that derives from the cross of NE76129/Morex//Morex. We used 4,596 SNPs to construct the haplotype structure of 88Ab536 on which malting quality and winter hardiness loci reported in the literature were aligned. The genomic regions determining malting quality and winter hardiness traits have been defined in this founder germplasm, which will assist breeders in targeting regions for marker-assisted selection. The Barley1 GeneChip array was used to functionally characterize 88Ab536 during malting. Its gene expression profile was similar to that of the archetypical malting variety Morex, which is consistent with their similar malting quality characteristics. The characterization of 88Ab536 has increased our understanding of the genetic relationships of malting quality and winter hardiness, and will provide a genetic foundation for further development of more cold-tolerant varieties that have malt quality characteristics that meet or exceed current benchmarks. PMID:19960335

Mu駉z-Amatria韓, Mar韆; Cistu, L; Xiong, Y; Bilgic, H; Budde, A D; Schmitt, M R; Smith, K P; Hayes, P M; Muehlbauer, G J

2010-03-01

188

Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall  

PubMed Central

While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters. PMID:22371563

Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.

2012-01-01

189

Focus Article Nuclear winter  

E-print Network

Focus Article Nuclear winter Alan Robock Nuclear winter is the term for a theory describing the climatic effects of nuclear war. Smoke from the fires started by nuclear weapons, especially the black of these indirect effects. Nuclear proliferation is now expanding the threat. A nuclear war between India

Robock, Alan

190

Winter Olympic Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Winter Olympic Sports Let's take a look at some of the different winter olympic sports Alpine Skiing Biathalon Bobsleigh Cross country Curling Figure Skating Freestyle skiing Ice Hockey Luge Nordic Combined Short track speed skating Skeleton Ski Jumping Snowboard Speed Skating ...

Keller, Mrs.

2010-01-23

191

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing ShH science center Medicine Magazine Winner 2006 Gold Award Best Magazine 颅 External Audience Public Relations

Cui, Yan

192

Winter 2014 Economics 471  

E-print Network

Winter 2014 Economics 471: Public Finance Government Finance -- Syllabus Winter 2014 1 US Treasury intervention in the market. After covering basic prin- ciples of public finance, we will focus on the taxing Textbook: Public Finance and Public Policy (4th Edition) by Jonathan Gruber. Available at the bookstore

Carter, John

193

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction 路 Campus Facilities Staff 路 Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose 路 Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. 路 Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

194

Project COLD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

Kazanjian, Wendy C.

1982-01-01

195

Cold War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold War is a major, 24-part series directed by renowned documentary filmmaker Jeremy Isaacs that recently premiered on CNN and BBC2. Whether or not this series will become "the definitive account of the Cold War" remains to be seen, but the research that has made it possible is quite impressive. This feature-filled, comprehensive site complements the series by offering, among other things, video previews and multimedia recaps of each episode; video, audio, and text excerpts from nearly 100 interviews filmed for the series; text from archival documents and contemporaneous Time and Russian newspaper stories; in-depth sections on Cold War culture; and a Knowledge Bank section containing a glossary, "Cold Warrior" profiles, related links, and a chronology. Additional resources include a classroom guide to the series, online Shockwave quiz games, and an online discussion group. As large as it is now, the site will continue to expand and add new features as the series progresses over the next three months.

196

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

197

Tropical-midlatitude exchange of air masses during summer and winter in South America: climatic aspects and examples of intense events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meridional transport of air masses between the tropics and midlatitudes in South America are the most intense in the entire Southern Hemisphere, mainly due to the presence of the Andes. The incursions of tropical air into midlatitudes occur on the eastern side of the Andes in two preferred regions. The first is located in the tropical latitudes, close to the mountains between 20 and 30癝, and the second is a function of the position of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). All year long, the two preferred regions maintain their behaviour, with only small variations of their position or relative importance in different seasons of the year. The variability of the meridional transport is larger on the eastern side of the Andes, due to the presence of the mountain barrier, which favours baroclinic activity and allows an active exchange of air masses in both senses, especially during winter.The importance of the air mass transport is evident in the precipitation and surface temperature fields. During summertime, the Chaco Low (25癝 and 65癢) intensifies due to the positive net radiation, favouring the transport of tropical air masses towards the south and the presence of strong convective activity, which is fed by moisture from tropical regions. During winter, the penetration of tropical air towards higher latitudes is more sporadic. The displacement of midlatitude air towards tropical latitudes occurs on both sides of the Andes. On the western side, the air associated with the subtropical Pacific anticyclone flows northward channelled by the Andes. On the eastern side, incursions of polar air towards lower latitudes are linked to cold fronts whose trajectory and movement is also favoured by the presence of the Andes. In particular, during wintertime the cold fronts are more intense and faster, and sometimes even reach tropical and equatorial latitudes which produces freezes in subtropical regions, such as the coffee growing areas in southeastern Brazil. In contrast, the incursions of cold air are notably weaker and less frequent in summer, and during these events the active cold fronts move northwards merging with the SACZ, which becomes more intense.

Seluchi, Marcelo E.; Marengo, Jos A.

2000-08-01

198

[Keeping beef cattle and sheep outdoors in winter].  

PubMed

Whole-year free ranging of beef cattle and sheep is a low-cost keeping system, but during winter special regard is required because the insulating effect of barns is missed. Because of various reactions of adaptation to cold climate, beef cattle and sheep are able to cope with out-wintering. But reactions have to be supported by an animal friendly keeping system to prevent heat loss which could lead to cold stress. In addition to demand that only healthy animals with sufficient body fat should be wintered outdoors, animals must have experience with winter climate and area. Because of heat loss from wind and the observation that suckler cows avoided lying on cold and wet floor, a straw-bedded and wind protected lying area for all animals has to be provided. Suckler cows did not require a roofed shelter as investigations for 10 years in a low mountain range called Solling with an average annual precipitation of 850 to 900 mm showed. In all weather conditions cows were able to maintain homeothermy. Besides, fertility performance of out-wintered suckler cows was not negatively affected by keeping system. However, health condition of cows was positively influenced by out-wintering because of the absence of respiratory diseases and infections with ectoparasites. In addition, not only hardy breeds but also beef breeds were suitable for out-wintering which means that the low cost out-wintering could be combined with the production of meaty carcasses. However, in predestined areas magnesium supply of cows could be inadequate and in autumn stress associated with weaning or poor weather conditions could lead to hypomagnesaemia. Because of a low cold tolerance of newborn lambs, out-wintered lambing ewes required a roofed shelter with a straw-bedded floor and with 3 side walls. Only ewes with good mothering abilities should be wintered outdoors because the reliable adoption of lamb/lambs after birth, an early dry licking and a clear presentation of the udder increased vigour and as a result cold tolerance of newborn lambs. PMID:12822259

Wassmuth, R

2003-05-01

199

Two cold-season derechoes in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.

Gatzen, Christoph; P?ik, Tomas; Ryva, David

2011-06-01

200

Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive

Leyden, Michael

1997-01-01

201

ARIEL front end  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARIEL project at TRIUMF will greatly expand the variety and availability of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) (Laxdal, Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B 204:400-409, 2003). The ARIEL front end connects the two ARIEL target stations to the existing ISAC facility to expand delivery to two and eventually three simultaneous RIB beams with up to two simultaneous accelerated beams (Laxdal et al. 2008). The low-energy beam transport lines and mass separators are designed for maximum flexibility to allow a variety of operational modes in order to optimize the radioactive ion beam delivery. A new accelerator path is conceived for high mass delivery from an EBIS charge state breeder. The front-end design utilizes the experience gained in 15 years of ISAC beam delivery.

Marchetto, M.; Baartman, R. A.; Laxdal, R. E.

2014-01-01

202

Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

Banks, Richard C.

2011-01-01

203

Landfalling Fronts and Cyclones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landfalling cyclones and their attendant fronts significantly impact the structure of mesoscale wind and precipitation fields along the west coast of North America. This module focuses on the complex interaction of the wind field with topography and the resulting effects on nearshore winds and precipitation. For example, prefrontal conditions may lead to flow blocking, development of a barrier jet, and seaward displacement of the maximum precipitation. Postfrontal conditions tend to promote windward ridging and lee troughing, which enhance along-coast flow.

Comet

2006-05-24

204

Development of the polar vortex in the 1999-2000 Arctic winter stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1999-2000 Arctic stratospheric vortex was unusually cold, especially in the early winter lower stratosphere, with a larger area near polar stratospheric cloud formation temperatures in Dec and Jan, and much lower temperatures averaged over Nov-Jan, than any previously observed Arctic winter.

Manney, G. L.; Sabutis, J. L.

2000-01-01

205

42 | NewScientist | 17 December 2011 Blowing hot and cold  

E-print Network

air is normally kept bottled up in the Arctic by fast-flowing westerly winds 颅 the polar jet stream PRESSURE WARM AIR COLD AIR SOURCE:GUIRGUIS2011,AMERICANGEOPHYSICALUNION Again, the jet stream weakened42 | NewScientist | 17 December 2011 Blowing hot and cold During northern hemisphere winters, cold

206

HYPOTHERMIA Surviving the Cold  

E-print Network

weather, cold water, or an indoor freezer 颅 is part of the job for many British Columbia workers. One with either artificial or natural cold is potentially at risk. Artificial cold is found in areas such as cold

Machel, Hans

207

Crow deaths caused by West Nile virus during winter.  

PubMed

In New York, an epizootic of American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) deaths from West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred during winter 2004-2005, a cold season when mosquitoes are not active. Detection of WNV in feces collected at the roost suggests lateral transmission through contact or fecal contamination. PMID:18258045

Dawson, Jennifer R; Stone, Ward B; Ebel, Gregory D; Young, David S; Galinski, David S; Pensabene, Jason P; Franke, Mary A; Eidson, Millicent; Kramer, Laura D

2007-12-01

208

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... a two-wave radio, waterproof matches and paraffin fire starters with you. Do not use alcohol and ...

209

Winter Weather: Hypothermia  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

210

Winter Weather: Indoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... 3 feet of anything that may catch on fire, such as drapes, furniture, or bedding. Never cover ...

211

Science of Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? What happens to mosquitoes when the mercury drops? National Geographic Channel explores the planet's most extreme season. This engaging three-minute video discusses the astronomical basis for winter, and other seasons, based on the angle of incidence of the sun's rays relative to the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as the components of intense winter storms.

212

Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

Cai, Jingning

2013-04-01

213

Simple front tracking  

SciTech Connect

A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

1999-04-01

214

Water transport under winter conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter as well as summer floods result in soil loss and sedimentation. Up to now the winter events cannot be adequately predicted. This paper focuses on the infiltration processes under frozen winter conditions in order to model soil erosion processes in winter by adapting the computer model EROSION 3D [Schmidt, J., Werner, M. v., 2000. Modeling Sediment and Heavy Metal

Astrid Weigert; J黵gen Schmidt

2005-01-01

215

Changes in carbohydrates, ABA and bark proteins during seasonal cold acclimation and deacclimation in Hydrangea species differing in cold hardiness.  

PubMed

Cold injury is frequently seen in the commercially important shrub Hydrangea macrophylla but not in Hydrangea paniculata. Cold acclimation and deacclimation and associated physiological adaptations were investigated from late September 2006 to early May 2007 in stems of field-grown H. macrophylla ssp. macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. cv. Blaumeise and H. paniculata Sieb. cv. Kyushu. Acclimation and deacclimation appeared approximately synchronized in the two species, but they differed significantly in levels of mid-winter cold hardiness, rates of acclimation and deacclimation and physiological traits conferring tolerance to freezing conditions. Accumulation patterns of sucrose and raffinose in stems paralleled fluctuations in cold hardiness in both species, but H. macrophylla additionally accumulated glucose and fructose during winter, indicating species-specific differences in carbohydrate metabolism. Protein profiles differed between H. macrophylla and H. paniculata, but distinct seasonal patterns associated with winter acclimation were observed in both species. In H. paniculata concurrent increases in xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([ABA](xylem)) and freezing tolerance suggests an involvement of ABA in cold acclimation. In contrast, ABA from the root system was seemingly not involved in cold acclimation in H. macrophylla, suggesting that species-specific differences in cold hardiness may be related to differences in [ABA](xylem). In both species a significant increase in stem freezing tolerance appeared long after growth ceased, suggesting that cold acclimation is more regulated by temperature than by photoperiod. PMID:18636985

Pagter, Majken; Jensen, Christian R; Petersen, Karen K; Liu, Fulai; Arora, Rajeev

2008-11-01

216

New Front End Technology  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of Petawatt class lasers will require the development of new laser technology. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) holds a potential to increase the peak power level to >10 PW with existing grating technology through ultrashort pulses. Furthermore, by utilizing a new type of front-end system based on optical parametric amplification, pulses can be produced with substantially higher contrast than with Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier technology. We performed extensive study of OPCPA using a single crystal-based OPA. We developed a replacement for Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier for high peak power lasers based on OPCPA, with an output of 30 mJ, at 10 Hz repetition rate and 16.5 nm spectral bandwidth. We developed a 3D numerical model for OPCPA and we performed a theoretical study of influences of pump laser beam quality on optical parametric amplification. Our results indicate that OPCPA represents a valid replacement for Ti:sapphire in the front end of high energy short pulse lasers.

Pennington, D; Jovanovic, I; Comaskey, B J

2001-02-01

217

From the front  

SciTech Connect

The causes of recent dynamic thinning of Greenland's outlet glaciers have been debated. Realistic simulations suggest that changes at the marine fronts of these glaciers are to blame, implying that dynamic thinning will cease once the glaciers retreat to higher ground. For the last decade, many outlet glaciers in Greenland that terminate in the ocean have accelerated, thinned, and retreated. To explain these dynamic changes, two hypotheses have been discussed. Atmospheric warming has increased surface melting and may also have increased the amount of meltwater reaching the glacier bed, increasing lubrication at the base and hence the rate of glacier sliding. Alternatively, a change in the delicate balance of forces where the glacier fronts meet the ocean could trigger the changes. Faezeh Nick and colleagues5 present ice-sheet modeling experiments that mimic the observations on Helheim glacier, East Greenland, and suggest that the dynamic behaviour of outlet glaciers follows from perturbations at their marine fronts. Greenland's ice sheet loses mass partly through surface melting and partly through fast flowing outlet glaciers that connect the vast plateau of inland ice with the ocean. Earlier ice sheet models have failed to reproduce the dynamic variability exhibited by ice sheets over time. It has therefore not been possible to distinguish with confidence between basal lubrication from surface meltwater and changes at the glaciers' marine fronts as causes for the observed changes on Greenland's outlet glaciers. But this distinction bears directly on future sea-level rise, the raison d'etre of much of modern-day glaciology: If the recent dynamic mass loss Greenland's outlet glaciers is linked to changing atmospheric temperatures, it may continue for as long as temperatures continue to increase. On the other hand, if the source of the dynamic mass loss is a perturbation at the ice-ocean boundary, these glaciers will lose contact with that perturbation after a finite amount of thinning and retreat. Therefore, the first hypothesis implies continued retreat of outlet glaciers into the foreseeable future, while the second does not -- provided the bedrock topography prohibits a connection between the retreating glacier and the ocean. Nick and coauthors test the physical mechanisms implied in each hypotbesis in an innovative ice-flow model, and use that model to try to match a time series of observations from Helheim glacier, one of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers. Along with many observations, the simulations strongly support the contention that the recent retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers is the result of changes at their marine fronts.Further, the simulations confirm the earlier hypotheses that bedrock topography largely controlled Helheim glacier's rapid acceleration and retreat in 2004 and 2005, and its deceleration and stabilization in 2006. Finally, the current work implies that if requirements of observational data (high-resolution bed topography) and computational resources (fine computational grid resolution) can be met, improved predictive capability for ice-sheet models is attainable. With respect to the concerns raised by the IPCC, this study signals progress.

Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

218

A numerical investigation of severe thunderstorm gust fronts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model was developed to simulate the evolution and structure of severe thunderstorm gust fronts. The model is a non-hydrostatic, fine resolution, cross-sectional primitive equation model. Two-dimensional horizontal and vertical equations of motion, the continuity equation, and the thermodynamic energy equation were utilized. It was shown that two dominant factors influencing gust front configuration are surface friction and the solenoidal field coincident with the front. It is suggested that solenoidal accelerations oppose the deceleration of surface friction. After a downdraft is initiated in the model, these opposing tendencies soon reach a balance and the gust front achieves a quasi-steady configuration. Thus, the experiments indicate that surface friction does not induce a cycle of front formation and collapse. In addition, the effect of evaporative cooling in producing a vigorous downdraft was parameterized by a local cooling function. Greater cooling in the downdraft results in a more intense gust front that exhibits stronger wind maximums and greater shears. The ambient air stability was shown to be an important factor influencing the depth of the cold outflow.

Mitchell, K. E.

1975-01-01

219

Affections of SSTa in North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean on cold air activity over the east China marginal seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using monthly mean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTa) in the Northern Atlantic and Arctic from 1951-2004,the reanalysis data of sea surface pressure, air temperature and geopotential height at 500 hPa, SVD analysis were done to study the relations among the SSTa's and the cold air activity over the east China marginal seas. It is found that?in boreal winter, cold air activity over the east China marginal seas can be predicted by the SSTa in the Northern Atlantic and Arctic by the Autumn?the positive SSTa in northern Atlantic and negative SSTa in regions south of Iceland and Greenland during September, October and November, can resulted to the pressure increasing over the east China marginal seas; lower sea surface temperature in the east sea of Novaya Zemlya, and higher SST in the east sea of Novaya Zemlya, northwest of Barents Sea together with lower SST in southeast of the Barents Sea during September, October and November coincides with higher sea level pressure of China east coast. The mechanism in these affections is that positive SSTa in the Northern Atlantic can make the development of bridge at the 500hPa; higher SST in north Atlantic coincides with the development of high-altitude ridge, and then the ridge extends to the north, coincides with higher Geopotential height over the area between Novaya Zemlya and Urals. The Negative vorticity advection in front of the ridge leads cold air to key areas, then affects China east coast area, and then forms surface cold anticyclone, and vice versa. Key words?Northern Atlantic; sea regions around Novaya Zemlya?SST anomaly? SVD analysis?east China marginal seas?cold air activity

Sun, Jilin; Shi, Xiaomeng; Jiao, Yan; Ye, Xinxin

2010-05-01

220

Morphological instability of failure fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various observations and experiments showing that, in addition to standard shock-wave fronts, which propagate with high trans-sonic velocities, some other much slower wave fronts can propagate within substance undergoing intensive damage. These moving fronts propagate within intact substance leaving behind them intensively damaged substance. These fronts were coined as failure waves. The failure waves can be modeled differently梚n this letter they are modeled as sharp interfaces separating two states: the intact and comminuted states. Several penetration experiments with transparent glasses and ceramics have shown that failure fronts have an extremely rough morphology. We suggest a simple thermodynamic theory which allows interpreting appearance of the roughness as a manifestation of morphological instability of failure fronts. For the case of isotropic phases the instability criterion is presented in explicit form.

Grinfeld, M. A.; Schoenfeld, S. E.; Wright, T. W.

2006-03-01

221

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

PubMed

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate. Thus, it is uncertain whether maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance are phenotypically correlated in small birds and no previous study has directly examined this relationship. I measured maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance (i.e., thermogenic endurance) over three winters in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, American tree sparrows Spizella arborea, and dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis. For raw thermogenic endurance data, residuals of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance from mass regressions were significantly and positively correlated in juncos and tree sparrows, and their correlation approached significance for chickadees. Log10 transformation of thermogenic endurance and mass data gave similar results. These data provide the first direct evidence for a phenotypic correlation between maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance in small birds, although much of the variance in thermogenic endurance is explained by factors other than maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and the degree of correlation differs among species. Nevertheless, these data suggest that physiological adjustments producing elevated thermogenic endurance also produce elevated maximum cold-induced metabolic rate in small birds. PMID:11585259

Swanson, D L

2001-08-01

222

Introduction Winter colds, spring frosts and summer droughts  

E-print Network

on the radial growth of Scots pine in Lithuania has been investigated from the early works on dendroclimatology of Dendroclimatology and Radiometrics, ?.E. ?ilibero 2, LT-46324 Kaunas, Lithuania, Adomas_Vitas@fc.vdu.lt Vitas, A and summer droughts. Research was conducted on the experimental plot located in the northeastern Lithuania

223

Winter Storm Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The subject of this lesson is Winter Storms. The length will be approximately 55 minutes (~15 minutes for each of the three websites and ~10 minutes for the students to create their slideshows). The slideshows may be presented the following day if not enough time is available. This lesson is intended for 4th grade and is directed towards Standard 2 of the 4th grade science core curriculum. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Winter Storms Connection to Standards: Utah Core Curriculum: Science Standard 2 (Students will understand that the elements of weather can be observed, measured, and recorded to make predictions and determine simple weather patterns.) NETS-T: 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity - Students will be using websites and situations that ...

S., Tasia

2010-09-23

224

Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO), and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for 2004-2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF) the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv), but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100-110 ppbv) flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA) O3 mixing ratios were variable (45-65 ppbv) and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95-105 ppbv) flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50 N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15-0.20 mol mol-1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level) was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios to >110 ppbv with O3-CO slopes >0.50 mol mol-1 south of 45 N. Intense cyclones, which were not as common in the summer, enhanced export by lofting of boundary layer pollutants from over the US and also provided a possible mechanism for transporting pollutants from boreal fire outflow southward to the US east coast. Overall, for winter and summer the TES retrievals showed substantial evidence of air pollution export to the western North Atlantic Ocean with the most distinct differences in distribution patterns related to strong influences of mid-latitude cyclones in winter and the Bermuda High anticyclone in summer.

Hegarty, J.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R.

2010-04-01

225

The Physics Front  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard Feynman was one of the great communicators and scholars within the field of physics, and his very accessible lectures remain the stuff of legend today. While Professor Feynman is no longer with us, physics teachers can avail themselves of the very nice resources offered at The Physics Front. Created by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the National Science Foundation, the site contains lesson plans, activities, labs, and other pedagogical tools for physics teachers. The site also is notable for its 芒侣First Time Physics Teachers芒侣 section which contains a bit of information about the nature of teaching physics and how these resources might be best used in the classroom. The 芒侣Activities芒侣 area of the site is a real treat, as educators can find activities by subject, which include optics, energy, momentum, and wave energy.

226

The Physics Front  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Front is a public service provided by the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), with additional sponsorship from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Here, teachers can browse physics resources by topic (such as "conceptual physics" and "AP-Calculus"), learn about lesson plans via the "Lesson Plan Central" area, and check out the latest "Featured Resource." A simple search engine on the top of the homepage can be used to find items of particular interest, and the "Browse Collection" option provides an easy-to-use route to over eighty different subtopics, such as diffraction, statics of fluids, and atomic physics. Also, visitors can create a free membership registration, which allows them to rate materials, participate in discussions, and organize resources in a "personal filing cabinet." Additionally, visitors can sign up in the "Get Involved" section to become a peer-reviewer or a forum moderator for the site.

2012-06-22

227

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

228

Sea ice and snow cover characteristics during the winter-spring transition in the Bellingshausen Sea: An overview of SIMBA 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment was conducted from the RVIB N.B. Palmer in September and October 2007 in the Bellingshausen Sea in an area recently experiencing considerable changes in both climate and sea ice cover. Snow and ice properties were observed at 3 short-term stations and a 27-day drift station (Ice Station Belgica, ISB) during the winter-spring transition. Repeat measurements were performed on sea ice and snow cover at 5 ISB sites, each having different physical characteristics, with mean ice (snow) thicknesses varying from 0.6 m (0.1 m) to 2.3 m (0.7 m). Ice cores retrieved every five days from 2 sites and measured for physical, biological, and chemical properties. Three ice mass-balance buoys (IMBs) provided continuous records of snow and ice thickness and temperature. Meteorological conditions changed from warm fronts with high winds and precipitation followed by cold and calm periods through four cycles during ISB. The snow cover regulated temperature flux and controlled the physical regime in which sea ice morphology changed. Level thin ice areas had little snow accumulation and experienced greater thermal fluctuations resulting in brine salinity and volume changes, and winter maximum thermodynamic growth of 0.6 m in this region. Flooding and snow-ice formation occurred during cold spells in ice and snow of intermediate thickness. In contrast, little snow-ice formed in flooded areas with thicker ice and snow cover, instead nearly isothermal, highly permeable ice persisted. In spring, short-lived cold air episodes did not effectively penetrate the sea ice nor overcome the effect of ocean heat flux, thus favoring net ice thinning from bottom melt over ice thickening from snow-ice growth, in all cases. These warm ice conditions were consistent with regional remote sensing observations of earlier ice breakup and a shorter sea ice season, more recently observed in the Bellingshausen Sea.

Lewis, M. J.; Tison, J. L.; Weissling, B.; Delille, B.; Ackley, S. F.; Brabant, F.; Xie, H.

2011-05-01

229

The MIT Press Front and inside front cover: Images from  

E-print Network

fall 2013 The MIT Press #12;Front and inside front cover: Images from Snapshot Photography innovation 3 linguistics 70-71 mathematics 74 media 18 memoir 1 nature 29 neuroscience 76-81 new media 45 life in India. With a growing self-awareness and transformation at many levels, she made a new life

Jackson, Daniel

230

Farmers Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn抰 mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Caf Room, depending on the weather.

231

April 20044 WINTER 2008  

E-print Network

the School of Life Sciences teamed up with UK Sport to analyse nutritional supplements taken by athletes fromBridge April 20044 Bridge WINTER 2008 lmost 60 per cent of athletes regularly reach for over- the,buttheirreasonsfordoingsodidnotgenerally tally with each product's purpose. The team also found that relatively few supplement users appeared

Nebel, Jean-Christophe

232

SPECIAL EDITION Winter 2011  

E-print Network

, the impact of startup activity goes well beyond national rankings, employment statistics and tax revenuesSPECIAL EDITION Winter 2011 INNOVATIONSThe Official Newsletter for Technology Venture Development at The University of Utah www.techventures.utah.edu INSIDE: The U's economic impact | Startup company voices

233

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002  

PubMed Central

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.

2006-01-01

234

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002.  

PubMed

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenza like illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Rubin, Michael A; Samore, Matthew H; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Dunn, James J; Willick, Stuart E; Vosters, Randal L; Waeckerle, Joseph E; Carroll, Karen C; Gwaltney, Jack M; Hayden, Frederick G; Elstad, Mark R; Sande, Merle A

2006-01-01

235

WINTER 2014 Sustainability and  

E-print Network

WINTER 2014 Sustainability and Renewable Energy in Costa Rica January 4 - 14 Dr. James Hoffmann, Program Director Lecturer Sustainability Studies Program E-511 Melville Library Stony Brook, NY 11794 sustainability and renewable energy. Students will spend 11 days in Costa Rica to participate in site visits

Stephens, Graeme L.

236

GRAND RIVER Winter 2014  

E-print Network

GRAND RIVER POST SECONDARY BOARD NEWSLETTER Winter 2014 Issue 55 P.O. Box 339 Ohsweken ON, N0A 1M0-mail: info@grpseo.org Website: www.grpseo.org Grand River Post Secondary Board Members Brenda Davis (Chair TO TOMORROW Onkwehon:we with Grand River Territory lineage are empowered through higher education within

Thompson, Michael

237

Teaching Ecology in Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

238

FORUMCORNELL Winter 2007  

E-print Network

FORUMCORNELL LAW Winter 2007 Myron C. Taylor, Part Two: President Franklin D. Roosevelt: President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Ambassador Extraordinary" 4 by W. DAV I D C U R T I S S ' 4 0 A N D C . E School's Web site you will see people who exemplify the reality of A. D. White's founding wish

Wang, Z. Jane

239

Winter Here and Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a wide variety of winter-oriented ideas and activities that can be adapted to all elementary grade levels and can also be integrated into existing mathematics, science, social studies, and/or art programs. The activities aim to help students develop the skills of observation, appreciation, and problem solving as well as

Finlay, Joy

240

WINTER 2012 + Listening for  

E-print Network

WINTER 2012 + Listening for children's voices in domestic violence + 2010颅11 donor roster Culture Research highlights A new study shows corporal punishment harms children's ability to learn 20 Faculty Opening the door Listening for the child's voice in domestic violence 18 Putting her best (bare) foot

Blanchette, Robert A.

241

Schedule of Winter Deadlines  

E-print Network

What's New? UC Online Courses Pilot In upcoming Winter/Spring 2014 terms, the University of California Find-a-Class feature, students are able to search classes and enroll directly from the search page, but it also allows them to enter other mathematics-related fields that require a strong understanding

Williams, Gary A.

242

Physiological and transplanting performance of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) seedlings grown in nurseries with different winter conditions  

E-print Network

Physiological and transplanting performance of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) seedlings grown winter conditions affected cold hardiness and other functional attributes relevant for transplanting have higher stress resistance, vigour, and transplanting performance than the seedlings cultivated

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

243

Math PUrview - Winter 1999  

E-print Network

At the end of the brochure is the "List of Emigrants among all German-Speaking ... My first aim was my old alma mater, the Friedrich Wilhelm Universitat, now ... I went through the front entrance to the university and found the aula, which is still

244

ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute  

E-print Network

ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute National Research February 锟 1 March, 2014 Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) conducts the XLVIII Annual Winter Physics 锟 Theoretical Physics School 锟 School on Nuclear Reactor Physics 锟 Accelerator Physics School

Titov, Anatoly

245

Climatological characteristics of fronts in the western North Pacific based on surface weather charts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

front climatology in the western North Pacific is determined using a newly developed 1.0 gridded data set. Here we propose a research strategy for determining the spatiotemporal distribution of fronts using weather chart images published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, one of the major data providers in the region. A preliminarily investigation of the internal data characteristics for the period of 2000-2010 is undertaken, and the final 4 years of data are used for an analysis of front climatology to avoid the effect of any spurious trends. This enables in-depth analyses to be conducted, which have not previously been possible in the region, including the composites of cross-sectional patterns for the thermal fields and precipitation near fronts, front length seasonality, and the significance of the thermal gradient near the fronts, in addition to determining the frontal frequency and spatial distribution of frontal precipitation. Pixel-wise analysis reveals that 56% of the local precipitation maximum is located on the warm side of a cold front caused by less tilted upward motion on the warm side, with the intrusion of the upper level cold dry air into the warm side. This new data set also enables a further analysis of the occluded fronts, which are not correctly distinguished in the existing objective detection method.

Utsumi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyungjun; Seto, Shinta; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

2014-08-01

246

Cold Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter and the following one address collective effects of quantum particles, that is, the effects which are observed when we put together a large number of identical particles, for example, electrons, helium-4 or rubidium-85 atoms. We shall see that quantum particles can be classified into two categories, bosons and fermions, whose collective behavior is radically different. Bosons have a tendency to pile up in the same quantum state, while fermions have a tendency to avoid each other. We say that bosons and fermions obey two different quantum statistics, the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. Temperature is a collective effect, and in Section 5.1 we shall explain the concept of absolute temperature and its relation to the average kinetic energy of molecules. We shall describe in Section 5.2 how we can cool atoms down thanks to the Doppler effect, and explain how cold atoms can be used to improve the accuracy of atomic clocks by a factor of about 100. The effects of quantum statistics are prominent at low temperatures, and atom cooling will be used to obtain Bose-Einstein condensates at low enough temperatures, when the atoms are bosons.

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

247

Heat saving concealed fireplace front  

Microsoft Academic Search

A front for a fireplace is described which comprises a concealed fireplace door that slides into and out of a concealed door pocket formed at the side of the fireplace. The door completely seals the fireplace front when in its closed position and a fire is burning in the fireplace. An airvent is provided in a pocket behind the concealed

Cobb

1977-01-01

248

Fronts on the Continental Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-defined class of fronts occurring in the shelf seas around the United Kingdom during the summer months marks the boundary between stratified and vertically mixed regimes. The occurrence of these fronts may be interpreted in terms of the distribution of available turbulent kinetic energy from the tidal currents and wind stress and the buoyancy flux input at the surface.

J. H. Simpson; C. M. Allen; N. C. G. Morris

1978-01-01

249

Surface properties of ocean fronts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on oceanic fronts is presented and the results of several models which were developed to study the dynamics of oceanic fronts and their effects on various surface properties are described. The details of the four numerical models used in these studies are given in separate appendices which contain all of the physical equations, program documentation and running instructions for the models.

Wolff, P. M.; Hubert, W. E.

1976-01-01

250

Cold Period Plant-Water Relations Affecting Consumptive Use of Soil Water and Waste Water Reuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaporation rates were estimated for summer time conditions by periodic weighings of potted seedlings under closely monitored environmental conditions. As winter time evaporation rates were too low to be measured by the weighing technique, cold period rat...

B. F. Chabot, P. J. Marchand, R. S. Kinerson

1975-01-01

251

Brief Chilling to Subzero Temperature Increases Cold Hardiness in the Hatchling Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta)  

E-print Network

(Chrysemys picta) * Corresponding author. Present address: Biology Department, Augustana Col- lege, Rock (Chrysemys picta) to increase cold hardiness in response to brief exposure to a subzero temper- ature. Winter

Lee Jr., Richard E.

252

Spring Staging Areas of the Greenland White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons flavirostris) in West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenland white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons flavirostris) migrates about 3000 km from wintering grounds in Ireland and Britain to breeding grounds in West Greenland (64? - 72?N). The migration route includes long flights over the ocean and over the Greenland ice cap. To obtain optimal reproduction output, it is important for the geese to build up their condition at specific

CHRISTIAN M. GLAHDER

1999-01-01

253

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON VEGETATION AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

If climate change leads to an extended growing season and somewhat wetter winters in the Front Range of Colorado, then a new time period of resource availability will be created. Non-native vegetation whose native lands possessed climates similar to the ?new conditions? may be...

254

BREEDING POPULATIONS OF TULE WHITE-FRONTED GEESE IN NORTHWESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE Tule White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons gambelli) is one of the least known of the North American wild geese. Available information has been largely limited to observations and collected specimens of wintering birds. The migrational routes are virtually uncharted and breeding areas unknown. The basis for considering gambelli to be a valid subspecies is dis- cussed by Swarth and Bryant

BOB ELCAS

255

Factors affecting rice grain density unconsumed by white-fronted geese in relation to wheat damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Miyajimanuma, in central Hokkaido, is an important stopover site for white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) wintering in Japan. In this area, increasing numbers of the geese are causing damage to wheat crops. The effects of several factors on the unconsumed density of food resources in rice fields, their main foraging site, were investigated with a view to propose a method

Tatsuya Amano; Katsumi Ushiyama; Go Fujita; Hiroyoshi Higuchi

2004-01-01

256

Bank erosion in cold regions  

SciTech Connect

River and lake bank erosion is caused by multiple processes and influenced by many conditions that interact in complex ways. Their importance will vary spatially and temporally due in large part to regional and seasonal differences in climate, hydrology and soils. In cold areas, these normally complex interactions are further complicated because the same process or condition may cause erosion at one time and prevent erosion at another. Bank sediments when frozen may be more resistant to erosion than when unfrozen. However, during the process of freezing, soil structure can be disrupted and sediment pore water can be drawn to the freezing zone within the soil; ice formation may make bank sediment more susceptible to erosion during spring thaw. Ice that has been forced onto and piled upon a shore by wind or thermal expansion can cause considerable localized damage and yet can also protect shores against winter waves and nearshore currents. Ice push can form sediment ramparts that protect the toe of a bank. Spray from winds and waves can freeze to banks, covering them with a protective layer of ice. When river or lake water levels are high enough, however, ice can erode banks by shoving, gouging and disrupting bank sediment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the importance of cold regions factors in determining the erodibility and erosion of bank sediments. Ongoing investigations to improve methods of erosion prediction in cold climates will also be detailed.

Gatto, L.W. (Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States). Geological Sciences Branch)

1993-03-01

257

Lightning Protection against Winter Lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes

Hitoshi Sugimoto

2007-01-01

258

Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is

Gilchrest, Norman

259

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

260

Insect Cold-Hardiness: New Advances Using Gene Screening Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goldenrod gall moth Epiblema scudderiana uses the freeze avoid- Epiblema scudderiana uses the freeze avoid- Epiblema scudderiana ance strategy of winter cold hardiness. In recent studies we have begun to ex- plore the changes in gene expression that support subzero survival, using both cDNA library screening and cDNA array screening technologies. Screening of a library prepared from cold-exposed larvae

KENNETH B. STOREY; DAVID C. MCMULLEN

261

Winter ecology of Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in a subarctic lake, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied habitat choice, diet, food consumption and somatic growth of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) during the ice-covered winter period of a subarctic lake in northern Norway. Both Arctic charr and brown trout predominantly\\u000a used the littoral zone during winter time. Despite very cold winter conditions (water temperature <1癈) and poor light conditions,\\u000a both fish

Per-Arne Amundsen; Rune Knudsen

2009-01-01

262

Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda

2013-01-01

263

Lagrangian sources of frontogenesis in the equatorial Atlantic front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the processes that control the north equatorial sea surface temperature (SST)-front on the northern edge of the cold tongue in the tropical Atlantic is a key issue for understanding the dynamics of the oceanic equatorial Atlantic and the West African Monsoon. Diagnosis of the frontogenetic forcings on a realistic high-resolution simulation was used to identify the processes involved in the formation and evolution of the equatorial SST-front. The turbulent forcing associated with the mixed-layer turbulent heat flux was found to be systematically frontolytic while the dynamic forcing associated with currents was found to be frontogenetic for the equatorial SST-front. Nevertheless, the low-frequency component of the turbulent forcing was frontogenetic and initiated the SST-front which was then amplified and maintained by the leading dynamic forcing. This forcing was mainly driven by the meridional convergence of the northern South Equatorial Current (nSEC) and the Guinea Current, which points out the essential role played by the circulation in the equatorial SST-front evolution. The quasi-biweekly variability of the equatorial SST-front and its forcings were found to be more strongly coupled to the wind energy flux (WEF) than to the surface wind stress. In fact the WEF controlled the convergence/divergence of the nSEC and Guinea Current and thus the meridional component of the leading dynamic forcing. The WEF explains the equatorial SST-front development better than the wind does because it is a coupled ocean-atmosphere process.

Giordani, Herv; Caniaux, Guy

2014-09-01

264

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

265

Al's Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Al

2010-02-22

266

Storm Winter Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

KateOlsen58

2009-09-28

267

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? What is a better indicator of moisture in the air? 4. What happens when there is low ...

Xuan

2010-02-22

268

Winter Storm Warning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

2009-09-28

269

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Butcher, Kirsten

2008-09-26

270

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Barbieri, Mikel

2012-02-13

271

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Ferraratechclassroom

2012-02-06

272

Long-term variability of cold surges in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold surge statistics have been analyzed from the 52-year (1961-2012) winter temperature data archived at Korea Meteorological Administration. Despite a significant winter warming in South Korea, there is no statistically affirmable sign of the occurrence frequency, duration and total days of cold surges to have changed in the record; there is little abatement in the frequency, duration, and total days of cold surges. Thermal advection anomalies were also derived from the NCEP/NCAR and ERA interim reanalysis datasets. Cold surges defined in terms of thermal advection anomalies do not exhibit any statistically significant change either. The increased mean and the decreased variance of thermal advection both indicate that cold advection from north has, in fact, decreased gradually in South Korea. It appears that cold surges are statistically rare enough to be affected by increased mean and decreased variance of thermal advection. Polar warming is often interpreted as weakening of jet stream and increasing southward flux of cold air. Analysis of thermal advection, on the other hand, does not show increased advection of cold air from north in South Korea.

Kim, Kwang-Yul; Lee, Seoyeon; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chun-Ho

2014-08-01

273

Nonshivering thermogenesis and cold resistance during seasonal acclimatization in the Djungarian hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Djungarian hamsters,Phodopus sungorus, improved their cold limit during seasonal acclimatization from -24癈 in summer to -68癈Ta in winter. This was primarily due to an increase in their capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis from 23.4 mW\\/g in summer to 59.4 mW\\/g in winter, assisted by an improved utilization of heat in smaller winter acclimatized hamsters. BMR and shivering thermogenesis had only minor

Gerhard Heldmaier; Stephan Steinlechner; Johannes Rafael

1982-01-01

274

Monarchs wintering in trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monarch butterflies migrate south in the fall to Mexico to avoid the harsh cold of the northern regions. They fly back toward the north in the spring. Once they reach their destination in the spring, they only have a few more weeks or so to live. They take this time to mate.

Mila Zinkova (None;)

2007-11-16

275

December 2001 Winter Storms  

E-print Network

BLIZZARD: Winds of 35 mph or more with snow and blowing snow reducing visibility to less than 录 mile for at least 3 hours. BLOWING SNOW: Wind-driven snow that reduces visibility. Blowing snow may be falling snow on a community or region for days, weeks or even months. 路 Extremely cold temperatures, heavy snow and coastal

276

Multiscale Structure and Evolution of an Oklahoma Winter Precipitation Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant winter precipitation event occurred on 8-9 March 1994 in Oklahoma. Snow accumulations greater than 30 cm (12 in.) were measured within a narrow corridor in northern Oklahoma. On the synoptic scale and mesoscale, a correspondence between large snow accumulations and 600-hPa frontogenesis was re- vealed; the precipitation was formed above the cold frontal surface, owing to midtropospheric ascent

R. Jeffrey Trapp; David M. Schultz; Alexander V. Ryzhkov; Ronald L. Holle

2001-01-01

277

An occluded coastal oceanic front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations, including hydrographic, microwave imaging radar, and HF radar measurements, reveal the evolution of a complicated frontal interaction between three water masses on the continental shelf near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during a period of incursion of water from the Gulf Stream. The water masses were found to be separated by intersecting frontal lines configured in a manner analogous to an occluded atmospheric front. The densest water lay between inshore and offshore fronts that gradually merged or occluded in the generally downstream direction, leaving a single surface front. The overall frontal structure appeared as a distinct Y-shaped feature in the radar imagery, similar to historical imagery of the study area. The interpretation of the observations is aided by the use of a two-dimensional numerical model. The model is initialized with two fronts idealized from the ocean measurements. The model fronts quickly sharpen and begin to move together, eventually occluding into a single surface front. As a result of the occlusion, the water mass having intermediate density subducts and intrudes under the most buoyant water, carrying with it strong horizontal and vertical shears, and a frontal band of diverging currents is created in the densest water mass. The model thus suggests that in the ocean there will be an increase in hydrographic and velocity fine structure downstream of the frontal occlusion point.

Marmorino, G. O.; Shen, C. Y.; Allan, N.; Askari, F.; Trizna, D. B.; Trump, C. L.; Shay, L. K.

1998-09-01

278

EOS MLS observations of ozone loss in the 2004-2005 Arctic winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and N2O are used to examine transport and chemical O3 loss in the unusually cold 2004-2005 Arctic winter. The vortex was dynamically active, with episodic mixing events throughout the winter; descent was the dominant transport process only through late January. Before the onset of lower stratospheric chemical loss, O3 was higher near the vortex edge than in the vortex core, causing different effects of mixing depending on the vortex region and time, either masking or mimicking chemical loss. O3 loss ceased by 10 March because of an early final warming. Rough estimates suggest maximum vortex-averaged O3 loss of 1.2-1.5 ppmv between 450 and 500 K, with up to ~2 ppmv loss in the outer vortex near 500 K. Despite record cold, chemical O3 loss was less in 2004-2005 than in previous cold Arctic winters.

Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Hoppel, K.; Livesey, N. J.; Waters, J. W.

2006-02-01

279

Factors regulating Shasta Lake (California) cold water accumulation, a resource for endangered salmon conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shasta Lake, in northern California, has recently experienced reduced cold water storage, making it difficult to meet downstream temperature objectives for endangered winter-run chinook salmon spawning habitat. This study used a novel form of time series analysis to examine the causes, timing, and predictability of cold water storage in Shasta Lake. This analysis detected two independent modes of variability in

D. K. Nickel; M. T. Brett; A. D. Jassby

2004-01-01

280

Ensemble Applications in Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to ensemble forecast systems using an operational case study of the Blizzard of 2013 in Southern Ontario. The module uses models available to forecasters in the Meteorological Service of Canada, including Canadian and U.S. global and regional ensembles. After briefly discussing the rationale for ensemble forecasting, the module presents small lessons on probabilistic ensemble products useful in winter weather forecasting, immediately followed by forecast applications to a southern Ontario case. The learner makes forecasts for the Ontario Storm Prediction Center area and, in the short range, for the Toronto metropolitan area. An additional section applies a probabilistic aviation product to forecasts for Toronto Pearson International Airport.

Comet

2014-04-22

281

Big6 Winter Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Goals: a. Students will be able to identify the four seasons. b. Students will be able to identify three animals (bear, goose, moose) and know their lifestyle patterns in congruence with the four seasons, especially Winter months. c. Students will develop an understanding of their environment. 2nd Grade Standard III: Students will develop an understanding of their environment Objective 2: Observe and describe weather Goal C: Describe how weather affects people and weather Lesson Objectives: a. Identify the seasons and represent each with pictures and songs. b. Observe and describe typical weather for each of ...

Cook, Mrs.

2010-11-05

282

winter storm activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. It provides an interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Prested, Miss

2010-05-26

283

Winter Frost and Fog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

284

Close the Door--You're Letting the Cold In!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Actually no, you aren't letting the cold in when you leave the door open in winter. That's a common misconception that will be gently put to rest in this chapter. There will, however, be a discussion of the tranfer of energy that makes things hotter and colder.

Robertson, William C.

2002-01-01

285

Predictability of Cold Spring Seasons in Europe MXOLISI E. SHONGWE*  

E-print Network

with the climatological snow line, and snow is shown in this paper to be linked to cold spring 2-m temperatures in eastern. Improvements in the snow analysis and land surface parameterizations could increase the skill of seasonal, ecology, agriculture, winter tourism, the clothing industry, etc. The predictable component of atmospheric

Haak, Hein

286

Photosynthesis, photoinhibition and low temperature acclimation in cold tolerant plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold acclimation requires adjustment to a combination of light and low temperature, conditions which are potentially photoinhibitory. The photosynthetic response of plants to low temperature is dependent upon time of exposure and the developmental history of the leaves. Exposure of fully expanded leaves of winter cereals to short-term, low temperature shiftsinhibits whereas low temperature growthstimulates electron transport capacity and carbon

Norman P. A. Huner; Gunnar 謖uist; Vaughan M. Hurry; Marianna Krol; Stefan Falk; Marilyn Griffith

1993-01-01

287

FalllWinter CELEBRATE WOMEN, the Women's Health Program at the UConn Health Center, recognizes  

E-print Network

FalllWinter 2002 #12;CELEBRATE WOMEN, the Women's Health Program at the UConn Health Center Women also offers health seminars, health screenings, and front-line information on women's health.celebrate.uchc.edu. Celebrate WOmen also offers a FREE women's health membership program. \\fJ UConn Health Center #12

Holsinger, Kent

288

Managing coastal grazing marshes for breeding waders and over wintering geese: Is there a conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winter grazing intensities of brent geese Branta bernicla, pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus, and white-fronted geese A. albifrons, and the breeding densities of lapwing Vanellus vanellus, redshank Tringa totanus and snipe Gallinago gallinago, were related to the environmental characteristics of 81 fields within an area of coastal grazing marshes on the north Norfolk coast. Those fields grazed most intensively by

J. A. Vickery; W. J. Sutherland; M. O'Brien; A. R. Watkinson; A. Yallop

1997-01-01

289

Staying cold through dinner: cold-climate bats rewarm with conspecifics but not sunset during hibernation.  

PubMed

For temperate endotherms (i.e., mammals and birds) energy costs are highest during winter but food availability is lowest and many mammals depend on hibernation as a result. Hibernation is made up of energy-saving torpor bouts [periods of controlled reduction in body temperature (T b)], which are interrupted by brief periodic arousals to normothermic T b. What triggers these arousals in free-ranging hibernators is not well understood. Some temperate bats with intermittent access to flying insects during winter synchronize arousals with sunset, which suggests that, in some species, feeding opportunities influence arousal timing. We tested whether hibernating bats from a cold climate without access to food during winter also maintain a circadian rhythm for arousals or whether cues from conspecifics in the same cluster are more important. We used temperature telemetry to monitor skin temperature (T sk) of free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in central Manitoba, Canada, where temperatures from 22 October to 22 March were too cold for flying insects. We found no evidence bats synchronized arousals with photoperiod but they did arouse synchronously with other bats in the same cluster. Thus, in the northern part of their range where flying insects are almost never available during winter, little brown bats exhibit no circadian pattern to arousals. Warming synchronously with others could reduce the energetic costs of arousal for individuals or could reflect disturbance of torpid bats by cluster-mates. PMID:23539327

Czenze, Zenon J; Park, Andrew D; Willis, Craig K R

2013-08-01

290

Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This

Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

2013-01-01

291

of Washington ""WINTER QUARTER 1993  

E-print Network

University of Washington Bulletin ""WINTER QUARTER 1993 Please recycle or return ........................................................................................ 4 Thition Forfeitures or Refunds .................................................. 9 Washington Public Interest Research Group ._................-.... 10 Washington Student Lobby (WSL

Kaminsky, Werner

292

The Anomalous Winter of 1783-1784: Was the Laki Eruption or an Analog of the 2009-2010 Winter to Blame?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi ]stage eruption of the Icelandic volcano Laki beginning in June, 1783 is speculated to have caused unusual dry fog and heat in western Europe and cold in North America during the 1783 summer, and record cold and snow the subsequent winter across the circum-North Atlantic. Despite the many indisputable impacts of the Laki eruption, however, its effect on climate, particularly during the 1783.1784 winter, may be the most poorly constrained. Here we test an alternative explanation for the unusual conditions during this time: that they were caused primarily by a combined negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and an El Nino ]Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm event. A similar combination of NAO ]ENSO phases was identified as the cause of record cold and snowy conditions during the 2009.2010 winter in Europe and eastern North America. 600-year tree-ring reconstructions of NAO and ENSO indices reveal values in the 1783.1784 winter second only to their combined severity in 2009.2010. Data sources and model simulations support our hypothesis that a combined, negative NAO ]ENSO warm phase was the dominant cause of the anomalous winter of 1783.1784, and that these events likely resulted from natural variability unconnected to Laki.

D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Cook, Edward R.

2011-01-01

293

The electrification of dust-lofting gust fronts (`haboobs') in the Sahel E. Williams a,  

E-print Network

to sustain deep convection that ultimately raises the dust. When African easterly waves are present, rainfall by the cold outflow from deep convection, produced by both isolated thunderstorms early in the wet season these dust-raising gust fronts from afar was the MIT C-band Doppler radar, which Atmospheric Research xxx

Rutledge, Steven

294

Seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of the two-spotted spider mite females (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important agricultural pest. Population dynamics and pest outbreaks highly depend on the overwintering success of the mite specimens; therefore, it is necessary to assess winter survival dynamics of this pest. Seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP) and acute cold tolerance (2-h exposure at -5, -10, -15, -20, -23, or -25癈) were assessed in field-collected females during the winter in 2010-2011 in Iran. The SCP values varied from a minimum of -30.5癈 (January 2011) to a maximum of -12.6癈 (April 2011). Significant differences were recorded in the SCP distribution patterns between autumn- and winter-sampled females, depicting the acquisition of cold hardiness over the winter. The mean ambient air temperature was the lowest in January (4癈), when the females showed the highest supercooling ability. Correlated patterns between monthly temperatures and acute cold tolerance also were found. At -20癈, the survival of the mites was very low (10%) when they were sampled in October 2010; whereas it was high (97.5%) in January 2011, before decreasing to 5% in April 2011. The present data show that T. urticae females are chill tolerant and capable of adjusting their cold tolerance over the winter season. Acute cold tolerance (-15 and -20癈) and SCP represent valuable metrics that can be used for predicting the seasonal changes of the cold hardiness of T. urticae females. PMID:24252290

Khodayari, S; Colinet, H; Moharramipour, S; Renault, D

2013-12-01

295

Cold and Cough Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

296

Analytical models of dipolarization fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are mesoscale structures generated during the transient magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. Spacecraft often observe these structures propagating toward the Earth with velocities 300-100 km/s. Modern multispacecraft observations allow reconstruction of 3D configuration of electromagnetic fields of DF: front is strongly curved in the XY plane and spatially localized along the Z axis (in GSM coordinate system). DFs play important role in plasma heating and charged particle acceleration. Thus, the simplified analytical models of 2D and 3D configuration of DF are necessary to model charge particle interaction with fronts. In the present report we propose 3D analytical model of DF. For several given distributions of B _{z} magnetic field component we have found analytical expressions for magnetic fields B _{x}, B _{y} and electric fields E _{x}, E _{y}. We also discuss distribution of electric field, which is due to the polarization of plasma in the vicinity of DF.

Vasko, Ivan; Artemyev, Anton

297

Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice\\/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4;

E. D. Clayton

1989-01-01

298

Episodic Dust Events along Utah's Wasatch Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodic dust events contribute to hazardous air quality along Utah's Wasatch Front urban corridor and, through deposition onto the snowpack of the adjacent Wasatch Mountains, regional hydroclimate change. This study creates a climatology of these episodic dust events using surface-weather observations, GOES visible satellite imagery, and the North American Regional Analysis. In hourly weather observations from the Salt Lake International Airport (KSLC), a dust storm, blowing dust, and/or dust in suspension (i.e., dust haze) with a visibility 10 km (6 mi) or less occurs an average of ~4 days per water year (Oct-Sep), with considerable interannual variability during the 1930-2010 period of record. The monthly frequency of days with at least one dust report is strongly bimodal with primary and secondary maxima in Apr and Sep, respectively. Dust reports exhibit a strong diurnal modulation and are most common in the late afternoon and evening. Most recent (2001-2010) events observed at KSLC are produced by intermountain cyclones and/or cold-frontal troughs (i.e., cyclone/frontal), followed by outflow from airmass/monsoon convection. In the case of the former, dust is most frequently observed right around the time of cold frontal passage. GOES satellite imagery and backtrajectories of events at KSLC and in the surrounding region indicate that the primary dust emission sources are clustered in the deserts and dry lake beds of southern Utah as well as the burn area of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire and the Carson Sink of Nevada.

Massey, J.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Painter, T. H.

2011-12-01

299

Seasonal variations in the responses of glycolytic intermediates of human erythrocytes to acute cold exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven male students were studied to observe the effects of acute cold exposure (at 10癈 for 60 min) on erythrocyte concentrations of glycolytic intermediates in summer and in winter. The subjects shivered slightly but frankly in both experiments. Significant decreases were observed in the concentrations of pyruvate and lactate during body cooling in summer, but not in winter. The lactate concentration remained significantly reduced 15 min after cold exposure. After 60 min of cold exposure in summer, a negative crossover point appeared to exist between phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate and erythrocyte pyruvate kinase activity showed a significant decrease. No seasonal difference was observed in the initial control values of the intermediates measured. From these results and the fact that glucose, pyruvate and lactate are evenly distributed between erythrocytes and plasma, it is likely that erythrocytes and skeletal muscles need less fuel substrate, glucose during cold exposure in winter than in summer, suggesting that an increased economy of energy for homeostasis is achieved.

Ohno, H.; Yahata, T.; Yamashita, K.; Kuroshima, A.

1988-03-01

300

Cross-equatorial influences of a South American cold surge on the development of two eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones  

E-print Network

case study of such an event. In late May 1979 a severe cold front passed over South America. On the mornings of 31 May and 1 June I'our states in Brazil experienced the worst freeze since 1975. Simultaneously, two tropical cyclones developed oif... Brazil and was the worst cold surge experienced in Brazil since 1975. ' Fortune and Kousky (1983) studied this cold front (Fig. 2) and found that the strong cold surge was the result of the superposition of a shortwave trough on a longwave trough...

Millier, Vicki Anne

2012-06-07

301

A Winter's Tale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explores winter weather and frozen precipitation. The page on precipitation points out that snow and rain are both water and explains how the different forms of frozen precipitation (snow, sleet, freezing rain) occur. There is a page on cirrus clouds that explains their characterstics and how they may affect climate by reflecting solar radiation or reducing outgoing infrared energy from Earth. The Jet Stream page explains the characteristics of these high-speed rivers of air, including what causes them and their effect on weather and climate. There is also a feature on the esthetic wonders of frozen water, including halos produced by ice crystals in the air, sparkling of snowflakes, why fresh snow squeaks when stepped on, and why it is silent during a snowfall. A bibliography is also provided.

302

Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives.  

PubMed

The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified ? T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive ? T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality. PMID:23423627

Gr黣bler, Martin U; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fr鋘zi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

2014-07-01

303

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Winter Squash  

E-print Network

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Winter Squash RECOMMENDED VARIETIES hOW TO STORE Winter Squash Michigan, Butternut, Golden Delicious, Hubbard, Spaghetti are recommended for freezing. yield Acorn squash is round be served like pasta. FOOD SAFETY TIPS One pound 1 large acorn squash. 4 half-cup servings. 1 陆 cups mashed

304

Pocahontas and The Winter's Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues what is on the face of it a ludicrous claim: that Shakespeare's play The Winter's Tale can profitably be read in the light of the story of the Algonquian princess Pocahontas. The reason that this seems ludicrous is quite simply that The Winter's Tale was almost certainly written before Shakespeare can have heard of Pocahontas, and in

Lisa Hopkins

2005-01-01

305

Drivers of Asian winter monsoon evolution since the Last Glacial Maximum (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian winter monsoon is a major center of activity for global winter climate. Its extensive latitudinal reach, in particular, allows it to act as a bridge between extratropical and tropical climate. New loess and ocean sediment records describe how the winter monsoon has evolved over the last 21 ka, with strong phases during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Early Holocene, and weakening though the Middle and Late Holocene. Abrupt cold events, such as Heinrich event 1 or the 8.2 ka event, were periods of even more intense winter monsoon circulation. Reasons for this evolution have been proposed, but not yet tested using physically-consistent models of the coupled climate system. The causes are likely multiple, since the winter monsoon was strong during both the Early Holocene and the LGM, though the possible drivers (i.e., orbital forcing, greenhouse gas concentration, and ice sheet extent) were quite different between those two time periods. We test these ideas with a series of equilibrium, sensitivity, and transient simulations using the Community Climate System, version 3, coupled climate model. At LGM, the presence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was primarily responsible for the stronger winter monsoon circulation. Reduced greenhouse gas concentrations at LGM made only a minor contribution. During the Early Holocene, on the other hand, lower winter insolation than today enhanced the land-ocean temperature contrast and strengthened the monsoon circulation. The remnant Laurentide ice sheet of the Early Holocene did not contribute to the stronger winter monsoon. Expansion of Northern Hemisphere sea ice during abrupt cold events increased the latitudinal temperature gradient and intensified winter winds throughout much of the mid-latitudes. Changes in the mechanisms driving winter monsoon behavior through time can also explain the observed covariance with the tropical summer monsoon.

Morrill, C.; Li, Y.

2013-12-01

306

Development of a Model System to Identify Differences in Spring and Winter Oat  

PubMed Central

Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa). To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding. PMID:22253782

Chawade, Aakash; Linden, Pernilla; Brautigam, Marcus; Jonsson, Rickard; Jonsson, Anders; Moritz, Thomas; Olsson, Olof

2012-01-01

307

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What is a Cold? Colds are minor ... are no antiviral medications available for treating the common cold. Antibiotics are not useful for treating a ...

308

Crystallization and saturation front propagation in silicic magma chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling and crystallization style of silicic magma bodies in the upper crust falls on a continuum between whole-chamber processes of convection, crystal settling, and cumulate formation and interface-driven processes of conduction and crystallization front migration. In the end-member case of vigorous convection and crystal settling, volatile saturation advances downward from the roof and upward from the floor throughout the chamber. In the end-member case of stagnant magma bodies, volatile saturation occurs along an inward propagating front from all sides of the chamber. Ambient thermal gradient primarily controls the propagation rate; warm (?40 癈/km) geothermal gradients lead to thick (1200+ m) crystal mush zones and slow crystallization front propagation. Cold (<40 癈/km) geothermal gradients lead to rapid crystallization front propagation and thin (<1000 m) mush zones. Magma chamber geometry also exerts a first-order control on propagation rates; bodies with high surface to magma volume ratio and large Earth-surface-parallel faces exhibit more rapid propagation and thinner mush zones. Crystallization front propagation occurs at speeds of greater than 10 cm/yr (rhyolitic magma; 1 km thick sill geometry in a 20 癈/km geotherm), far faster than diffusion of volatiles in magma and faster than bubbles can nucleate, grow, and ascend through the chamber. Numerical simulations indicate saturation front propagation is determined primarily by pressure and magma crystallization rate; above certain initial water contents (4.4 wt.% in a dacite) the mobile magma is volatile-rich enough above 10 km depth to always contains a saturation front. Saturation fronts propagate down from the magma chamber roof at lower water contents (3.3 wt.% in a dacite at 5 km depth), creating an upper saturated interface for most common (4-6 wt.%) magma water contents. This upper interface promotes the production of a fluid pocket underneath the apex of the magma chamber. If the fluid pocket grew faster than rates of escape into the wall rock, fluid accumulation and hydro-fracturing could possibly trigger an eruption.

Lake, Ethan T.

2013-12-01

309

Decadal anomalies of winter precipitation over southern China in association with El Ni駉 and La Ni馻  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using multiple datasets, this paper analyzes the characteristics of winter precipitation over southern China and its association with warm and cold phases of El Ni駉-Southern Oscillation during 1948-2011. The study proves that El Ni駉 is an important external forcing factor resulting in above-normal winter precipitation in southern China. The study also reveals that the impact of La Ni馻 on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Ni馻 before 1980, the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough over East Asia, and the western Pacific subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward. Therefore, anomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China, leading to a cold and dry winter. During La Ni馻 winter after 1980, however, the East Asian trough is weaker than normal, unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon. The India-Burma trough is intensified, and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Ni馻 is located to the west of the Philippines. Therefore, anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China, which increases moisture flux from the tropical oceans to southern China. Meanwhile, La Ni馻 after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter. Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region, anomalous ascending motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation, favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Therefore, a cold and wet winter, sometimes with snowy and icy weathers, would occur in southern China during La Ni馻 winter after 1980. Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly during the La Ni馻 mature phase, as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, would be the important reasons for the decadal variability of the La Ni馻 impact on the atmospheric circulation in East Asia and winter precipitation over southern China after 1980.

Yuan, Yuan; Li, Chongyin; Yang, Song

2014-02-01

310

Advanced RF Front End Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to achieve low-mass low-cost micro/nanospacecraft for Deep Space exploration requires extensive miniaturization of all subsystems. The front end of the Telecommunication subsystem is an area in which major mass (factor of 10) and volume (factor of 100) reduction can be achieved via the development of new silicon based micromachined technology and devices. Major components that make up the front end include single-pole and double-throw switches, diplexer, and solid state power amplifier. JPL's Center For Space Microsystems - System On A Chip (SOAC) Program has addressed the challenges of front end miniaturization (switches and diplexers). Our objectives were to develop the main components that comprise a communication front end and enable integration in a single module that we refer to as a 'cube'. In this paper we will provide the latest status of our Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) switches and surface micromachined filter development. Based on the significant progress achieved we can begin to provide guidelines of the proper system insertion for these emerging technologies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Herman, M. I.; Valas, S.; Katehi, L. P. B.

2001-01-01

311

[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  

PubMed

The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holl鋘der, R

1982-07-01

312

Front instability in stratified media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential flow in unsaturated soil may due to local heterogeneities like worm burrows but also to front instability leading to unstable finger flow (fingered pattern) in sandy textured soils. This last spontaneous preferential flow cannot be described by the standard Richards equation. Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes proposed recently a phase field model in order to take into account a macroscopic surface tension effect at the front [1]. Their model simulates successfully the interface instability of an advancing front. We aim at simulating and understanding front instability passing a textural soil discontinuity for which the finger flow is particularly visible. We consider sand layers with different characteristics such as granulometry. Moreover, the wettability is taken into account by adding a hydrophobic term in the free energy of the phase field model. The hydrophobicity part is not only relevant for repellent soil but also to model the ultra-thin films [2]. Therefore, in our framework, this may have an influence at the front because the water saturation is nearly zero. Such a wettability influence on infiltration in porous media has recently been measured in [3]. The governing equation is analogous to the lubrication equation for which we pointed out the specific numerical difficulties [4]. A numerical code to perform time integration and bifurcation analysis was developed in [4] allowing to determine the onset of instability and its resulting dynamics in the parameter space [5]. We compute the parameter range for which the front stops when reaching the layers interface. As in [4], there is two main mechanisms that allow water to cross over the discontinuity. A first mechanism, called 玠epinning, leads to an intermittent flow and the second one, to a front instability and then to a finger flow. There is a parameter domain where both instabilities are present leading to a complex spatio-temporal dynamics. Finally, it is noteworthy that the wettability property has a crucial impact on the fingering emergence. References [1] Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, Water Res. Res., 45, W10409 (2009). [2] De Gennes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 827-863 (1985). [3] Goebel, Woche and Bachmann, vol. 442-443(6), (2012). [4] Beltrame and Thiele, SIADS, 9, No. 2, pp. 484-518 (2010). [5] Beltrame and Knobloch et al. Phys. Rev. E, 83, 016305 (2011).

Beltrame, Philippe

2013-04-01

313

Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Ward, D. H.; Dau, C. P.; Lee, T.; Sedinger, J. S.; Anderson, B. A.; Hines, J. E.

2009-01-01

314

Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front.

Cribbin, Laura B.; Winstanley, Henry F.; Mitchell, Sarah L.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Sander, Graham C.

2014-12-01

315

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

Not Available

1995-01-27

316

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-04

317

Loss of body mass in winter in three intertidal bivalve species: an experimental and observational study of the interacting effects between water temperature, feeding time and feeding behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

At temperate latitudes, mass of the soft parts of bivalve molluscs generally declines during winter. Long-term field data collected in the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea indicate that losses are more substantial during mild than during cold winters. Moreover, food supply appears to be involved. We tried to find experimental evidence to prove that the correlative relationships observed

P. J. C Honkoop; J. J Beukema

1997-01-01

318

Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8癈) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25 C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25 C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

1980-09-01

319

Capacity for thermal acclimation and winter mortality of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in freshwater earthen ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some fish species exhibit a biochemical response to low winter temperatures. For example, after a period of cold acclimation, an increase in enzyme activity occurs. This can result in at least partial compensation in the rate of biochemical reactions of aerobic metabolism. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) is a commercially important fish for the Mediterranean mariculture industry, which can

C. Nathanailides; I. Paschos; M. Tsoumani; C. Perdikaris; A. Kapareliotis

2010-01-01

320

Preliminary economic analysis of aquifer winter-chill storage at the John F. Kennedy airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design was formulated in conjuction with a cost analysis to determine the feasibility of retrofitting the present John F. Kennedy (JFK) airport air-conditioning system with an aquifer cold water storage system. It appears technically feasible to chill and store aquifer water at the airport site during the winter months for later air-conditioning use. However, the economic analysis shows

E. C. Fox; J. F. Thomas

1979-01-01

321

Addendum to "Front Propagation in Heterogeneous Media"  

E-print Network

. Souganidis, Flame Fronts in a Turbulent Combustion Model with Fractal Velocity Fields, Comm Pure Appl Math] are the first rigorous ones on fronts in fractal fields. More concrete examples and counterexamples

Xin, Jack

322

Electron beams observed before and right at the dipolarization front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong field-aligned pitch angle distribution of electron beams are observed before the dipolarization front (DF) when the THEMIS satellites are traveling in the plasma sheet. The observed electrons with fluxes peak at around 300eV-800eV when the plasma showing an increase of bulk velocity about >100km/s. These beams bi-directional, with flux in one direction greater than that of the other, and the electrons are cold, with temperature changing slightly with time and position. Right at the front, cold electrons beams, providing field-alight current, are observed at 15 RE in the plasma sheet by four Cluster satellites are nearly identical to those commonly observed at aurora altitudes, suggesting the electron beams are aurora electrons accelerated upward by electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field. The beams and the current carried by them are strong enough to satisfy the Bohm criteria to initiate current driven instabilities. It is strongly suggested that electrons from the ionosphere may play an important rold during the dissipation of energy in the earth tail.

Fu, Suiyan; Bai, Xi; Parks, George; Zong, Qiugang; Pu, Zuyin

2013-04-01

323

Firing up the front line.  

PubMed

For many organizations, achieving competitive advantage means eliciting superior performance from employees on the front line--the burger flippers, hotel room cleaners, and baggage handlers whose work has an enormous effect on customers. That's no easy task. Front line workers are paid low wages, have scant hope of advancement, and--not surprisingly--often care little about the company's performance. But then how do some companies succeed in engaging the emotional energy of rank-and-file workers? A team of researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board recently explored that question and discovered that one highly effective route is demonstrated by the U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines' approach to motivation follows the "mission, values, and pride" path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. More specifically, the authors say the Marines follow five practices: they over-invest in cultivating core value; prepare every person to lead, including front line supervisors; learn when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups; attend to all employees, not just the top half; and encourage self-discipline as a way of building pride. The authors admit there are critical differences between the Marines and most businesses. But using vivid examples from companies such as KFC and Marriott International, the authors illustrate how the Marines' approach can be translated for corporate use. Sometimes, the authors maintain, minor changes in a company's standard operating procedure can have a powerful effect on front line pride and can result in substantial payoffs in company performance. PMID:10387573

Katzenbach, J R; Santamaria, J A

1999-01-01

324

Plasticity in body temperature and metabolic capacity sustains winter activity in a small endotherm (Rattus fuscipes).  

PubMed

Small mammals that remain active throughout the year at a constant body temperature have a much greater energy and food requirement in winter. Lower body temperatures in winter may offset the increased energetic cost of remaining active in the cold, if cellular metabolism is not constrained by a negative thermodynamic effect. We aimed to determine whether variable body temperatures can be advantageous for small endotherms by testing the hypothesis that body temperature fluctuates seasonally in a wild rat (Rattus fuscipes); conferring an energy saving and reducing food requirements during resource restricted winter. Additionally we tested whether changes in body temperature affected tissue specific metabolic capacity. Winter acclimatized rats had significantly lower body temperatures and thicker fur than summer acclimatized rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the activity of enzymes that control oxidative (citrate synthase, cytochrome c-oxidase) and anaerobic (lactate dehydrogenase) metabolism were elevated in winter and were not negatively affected by the lower body temperature. Energy transfer modeling showed that lower body temperatures in winter combined with increased fur thickness to confer a 25 kJ day(-1) energy saving, with up to 50% owing to reduced body temperature alone. We show that phenotypic plasticity at multiple levels of organization is an important component of the response of a small endotherm to winter. Mitochondrial function compensates for lower winter body temperatures, buffering metabolic heat production capacity. PMID:20026416

Glanville, Elsa J; Seebacher, Frank

2010-03-01

325

Atmospheric front over the East China Sea studied by multisensor satellite and in situ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A frontal feature visible on a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired by the Radarsat satellite over the East China Sea on 19 November 2000 is analyzed in conjunction with data acquired by Quikscat, TOPEX/Poseidon, Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites, and with data obtained from ship measurements. Although this frontal feature is located close to the Kuroshio front, it is demonstrated that it is not a sea surface manifestation of an oceanic front, but rather of an atmospheric front extending over 800 km from an area of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Taiwan to the southern coast of Korea. It is a cold front moving in the southeast direction with a speed of approximately 45-50 km/hour and associated with a 40-km-wide rainband trailing the front. The Radarsat image, which has a resolution of 50 m, reveals fine-scale structures of the atmospheric front, in particular small-scale convective rain cells embedded in the front. Conclusion is drawn that accurate interpretation of frontal features in SAR images requires use of additional meteorological and remote sensing data and information.

Ivanov, Andrei Y.; Alpers, Werner; Litovchenko, Konstantin T.; He, Ming-Xia; Feng, Qian; Fang, Mingqiang; Yan, Xiao-Hai

2004-12-01

326

PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014)  

E-print Network

- 1 - PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014) COURSE GOALS 1. Learn how Chiang 235 Physics chiang@physics.ucdavis.edu 402-7113 Tony Tyson 514 Physics tyson@physics.ucdavis.edu 752-3830 TEACHING ASSISTANTS: Joe Mitchell 512

Yoo, S. J. Ben

327

Winter, Your Car, and You  

MedlinePLUS

... channel, or forecasts in the daily papers. Your Car Prepare your car for winter. Start with a checkup that includes: ... Checking antifreeze level and the freeze line. Your car should have a tune-up (check the owner's ...

328

Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... these safety tips: Store a multipurpose, dry chemical fire extinguisher near the area to be heated. Do ...

329

Negative velocity fluctuations of pulled reaction fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The position of a reaction front, propagating into an unstable state, fluctuates because of the shot noise. What is the probability that the fluctuating front moves considerably slower than its deterministic counterpart? Can the noise arrest the front motion for some time, or even make it move in the wrong direction? We present a WKB theory that assumes many particles in the front region and answers these questions for the microscopic model A?2A and random walk.

Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

2011-09-01

330

Multi Front-End Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi Front-End Engineering (MFE) deals with the design of multiple consistent user interfaces (UI) for one application. One of the main challenges is the conflict between commonality (all front-ends access the same application core) and variability (multiple front-ends on different platforms). This can be overcome by extending techniques from model-driven user interface engineering.We present the MANTRA approach, where the common structure of all interfaces of an application is modelled in an abstract UI model (AUI) annotated with temporal constraints on interaction tasks. Based on these constraints we adapt the AUI, e.g., to tailor presentation units and dialogue structures for a particular platform. We use model transformations to derive concrete, platform-specific UI models (CUI) and implementation code. The presented approach generates working prototypes for three platforms (GUI, web, mobile) integrated with an application core via web service protocols. In addition to static evaluation, such prototypes facilitate early functional evaluations by practical use cases.

Botterweck, Goetz

331

Deadly Cold: Health Hazards Due to Cold Weather. An Information Paper by the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (February 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, on the health hazards of cold weather for elderly persons, presents information from various sources on the death rates in winter throughout the United States. After reviewing the scope of the problem, specific health hazards associated with cold weather are discussed, i.e., hypothermia, fires, carbon monoxide poisoning, and influenza

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

332

Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream  

SciTech Connect

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

Clayton, E.D.

1989-09-01

333

Deuterium content of snow as an index to winter climate in the Sierra Nevada area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter of 1968-69 produced two to three times the amount of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada area, California and Nevada, as the winter of 1969-70. The deuterium content in snow cores collected at the end of each winter at the same sites, which represents the total snowfall of each interval, shows a depletion in 1968-69 of approximately 20 per mil. The higher snowfall in 1968-69 and the depletion of deuterium can be explained by an uncommonly strong westward flow of cold air over and down the western slopes of the Sierras, which interacted with an eastward flow of moist Pacific air that overrode and mixed with the cold air; this resulted in precipitation that occurred in greater than normal amounts and at a lower than normal temperature. Pluvial periods of the Pleistocene may have had the same shift in air-mass trajectory as the wet 1968-69 year. Snow cores collected in the normal 1970-71 winter have deuterium concentrations that resemble those of the normal 1969-70 winter. Small and nonsystematic differences in samples from these two normal winters are due to variations in climatic character as well as to factors inherent in the sampling sites.

Friedman, I.; Smith, G. I.

1972-01-01

334

The contribution of Alaskan, Siberian, and Canadian coastal polynyas to the cold halocline layer of the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous Arctic Ocean circulation and geochemical studies suggest that ice growth in polynyas over the Alaskan, Siberian, and Canadian continental shelves is a source of cold, saline water which contributes to the maintenance of the Arctic Ocean halocline. The purpose of this study is to estimate for the 1978-1987 winters the contributions of Arctic coastal polynyas to the cold halocline

Donald J. Cavalieri; Seelye Martin

1994-01-01

335

Nesting habitat of the Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents the first information on the availability and use of nesting habitat by the rare Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi. The breeding range was sampled by marking geese with radio transmitters on wintering and moulting areas, and tracking them to nest sites in Alaska. Nesting habitat was described at the scales of ecoregion, wetland ecosystem (National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps), vegetation type within wetland (Alaska Vegetation Classification (AVC) maps based on satellite imagery), and nest site. Tule Greater White-fronted Goose nests were located in boreal forest wetlands in the upper Cook Inlet Basin ecoregion. Nesting Tule Greater White-fronted Geese selected NWT Palustrine Seasonally Flooded wetlands and used NWI Palustrine Saturated wetlands in proportion to availability. Within these wetlands, Tule Greater White-fronted Geese used Needleleaf Forest, Low Shrub and Herbaceous (mostly graminoid) AVC classes for nest sites in proportion to availability Most (93%) Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nested > 75 m from open water ponds or lakes, and many nested in wetlands with little or no open water. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nest only in a small breeding area near the most human-impacted area of the state, and continued development may limit the use of suitable nesting habitat.

Densmore, R.V.; Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Kratzer, S.; Udevitz, M.S.; Fehringer, D.J.; Rothe, T.C.

2006-01-01

336

Cold Weather Entomology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests instructional strategies and student activities related to the study of insects during the winter. Includes possible collecting sites and classroom activities once the insects have been collected. (JN)

McLure, John W.

1983-01-01

337

How cold pool triggers deep convection?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold pool in the boundary layer is often considered a major triggering mechanism of convection. Here, presented are basic theoretical considerations on this issue. Observations suggest that cold pool-generated convective cells is available for shallow maritime convection (Warner et al. 1979; Zuidema et al. 2012), maritime deep convection (Barnes and Garstang 1982; Addis et al. 1984; Young et al. 1995) and continental deep convection (e.g., Lima and Wilson 2008; Flamant 2009; Lothon et al. 2011; Dione et al. 2013). Moreover, numerical studies appear to suggest that cold pools promote the organization of clouds into larger structures and thereby aid the transition from shallow to deep convection (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006, Boing et al. 2012, Schlemmer and Hohenegger, 2014). Even a cold--pool parameterization coupled with convection is already proposed (Grandpeix and Lafore 2010: but see also Yano 2012). However, the suggested link between the cold pool and deep convection so far is phenomenological at the best. A specific process that the cold pool leads to a trigger of deep convection must still to be pinned down. Naively, one may imagine that a cold pool lifts up the air at the front as it propagates. Such an uplifting leads to a trigger of convection. However, one must realize that a shift of air along with its propagation does not necessarily lead to an uplifting, and even if it may happen, it would not far exceed a depth of the cold pool itself. Thus, the uplifting can never be anything vigorous. Its thermodynamic characteristics do help much either for inducing convection. The cold-pool air is rather under rapid recovering process before it can induce convection under a simple parcel-lifting argument. The most likely reason that the cold pool may induce convection is its gust winds that may encounter an air mass from an opposite direction. This induces a strong convergence, also leading to a strong uplifting. This is an argument essentially developed by Moncrieff and Liu (1999). As a whole, in attempting a statistical description of boundary-layer processes, the cold pool is essentially nothing other than an additional contribution to a TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) budget. Significance of trigger of convection by cold pool in context of convection parameterization must also be seen with much caution. Against a common misunderstanding, current convection parameterization is not designed to describe a trigger process of individual convection. In this respect, process studies on cold pool do not contribute to improvements of convection parameterization until a well-defined parameterization formulation for individual convection processes is developed. Even before then a question should also be posed whether such a development is necessary. Under a current mass-flux convection parameterization, a more important process to consider is re-evaporative cooling of detrained cloudy air, which may also be associated with downdraft, possibly further leading to a generation of a cold pool. Yano and Plant (2012) suggest, from a point of view of the convective-energy cycle, what follows would be far less important than the fact the re-evaporation induces a generation of convective kinetic energy (though it may initially be considered TKE). Both well-focused convective process studies as well as convection parameterization formulation would be much needed.

Yano, Jun-Ichi

2014-05-01

338

Cold Air Damming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Air Damming is part of the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. This module first presents a Navy forecast scenario prior to the development of a major cold air damming (CAD) event along the east slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. Then, from a conceptual standpoint, the classic CAD scenario is described in detail, both from an observational and modeling standpoint.

Comet

2001-06-18

339

Cold Sores (HSV-1)  

MedlinePLUS

... sunlight, cold weather, hormone changes in menstruation or pregnancy, tooth extractions, and certain foods and drugs. In a lot of people, the cause is unpredictable. Here's how a cold sore develops: The herpes simplex virus-1, which has been lying dormant in ...

340

Convective chemical fronts in a Poiseuille flow.  

PubMed

Autocatalytic reaction fronts propagating in a Poiseuille flow present a change of speed and curvature depending on the strength of the flow and on the direction of front propagation. These chemical fronts separate reacted and unreacted fluids of different densities, consequently convection will always be present due to the horizontal density gradient of the curved front. In this paper, we find the change of speed caused by gravity for fronts propagating in vertical tubes under a Poiseuille flow. For small density differences, we find axisymmetric fronts. Our theory predicts a transition to nonaxisymmetric fronts as the distance between the walls is increased. The transition depends on the average speed of the Poiseuille flow. PMID:18233757

Vasquez, Desiderio A

2007-11-01

341

Preventing cold-related morbidity and mortality in a changing climate  

PubMed Central

Winter weather patterns are anticipated to become more variable with increasing average global temperatures. Research shows that excess morbidity and mortality occurs during cold weather periods. We critically reviewed evidence relating temperature variability, health outcomes, and adaptation strategies to cold weather. Health outcomes included cardiovascular-, respiratory-, cerebrovascular-, and all-cause morbidity and mortality. Individual and contextual risk factors were assessed to highlight associations between individual- and neighborhood- level characteristics that contribute to a person抯 vulnerability to variability in cold weather events. Epidemiologic studies indicate that the populations most vulnerable to variations in cold winter weather are the elderly, rural and, generally, populations living in moderate winter climates. Fortunately, cold-related morbidity and mortality are preventable and strategies exist for protecting populations from these adverse health outcomes. We present a range of adaptation strategies that can be implemented at the individual, building, and neighborhood level to protect vulnerable populations from cold-related morbidity and mortality. The existing research justifies the need for increased outreach to individuals and communities for education on protective adaptations in cold weather. We propose that future climate change adaptation research couple building energy and thermal comfort models with epidemiological data to evaluate and quantify the impacts of adaptation strategies. PMID:21592693

Conlon, Kathryn C; Rajkovich, Nicholas B; White-Newsome, Jalonne L; Larsen, Larissa; Neill, Marie S O

2011-01-01

342

Water masses, ocean fronts, and the structure of Antarctic seabird communities: Putting the eastern Bellingshausen Sea in perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waters off the western Antarctic Peninsula (i.e., the eastern Bellingshausen Sea) are unusually complex owing to the convergence of several major fronts. Determining the relative influence of fronts on occurrence patterns of top-trophic species in that area, therefore, has been challenging. In one of the few ocean-wide seabird data syntheses, in this case for the Southern Ocean, we analyzed ample, previously collected cruise data, Antarctic-wide, to determine seabird species assemblages and quantitative relationships to fronts as a way to provide context to the long-term Palmer LTER and the winter Southern Ocean GLOBEC studies in the eastern Bellingshausen Sea. Fronts investigated during both winter (April-September) and summer (October-March) were the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which separates the High Antarctic from the Low Antarctic water mass, and within which are embedded the marginal ice zone and Antarctic Shelf Break Front; and the Antarctic Polar Front, which separates the Low Antarctic and the Subantarctic water masses. We used clustering to determine species' groupings with water masses, and generalized additive models to relate species' densities, biomass and diversity to distance to respective fronts. Antarctic-wide, in both periods, highest seabird densities and lowest species diversity were found in the High Antarctic water mass. In the eastern Bellingshausen, seabird density in the High Antarctic water mass was lower (as low as half that of winter) than found in other Antarctic regions. During winter, Antarctic-wide, two significant species groups were evident: one dominated by Ad??lie penguins (. Pygoscelis adeliae) (High Antarctic water mass) and the other by petrels and prions (no differentiation among water masses); in eastern Bellingshausen waters during winter, the one significant species group was composed of species from both Antarctic-wide groups. In summer, Antarctic-wide, a High Antarctic group dominated by Ad??lie penguins, a Low Antarctic group dominated by petrels, and a Subantarctic group dominated by albatross were evident. In eastern Bellingshausen waters during summer, groups were inconsistent. With regard to frontal features, Antarctic-wide in winter, distance to the ice edge was an important explanatory factor for nine of 14 species, distance to the Antarctic Polar Front for six species and distance to the Shelf Break Front for six species; however, these Antarctic-wide models could not successfully predict spatial relationships of winter seabird density (individual species or total) and biomass in the eastern Bellingshausen. Antarctic-wide in summer, distance to land/Antarctic continent was important for 10 of 18 species, not a surprising result for these summer-time Antarctic breeders, as colonies are associated with ice-free areas of coastal land. Distance to the Shelf Break Front was important for 8 and distance to the southern boundary of the ACC was important for 7 species. These summer models were more successful in predicting eastern Bellingshausen species density and species diversity but failed to predict total seabird density or biomass. Antarctic seabirds appear to respond to fronts in a way similar to that observed along the well-studied upwelling front of the California Current. To understand fully the seabird patterns found in this synthesis, multi-disciplinary at-sea investigations, including a quantified prey field, are needed. ?? 2011.

Ribic, C.A.; Ainley, D.G.; Glenn, Ford R.; Fraser, W.R.; Tynan, C.T.; Woehler, E.J.

2011-01-01

343

Water masses, ocean fronts, and the structure of Antarctic seabird communities: Putting the eastern Bellingshausen Sea in perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waters off the western Antarctic Peninsula (i.e., the eastern Bellingshausen Sea) are unusually complex owing to the convergence of several major fronts. Determining the relative influence of fronts on occurrence patterns of top-trophic species in that area, therefore, has been challenging. In one of the few ocean-wide seabird data syntheses, in this case for the Southern Ocean, we analyzed ample, previously collected cruise data, Antarctic-wide, to determine seabird species assemblages and quantitative relationships to fronts as a way to provide context to the long-term Palmer LTER and the winter Southern Ocean GLOBEC studies in the eastern Bellingshausen Sea. Fronts investigated during both winter (April-September) and summer (October-March) were the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which separates the High Antarctic from the Low Antarctic water mass, and within which are embedded the marginal ice zone and Antarctic Shelf Break Front; and the Antarctic Polar Front, which separates the Low Antarctic and the Subantarctic water masses. We used clustering to determine species' groupings with water masses, and generalized additive models to relate species' densities, biomass and diversity to distance to respective fronts. Antarctic-wide, in both periods, highest seabird densities and lowest species diversity were found in the High Antarctic water mass. In the eastern Bellingshausen, seabird density in the High Antarctic water mass was lower (as low as half that of winter) than found in other Antarctic regions. During winter, Antarctic-wide, two significant species groups were evident: one dominated by Ad閘ie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae) (High Antarctic water mass) and the other by petrels and prions (no differentiation among water masses); in eastern Bellingshausen waters during winter, the one significant species group was composed of species from both Antarctic-wide groups. In summer, Antarctic-wide, a High Antarctic group dominated by Ad閘ie penguins, a Low Antarctic group dominated by petrels, and a Subantarctic group dominated by albatross were evident. In eastern Bellingshausen waters during summer, groups were inconsistent. With regard to frontal features, Antarctic-wide in winter, distance to the ice edge was an important explanatory factor for nine of 14 species, distance to the Antarctic Polar Front for six species and distance to the Shelf Break Front for six species; however, these Antarctic-wide models could not successfully predict spatial relationships of winter seabird density (individual species or total) and biomass in the eastern Bellingshausen. Antarctic-wide in summer, distance to land/Antarctic continent was important for 10 of 18 species, not a surprising result for these summer-time Antarctic breeders, as colonies are associated with ice-free areas of coastal land. Distance to the Shelf Break Front was important for 8 and distance to the southern boundary of the ACC was important for 7 species. These summer models were more successful in predicting eastern Bellingshausen species density and species diversity but failed to predict total seabird density or biomass. Antarctic seabirds appear to respond to fronts in a way similar to that observed along the well-studied upwelling front of the California Current. To understand fully the seabird patterns found in this synthesis, multi-disciplinary at-sea investigations, including a quantified prey field, are needed.

Ribic, Christine A.; Ainley, David G.; Glenn Ford, R.; Fraser, William R.; Tynan, Cynthia T.; Woehler, Eric J.

2011-07-01

344

Record low total ozone during northern winters of 1992 and 1993  

SciTech Connect

The authors look at recorded ozone data over the northern hemisphere during the winters of 1992 and 1993. They use data from the World Meteorological Organization data base. During both of these winter, there have been marked decreases in the column ozone levels over North America, Europe, and Siberia, in the latitude belt from 45[degrees]N to 65[degrees]N. During these winters there have been ten times as many days with ozone levels deviated more than 2[sigma] below the 35 year average. They seek explanations for these observations by looking at meterological information. Evidences indicate that there was transport of ozone deficient air masses during these winters. In addition cold air masses with excess ClO show evidence of having transported into the more southern latitudes. The authors conclude there is evidence for both displacement of large air masses, and increased chemical destruction potential, to have contributed to these observed decreases.

Bojkov, R.D. (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland))

1993-07-09

345

Social status does not affect resting metabolic rate in wintering dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Studies of wintering birds have demonstrated a correlation between social rank and energy expenditures. It is assumed that dominance is energetically costly because of increased activity, possibly caused by elevated androgen levels. As winter acclimatization leads to an increase in metabolic rate, maintaining dominance status in a cold climate can be a substantial challenge. We measured resting metabolic rates in dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) living in small groups in a controlled winter environment. We found no significant effect of social rank when controlling for body size. It has been shown previously that high testosterone levels during the nonbreeding season can lead to higher body conductance, fat loss, and higher nocturnal body temperature. A hypothesis explaining our result is that for juncos it is preferable to maintain low androgen levels during winter and to maintain social rank using a mechanism other than higher agonistic activity. PMID:10801401

V閦ina, F; Thomas, D W

2000-01-01

346

Overwintering adaptations of the stag beetle, Ceruchus piceus : removal of ice nucleators in the winter to promote supercooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overwintering larvae and adults of the stag beetle,Ceruchus piceus, are freeze sensitive (i.e. cannot survive internal freezing). The most commonly described cold adaptation of freeze susceptible insects involves the production of antifreezes to promote supercooling, butCeruchus piceus larvae produced only low levels of antifreezes in the winter. However, by removing ice nucleators from the gut and hemolymph in the winter

Lisa G. Neven; John G. Duman; John M. Beals; Francis J. Castellino

1986-01-01

347

Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest reduced winter injury to red spruce in a high-injury year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments have verified that acid-deposition-induced calcium (Ca) leaching reduces the foliar cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) current-year foliage, increasing the risk of winter injury and crown deterioration. However, to date no studies have shown that ambient losses in soil Ca have resulted in increased winter injury in the field. In 2003, a year of severe region-wide

Gary J. Hawley; Paul G. Schaberg; Christopher Eagar; Catherine H. Borer

2006-01-01

348

Seasonal habitat selection by lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) in a small Canadian shield lake: constraints imposed by winter conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for cold, well-oxygenated waters significantly reduces the habitat available for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) during stratification of small temperate lakes. We examined the spatial and pelagic distribution of lake trout over two\\u000a consecutive summers and winters and tested whether winter increased habitat availability and access to littoral regions in\\u000a a boreal shield lake in which pelagic prey fish

Paul J. Blanchfield; Lori S. Tate; John M. Plumb; Marie-Laure Acolas; Ken G. Beaty

2009-01-01

349

Upregulation of a desaturase is associated with the enhancement of cold hardiness in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold-acclimated non-diapause pupae, and summer- and winter-diapause pupae of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), show marked cold hardiness as compared with intact non-diapause pupae. Homeoviscous adaptation of cellular membranes is crucial to enhance the cold hardiness of organisms, and ?9-acyl-CoA desaturases have been assumed, albeit without experimental evidence in insects, to play a key role in the adaptation.

Takumi Kayukawa; Bin Chen; Sugihiko Hoshizaki; Yukio Ishikawa

2007-01-01

350

Chaperonin Contributes to Cold Hardiness of the Onion Maggot Delia antiqua through Repression of Depolymerization of Actin at Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter-diapause and cold-acclimated non-diapause pupae of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), show strong cold hardiness. To obtain insights into the mechanisms involved in the enhancement of cold hardiness, we investigated the expression patterns of genes encoding subunits of chaperonin (CCT) and the morphology of actin, a substrate of CCT, at low temperatures. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed the

Takumi Kayukawa; Yukio Ishikawa; Carles Lalueza-Fox

2009-01-01

351

Theoretical Models of Photodissociation Fronts  

E-print Network

Observations of H2 line emission have revealed higher-than-expected gas temperatures in a number of photodissociation fronts. We discuss the heating and cooling processes in photodissociation regions. Observations of NGC 2023 are compared to a theoretical model in which there is substantial gas at temperatures T = 500-1000K heated by photoelectric emission and collisional deexcitation of H2. In general the model successfully reproduces the observed H2 line emission from a wide range of energy levels. The observed [SiII]34.8um emission appears to indicate substantial depletion of Si in NGC 2023.

B. T. Draine; Frank Bertoldi

2000-08-09

352

Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  

PubMed Central

Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3癈 during summer to ?26.3癈 during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15癈, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

Rozsypal, Jan; Kostal, Vladimir; Zahradnickova, Helena; Simek, Petr

2013-01-01

353

The History of Winter: teachers as scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned veterans in the field, is a unique experience for many of the teachers. Here we present lessons learned throughout the lifetime of the program, including successes and improvements made, and present our vision for the future of HOW.

Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

2013-12-01

354

External Resource: Fronts: The Boundaries Between Air Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Illinois educational guide educates students about fronts, the boundaries between air masses. Fronts extend not only in the horizontal direction, but in the vertical as well. Topics: horizontal front, vertical front, stationary, warm,

1900-01-01

355

Anterior knee pain and cold knees: a possible association in women.  

PubMed

Abnormal reactions to environmental cold have been observed in some patients with Anterior Knee Pain (AKP). The aims of this study were to investigate whether palpation of the knee could classify patients into those with and those without cold knees; whether this classification could be objectively validated using thermal imaging; whether the cold and not cold knee groups varied in response to a cold stress test and in patient-reported measures. Fifty eight patients were recruited; palpation classified them into cold and not cold groups. Twenty-one (36%) patients were classified as having a cold knee by palpation: fourteen (36%) females and seven males (37%). Preliminary analysis suggested gender might be an effect modifier and the number of men was small, therefore the analysis focussed on females. Women with cold knees had a significantly smaller patellar skin fold, lower levels of activity and worse scores on the MFIQ, there also appeared to be an association with a traumatic onset. Women with cold knees were more likely to report cold weather affected their knees and they preferred a hot water bottle compared to an ice-pack on their knee; there was also a trend towards having to wear extra tights/long johns in the winter. This study has helped to define a clinical profile for a group of females with AKP and cold knees. This group appears to demonstrate a mild form of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. PMID:19884010

Selfe, James; Sutton, Chris; Hardaker, Natalie J; Greenhalgh, Sue; Karki, Anne; Dey, Paola

2010-10-01

356

Ice conditions on the Chesapeake Bay as observed from LANDSAT during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT observations during the winters of 1977, 1978 and 1979, which were unusually cold in the northeastern U.S. and in the Chesapeake Bay area, were evaluated. Abnormal atmospheric circulation patterns displaced cold polar air to the south, and as a result, the Chesapeake Bay experienced much greater than normal icing conditions during these 3 years. The LANDSAT observations of the Chesapeake Bay area during these winters demonstrate the satellite's capabilities to monitor ice growth and melt, to detect ice motions, and to measure ice extent.

Foster, J. L.

1980-01-01

357

Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

2012-12-01

358

Chemical depletion of Arctic ozone in winter 1999/2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Arctic winters with a cold, stable stratospheric circulation, reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) lead to elevated abundances of chlorine monoxide (ClO) that, in the presence of sunlight, destroy ozone. Here we show that PSCs were more widespread during the 1999/2000 Arctic winter than for any other Arctic winter in the past two decades. We have used three fundamentally different approaches to derive the degree of chemical ozone loss from ozonesonde, balloon, aircraft, and satellite instruments. We show that the ozone losses derived from these different instruments and approaches agree very well, resulting in a high level of confidence in the results. Chemical processes led to a 70% reduction of ozone for a region 1 km thick of the lower stratosphere, the largest degree of local loss ever reported for the Arctic. The Match analysis of ozonesonde data shows that the accumulated chemical loss of ozone inside the Arctic vortex totaled 117 14 Dobson units (DU) by the end of winter. This loss, combined with dynamical redistribution of air parcels, resulted in a 88 13 DU reduction in total column ozone compared to the amount that would have been present in the absence of any chemical loss. The chemical loss of ozone throughout the winter was nearly balanced by dynamical resupply of ozone to the vortex, resulting in a relatively constant value of total ozone of 340 50 DU between early January and late March. This observation of nearly constant total ozone in the Arctic vortex is in contrast to the increase of total column ozone between January and March that is observed during most years.

Rex, M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; von der Gathen, P.; Braathen, G. O.; Schulz, A.; Deckelmann, H.; Chipperfield, M.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Reimer, E.; Alfier, R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Hoppel, K.; Fromm, M.; Lumpe, J.; K黮lmann, H.; Kleinb鯤l, A.; Bremer, H.; von K鯪ig, M.; K黱zi, K.; Toohey, D.; V鯩el, H.; Richard, E.; Aikin, K.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Scott, D. C.; Herman, R. L.; Elkins, J. W.; Ray, E. A.; Moore, F. L.; Hurst, D. F.; Romashkin, P.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Margitan, J. J.; Wennberg, P.; Neuber, R.; Allart, M.; Bojkov, B. R.; Claude, H.; Davies, J.; Davies, W.; de Backer, H.; Dier, H.; Dorokhov, V.; Fast, H.; Kondo, Y.; Kyr, E.; Litynska, Z.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Molyneux, M. J.; Moran, E.; Nagai, T.; Nakane, H.; Parrondo, C.; Ravegnani, F.; Skrivankova, P.; Viatte, P.; Yushkov, V.

2002-10-01

359

Interdecadal change in North Korean winter mean rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, it was found that there was a significant climate regime shift in 1993 from average rainfall amounts in winter (December of a year and January and February of the next year) in North Korea over the last 30 years (1982-2011). This significant climate regime shift in 1993 also appeared in empirical orthogonal function analysis conducted using the winter mean rainfall amounts observed at 26 weather observation stations in North Korea. The reason why winter mean rainfall amounts in North Korea were smaller during the period of 1994-2011 than during the period of 1982-1994 was that anomalous anticyclone was reinforced in regions near Lake Baikal while anomalous cyclone was reinforced on the sea on the east of Japan so that the winter pressure system pattern (west high-east low pattern) appeared and thus anomalous cold and dry northerlies were reinforced in most East Asian regions including North Korea. To figure out the reason why anomalous anticyclone was reinforced further in the East Asian continent in winters during the period of 1994-2011, differences in water equivalent of accumulated snow depths between the two periods were analyzed. As a result, more snow was observed in most East Asian regions during the period of 1994-2011. Therefore, anomalous anticyclone could be further reinforced in the East Asian continent because surface air temperature dropped further due to snow-albedo effect. The surface air temperature cooling deepened further in the East Asian continent during the period of 1994-2011 due to snow-albedo effect was identified through differences in sensible heat net flux between the two periods.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-10-01

360

Winter ecology of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) in the Central Great Plains.  

PubMed

A largely unanswered question in the study of arboviruses is the extent to which virus can overwinter in adult vectors during the cold winter months and resume the transmission cycle in summer. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an unusual arbovirus that is vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) and amplified by the ectoparasitic bug's main avian hosts, the migratory cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and resident house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Bugs are sedentary and overwinter in the swallows' mud nests. We evaluated the prevalence of BCRV and extent of infection in swallow bugs collected at different times in winter (October-early April) in Nebraska and explored other ecological aspects of this virus's overwintering. BCRV was detected in 17% of bug pools sampled in winter. Virus prevalence in bugs in winter at a site was significantly correlated with virus prevalence at that site the previous summer, but winter prevalence did not predict BCRV prevalence there the following summer. Prevalence was higher in bugs taken from house sparrow nests in winter and (in April) at colony sites where sparrows had been present all winter. Virus detected by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction in winter was less cytopathic than in summer, but viral RNA concentrations of samples in winter were not significantly different from those in summer. Both of the BCRV lineages (A, B) overwintered successfully, with lineage A more common at sites with house sparrows and (in contrast to summer) generally more prevalent in winter than lineage B. BCRV's ability to overwinter in its adult vector probably reflects its adaptation to the sedentary, long-lived bug and the ecology of the cliff swallow and swallow bug host-parasite system. Its overwintering mechanisms may provide insight into those of other alphaviruses of public health significance for which such mechanisms are poorly known. PMID:19725760

Brown, Charles R; Strickler, Stephanie A; Moore, Amy T; Knutie, Sarah A; Padhi, Abinash; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Young, Ginger R; O'Brien, Valerie A; Foster, Jerome E; Komar, Nicholas

2010-05-01

361

Winter Ecology of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) in the Central Great Plains  

PubMed Central

Abstract A largely unanswered question in the study of arboviruses is the extent to which virus can overwinter in adult vectors during the cold winter months and resume the transmission cycle in summer. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an unusual arbovirus that is vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) and amplified by the ectoparasitic bug's main avian hosts, the migratory cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and resident house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Bugs are sedentary and overwinter in the swallows' mud nests. We evaluated the prevalence of BCRV and extent of infection in swallow bugs collected at different times in winter (October杄arly April) in Nebraska and explored other ecological aspects of this virus's overwintering. BCRV was detected in 17% of bug pools sampled in winter. Virus prevalence in bugs in winter at a site was significantly correlated with virus prevalence at that site the previous summer, but winter prevalence did not predict BCRV prevalence there the following summer. Prevalence was higher in bugs taken from house sparrow nests in winter and (in April) at colony sites where sparrows had been present all winter. Virus detected by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction in winter was less cytopathic than in summer, but viral RNA concentrations of samples in winter were not significantly different from those in summer. Both of the BCRV lineages (A, B) overwintered successfully, with lineage A more common at sites with house sparrows and (in contrast to summer) generally more prevalent in winter than lineage B. BCRV's ability to overwinter in its adult vector probably reflects its adaptation to the sedentary, long-lived bug and the ecology of the cliff swallow and swallow bug host杙arasite system. Its overwintering mechanisms may provide insight into those of other alphaviruses of public health significance for which such mechanisms are poorly known. PMID:19725760

Strickler, Stephanie A.; Moore, Amy T.; Knutie, Sarah A.; Padhi, Abinash; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Young, Ginger R.; O'Brien, Valerie A.; Foster, Jerome E.; Komar, Nicholas

2010-01-01

362

PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five feet deep. Foundation and basin walls are reinforced concrete. Camera facing west. Pipe openings through wall in front are outlets for return flow of cool water to reactor building. Photographer: John Capek. Date: September 4, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-3473 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

363

Writing TAFS for Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airport鈙 operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

Comet

2009-09-22

364

Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at

Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

365

Microphysical simulations of polar stratospheric clouds during the 2010-2011 Arctic Winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form in the lower stratosphere during the polar night due to the cold temperature inside the polar vortex. PSCs are important to understand because they are one of the important factors for the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole and the "mini" ozone hole over the Arctic during the winter of 2010-2011. In this work, We explore the formation and evolution of STS particles (Super-cooled Ternary Solution) and NAT (Nitric-acid Trihydrate ) particles using the SD-WACCM/CARMA model for 2010-2011 Arctic winter. SD-WACCM/CARMA is the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model coupled with the microphysics model (CARMA) using Specific Dynamics. The 2010-2011 Arctic winter is special because a cold Arctic vortex lasted from December until the end of March [Manney et al., 2011]. The long length of this cold period resulted in a prolonged presence of PSCs and consequently strong ozone depletion. This work includes comparison of the simulated microphysical features of PSCs with historical observations. Also, simulations and observations from MLS and Calipso showing the evolution of temperature, PSCs and related chemical species (HNO3, H2O) in 2010-2011 Arctic winter are presented.

Zhu, Y.; Toon, O. B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lambert, A.; Brakebusch, M.

2013-12-01

366

Study of formation process of cold intermediate layer based on reanalysis of Black Sea hydrophysical fields for 1971-1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis of hydrophysical fields for 1971-1993 is used to study the formation mechanisms of the cold intermediate layer (CIL): the advective mechanism (associated with the advection of cold waters formed in the northwestern shelf (NWS)) and the convective mechanism (caused by wintertime convection inside cyclonic gyres in the central part of the sea). We consider the periods of alternating atmospheric conditions: the mild winter of 1980-1981, normal winter of 1987-1988, and cold winter of 1992-1993. Interannual features of replenishment and renewal of "old" CIL waters caused by these mechanisms are identified. In particular, cooled shelf waters sink along the continental slope and merge with "old" CIL waters during the mild winter of 1980-1981 more than 1 month later than during the cold winter 1992-1993 and more than 3 weeks later than during the normal winter of 1987-1988. The Sevastopol anticyclonic gyre and the northwest branch of the Black Sea Rim Current markedly influence the transformation of entrained cold NWS waters transported to the southwest and the central part of the water area. The local formation process of cold intermediate waters is found to be caused by the wintertime penetrating convection over domelike isosurfaces of temperature and salinity arising due to rising constant halocline (pycnocline) at the centers of cyclonic gyres because of the intensification of the wintertime circulation. Anomalously cold surface water, characterized by increased density, gradually sinks. An analysis of TS indices indicates that the transformed cold water spreads out over isopycnic surfaces with time, being entrained in cyclonic circulation and spreading throughout the sea, thus renewing "old" CIL waters.

Korotaev, G. K.; Knysh, V. V.; Kubryakov, A. I.

2014-01-01

367

Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and seasonal changes of physiological responses to cold  

PubMed Central

Background Physiological responses to cold exhibit individual variation that can be affected by various factors, such as morphological characteristics, seasonal changes, and lifestyle; however, the genetic factors associated with this variation remain unclear. Recent studies have identified mtDNA as a potential genetic factor affecting cold adaptation. In addition, non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), a process closely related to mitochondrial dynamics, has also been suggested as an important factor affecting human response to cold. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and NST during periods of mild cold exposure. Methods Seventeen healthy university students (D: n?=?8, non-D: n?=?9) participated in the present study during summer and winter. A climate chamber was programmed so that ambient temperature inside dropped from 28癈 to 16癈 over the course of an 80-minute period. Physiological parameters were recorded throughout the course of the experiments. Results Increases in VO2 were significantly greater during periods of cold exposure in winter than they were during periods of cold exposure in summer, and individuals from the D group exhibited greater winter values of ?VO2 than individuals from the non-D group. Tre was significantly lower during periods of rest and cold exposure in winter; however, no significant difference was observed between Tre values of individuals in the D and non-D groups. In addition, although T痙ist was significantly lower during periods of rest in winter than it was during those same periods in summer, no significant seasonal differences in values of T痙ist were observed during periods of cold exposure. Conclusions Results of the present study indicated that NST was greater in winter, and that the D group exhibited greater NST than the non-D group during winter. Despite the differences between groups in NST, no significant differences in rectal and skin temperatures were found between groups in either season. Therefore, it was supposed that mitochondrial DNA haplogroups had a greater effect on variation in energy expenditure involving NST than they had on insulative responses. Future studies are necessary in order to investigate more multiple candidate genes related to human cold adaptation and to elucidate the relationship between gene polymorphism and physiological polytypism. PMID:25183371

2014-01-01

368

Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface temperature (SST) on the air-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface temperature front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-warm and warm-to-cold surface temperatures occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.

Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.

1991-01-01

369

Winter Frosted Dunes in Kaiser Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Mars Global Surveyor Primary Mission draws to an end, the southern hemisphere of Mars is in the depths of winter. At high latitudes, it is dark most, if not all, of the day. Even at middle latitudes, the sun shines only thinly through a veil of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds, and the ground is so cold that carbon dioxide frosts have formed. Kaiser Crater (47oS, 340oW) is one such place. At a latitude comparable to Seattle, Washington, Duluth, Minnesota, or Helena, Montana, Kaiser Crater is studied primarily because of the sand dune field found within the confines of its walls (lower center of the Mars Orbiter Camera image, above). The normally dark-gray or blue-black sand can be seen in this image to be shaded with light-toned frost. Other parts of the crater are also frosted. Kaiser Crater and its dunes were the subject of an earlier presentation of results. Close-up pictures of these and other dunes in the region show details of their snow-cover, including small avalanches. The two Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images that comprise this color view (M23-01751 and M23-01752) were acquired on January 26, 2001.

2001-01-01

370

Mid-American Review of Sociology, Volume 17, Number 1 (WINTER, 1993): Front Matter  

E-print Network

.~lp....us.critically understand the meaning-of our thoughtsvand actions;our .r: :.~.".s- ... . problems and our accomplishments, both as individualsand as a civilization. Randi L. Miller (Promoting Academic Achievement and Racial Understanding: Strategies for Creative... University Mid-American Review of Sociology, 1993, Vol XVII, No.1: 1-15 This study seeks to examines the effects of race, gender, and interactive ethgender identies on attitudes concerning legal abortion and social tolerance of various. The data come from...

1993-01-01

371

Antidipolarization fronts observed by ARTEMIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

reconnection on closed plasma sheet field lines is thought to generate plasmoids. A plasmoid is usually described as a plasma sheet expansion into the lobe, encompassed by closed magnetic loops or the helical fields of a flux rope (in this paper we do not distinguish plasmoids from flux ropes; rather we use the term plasmoid generically). Recently, sharp, highly asymmetric north-then-south bipolar variations (with a larger southward portion) in the magnetic field BZ component have been noted in midtail (XGSM ~ -60 RE) plasmoids. These variations do not fit the classical plasmoid model but are mirror images of earthward moving dipolarization fronts (DFs), which show asymmetric south-then-north BZ bipolar variations with a larger northward portion. Using case and statistical studies from 3 years of Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) data (at XGSM ~ -60 RE), we show that magnetic and particle properties of these typically tailward moving fronts, which we refer to as "antidipolarization fronts" (ADFs), are very similar to those of classical, typically earthward moving DFs, except for their BZ polarity and flow direction. First, like DFs and plasmoids, ADFs are associated with auroral electrojet enhancements. Second, like DFs, ADFs exhibit a sharp density decrease, plasma pressure increase, magnetic pressure increase, and particle heating immediately following the sharp BZ change. Third, particle spectra indicate that, as with DFs, there are two distinctly different magnetically separated populations ahead of and behind ADFs. The energy spectrograms of plasmoids, however, indicate a single hot population at the plasmoid center. We conclude that midtail ADFs are likely products of fast reconnection, observed on the tailward side of the reconnection site, just as DFs are products of fast reconnection seen on the earthward side. ADFs are observed at ARTEMIS much less frequently (~10%) than typical plasmoids but twice as frequently as DFs at the same distance. We suggest that ADFs are protoplasmoids that emerge from near-Earth reconnection and evolve quickly into plasmoids as they propagate down the tail.

Li, S.-S.; Liu, Jiang; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Kiehas, S. A.

2014-09-01

372

Condensation Front Migration in a Protoplanetary Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Condensation front dynamics are investigated in the mid-solar nebula region. A quasi-steady model of the evolving nebula is combined with equilibrium vapor pressure curves to determine evolutionary condensation fronts for selected species. These fronts are found to migrate inwards from the far-nebula to final positions during a period of 10(exp 7) years. The physical process governing this movement is a combination of local viscous heating and luminescent heating from the central star. Two luminescent heating models are used and their effects on the ultimate radial position of the condensation front are discussed. At first the fronts move much faster than the nebular accretion velocity, but after a time the accreting gas and dust overtakes the slowing condensation front.

Davis, Sanford S.

2004-01-01

373

Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)  

MedlinePLUS

... on the lips and chin are typical of herpes simplex infection. Overview Herpes simplex infection of the mouth and face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is ...

374

Spatial and temporal variability of winter streamflow over Romania and its relationship to large-scale atmospheric circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have examined the spatial and temporal variability of winter (DJF) streamflow over Romania as recorded at 46 hydrological stations over the period 1935-2010. An empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOFs) was employed to characterize the spatial variability of winter streamflow. The dominant mode captures in-phase variability of river flow anomalies over the entire country. The second mode is characterized by a north-south dipole, emphasizing the influence of topography over the streamflow variability. Both modes are related with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature patterns. We show that the Arctic/North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia and Scandinavian patterns control a significant part of the interannual winter streamflow variability as captured by these two modes. Moreover, we show that the winter streamflow is very sensitive to the influence of winter temperatures. Positive streamflow anomalies are recorded during warm winters, which are favorable to precipitation fallen as rain, while cold winters can favor snowy winters and frozen ground and hence reduced winter discharges.

Ionita, M.; Chelcea, S.; Rimbu, N.; Adler, Mary-Jeanne

2014-11-01

375

Mitochondria of cold hardy insects: responses to cold and hypoxia assessed at enzymatic, mRNA and DNA levels.  

PubMed

Winter survival for larvae of goldenrod gall insects, the freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana, and the freeze tolerant, Eurosta solidaginis, includes entry into diapause (a torpid state of arrested development) and expression of a variety of cryoprotective adaptations. Diapause and cold winter temperatures, as well as freezing in E. solidaginis, all strongly reduce the need for mitochondrial activity. To evaluate the responses of mitochondria to these conditions, we assessed the maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), transcript levels of COX subunit 1 (encoded on the mitochondrial genome), mitochondrial 12S rRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA content. COX activity decreased over the winter months in both species to levels that were about one-third of September values. COX activity also dropped significantly in E. scudderiana in response to cold acclimation (4,-4,-20 degrees C) or hypoxia exposure. COX activity was less sensitive to these stresses in E. solidaginis but rose by approximately 50% when larvae were thawed after freezing. COX 1 mRNA transcripts and 12S rRNA levels were unchanged over the winter months in E. scudderiana, as was COX 1 DNA content; this indicates that changes in COX enzymatic activity are likely mediated mainly by post-translational modification. However, both COX transcript and 12S rRNA levels decreased in response to hypoxia exposure in both species, whereas COX DNA did not, which indicates that transcription of the mitochondrial genome is sensitive to oxygen levels. PMID:18252250

McMullen, David C; Storey, Kenneth B

2008-03-01

376

Effects of weather on habitat selection and behavior of mallards wintering in Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sex and age ratios, habitat selection, spatial characteristics, and time budgets of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska were studied from mid-December to early April 1978-1980. The proportion of females and subadults in the population increased substantially from a cold to a mild winter. Radio-tagged Mallards shifted from riverine to canal roost sites during the coldest periods of the winter, seemingly because of more favorable microclimatic conditions there. Subadults ranged over larger areas during winter than did adults. Activity patterns varied with weather conditions, time of day, and habitat type. During cold periods, energetically costly activities such as aggression and courtship decreased at roost sites and the intensity of foraging activities in fields increased. Mallards were more active at riverine than canal sites during both years. High energy requirements and intense competition for scarce food appear to be primary factors limiting the northernmost distribution of Mallards in winter and causing their skewed sex and age ratios.

Jorde, D. G.; Krapu, G. L.; Crawford, R. D.; Hay, M. A.

1984-01-01

377

Cyanobacteria in Cold Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennially cold environments in which temperatures remain below 5癈 are common throughout the biosphere (Margesin and H鋑gblom\\u000a 2007). In these habitats, the persistent cold temperatures are often accompanied by freeze梩haw cycles, extreme fluctuations\\u000a in irradiance (including ultraviolet radiation), and large variations in nutrient supply and salinity. As a result of these\\u000a constraints, polar and alpine environments contain a reduced biodiversity,

Fr閐閞ic Zakhia; Anne-Dorothee Jungblut; Arnaud Taton; Warwick F. Vincent; Annick Wilmotte

378

Progress in front propagation research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

2008-08-01

379

The upgraded Tevatron front end  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are replacing the computers which support the CAMAC crates in the Fermilab accelerator control system. We want a significant performance increase, but we still want to be able to service scores of different varieties of CAMAC cards in a manner essentially transparent to console applications software. Our new architecture is based on symmetric multiprocessing. Several processors on the same bus, each running identical software, work simultaneously at satisfying different pieces of a console's request for data. We dynamically adjust the load between the processors. We can obtain more processing power by simply plugging in more processors cards and rebooting. We describe in this paper what we believe to be the interesting architectural features of the new front-end computers. We also note how we use some of the advanced features of the Multibus II bus and the Intel 80386 processor design to achieve reliability and expandability of both hardware and software.

Glass, M.; Zagel, J.; Smith, P.; Marsh, W.; Smolucha, J.

1990-08-01

380

Winter 1998 UC SANTA CRUZ  

E-print Network

Winter 1998 UC SANTA CRUZ T O D AY ' S S T U D E N T S Plus: elementary school kids discover of UC Santa Cruz, I am asked frequently about the many attributes that define the quality and character left me excited about UC Santa Cruz's future in the new millennium. For if it's true--and I believe

California at Santa Cruz, University of

381

Ecological Genetics Winter Term 2010  

E-print Network

, IN CLASS) Final 40% (During the final exam period, April 13-27) Text: Jeffrey K. Conner and Daniel L. Hartl. A Primer of Ecological Genetics. Sinnauer, 2004 Available at the Dalhousie Bookstore. We will use this bookBIOL 3044 Ecological Genetics Winter Term 2010 Course Outline Course Description The interface

Adl, Sina

382

AGRICULTURAL WINTER/SPRING 2009  

E-print Network

of the Lower Peninsula," says MAES Director Steve Pueppke. "The west side of the state is home to a thrivingMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION WINTER/SPRING 2009 VOL. 26 NO. 4/VOL. 27 NO.1 utures MAES to cherries in Traverse City, and from wine and juice grapes on the west side of the state to dry beans

383

p Wheat, Hard Red Winter  

E-print Network

in standing stubble using no-till methods will decrease winterkill considerably. A stubble height of 4 to 6 varieties. Test Weight Protein % at Heading, Height, Winter Lodging Lb/Bu 12% Moisture Entry Origin1 PVP with the University of Minnesota College of Food,Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences #12;Locati

Minnesota, University of

384

ENERGETICS OF TWO WINTERING RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a deterministic model for predicting daily energy expenditure of two raptors--femaie American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Whim-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus)-- wintering in coastal northwestern California. Inputs to the model include body mass, air temper- ature, photoperiod, energy expenditure of flight, and relative portions of the daytime spent in flight and nonflight activities. A simplified version of the model

JAMES R. KOPLIN; MICHAEL W. COLLOPY; ALBERT R. BAMMANN; HOWARD LEVENSON

1980-01-01

385

Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA  

E-print Network

and Property Rights in Late Imperial Russia." Ekaterina Pravilova, assistant professor of history, PrincetonWinter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA Tue, Jan 12, 4-5:30 pm WCED/CREES/Ford School Lecture. "U.S.-Russia Relations: Status of the `Reset'." John Beyrle, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. Co-sponsors: International Policy

Eustice, Ryan

386

The impact of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in Shanghai, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No prior studies in China have investigated the health impact of cold spell. In Shanghai, we defined the cold spell as a period of at least seven consecutive days with daily temperature below the third percentile during the study period (2001-2009). Between January 2001 and December 2009, we identified a cold spell between January 27 and February 3, 2008 in Shanghai. We investigated the impact of cold spell on mortality of the residents living in the nine urban districts of Shanghai. We calculated the excess deaths and rate ratios (RRs) during the cold spell and compared these data with a winter reference period (January 6-9, and February 28 to March 2). The number of excess deaths during the cold spell period was 153 in our study population. The cold spell caused a short-term increase in total mortality of 13 % (95 % CI: 7-19 %). The impact was statistically significant for cardiovascular mortality (RR = 1.21, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.31), but not for respiratory mortality (RR = 1.14, 95 % CI: 0.98-1.32). For total mortality, gender did not make a statistically significant difference for the cold spell impact. Cold spell had a significant impact on mortality in elderly people (over 65 years), but not in other age groups. Conclusively, our analysis showed that the 2008 cold spell had a substantial effect on mortality in Shanghai. Public health programs should be tailored to prevent cold-spell-related health problems in the city.

Ma, Wenjuan; Yang, Chunxue; Chu, Chen; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Jianguo; Kan, Haidong

2013-01-01

387

Global transcriptome profiles of Camellia sinensis during cold acclimation  

PubMed Central

Background Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic health beverage in the world. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) needs to undergo a cold acclimation process to enhance its freezing tolerance in winter. Changes that occur at the molecular level in response to low temperatures are poorly understood in tea plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation, we employed RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technologies to the study of genome-wide expression profiles during cold acclimation in tea plants. Results Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 57.35 million RNA-Seq reads. These reads were assembled into 216,831 transcripts, with an average length of 356 bp and an N50 of 529 bp. In total, 1,770 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, of which 1,168 were up-regulated and 602 down-regulated. These include a group of cold sensor or signal transduction genes, cold-responsive transcription factor genes, plasma membrane stabilization related genes, osmosensing-responsive genes, and detoxification enzyme genes. DGE and quantitative RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq analysis. Pathway analysis indicated that the 揷arbohydrate metabolism pathway and the 揷alcium signaling pathway might play a vital role in tea plants responses to cold stress. Conclusions Our study presents a global survey of transcriptome profiles of tea plants in response to low, non-freezing temperatures and yields insights into the molecular mechanisms of tea plants during the cold acclimation process. It could also serve as a valuable resource for relevant research on cold-tolerance and help to explore the cold-related genes in improving the understanding of low-temperature tolerance and plant-environment interactions. PMID:23799877

2013-01-01

388

Teaching in a Cold Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:

Ewert, Alan

389

Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations

Steven B. Krivit

2005-01-01

390

Winter production of CO 2 and N 2 O from alpine tundra: environmental controls and relationship to inter-system C and N fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were measured from both natural and experimentally augmented snowpacks during the winters of 1993 and 1994 on Niwot Ridge\\u000a in the Colorado Front Range. Consistent snow cover insulated the soil surface from extreme air temperatures and allowed heterotrophic\\u000a activity to continue through much of the winter. In contrast, soil remained frozen at sites with inconsistent

Paul D. Brooks; Steven K. Schmidt; Mark W. Williams

1997-01-01

391

When Cold Comes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journalism Central, a joint effort of the Journalism Association of Ohio Schools and the Ohio State University School of Journalism, responded to the school closing crisis of the winter of 1977 with an intensive two-day interviewing and news-writing session for high-school journalists. (MKM)

Behnke, Shirley

1977-01-01

392

Britannica Sporting Record: The Winter Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopaedia Britannica's Olympic Winter Games site offers detailed Olympic information and history. Offerings include an overview of the Olympic movement, histories of each of the past seventeen Olympic Winter Games, articles about the events included in the Winter Games, biographies of past competitors, and a searchable Olympic Record database. This well-researched site provides an interesting backdrop for this year's Winter Games in Nagano, Japan.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

1998-01-01

393

Fall 2013 / Winter 2014 Dean's List Faculty of Science, Dalhousie University First Name Last Name Term(s) Erin Dempsey Winter Only  

E-print Network

Awan Fall and Winter Christine Angelidis Winter Only Jehye Back Fall and Winter Michael Antonchuk Bartolacci Fall and Winter Emmaline Atherton Winter Only Jessica Basta Fall and Winter Hayley Atkinson Winter Only Jessica Bauer Fall and Winter Lauren Atkinson Winter Only Lisa Beck Fall and Winter Hanine Atwi

Lotze, Heike K.

394

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in

Alan Robock; Jianping Mao

1992-01-01

395

Evaluation of Advanced Winter Highway Maintenance Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway agencies face demands to maintain or improve the existing winter roadway level of service. The benefits of advanced winter high- way maintenance strategies now become more attractive. This paper examines the potential benefits of applying advanced winter highway maintenance strategies. The Vermont Agency of Transportation con- ducted \\

DUANE E. SMITH; JEFFREY A. ZOGG

396

4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 3055颅3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

397

The Barents Sea Polar Front in summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1992 a combined physical oceanography and acoustic tomography experiment was conducted to describe the Barents Sea Polar Front (BSPF) and investigate its impact on the regional oceanography. The study area was an 80 x 70 km grid east of Bear Island where the front exhibits topographic trapping along the northern slope of the Bear Island Trough. Conductivity-temperature-depth, current

A. Rost Parsons; Robert H. Bourke; Robin D. Muench; Ching-Sang Chiu; James F. Lynch; James H. Miller; Albert J. Plueddemann; Richard Pawlowicz

1996-01-01

398

1990 Front Range Meeting and Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of the 1990 Front Range Branch meeting was Our Changing Environment. This broad topic was intended to encompass a variety of geophysical disciplines over geologic time, but special emphasis was placed on research relating to the Rocky Mountains, the Front Range, and High Plains. In a departure from earlier years, the meeting was held in Boulder, Colo., at

Jo Ann Joselyn; Ray Roble

1990-01-01

399

MODELING BOUNDARIES BETWEEN CONVERGING FRONTS IN PREHISTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a modeling framework that can be applied to cases of multiple converging fronts during episodes of population expansion and innovation diffusion, referring to two prehistoric case studies known archaeologically (the spread of pottery-making in Europe, and the spread of farming in southern Africa). We model front propagation using Fast Marching methods, drawing on the analogy with crystallization processes

FABIO SILVA; JAMES STEELE

2012-01-01

400

Atmospheric fronts in current and future climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractAtmospheric <span class="hlt">fronts</span> are important for the day-to-day variability of weather in the midlatitudes. It is therefore vital to know how their distribution and frequency will change in a projected warmer climate. Here we apply an objective <span class="hlt">front</span> identification method, based on a thermal <span class="hlt">front</span> parameter, to 6-hourly data from models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The historical simulations are evaluated against ERA-Interim and found to produce a similar frequency of <span class="hlt">fronts</span> and with similar <span class="hlt">front</span> strength. The models show some biases in the location of the <span class="hlt">front</span> frequency maxima. Future changes are estimated using the high emissions scenario simulations (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). Projections show an overall decrease in <span class="hlt">front</span> frequency in the Northern Hemisphere, with a poleward shift of the maxima of <span class="hlt">front</span> frequency and a strong decrease at high latitudes where the temperature gradient is decreased. The Southern Hemisphere shows a poleward shift of the frequency maximum, consistent with previous storm track studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catto, J. L.; Nicholls, N.; Jakob, C.; Shelton, K. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhR...393...87P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of fluctuations on propagating <span class="hlt">fronts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Propagating <span class="hlt">fronts</span> are seen in varieties of nonequilibrium pattern forming systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. In the last two decades, many researchers have contributed to the understanding of the underlying dynamics of the propagating <span class="hlt">fronts</span>. Of these, the deterministic and mean-field dynamics of the <span class="hlt">fronts</span> were mostly understood in late 1980s and 1990s. On the other hand, although the earliest work on the effect of fluctuations on propagating <span class="hlt">fronts</span> dates back to early 1980s, the subject of fluctuating <span class="hlt">fronts</span> did not reach its adolescence until the mid 1990s. From there onwards the last few years witnessed a surge in activities in the effect of fluctuations on propagating <span class="hlt">fronts</span>. Scores of papers have been written on this subject since then, contributing to a significant maturity of our understanding, and only recently a full picture of fluctuating <span class="hlt">fronts</span> has started to emerge. This review is an attempt to collect all the works on fluctuating (propagating) <span class="hlt">fronts</span> in a coherent and cogent manner in proper perspective. It is based on the idea of making our knowledge in this field available to a broader audience, and it is also expected to help to collect bits and pieces of loose thread-ends together for possible further investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panja, Debabrata</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...139..217S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of ocean <span class="hlt">fronts</span> on acoustic wave propagation in the Celtic Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Underwater noise is now classed as pollution in accordance with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Noise from shipping is a major contributor to the ambient noise levels in ocean, particularly at low (< 300 Hz) frequencies. This paper studies patterns and seasonal variations of underwater noise in the Celtic Sea by using a coupled ocean model (POLCOMS) and an acoustic model (HARCAM) in the year 2010. Two sources of sound are considered: (i) representing a typical large cargo ship and (ii) noise from pile-driving activity. In summer, when the source of sound is on the onshore side of the <span class="hlt">front</span>, the sound energy is mostly concentrated in the near-bottom layer. In <span class="hlt">winter</span>, the sound from the same source is distributed more evenly in the vertical. The difference between the sound level in summer and <span class="hlt">winter</span> at 10 m depth is as high as 20 dB at a distance of 40 km. When the source of sound is on the seaward side of the <span class="hlt">front</span>, the sound level is nearly uniform in the vertical. The transmission loss is also greater (~ 16 dB) in the summer than in the <span class="hlt">winter</span> for shallow source while it is up to ~ 20 dB for deep source at 30 km.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shapiro, G.; Chen, F.; Thain, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ag.montana.edu/carc/extenpub/winterpealentil081303.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MSU University News <span class="hlt">Winter</span> pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify <span class="hlt">winter</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. However, in Montana planting date of <span class="hlt">winter</span> pea and lentil crops has been "absolutely criticalMSU University News <span class="hlt">Winter</span> pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat systems August 13, 2003 Ag researchers are studying <span class="hlt">winter</span> peas and lentils to see whether they offer enough</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maxwell, Bruce D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.montana.edu/wwwsrm/PDF/advisories/SRM%20Winter%20Advisory%20Notice%202013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">WINTER</span> ADVISORY -Slips, Trips, Falls, Driving, and Safety Tips Walking in <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Conditions 1. Do an automo ve safety check Tires with good tread and proper air pressure<span class="hlt">WINTER</span> ADVISORY - Slips, Trips, Falls, Driving, and Safety Tips Walking in <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Conditions <span class="hlt">Winter</span>://www.montana.edu/wwwsrm/icegrippers.htm North areas, between cars in parking lots, slopes, and uneven surfaces are o en slick. Take smaller</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maxwell, Bruce D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS33A1810H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of the equatorial Atlantic <span class="hlt">cold</span> tongue and meridional flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A generalized method is developed to determine the position of the northern <span class="hlt">cold</span> tongue <span class="hlt">front</span> in the equatorial Atlantic from satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data. The methodology is based on a median frontal SST and frontal characteristics are generally consistent with tropical instability waves (TIWs). Application to drifter observations shows how the new methodology can be used to better understand circulation features near the northern <span class="hlt">cold</span> tongue <span class="hlt">front</span>: A drifter pair deployed on the eastern side of a passing TIW crest north of the <span class="hlt">front</span> revealed that the trajectories of the drifters were clearly influenced by the shape of the <span class="hlt">front</span> and - in agreement with model studies in both the Atlantic and Pacific - they did not cross the <span class="hlt">front</span>, but rather stayed close together approximately 2 north of the <span class="hlt">front</span>. At the western edge of the <span class="hlt">cold</span> tongue, the longer-transmitting drifter entered the northern branch of the South Equatorial Current (nSEC) and rapidly moved westward. Analyses in an along- and cross-frontal frame of reference complement isopycnal coordinate mapping; for example, tropical Atlantic drifter velocities averaged in frontal coordinates indicate a broadened shear zone between the nSEC and North Equatorial Countercurrent as well as meridional convergence near the <span class="hlt">front</span>. This new methodology will be used to examine aspects of the near-frontal circulation such as the flow associated with the shallow overturning cells known as tropical cells (TCs) from two-dimensional observations. Shipboard and lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements collected in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic during the past sixteen years are for the first time utilized to describe the mean cross-equatorial structure of the meridional currents associated with the TCs. These meridional currents are an order of magnitude smaller than velocity fluctuations associated with transient phenomena in the region like TIWs, and to date individual in situ current measurements have been too sparse in their temporal and spatial coverage to estimate their mean without large uncertainties. Due to surface reflections, the currents between 30 m and the ocean surface are typically not resolved by the ADCP measurements and 15-m currents from the drifter annual climatology are used to derive those currents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hormann, V.; Perez, R. C.; Lumpkin, R.; Brandt, P.; Johns, W. E.; Hernandez, F.; Schmid, C.; Bourl鑣, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical physics on the light-<span class="hlt">front</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formulation of statistical physics using light-<span class="hlt">front</span> quantization, instead of conventional equal-time boundary conditions, has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, such as heavy ion collisions. We develop light-<span class="hlt">front</span> field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to Quantum Chromodynamics. We construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and introduce the chemical potential in a covariant way. In light-<span class="hlt">front</span> quantization, the Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and does not lead to doublers in the transverse directions. A seminal property of light-<span class="hlt">front</span> Green's functions is that they are related to parton densities in coordinate space. Namely, the diagonal and off-diagonal parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments can be interpreted as light-<span class="hlt">front</span> density matrices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raufeisen, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.werc.usgs.gov/davis/pdfs/Ackerman%202004%20Wilson%20Bull%20Tule%20Heart%20Rate.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">USING RADIOTELEMETRY TO MONITOR CARDIAC RESPONSE OF FREE-LIVING TULE GREATER WHITE-<span class="hlt">FRONTED</span> GEESE (ANSER ALBIFRONS ELGASI )T OHUMAN DISTURBANCE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We monitored the heart rates of free-living Tule Greater White-<span class="hlt">fronted</span> Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi) during human disturbances on their <span class="hlt">wintering</span> range in the Sacramento Valley of California during 1997. We used implanted radio transmitters to record the heart rates of geese as an observer experimentally approached them at a constant walking speed. On average, geese flushed when observers were 47</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JOSHUA T. ACKERMAN; JOHN Y. TAKEKAWA; KAMMIE L. KRUSE; DENNIS L. ORTHMEYER; JULIE L. YEE; CRAIG R. ELY; DAVID H. WARD; KAREN S. BOLLINGER; DANIEL M. MULCAHY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080004462&hterms=high-rate+gps&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhigh-rate%2Bgps"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Front</span> end for GPS receivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">front</span> end in GPS receivers has the functions of amplifying, down-converting, filtering and sampling the received signals. In the preferred embodiment, only two operations, A/D conversion and a sum, bring the signal from RF to filtered quadrature baseband samples. After amplification and filtering at RF, the L1 and L2 signals are each sampled at RF at a high selected subharmonic rate. The subharmonic sample rates are approximately 900 MHz for L1 and 982 MHz for L2. With the selected subharmonic sampling, the A/D conversion effectively down-converts the signal from RF to quadrature components at baseband. The resulting sample streams for L1 and L2 are each reduced to a lower rate with a digital filter, which becomes a straight sum in the simplest embodiment. The frequency subsystem can be very simple, only requiring the generation of a single reference frequency (e.g. 20.46 MHz minus a small offset) and the simple multiplication of this reference up to the subharmonic sample rates for L1 and L2. The small offset in the reference frequency serves the dual purpose of providing an advantageous offset in the down-converted carrier frequency and in the final baseband sample rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Jr., Jess Brooks (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.2453v3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability of cosmological deflagration <span class="hlt">fronts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a cosmological first-order phase transition, bubbles of the stable phase nucleate and expand in the supercooled metastable phase. In many cases, the growth of bubbles reaches a stationary state, with bubble walls propagating as detonations or deflagrations. However, these hydrodynamical solutions may be unstable under corrugation of the interface. Such instability may drastically alter some of the cosmological consequences of the phase transition. Here, we study the hydrodynamical stability of deflagration <span class="hlt">fronts</span>. We improve upon previous studies by making a more careful and detailed analysis. In particular, we take into account the fact that the equation of motion for the phase interface depends separately on the temperature and fluid velocity on each side of the wall. Fluid variables on each side of the wall are similar for weakly first-order phase transitions, but differ significantly for stronger phase transitions. As a consequence, we find that, for large enough supercooling, any subsonic wall velocity becomes unstable. Moreover, as the velocity approaches the speed of sound, perturbations become unstable on all wavelengths. For smaller supercooling and small wall velocities, our results agree with those of previous works. Essentially, perturbations on large wavelengths are unstable, unless the wall velocity is higher than a critical value. We also find a previously unobserved range of marginally unstable wavelengths. We analyze the dynamical relevance of the instabilities, and we estimate the characteristic time and length scales associated to their growth. We discuss the implications for the electroweak phase transition and its cosmological consequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ariel Megevand; Federico Agustin Membiela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvD..89j3503M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability of cosmological detonation <span class="hlt">fronts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steady-state propagation of a phase-transition <span class="hlt">front</span> is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M間evand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agust韓</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/coldregions/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Regions Bibliography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A joint endeavor of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress and the US Army <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), this project disseminates information on Antarctica and <span class="hlt">cold</span> regions science and technology "by maintaining and continually updating a database which is an accumulation of over 40 years of materials on the science and technology of the world's <span class="hlt">cold</span> regions." This database currently contains over 208,000 records, with about 6,000 accessions annually. After entering a supplied user id and password, users can search the database by keyword, author, or year of publication. Search returns include title, source, and a link to more information, including pages, notes, series, and publisher information. A DOS version of the database is also available for limited periods to qualified researchers. More information is available at the site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ice-dependent <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in snow and ice conditions are some of the most distinctive impacts of global warming in <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperate and Arctic regions, altering the environment during a critical period for survival for most animals. Laboratories studies have suggested that reduced ice cover may reduce the survival of stream dwelling fishes in Northern environments. This, however, has not been empirically investigated in natural populations in large rivers. Here, we examine how the <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon in a large natural river, the River Alta (Norway, 70癗), is affected by the presence or absence of surface ice. Apparent survival rates for size classes corresponding to parr and presmolts were estimated using capture-mark-recapture and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for an ice-covered and an ice-free site. Apparent survival (?) in the ice-covered site was greater than in the ice-free site, but did not depend on size class (0.64 for both parr and presmolt). In contrast, apparent survival in the ice-free site was lower for larger individuals (0.33) than smaller individuals (0.45). The over-<span class="hlt">winter</span> decline in storage energy was greater for the ice-free site than the ice-covered site, suggesting that environmental conditions in the ice-free site caused a strong depletion in energy reserves likely affecting survival. Our findings highlight the importance of surface ice for the <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile fish, thus, underpinning that climate change, by reducing ice cover, may have a negative effect on the survival of fish adapted to ice-covered habitats during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. PMID:23532172</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hedger, R D; Naesje, T F; Fiske, P; Ugedal, O; Finstad, A G; Thorstad, E B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23532172"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ice-dependent <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in snow and ice conditions are some of the most distinctive impacts of global warming in <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperate and Arctic regions, altering the environment during a critical period for survival for most animals. Laboratories studies have suggested that reduced ice cover may reduce the survival of stream dwelling fishes in Northern environments. This, however, has not been empirically investigated in natural populations in large rivers. Here, we examine how the <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon in a large natural river, the River Alta (Norway, 70癗), is affected by the presence or absence of surface ice. Apparent survival rates for size classes corresponding to parr and presmolts were estimated using capture-mark-recapture and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for an ice-covered and an ice-free site. Apparent survival (?) in the ice-covered site was greater than in the ice-free site, but did not depend on size class (0.64 for both parr and presmolt). In contrast, apparent survival in the ice-free site was lower for larger individuals (0.33) than smaller individuals (0.45). The over-<span class="hlt">winter</span> decline in storage energy was greater for the ice-free site than the ice-covered site, suggesting that environmental conditions in the ice-free site caused a strong depletion in energy reserves likely affecting survival. Our findings highlight the importance of surface ice for the <span class="hlt">winter</span> survival of juvenile fish, thus, underpinning that climate change, by reducing ice cover, may have a negative effect on the survival of fish adapted to ice-covered habitats during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. PMID:23532172</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hedger, R D; N鎠je, T F; Fiske, P; Ugedal, O; Finstad, A G; Thorstad, E B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22251714"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Argentine ant persists through unfavorable <span class="hlt">winters</span> via a mutualism facilitated by a native tree.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutualisms and facilitations can fundamentally change the relationship between an organism's realized and fundamental niche. Invasive species may prove particularly suitable models for investigating this relationship as many are dependent on finding new partners for successful establishment. We conducted field-based experiments testing whether a native tree facilitates the successful survival of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), through unfavorable <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions in the southeastern United States. We found Argentine ant nests aggregated around the native loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., during the <span class="hlt">winter</span> months. The bark of this tree absorbed enough radiant solar energy to reach temperatures suitable for Argentine ant foraging even when ambient temperatures should have curtailed all foraging. Conversely, foraging ceased when the trunk was shaded. The sun-warmed bark of this tree gave the Argentine ant access to a stable honeydew resource. Argentine ants were not found on or near deciduous trees even though bark temperatures were warm enough to permit Argentine ant foraging on <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">winter</span> days. Augmenting deciduous trees with sucrose water through the <span class="hlt">winter</span> months lead to Argentine ant nests remaining at their base and Argentine ants foraging on the tree. The Argentine ant requires both foraging opportunity and a reliable <span class="hlt">winter</span> food source to survive through unfavorable <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions in the southeastern United States. The loblolly pine provided both of these requirements extending the realized niche of Argentine ants beyond its fundamental niche. PMID:22251714</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brightwell, Robert J; Silverman, Jules</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variation of East Asian <span class="hlt">Winter</span> Monsoon and ENSO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the interannual variation of the East Asian <span class="hlt">winter</span> monsoon and its relationship with EJSO based on the 1979-1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Two stratifications of <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges are used. The first one, described as the conventional <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges, indicates that the surge frequency reaches a urn one year after El Nino events. The second one, originated from the same region as the first, is defined as the maximum wind events near the South China Sea. The variation of this stratification of surges is found to be in good agreement with the South Oscillation Index (SOI). Low SOI (high SOI) events coincide with years of low (high) surge frequency. The interannual variation of averaged meridional wind near the South China Sea and western Pacific is dominated by the South China Sea <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges, and is also well correlated (R--O.82) with the SOI. Strong wind seasons are associated with La Nina and high SOI events; likewise, weak wind years are linked with El Nino and low SOI cases. This pattern is restricted north of the equator within the region of (OON-20 N, 11OOE-1300E), and is confined to the near surface layer. The surface Siberian high, 500 hPa trough and 200 hPa jetstream, all representing the large-scale monsoon flow, are found to be weaker than normal during El Nino years. In particular, the interannual variation of the Siberian high is in general agreement with the SOL.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yi; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Boyle, James S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/winter/resources/Winter_Storms2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Winter</span> Storms For More Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">or more with snow and blowing snow reducing visibility to less than 录 mile for 3 hours or more. BLOWING SNOW: Wind-driven snow that reduces visibility. Blowing snow may be falling snow and/or snow. 路 Extremely <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperatures, heavy snow and coastal flooding can cause hazardous conditions and hidden</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27181995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Condensation, heat transfer and ventilation processes in flat timber-frame <span class="hlt">cold</span> roofs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study of the heat and moisture transfer processes in an insulated flat timber <span class="hlt">cold</span> roof, 4.4 m long x 2 m wide, has been carried out under controlled steady state <span class="hlt">winter</span> conditions and wind speeds up to 5 m s-1. The experiments were performed with intact, perforated and absent vapour barriers on the ceiling. The cavity between the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Simpson; G. Castles; D. E. OConnor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dartmouth.edu/~mpayres/pubs/Fina.Cold.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Tolerance of Four Species of Bark Beetle (Coleoptera</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, Ips pini (Say), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. perroti Swaine. All four pini, Ips grandicollis, Ips perroti, Scolytidae, <span class="hlt">cold</span> toler- ance TEMPERATURE HAS BROAD effects. grandicollis continued to reproduce and develop under the bark of their host plants throughout the <span class="hlt">winter</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayres, Matthew.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://lib-www.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/getfile?00326620.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 Los Alamos Science Number 24 1996 In the midst of a <span class="hlt">cold</span> Russian</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">48 Los Alamos Science Number 24 1996 In the midst of a <span class="hlt">cold</span> Russian <span class="hlt">winter</span>, these Russian met any of Number 24 1996 Los Alamos Science 49 Lab-to-Lab Scientific Collaborations Between Los Russian delegation leader Alexander Bykov after the success of the first, collaborative, nonweapons</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2130424"> <span id="translatedtitle">An outbreak of common <span class="hlt">colds</span> at an Antarctic base after seventeen weeks of complete isolation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six of 12 men <span class="hlt">wintering</span> at an isolated Antarctic base sequentially developed symptoms and signs of a common <span class="hlt">cold</span> after 17 weeks of complete isolation. Examination of specimens taken from the men in relation to the outbreak has not revealed a causative agent. PMID:4520509</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, T. R.; Bradburne, A. F.; Stott, E. J.; Goodwin, C. S.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40972366"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate of carbon and nitrogen from animal manure and crop residues in wet and <span class="hlt">cold</span> soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organic matter transformations take place in snow-covered soils during <span class="hlt">winter</span> but in ways still poorly understood. Given the generally high soil water content and possible formation of ice layers during this period, anaerobic zones could develop and have determinant effects on soil C and N dynamics. The fate of C and N under wet and <span class="hlt">cold</span> conditions was monitored in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin H Chantigny; Denis A Angers; Philippe Rochette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/publications/papers/2005_general_publications/inmrpaper.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insulators for <span class="hlt">cold</span> urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Insulators for <span class="hlt">cold</span> urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman of insulators in <span class="hlt">winter</span> due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University are more concerned with the effect that the road salts have on insulators, both ceramic and composite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52705354"> <span id="translatedtitle">Storminess and <span class="hlt">cold</span> air outbreaks in NE America during AD 1790-1820</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain the anomalously deep trough in <span class="hlt">winter</span> sea-level pressure in the northwestern Atlantic sector during the AD 1790-1820 period. One relates it to an increase in cyclolysis in this area, the other to a change in the general planetary circulation. In an attempt to distinguish between these hypotheses, storminess and <span class="hlt">cold</span> air outbreaks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. van der Schrier; P. D. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48907160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Storminess and <span class="hlt">cold</span> air outbreaks in NE America during AD 17901820</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain the anomalously deep trough in <span class="hlt">winter</span> sea-level pressure in the northwestern Atlantic sector during the AD 17901820 period. One relates it to an increase in cyclolysis in this area, the other to a change in the general planetary circulation. In an attempt to distinguish between these hypotheses, storminess and <span class="hlt">cold</span> air outbreaks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. van der Schrier; P. D. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126671"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Winter</span> wheat cells subjected to freezing temperature undergo death process with features of programmed cell death.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Programmed cell death is a process defined as genetically regulated self-destruction or cell suicide. It can be activated by different internal and external factors, but few studies have investigated whether this process occurs under <span class="hlt">cold</span> and freezing temperatures. In this study, a freezing treatment (-8牥C for 6爃) induced cell death with features of programmed cell death in suspension cultures of <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This process occurred for 10燿ays after <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure. The death of cells in culture was slow and prolonged, and was accompanied by protoplast shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. Other changes observed after the freezing treatment included an increase in the respiration rate, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings indicated that mitochondria are involved in the cell death process that occurs after a freezing treatment in cells of <span class="hlt">winter</span> wheat. PMID:24126671</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyubushkina, Irina V; Grabelnych, Olga I; Pobezhimova, Tamara P; Stepanov, Aleksey V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Voinikov, Victor K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS24A..04D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chlorophyll-a and sea surface observations along the Brazilian Coastal Current <span class="hlt">front</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southwest Atlantic has an outstanding role in the carbon sinking from the atmosphere according to recent studies. Photosynthesis has been shown to be the main mechanism responsible for CO2 sequestration in this area. The Brazilian Continental Shelf south of 25癝 is marked by the <span class="hlt">winter</span> northward flow of the Brazilian Coastal Current (BCC). The <span class="hlt">cold</span> and very productive waters of the BCC form a lateral <span class="hlt">front</span> with the warm (less productive) tropical waters transported southwards by the Brazil Current (BC). During June 2012 the Brazilian Oceanographic vessel Cruzeiro do Sul performed an oceanographic campaign along the southern coast of Brazil as part of the Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment (ACEx). Both oceanographic and meteorological data were collected along 5 cross-shore transects between 25.7癝 and 33.7癝. Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), chlorophyll-a concentration and meteorological variables were collected along each of the 5 transects by standard oceanographic instruments and by the automatic weather station onboard the ship. Chlorophyll concentration and SST were validated against satellite estimates showing good agreement (RMSE = 0.75 mg.m-3 and 0.83癈). The highest SST gradient (0.32癈/km) was observed around 33.7癝, where the BCC's SST reached a minimum of 14.3癈 and the maximum BC's SST was 19.7癈. Previous studies have indicated the 18.5癈 isotherm as a good geographical limit between waters carried by both currents. This isotherm was located south of 29癝 during the campaign, in agreement with its expected mean northern limit in June. SSS gradient was also highest in the southernmost transect. While SSS presented little variability in BC's waters (36.1 0.66) it constantly decreased southwards in the BCC, getting as low as 27.3. These SST and SSS values unfold the three surface water masses known in the region: the Tropical Water, the Subtropical Shelf Water and the Plata Plume Water. An inverse correlation between chlorophyll concentration and SST was also observed (R2 = 0.60). This is expected for the water masses in southern Brazil during <span class="hlt">winter</span>. The maximum chlorophyll concentration, 6.29 mg.m-3, was measured inside the BCC at the southernmost profile (33.7癝) and very near to the coast (19 m isobath). In the BC the maximum chlorophyll concentration was 1.58 mg.m-3. Finally, heat fluxes between ocean and atmosphere were calculated along the transects. Higher heat fluxes directed from the ocean to the atmosphere were observed over the BC, a fact that, combined with highest values of SST than surface air temperature, contributed to a more unstable atmospheric boundary layer over the BC. Future steps of this work will relate these results and the phytoplankton community composition with CO2 fluxes measured during the campaign.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dias, F. G.; Souza, R.; Araujo, R. G.; Rossato, F.; Pezzi, L. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3693912"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patients' experiences of <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure during ambulance care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span> temperatures is often a neglected problem in prehospital care. <span class="hlt">Cold</span> exposure increase thermal discomfort and, if untreated causes disturbances of vital body functions until ultimately reaching hypothermia. It may also impair cognitive function, increase pain and contribute to fear and an overall sense of dissatisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate injured and ill patients experiences of <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure and to identify related factors. Method During January to March 2011, 62 consecutively selected patients were observed when they were cared for by ambulance nursing staff in prehospital care in the north of Sweden. The field study was based on observations, questions about thermal discomfort and temperature measurements (mattress air and patients finger temperature). Based on the observation protocol the participants were divided into two groups, one group that stated it was <span class="hlt">cold</span> in the patient compartment in the ambulance and another group that did not. Continuous variables were analyzed with independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test and dichotomous variables with cross tabulation. Results In the ambulance 85% of the patients had a finger temperature below comfort zone and 44% experienced the ambient temperature in the patient compartment in the ambulance to be <span class="hlt">cold</span>. There was a significant decrease in finger temperature from the first measurement indoor compared to measurement in the ambulance. The mattress temperature at the ambulance ranged from ?22.3癈 to 8.4癈. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Cold</span> exposure in <span class="hlt">winter</span> time is common in prehospital care. Sick and injured patients immediately react to <span class="hlt">cold</span> exposure with decreasing finger temperature and experience of discomfort from <span class="hlt">cold</span>. Keeping the patient in the comfort zone is of great importance. Further studies are needed to increase knowledge which can be a base for implications in prehospital care for patients who probably already suffer for other reasons. PMID:23742143</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02860&hterms=galileo+galilei&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgalileo%2Bgalilei"> <span id="translatedtitle">Io in <span class="hlt">Front</span> of Jupiter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><p/>Jupiter's four largest satellites, including Io, the golden ornament in <span class="hlt">front</span> of Jupiter in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, have fascinated Earthlings ever since Galileo Galilei discovered them in 1610 in one of his first astronomical uses of the telescope.<p/>Images from Cassini that will be released over the next several days capture each of the four Galilean satellites in their orbits around the giant planet.<p/>This true-color composite frame, made from narrow angle images taken on Dec. 12, 2000, captures Io and its shadow in transit against the disk of Jupiter. The distance of the spacecraft from Jupiter was 19.5 million kilometers (12.1 million miles). The image scale is 117 kilometers (73 miles) per pixel.<p/>The entire body of Io, about the size of Earth's Moon, is periodically flexed as it speeds around Jupiter and feels, as a result of its non-circular orbit, the periodically changing gravitational pull of the planet. The heat arising in Io's interior from this continual flexure makes it the most volcanically active body in the solar system, with more than 100 active volcanoes. The white and reddish colors on its surface are due to the presence of different sulfurous materials. The black areas are silicate rocks.<p/>Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19947887"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brief Chilling to Subzero Temperature Increases <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Hardiness in the Hatchling Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although many studies of ectothermic vertebrates have documented compensatory changes in <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardiness associated with changes of season, much less attention has been paid to adjustment of physiological functions and survival limits following more acute exposure to <span class="hlt">cold</span>. We investigated the ability of hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to increase <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardiness in response to brief exposure to a subzero temperature. <span class="hlt">Winter</span>-acclimated turtles were "<span class="hlt">cold</span> conditioned" by chilling them in the supercooled (unfrozen) state to -7 degrees C over a few days before returning them to 4 degrees C. These turtles fared no better than control animals in resisting freezing when cooled in the presence or absence of ice and exogenous ice nuclei. Survival following tests of freeze tolerance (freezing for about 70 h; minimum body temperature, -3.75 degrees C) was nominally higher in <span class="hlt">cold</span>-conditioned turtles than in controls (36% vs. 13%, respectively), although the difference was not statistically significant. Of the survivors, <span class="hlt">cold</span>-conditioned turtles apparently recovered sooner. Turtles subjected to <span class="hlt">cold</span> shock (supercooling to -13 degrees C for 24 h, followed by rewarming to 0 degrees C) were strongly affected by <span class="hlt">cold</span> conditioning: all controls died, but 50% of <span class="hlt">cold</span>-conditioned turtles survived. We investigated potential mechanisms underlying the response to <span class="hlt">cold</span> conditioning by measuring changes in levels of putative cryoprotectants. Plasma levels of glucose and lactate, but not urea, were higher in <span class="hlt">cold</span>-conditioned turtles than in controls, although the combined increase in these solutes was only 23 mmol L(-1). <span class="hlt">Cold</span> conditioning attenuated <span class="hlt">cold</span>-shock injury to brain cells, as assessed using a vital-dye assay, suggesting a link between protection of the nervous system and <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardiness at the organismal level. PMID:19947887</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muir, Timothy J; Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrES....2E..19P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">winter</span>, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km) version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in <span class="hlt">cold</span> surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased <span class="hlt">cold</span> surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds) and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of <span class="hlt">winter</span> precipitation. The increased frequency of <span class="hlt">cold</span> surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the <span class="hlt">cold</span> surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perez, Edgar; Maga馻 Rueda, Victor; Caetano, Ernesto; Kusunoki, S. %J. Frontiers in Earth Science, Volume 1, id. 19 (2014)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24567826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Snow cover and extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The High Arctic <span class="hlt">winter</span> is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5爕ears, during which we experienced two extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or <span class="hlt">cold</span> summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme <span class="hlt">winter</span> warming events were shown to expose the canopy to <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">winter</span> air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">winter</span> air, but most species studied are resistant to changes. <span class="hlt">Winter</span> warming events, often occurring together with rain, can substantially remove snow cover and thereby expose plants to <span class="hlt">cold</span> <span class="hlt">winter</span> air. Depending on morphology, different parts of the plant can be directly exposed. On this picture, we see Dryas octopetala seed heads from the previous growing season protrude through the remaining ice layer after a warming event in early 2010. The rest of the plant, including meristems and flower primordia, are still somewhat protected by the ice. In the background we can see a patch of Cassiope tetragona protruding through the ice; in this case, the whole plant including flower primordia is exposed, which might be one reason why this species experienced a loss of flowers the following season. Photograph by Philipp Semenchuk. PMID:24567826</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Semenchuk, Philipp R; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40464503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biphasic effect of low temperature on completion of <span class="hlt">winter</span> diapause in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of low temperature on completion of <span class="hlt">winter</span> diapause was investigated in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Diapause was completed under constant diapause-inducing conditions of 15癈 and 12L12D, without any exposure to lower temperature. The pupal period for 50% adult emergence was 117 days. None of the <span class="hlt">cold</span> treatments at 5.6癈 examined in the present study advanced</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michikazu Nomura; Yukio Ishikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42675938"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> war anthropology: Collaborators and victims of the national security state</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines some of the interactions between anthropologists and America's National Security State during the <span class="hlt">Cold</span> War. The Human Ecology Fund, an anthropological funding <span class="hlt">front</span> used by the Central Intelligence Agency in the 1950s and 1960s, is discussed to elucidate one of the ways that the National Security State sponsored and consumed anthropological knowledge Clyde Kluckhohn's secret interactions with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David H. Price</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ussr+AND+propaganda&id=EJ371169"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> War Propaganda.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Briefly discusses the development of <span class="hlt">Cold</span> War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennett, Paul W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.parking.jhu.edu/Homewood-MountWashington%20F13.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring Mount Washington</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spring Mount Washington Light Rail McAuley Hall Falls@ Woodheights Falls@ 43rd Keswick North Bldg Keswick 83 JonesFallsExpy 83 JonesFallsExpy 83 FallsRd N S EW Homewood - Mt. Washington Shuttle NextBus textth Keswick North Building Falls at 42nd Falls at <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Spring Mount Washington Light Rail McAuley Hall</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hattar, Samer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED022742.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching "In <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Blood."</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In <span class="hlt">Cold</span> Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berbrich, Joan D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baby, it's <span class="hlt">cold</span> outside....</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For officers and other employees stationed outdoors in parking areas or on perimeter patrol during <span class="hlt">cold</span> weather the risks of hypothermia and frostbite may be very real. In this article, the author explains how these two serious medical conditions can be prevented and treated. PMID:22423532</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kissane, Rhonda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cold+AND+war&pg=3&id=EJ824502"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">Cold</span> War Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Cold</span> War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pineo, Ronn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seegene.com/en/download/paper_new13.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of mRNA for the t-complex polypeptide1, a subunit of chaperonin CCT, is upregulated in association with increased <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardiness in Delia antiqua</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summer-diapause and <span class="hlt">winter</span>-diapause pupae of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), were significantly more <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardy than nondiapause, prediapause, and postdiapause pupae. Moreover, <span class="hlt">cold</span> accli- mation of nondiapause pupae conferred strong <span class="hlt">cold</span> hardiness comparable with that of diapause pupae. Differential display analysis revealed that the expression of a gene encoding TCP-1 (the t-complex polypeptide-1), a subunit of chaperonin CCT,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takumi Kayukawa; Bin Chen; Shoichiro Miyazaki; Kyo Itoyama; Tetsuro Shinoda; Yukio Ishikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48399609"> <span id="translatedtitle">U redox <span class="hlt">fronts</span> and kaolinisation in basement-hosted unconformity-related U ores of the Athabasca Basin (Canada): late U remobilisation by meteoric fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proterozoic basement-hosted unconformity-related uranium deposits of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) were affected\\u000a by significant uranium redistribution along oxidation杛eduction redox <span class="hlt">fronts</span>